HOME

TheInfoList




French cuisine () consists of the
cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy ...

cooking
traditions and practices from
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
. French cuisine developed throughout the centuries influenced by the many surrounding cultures of Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and Belgium, in addition to its own food traditions on the long western coastlines of the Atlantic, the
Channel Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path of a narrow body of water. Australia * Channel Country, region of outback Austr ...

Channel
and inland. In the 14th century,
Guillaume Tirel Guillaume Tirel, known as Taillevent (French language, French: "wind-cutter" i.e. an idle swaggerer) (born ca. 1310 in Pont-Audemer – 1395), was an important figure in the early history of French cuisine. He was cook to the Court of France at ...
, a
court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Sta ...
chef A chef is a trained professional cook and tradesman A tradesman, skilled tradesman, or tradie refers to a skilled worker who specializes in a particular occupation that requires work experience, on-the-job training, and often formal v ...

chef
known as "Taillevent", wrote ''
Le Viandier ''Le Viandier'' (often called ''Le Viandier de Taillevent'', ) is a recipe collection generally credited to Guillaume Tirel File:Tombe de Taillevent.jpg, Guillaume Tirel's tombstone at the church of :fr:Église Saint-Léger de Saint-Germain-en-La ...
'', one of the earliest
recipe A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something, especially a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting b ...

recipe
collections of
medieval France The Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities ...
. In the 17th century, chefs
François Pierre La Varenne François Pierre de la Varenne (1615–1678 in Dijon Dijon (, , ) (dated) * it, Digione * la, Diviō or * lmo, Digion is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Ital ...
and
Marie-Antoine Carême Marie Antoine (Antonin) Carême (; 8 June 178412 January 1833) was a French chef and an early practitioner and exponent of the elaborate style of cooking known as '' grande cuisine'', the "high art" of French cooking: a grandiose style of cookery ...

Marie-Antoine Carême
spearheaded movements that shifted French cooking away from its foreign influences and developed France's own indigenous style.
Cheese Cheese is a dairy product Dairy products or milk products are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and conta ...
and
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flow ...
are a major part of the cuisine. They play different roles regionally and nationally, with many variations and ''
appellation d'origine contrôlée The ''appellation d'origine contrôlée'' (AOC; ; "controlled designation of origin") is a French certification granted to certain French geographical indication A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corre ...
'' (AOC) (regulated appellation) laws.
Culinary tourism Culinary tourism or food tourism or gastronomy tourism is the exploration of food as the purpose of tourism. It is now considered a vital component of the tourism Tourism is travel Travel is the movement of people between distant g ...
and the ''
Guide Michelin The Michelin Guides ( ) are a series of guide books that have been published by the French tyre company Michelin since 1904. The Guide awards up to three Michelin star (classification), stars for excellence to a select few establishments. The ac ...
'' helped to acquaint people with the ''
cuisine bourgeoise In French gastronomy, ''cuisine bourgeoise'' is the home cooking of middle class families as distinguished from elaborate restaurant cooking, ''haute cuisine'', and from the cooking of the regions, the peasantry, and the urban poor. The ''cuisine b ...
'' of the urban elites and the peasant cuisine of the French countryside starting in the 20th century. Gascon cuisine has also had great influence over the cuisine in the southwest of France. Many dishes that were once regional have proliferated in variations across the country. Knowledge of French cooking has contributed significantly to Western cuisines. Its criteria are used widely in Western cookery school boards and culinary education. In November 2010, French
gastronomy Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, s ...

gastronomy
was added by the
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
to its lists of the world's "intangible cultural heritage".


History


Middle Ages

In French
medieval cuisine Medieval cuisine includes foods, eating habits, and cooking methods of various European cultures during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, org ...
, banquets were common among the
aristocracy Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: A ...
. Multiple courses would be prepared, but served in a style called ''service en confusion'', or all at once. Food was generally eaten by hand, meats being sliced off in large pieces held between the thumb and two fingers. The sauces were highly seasoned and thick, and heavily flavored mustards were used. Pies were a common banquet item, with the crust serving primarily as a container, rather than as food itself, and it was not until the very end of the
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical com ...
that the
shortcrust Shortcrust pastry is a type of pastry often used for the base of a tart, quiche or pie. Shortcrust pastry can be used to make both sweet and savory pies such as apple pie, quiche, lemon meringue or chicken pie. Shortcrust pastry recipes usually ...
pie was developed. Meals often ended with an ''issue de table'', which later changed into the modern dessert, and typically consisted of ''
dragée A dragée ( ; ), also known as confetto (; ), malbas, or Jordan almond, is a bite-sized form of confectionery Confectionery is the Art (skill), art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates. Exa ...
s'' (in the Middle Ages, meaning spiced lumps of hardened sugar or honey), aged cheese and spiced wine, such as
hypocras Hippocras ( ca, Pimentes de clareya; lat, vīnum Hippocraticum), sometimes spelled hipocras or hypocras, is a drink made from wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A ...
. The ingredients of the time varied greatly according to the seasons and the church calendar, and many items were preserved with salt, spices, honey, and other preservatives. Late spring, summer, and autumn afforded abundance, while winter meals were more sparse. Livestock were slaughtered at the beginning of winter. Beef was often salted, while pork was salted and smoked. Bacon and sausages would be smoked in the chimney, while the tongue and hams were
brine Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (NaCl) in water (H2O). In different contexts, ''brine'' may refer to salt solutions ranging from about 3.5% (a typical concentration of seawater, on the lower end of solutions used for brining food ...

brine
d and dried. Cucumbers were brined as well, while greens would be packed in jars with salt. Fruits, nuts and root vegetables would be boiled in honey for preservation. Whale, dolphin and porpoise were considered fish, so during
Lent Lent (Latin: ''Quadragesima'', 'Fortieth') is a Solemnity, solemn religious moveable feast#Lent, observance in the Christian liturgical calendar commemorating the Temptation of Jesus, 40 days Jesus spent fasting in the desert, according to the ...

Lent
, the salted meats of these sea mammals were eaten. Artificial freshwater ponds (often called ''stews'') held
carp Carp are various species of oily fish, oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia. While carp is consumed in many parts of the world, they are generally considered an invasive species in ...

carp
,
pike Pike, Pikes or The Pike may refer to: Fish * Blue pike or blue walleye, an extinct freshwater fish * Ctenoluciidae, the "pike characins", some species of which are commonly known as pikes * ''Esox'', genus of pikes ** Northern pike, common north ...
,
tench The tench or doctor fish (''Tinca tinca'') is a fresh- and brackish-water fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around ...
,
bream Bream ( ) are species of freshwater and ocean, marine fish belonging to a variety of genus, genera including ''Abramis'' (e.g., ''A. brama'', the common bream), ''Acanthopagrus'', ''Argyrops'', ''Blicca'', ''Brama (fish), Brama'', ''Chilotilapi ...

bream
,
eel Eels are ray-finned fish Actinopterygii ( New Latin ('having rays') + Greek ( 'wing, fins')), members of which are known as ray-finned fishes, is a clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic gro ...
, and other fish. Poultry was kept in special yards, with pigeon and
squab In culinary Culinary arts, in which ''culinary Culinary arts, in which '' culinary'' means "related to cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. C ...
being reserved for the elite. Game was highly prized, but very rare, and included
venison Venison originally meant the meat Meat is animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume ...

venison
,
boar The wild boar (''Sus scrofa''), also known as the wild swine, common wild pig, Eurasian wild pig, or simply wild pig, is a suid native to much of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large ...

boar
,
hare Hares and jackrabbits are Leporidae, leporids belonging to the genus ''Lepus''. Hares are classified in the same Family (biology), family as rabbits. They have similar herbivorous diets, but are generally larger in size than rabbits, have proport ...

hare
, rabbit, and
fowl Fowl are bird Birds are a group of s constituting the Aves , characterised by s, toothless beaked jaws, the of eggs, a high rate, a four-chambered , and a strong yet lightweight . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the ...

fowl
. Kitchen gardens provided herbs, including some, such as
tansy Tansy (''Tanacetum vulgare'') is a perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompasse ...

tansy
,
rue ''Ruta graveolens'' . ''strong smelling rue'' commonly known as rue, common rue or herb-of-grace, is a species of ''Ruta ''Ruta'' (commonly known as rue) is a genus of strongly scented evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plan ...

rue
, , and
hyssop ''Hyssopus officinalis'' or hyssop is a shrub A shrub (often called a bush) is a small- to medium-sized perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the King ...
, which are rarely used today. Spices were treasured and very expensive at that time—they included pepper, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and
mace Mace may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Mace (G.I. Joe), a fictional character in the G.I. Joe universe * Mace, a fictional character in the 1995 film ''Strange Days (film), Strange Days'' * Mace, a fictional character in the 2007 film ''Sunsh ...
. Some spices used then, but no longer today in French cuisine are
cubeb ''Piper cubeba'', cubeb or tailed pepper is a plant in genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defini ...
s, long pepper (both from vines similar to black pepper),
grains of paradise ''Aframomum melegueta'' is a species in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae Zingiberaceae () or the ginger family is a Family (biology), family of flowering plants made up of about 50 genus, genera with a total of about 1600 known species of a ...
, and . Sweet-sour flavors were commonly added to dishes with vinegars and ''
verjus Verjuice ( ; from Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are t ...

verjus
'' combined with sugar (for the affluent) or honey. A common form of food preparation was to thoroughly cook, pound, and strain mixtures into fine pastes and mushes, something believed to be beneficial to make use of nutrients. Visual display was prized. Brilliant colors were obtained by the addition of, for example, juices from spinach and the green part of
leek The leek is a vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including t ...

leek
s. Yellow came from
saffron Saffron () is a spice derived from the flower of ''Crocus sativus ''Crocus sativus'', commonly known as saffron crocus, or autumn crocus, is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classifica ...

saffron
or egg yolk, while red came from
sunflower ''Helianthus'' () is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), ...

sunflower
, and purple came from ''
Crozophora tinctoria ''Chrozophora tinctoria'' (commonly known as dyer's croton, giradol, or turnsole Turnsole or folium was a dyestuff prepared from the annual plant ''Chrozophora tinctoria''. History Turnsole became a mainstay of medieval Illuminated manuscript, ...
'' or ''
Heliotropium europaeum ''Heliotropium europaeum'' is a species of heliotrope known by the common names European heliotrope and European turn-sole. It is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa, but it is widely naturalized Naturalization (or naturalisation) is th ...
''. Gold and silver leaf were placed on food surfaces and brushed with egg whites. Elaborate and showy dishes were the result, such as ''tourte parmerienne'' which was a pastry dish made to look like a castle with chicken-drumstick turrets coated with
gold leaf Gold leaf is gold Gold is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms tha ...

gold leaf
. One of the grandest showpieces of the time was roast
swan Swans are birds of the family (biology), family Anatidae within the genus ''Cygnus''. The swans' closest relatives include the goose, geese and ducks. Swans are grouped with the closely related geese in the subfamily Anserinae where they form th ...

swan
or
peacock Peafowl is a common name for three bird species in the genera Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, def ...

peacock
sewn back into its skin with feathers intact, the feet and beak being
gilded Gilding is a decorative technique for applying a very thin coating of gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of pro ...
. Since both birds are stringy, and taste unpleasant, the skin and feathers could be kept and filled with the cooked, minced and seasoned flesh of tastier birds, like goose or chicken. The most well known French chef of the Middle Ages was
Guillaume Tirel Guillaume Tirel, known as Taillevent (French language, French: "wind-cutter" i.e. an idle swaggerer) (born ca. 1310 in Pont-Audemer – 1395), was an important figure in the early history of French cuisine. He was cook to the Court of France at ...
, also known as Taillevent. Taillevent worked in numerous royal kitchens during the 14th century. His first position was as a kitchen boy in 1326. He was chef to , then the
Dauphin Dauphin (french: "dolphin", links=no, plural ''dauphins'') may refer to: Noble and royal title * Dauphin of Auvergne * Dauphin of France, heir apparent to the French crown * Dauphin of Viennois People * Charles Dauphin (c. 1620–1677), French pa ...
who was son of . The Dauphin became King
Charles V of France Charles V (21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380), called the Wise (french: le Sage; la, Sapiens), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, frenc ...
in 1364, with Taillevent as his chief cook. His career spanned sixty-six years, and upon his death he was buried in grand style between his two wives. His tombstone represents him in armor, holding a shield with three cooking pots, ''marmites'', on it.


Ancien Régime

Paris was the central hub of culture and economic activity, and as such, the most highly skilled culinary craftsmen were to be found there. Markets in Paris such as ''
Les Halles Les Halles (; 'The Halls') was Paris' central fresh food market. It was demolished in 1971 and replaced by the Westfield Forum des Halles, a modern shopping mall built largely underground and directly connected to the massive Réseau Express Régi ...

Les Halles
'', ''la Mégisserie'', those found along ''
Rue Mouffetard Rue Mouffetard () is a street in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France. Situated in the fifth (''cinquième'') arrondissement of Paris, Rue Mouffetard is one of Paris's oldest and liveliest neighbourhoods. These days the area has many restaura ...
'', and similar smaller versions in other cities were very important to the distribution of food. Those that gave French produce its characteristic identity were regulated by the
guild A guild is an association of artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functiona ...
system, which developed in the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
. In Paris, the guilds were regulated by city government as well as by the French crown. A guild restricted those in a given branch of the culinary industry to operate only within that field. There were two groups of guilds—first, those that supplied the raw materials: butchers, fishmongers, grain merchants, and gardeners. The second group were those that supplied prepared foods: bakers, pastry cooks, sauce makers, poulterers, and
caterer Catering is the business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Hav ...
s. There were also guilds that offered both raw materials and prepared food, such as the '''' and ''rôtisseurs'' (purveyors of roasted meat dishes). They would supply cooked meat pies and dishes as well as raw meat and poultry. This caused issues with butchers and poulterers, who sold the same raw materials. The guilds served as a training ground for those within the industry. The degrees of assistant cook, full-fledged cook and master chef were conferred. Those who reached the level of master chef were of considerable rank in their individual industry, and enjoyed a high level of income as well as economic and job security. At times, those in the royal kitchens did fall under the
guild A guild is an association of artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functiona ...
hierarchy, but it was necessary to find them a parallel appointment based on their skills after leaving the service of the royal kitchens. This was not uncommon as the Paris cooks' guild regulations allowed for this movement. During the 16th and 17th centuries, French cuisine assimilated many new food items from the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: " 6c: from ...
. Although they were slow to be adopted, records of banquets show Catherine de' Medici (1519–1589?) serving sixty-six turkeys at one dinner. The dish called cassoulet has its roots in the New World discovery of haricot beans, which are central to the dish's creation, but had not existed outside of the Americas until the arrival of Europeans. ''Haute cuisine'' (, "high cuisine") has foundations during the 17th century with a chef named La Varenne. As author of works such as ''Le Cuisinier françois'', he is credited with publishing the first true French cookbook. His book includes the earliest known reference to
roux Roux () is flour and fat cooked together and used to thicken sauces. Roux is typically made from equal parts of flour and fat by weight. The flour is added to the melted fat or Cooking oil, oil on the stove top, blended until smooth, and cooked ...

roux
using pork fat. The book contained two sections, one for meat days, and one for
fasting Fasting is the willful refrainment from eating Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ...

fasting
. His recipes marked a change from the style of cookery known in the Middle Ages, to new techniques aimed at creating somewhat lighter dishes, and more modest presentations of pies as individual pastries and turnovers. La Varenne also published a book on pastry in 1667 entitled ''Le Parfait confitvrier'' (republished as ''Le Confiturier françois'') which similarly updated and codified the emerging ''haute cuisine'' standards for desserts and pastries. Chef
François Massialot François Massialot (1660, in Limoges Limoges (, , ; oc, Lemòtges, locally ) is a city and Communes of France, commune, is the prefecture of the Haute-Vienne Departments of France, department and was the administrative capital of the former ...
wrote ''Le Cuisinier roïal et bourgeois'' in 1691, during the reign of
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
. The book contains menus served to the royal courts in 1690. Massialot worked mostly as a freelance cook, and was not employed by any particular household. Massialot and many other royal cooks received special privileges by association with the French royalty. They were not subject to the regulation of the guilds; therefore, they could cater weddings and banquets without restriction. His book is the first to list recipes alphabetically, perhaps a forerunner of the first culinary dictionary. It is in this book that a
marinade Marinating is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned Seasoning is the process of adding Herb, herbs or Spice, spices to food to enhance the flavour. General meaning Seasonings include herbs and spices, which are themselves frequently referre ...
is first seen in print, with one type for poultry and feathered game, while a second is for fish and shellfish. No quantities are listed in the recipes, which suggests that Massialot was writing for trained cooks. The successive updates of ''Le Cuisinier roïal et bourgeois'' include important refinements such as adding a glass of wine to
fish stock Fish stock or stock fish may also refer to: *Fish stocks Fish stocks are population, subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters (growth, recruitment, mortality and fishing mortality) are traditionally regarded ...
. Definitions were also added to the 1703 edition. The 1712 edition, retitled ''Le Nouveau cuisinier royal et bourgeois'', was increased to two volumes, and was written in a more elaborate style with extensive explanations of technique. Additional smaller preparations are included in this edition as well, leading to lighter preparations, and adding a third course to the meal.
Ragout Ragout (French ''ragoût''; ) is a main-dish stew A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been Cooking, cooked in Soup, liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegeta ...

Ragout
, a stew still central to French cookery, makes its first appearance as a single dish in this edition as well; prior to that, it was listed as a garnish.


Late 18th century – early 19th century

Shortly before the French Revolution, dishes like '' bouchées à la Reine'' gained prominence. Essentially royal cuisine produced by the royal household, this is a chicken-based recipe served on ''
vol-au-vent A ''vol-au-vent'' (pronounced , French for "windblown", to describe its lightness) is a small hollow case of puff pastry Puff pastry, also known as ', is a flaky light pastry made from a laminated dough composed of dough (') and butter or other ...
'' created under the influence of Queen
Marie Leszczyńska french: Marie Caroline Sophie Felicité , house = House of Leszczyński, Leszczyński , father = Stanislaus I of Poland , mother = Catherine Opalińska , religion = Roman Catholicism , signature = Signature Marie Le ...

Marie Leszczyńska
, the Polish-born wife of
Louis XV Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (french: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Until he reached ...
. This recipe is still popular today, as are other recipes from Queen Marie Leszczyńska like '' consommé à la Reine'' and '' filet d'aloyau braisé à la royale''. Queen Marie is also credited with introducing Polonaise garnishing to the French diet. The
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
was integral to the expansion of French cuisine, because it abolished the guild system. This meant anyone could now produce and sell any culinary item they wished. Bread was a significant food source among peasants and the working class in the late 18th century, with many of the nation's people being dependent on it. In French provinces, bread was often consumed three times a day by the people of France. According to Brace, bread was referred to as the basic dietary item for the masses, and it was also used as a foundation for soup. In fact, bread was so important that harvest, interruption of commerce by wars, heavy flour exploration, and prices and supply were all watched and controlled by the French Government. Among the underprivileged, constant fear of famine was always prevalent. From 1725 to 1789, there were fourteen years of bad yields to blame for low grain supply. In Bordeaux, during 1708–1789, thirty-three bad harvests occurred.
Marie-Antoine Carême Marie Antoine (Antonin) Carême (; 8 June 178412 January 1833) was a French chef and an early practitioner and exponent of the elaborate style of cooking known as '' grande cuisine'', the "high art" of French cooking: a grandiose style of cookery ...

Marie-Antoine Carême
was born in 1784, five years before the
Revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, suc ...

Revolution
. He spent his younger years working at a ''
pâtisserie A () is a type of Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional ...
'' until he was discovered by
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (, ; 2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838), 1st Prince of Benevento, then Prince of Talleyrand, was a French clergyman and leading diplomat. After studying theology, he became Agent-General of the Clergy in 1780. ...
; he would later cook for
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) r ...

Napoleon Bonaparte
. Prior to his employment with Talleyrand, Carême had become known for his '''', which were extravagant constructions of pastry and sugar architecture. More important to Carême's career was his contribution to the refinement of French cuisine. The basis for his style of cooking was his sauces, which he named
mother sauce In French cuisine French cuisine () consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France. French cuisine developed throughout the centuries influenced by the many surrounding cultures of Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and Belg ...
s. Often referred to as
fond In the culinary arts, fond is a contraction of ''fonds de cuisine'' which is loosely described as "the foundation and working capital of the kitchen". It refers to a flavorful liquid that is used as foundation (''fondation'' in French, hence the ...

fond
s, meaning "foundations", these base sauces, ''
espagnole Espagnole sauce () is a basic Brown sauce (meat stock based), brown sauce, and is one of Auguste Escoffier's five French Mother Sauces, mother sauces of classic French cuisine, French cooking. Escoffier popularized the recipe, and his version is s ...
'', '' velouté'', and '' béchamel'', are still known today. Each of these sauces was made in large quantities in his kitchen, then formed the basis of multiple derivatives. Carême had over one hundred sauces in his repertoire. In his writings, soufflés appear for the first time. Although many of his preparations today seem extravagant, he simplified and codified an even more complex cuisine that existed beforehand. Central to his codification of the cuisine were ''Le Maître d'hôtel français'' (1822), ''Le Cuisinier parisien'' (1828) and ''L'Art de la cuisine française au dix-neuvième siècle'' (1833–5).


Late 19th century – early 20th century

Georges Auguste Escoffier Georges Auguste Escoffier (; 28 October 1846 – 12 February 1935) was a French chef, restaurateur and culinary writer who popularized and updated traditional French cooking methods. Much of Escoffier's technique was based on that of Marie-Antoin ...
is commonly acknowledged as the central figure to the modernization of ''haute cuisine'' and organizing what would become the national cuisine of France. His influence began with the rise of some of the great hotels in Europe and America during the 1880s-1890s. The
Savoy Hotel The Savoy Hotel is a luxury hotel A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging Lodging refers to the use of a short-term dwelling In law, a dwelling (also known as a residence or an abode) is a self-contained unit o ...

Savoy Hotel
managed by César Ritz was an early hotel in which Escoffier worked, but much of his influence came during his management of the kitchens in the Carlton from 1898 until 1921. He created a system of "parties" called the
brigade system (, kitchen brigade) is a system of hierarchy found in restaurants and hotels employing extensive staff, commonly referred to as "kitchen staff" in English-speaking countries. The concept was developed by Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846–1935). ...
, which separated the professional kitchen into five separate stations. These five stations included the ''
garde manger A ''garde manger'' (; French language, French) is a cool, well-ventilated area where cold dishes (such as salads, ''hors d'œuvres'', appetizers, canapés, pâtés, and Terrine (food), terrines) are prepared and other foods are stored under refr ...
'' that prepared cold dishes; the ''entremettier'' prepared starches and vegetables, the ''rôtisseur'' prepared roasts, grilled and fried dishes; the ''
saucier A saucier () or sauté chef is a position in the classical Brigade de cuisine, brigade style kitchen. It can be translated into English as ''sauce chef''. In addition to preparing sauces, the saucier prepares stews, hot hors d'œuvres, and Saut ...
'' prepared sauces and soups; and the ''pâtissier'' prepared all pastry and desserts items. This system meant that instead of one person preparing a dish on one's own, now multiple cooks would prepare the different components for the dish. An example used is ''oeufs au plat Meyerbeer'', the prior system would take up to fifteen minutes to prepare the dish, while in the new system, the eggs would be prepared by the ''entremettier'', kidney grilled by the ''rôtisseur'', truffle sauce made by the ''saucier'' and thus the dish could be prepared in a shorter time and served quickly in the popular restaurants. Escoffier also simplified and organized the modern menu and structure of the meal. He published a series of articles in professional journals which outlined the sequence, and he finally published his ''Livre des menus'' in 1912. This type of service embraced the ''
service à la russe The historical form of (; "service in the Russian style") is a manner of dining that involves courses being brought to the table sequentially, and the food being portioned on the plate by the waiter (usually at a sideboard in the dining room) befo ...
'' (serving meals in separate courses on individual plates), which Félix Urbain Dubois had made popular in the 1860s. Escoffier's largest contribution was the publication of ''
Le Guide Culinaire ''Le Guide Culinaire'' () is Escoffier Georges Auguste Escoffier (; 28 October 1846 – 12 February 1935) was a French chef An Italian chef preparing a truffle for diners A chef is a trained professional cook and tradesman who is profic ...
'' in 1903, which established the fundamentals of French cookery. The book was a collaboration with Philéas Gilbert, E. Fetu, A. Suzanne, B. Reboul, Ch. Dietrich, A. Caillat and others. The significance of this is to illustrate the universal acceptance by multiple high-profile chefs to this new style of cooking. ''Le Guide Culinaire'' deemphasized the use of heavy sauces and leaned toward lighter '' fumets'', which are the essence of flavor taken from fish, meat and vegetables. This style of cooking looked to create garnishes and sauces whose function is to add to the flavor of the dish, rather than mask flavors like the heavy sauces and ornate garnishes of the past. Escoffier took inspiration for his work from personal recipes in addition to recipes from Carême, Dubois and ideas from Taillevent's ''
Le Viandier ''Le Viandier'' (often called ''Le Viandier de Taillevent'', ) is a recipe collection generally credited to Guillaume Tirel File:Tombe de Taillevent.jpg, Guillaume Tirel's tombstone at the church of :fr:Église Saint-Léger de Saint-Germain-en-La ...
'', which had a modern version published in 1897. A second source for recipes came from existing peasant dishes that were translated into the refined techniques of ''haute cuisine''. Expensive ingredients would replace the common ingredients, making the dishes much less humble. The third source of recipes was Escoffier himself, who invented many new dishes, such as '' pêche Melba''. Escoffier updated ''Le Guide Culinaire'' four times during his lifetime, noting in the foreword to the book's first edition that even with its 5,000 recipes, the book should not be considered an "exhaustive" text, and that even if it were at the point when he wrote the book, "it would no longer be so tomorrow, because progress marches on each day." This period is also marked by the appearance of the ''
nouvelle cuisine ''Nouvelle cuisine'' (; ) is an approach to cooking and food presentation in French cuisine French cuisine () consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France. French cuisine developed throughout the centuries influenced by t ...
''. The term "nouvelle cuisine" has been used many times in the history of French cuisine which emphasized the freshness, lightness and clarity of flavor and inspired by new movements in world cuisine. In the 1740s, Menon first used the term, but the cooking of
Vincent La Chapelle Vincent La Chapelle (1690 or 1703 – 1745) was a French master cook who is known to have worked for Phillip Dormer Stanhope ( 4th Earl of Chesterfield), William IV, Prince of Orange William IV (Willem Karel Hendrik Friso; 1 September 1711 – 22 ...
and François Marin was also considered modern. In the 1960s,
Henri Gault Henri Gault (Pacy-sur-Eure Pacy-sur-Eure is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, ...
and
Christian Millau Christian Dubois-Millot, pen name Christian Millau (30 December 1928 – 5 August 2017), was a French food critic and author. Born in Paris, he began his career as a journalist in the "interior policy" department of ''Le Monde ''Le Monde'' (; ...
revived it to describe the cooking of
Paul Bocuse Paul Bocuse (; 11 February 1926 – 20 January 2018) was a French cuisine, French chef based in Lyon who was known for the high quality of his restaurants and his innovative approaches to cuisine. A student of Eugénie Brazier, he was one of the ...

Paul Bocuse
,
Jean Jean may refer to: Human names * Jean (female given name) Jean is a common female given name in English-speaking countries. It is the Scottish form of Jane (given name), Jane (and is sometimes pronounced that way). It is sometimes spelled Jeaine. ...
and
Pierre Troisgros Pierre Troisgros (3 September 1928 – 23 September 2020) was a French chef and restaurateur, best known for his restaurant Frères Troisgros. Pierre Troisgros and his brother continued their father's restaurant Hôtel Moderne, where they invented ...

Pierre Troisgros
, Michel Guérard, Roger Vergé and
Raymond Oliver Raymond Oliver (27 March 1909 – 5 November 1990) was a French chef and owner of Le Grand Véfour restaurant in Paris, one of France's great historical restaurants. Oliver detested ''nouvelle cuisine'', preferring the rich ingredients favored by ...
. These chefs were working toward rebelling against the "orthodoxy" of
Escoffier Georges Auguste Escoffier (; 28 October 1846 – 12 February 1935) was a French chef A chef is a trained professional cook and tradesman A tradesman, skilled tradesman, or tradie refers to a skilled worker who specializes in a particu ...

Escoffier
's cuisine. Some of the chefs were students of
Fernand Point Fernand Point (25 February 1897 – 4 March 1955) was a French chef and restaurateur and is considered to be the father of modern French cuisine. He founded the restaurant La Pyramide in Vienne, Isère, Vienne near Lyon. Early life He was born ...
at the '' Pyramide'' in
Vienne Vienne () is a landlocked department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and admin ...

Vienne
, and had left to open their own restaurants. Gault and Millau "discovered the formula" contained in ten characteristics of this new style of cooking. The first characteristic was a rejection of excessive complication in cooking. Second, the cooking times for most fish, seafood, game birds, veal, green vegetables and pâtés was greatly reduced in an attempt to preserve the natural flavors. Steaming was an important trend from this characteristic. The third characteristic was that the cuisine was made with the freshest possible ingredients. Fourth, large menus were abandoned in favor of shorter menus. Fifth, strong marinades for meat and game ceased to be used. Sixth, they stopped using heavy sauces such as ''
espagnole Espagnole sauce () is a basic Brown sauce (meat stock based), brown sauce, and is one of Auguste Escoffier's five French Mother Sauces, mother sauces of classic French cuisine, French cooking. Escoffier popularized the recipe, and his version is s ...
'' and ''béchamel'' thickened with flour based "''roux''" in favor of seasoning their dishes with fresh herbs, quality butter, lemon juice, and vinegar. Seventh, they used regional dishes for inspiration instead of ''haute cuisine'' dishes. Eighth, new techniques were embraced and modern equipment was often used; Bocuse even used microwave ovens. Ninth, the chefs paid close attention to the dietary needs of their guests through their dishes. Tenth, and finally, the chefs were extremely inventive and created new combinations and pairings. Some have speculated that a contributor to ''nouvelle cuisine'' was World War II when animal protein was in short supply during the German occupation. By the mid-1980s food writers stated that the style of cuisine had reached exhaustion and many chefs began returning to the ''haute cuisine'' style of cooking, although much of the lighter presentations and new techniques remained. When the French colonized Vietnam, one of the most famous and popular dishes,
Pot-au-feu (; ; "pot on the fire") is a France, French beef stew. According to the chef Raymond Blanc, ''pot-au-feu'' is "the quintessence of French family cuisine; it is the most celebrated dish in France and considered a national dish. It honours the t ...
was subsequently introduced to the local people. While it didn't directly create the widely recognizable Vietnamese dish,
Pho Phở or pho (, , ; ) is a Vietnamese cuisine, Vietnamese soup dish consisting of broth, rice noodles (), herbs, and meat (usually beef (), sometimes chicken ()). Pho is a popular food in Vietnam where it is served in households, street stall ...

Pho
, it served as a reference for the modern-day form of Pho.


National cuisine

There are many dishes that are considered part of French national cuisine today. A meal often consists of three courses, ''
hors d'œuvre An hors d'oeuvre ( ; french: hors-d'œuvre ), appetizer or starter is a small dish (food), dish served before a meal in European cuisine. Some hors d'oeuvres are served cold, others hot. Hors d'oeuvres may be served at the dinner table as a ...
'' or ''
entrée An entrée (, ; ) in modern French table service and that of much of the English-speaking world (apart from the United States and parts of Canada) is a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be e ...

entrée
'' (introductory course, sometimes soup), ''plat principal'' (main course), ''fromage'' (cheese course) or ''
dessert Dessert () is a course Course may refer to: Directions or navigation * Course (navigation), the path of travel * Course (orienteering), a series of control points visited by orienteers during a competition, marked with red/white flags in the ...

dessert
'', sometimes with a salad offered before the cheese or dessert. ;Hors d'œuvre File:Terrine de saumon au basilic.JPG, ''Basil salmon terrine'' File:Lobster bisque.jpg, '' Bisque'' is a smooth and creamy French ''
potage Pottage or potage ( ;, also , ; ) is a term for a thick soup Soup is a primarily liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isoc ...
''. File:Foie gras en cocotte.jpg, ''
Foie gras Foie gras (, ; ) is a specialty food A specialty food is a food that is typically considered as a "unique and high-value food item made in small quantities from high-quality ingredients". Consumers typically pay higher prices for specialty food ...

Foie gras
'' with mustard seeds and green onions in duck '' jus'' File:Croque monsieur.jpg, ''
Croque monsieur A ''croque monsieur'' () is a hot sandwich made with Ham (meat), ham and cheese. The dish originated in France, French cafés and bar (establishment), bars as a quick snack. The name comes from the French words ''croque'' ("bite”) and ''monsi ...

Croque monsieur
''
;Plat principal File:Pot-au-feu2.jpg, ''
Pot-au-feu (; ; "pot on the fire") is a France, French beef stew. According to the chef Raymond Blanc, ''pot-au-feu'' is "the quintessence of French family cuisine; it is the most celebrated dish in France and considered a national dish. It honours the t ...
'' is a ''
cuisine classique ''Haute cuisine'' (; ) or ''grande cuisine'' is the cuisine of "high-level" establishments, gourmet restaurants and luxury hotels. ''Haute cuisine'' is characterized by the meticulous preparation and careful presentation of food at a high price ...
'' dish. File:Flickr - cyclonebill - Bøf med pommes frites (1).jpg, ''
Steak frites ''Steak frites'', meaning "steak ndfries" in French, is a very common and popular dish served in brasserie In France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental count ...

Steak frites
'' is a simple and popular dish. File:Blanquette de veau à l'ancienne 04.jpg, ''
Blanquette de veau Blanquette de veau () is a French veal Veal is the meat of calves Calves is a hamlet in Póvoa de Varzim Póvoa de Varzim (, ) is a Portugal, Portuguese city in Norte Region, Portugal, Northern Portugal and sub-region of Greater Por ...

Blanquette de veau
''
;Pâtisserie File:Lille Meert2.JPG, Typical French ''
pâtisserie A () is a type of Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional ...

pâtisserie
'' File:Mille-feuille 20100916.jpg, ''
Mille-feuille The (, "thousand-sheets"),The name is also written as and . vanilla slice or custard slice, similar to but slightly different from the Napoleon, is a pastry whose exact origin is unknown. Its modern form was influenced by improvements made by ...

Mille-feuille
'' File:Arc-en-ciel comestible.jpg, ''
Macaron A macaron ( ; ) or French macaroon ( ) is a sweet meringue-based confection made with egg white, icing sugar, granulated sugar, almond meal, and food colouring. The macaron is traditionally held to have been introduced in France by the Ital ...

Macaron
'' File:Eclairs at Fauchon in Paris.jpg, ''
Éclair An éclair (, ; ) is a pastry made with choux pastry, choux dough filled with a cream and topped with chocolate icing. The dough, which is the same as that used for profiterole, is typically piped into an oblong shape with a pastry bag and bak ...

Éclair
''
;Dessert File:Creme Brulee.jpeg, ''
Crème brûlée ''Crème brûlée'' or ''crème brulée'' (; ), also known as burned cream, burnt cream or Trinity cream, and virtually identical to the original crema catalana, is a dessert Dessert () is a course Course may refer to: Directions or nav ...

Crème brûlée
'' File:Chocolate mousse.jpg, '''' File:Crêpe Suzette au Citron.jpg, ''
Crêpe A crêpe or crepe ( or , , Quebec French: ) is a type of very thin pancake A pancake (or hotcake, griddlecake, or flapjack) is a flat cake, often thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter Batter or batters may refer to ...

Crêpe
'' File:Ujuvad saarekesed.jpg,
Floating island A floating island is a mass of floating aquatic plants, mud, and peat ranging in thickness from several centimeters to a few meters. Floating islands are a common natural phenomenon that are found in many parts of the world. They exist less co ...


Regional cuisine

French regional cuisine is characterized by its extreme diversity and style. Traditionally, each region of France has its own distinctive cuisine.


Paris and Île-de-France

Paris and Île-de-France are central regions where almost anything from the country is available, as all train lines meet in the city. Over 9,000 restaurants exist in Paris and almost any cuisine can be obtained here. High-quality
Michelin Guide The Michelin Guides ( ) are a series of guide books that have been published by the French tyre company Michelin since 1904. The Guide awards up to three Michelin star (classification), stars for excellence to a select few establishments. The ac ...
-rated restaurants proliferate here.


Champagne, Lorraine, and Alsace

Game and ham are popular in
Champagne Champagne (, ) is a sparkling wine Sparkling wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus ...
, as well as the special sparkling wine simply known as ''
Champagne Champagne (, ) is a sparkling wine Sparkling wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus ...

Champagne
''. Fine fruit preserves are known from
Lorraine Lorraine , also , , ; LorrainLorrain may refer to: * Claude Lorrain (1600–82), a 17th-century French artist of the baroque style * Lorrain language Lorrain is a dialect (often referred to as patois) spoken by a minority of people in Lo ...
as well as the
quiche Quiche ( ) is a French tart A tart is a baked dish consisting of a filling over a base with an open top not covered with pastry. The pastry is usually ; the filling may be sweet or savoury, though modern tarts are usually fruit-based, somet ...

quiche
Lorraine. As region of historically Allemanic German culture
Alsace Alsace (, also ; Low Alemannic German Low Alemannic German (german: Niederalemannisch) is a branch of Alemannic German Alemannic, or rarely Alemannish (''Alemannisch'', ), is a group of High German dialects. The name derives from the ancie ...

Alsace
has retained Elements of
German cuisine The cuisine of Germany () is made up of many different local or regional cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, List of cooking techniques, techniques and dish (food), dishes, and usually assoc ...
, especially similar to those from the neighboring Palatinate and
Baden __notoc__ Baden (; ) is a historical territory in South Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken. This corresponds roughly to the h ...

Baden
region, but has implemented French influences since France first took control of the region in the 17th century. As such,
beer Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewing, brewed from cereal, cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wh ...
s made in the area are similar to the style of bordering Germany. Dishes like ''
choucroute ''Choucroute garnie'' (French language, French for ''dressed sauerkraut'') is an Alsace, Alsatian recipe for preparing sauerkraut with sausages and other Salting (food), salted meats and charcuterie, and often potatoes. Although sauerkraut/cabbag ...

choucroute
'' (French for ''
sauerkraut Sauerkraut (; , "sour cabbage") is finely cut raw cabbage Cabbage, comprising several cultivars of ''Brassica oleracea ''Brassica oleracea'' is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, ...

sauerkraut
'') are also popular. Many "''
Eaux de vie An ''eau de vie'' (French language, French for distilled beverage, spirits, §16, §17 literally "aqua vitae, water of life") is a clear, colourless fruit brandy that is produced by means of fermentation and double distillation. The fruit fla ...

Eaux de vie
''" (distilled alcohol from fruit) also called schnaps are from this region, due to a wide variety of local fruits (cherry, raspberry, pear, grapes) and especially prunes (mirabelle, plum).[9]:259,295 File:Champagne flute and bottle.jpg, ''Champagne stemware, Flute'' of ''
Champagne Champagne (, ) is a sparkling wine Sparkling wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus ...

Champagne
'' wine File:Tarte flambée alsacienne 514471722.jpg, Alsatian ''Flammekueche'' File:Quiches 2.jpg, ''Quiche'' File:Choucroute-p1030191.jpg, ''Choucroute garnie'' File:Andouillette.jpg, ''Andouillette''


Nord Pas-de-Calais, Picardy, Normandy, and Brittany

The coastline supplies many crustaceans, European seabass, sea bass, monkfish and Herring (food), herring. Normandy has top-quality seafood, such as scallops and Sole (fish), sole, while Brittany has a supply of lobster, crayfish and mussels. Normandy is home to a large population of apple trees; apples are often used in dishes, as well as cider and calvados (spirit), Calvados. The northern areas of this region, especially Nord (French department), Nord, grow ample amounts of wheat, sugar beets and chicory. Thick stews are found often in these northern areas as well. The produce of these northern regions is also considered some of the best in the country, including cauliflower and artichokes. Buckwheat grows widely in Brittany as well and is used in the region's ''galettes'', called ''jalet'', which is where this dish originated. File:Crème Chantilly.jpg, ''Crème Chantilly#Crème Chantilly, Crème Chantilly'', created at the Château de Chantilly. File:Camembert.JPG, ''Camembert'', cheese specialty from Normandy File:GaletteCidre.JPG, ''
Crêpe A crêpe or crepe ( or , , Quebec French: ) is a type of very thin pancake A pancake (or hotcake, griddlecake, or flapjack) is a flat cake, often thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter Batter or batters may refer to ...

Crêpe
'' and ''Cider#France, Cider'', specialty from Brittany File:Jielbeaumadier gaufres lilloises 2008.jpg, ''Waffle, Lille Waffles'' File:Belon oysters at Belon river, France.jpg, Belon oysters


Loire Valley and central France

High-quality fruits come from the Loire Valley and central France, including cherries grown for the liqueur ''Guignolet'' and ''Belle Angevine'' pears. The strawberries and melons are also of high quality. Fish are seen in the cuisine, often served with a ''beurre blanc'' sauce, as well as wild game, lamb, calves, Charolais cattle, ''Géline'' fowl, and goat cheeses. Young vegetables are used often, as are the specialty mushrooms of the region, ''Agaricus bisporus, champignons de Paris''. Vinegars from Orléans are a specialty ingredient used as well.


Burgundy and Franche-Comté

Burgundy (region), Burgundy and Franche-Comté are known for their wines. pike (fish), Pike, perch, river crabs, snails, game, redcurrants, blackcurrants are from both Burgundy (region), Burgundy and Franche-Comté. Amongst savorous specialties accounted in the ''Cuisine franc-comtoise'' from the Franche-Comté region are ', ', trout, smoked meats and cheeses such as Mont d'Or (cheese), Mont d'Or, Comté (cheese), Comté and Morbier (cheese), Morbier which are best eaten hot or cold, the exquisite ' and the special dessert '. Charolais cattle, Charolais beef, Bresse (chicken), poultry from Bresse, sea snail, honey cake, Chaource and Époisses de Bourgogne, Epoisses cheese are specialties of the local cuisine of Burgundy. Dijon mustard is also a specialty of Burgundy cuisine. ''Crème de cassis'' is a popular liquor made from the blackcurrants. Oils are used in the cooking here, types include nut oils and rapeseed oil. File:Boeuf bourguignon servie avec des pâtes.jpg, ''Bœuf bourguignon'' File:Coq au vin at The Swan at the Globe, London.jpg, ''Coq au vin'' File:Escargotbordeaux.jpg, ''Escargots'', with special tongs and fork File:Beaujolais salad.jpg, ''Beaujolais (wine), Beaujolais'' wine File:Dijon mustard on a spoon - 20051218.jpg, ''Dijon mustard'' File:Vin Jaune.jpg, ''Comté (cheese), Comté'' cheese and ''Vin jaune'' File:Gateau de menage.jpg, ''Gâteau de ménage''


Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes

The area covers the old province of Dauphiné, once known as the "larder" of France, that gave its name to ''gratin dauphinois'', traditionally made in a large baking dish rubbed with garlic. Successive layers of potatoes, salt, pepper and milk are piled up to the top of the dish. It is then baked in the oven at low temperature for 2 hours. Fruit and young vegetables are popular in the cuisine from the Rhône valley, as are great wines like Hermitage AOC, Crozes-Hermitage AOC and Condrieu AOC. Walnuts and walnut products and oil from Grenoble, Noix de Grenoble AOC, lowland cheeses, like St. marcellin, france, St. Marcellin, St. Félicien and Bleu du Vercors-Sassenage. Poultry from Bresse, guinea fowl from Drome, Drôme and fish from the Dombes, a light yeast-based cake, called Pogne de Romans-sur-Isère, Romans and the regional speciality, ''Raviole du Dauphiné'', and there is the Shortcrust pastry, short-crust "Suisse", a Valence, Drôme, Valence biscuit speciality. Lakes and mountain streams in Rhône-Alpes are key to the cuisine as well. Lyon and Savoy supply sausages while the Alpine region, Alpine regions supply their specialty cheeses like Beaufort (cheese), Beaufort, Abondance (cheese), Abondance, Reblochon, Tomme and Vacherin. ''Meres lyonnaises, Mères lyonnaises'' are female cooks particular to this region who provide local gourmet establishments. Celebrated chefs from this region include
Fernand Point Fernand Point (25 February 1897 – 4 March 1955) was a French chef and restaurateur and is considered to be the father of modern French cuisine. He founded the restaurant La Pyramide in Vienne, Isère, Vienne near Lyon. Early life He was born ...
,
Paul Bocuse Paul Bocuse (; 11 February 1926 – 20 January 2018) was a French cuisine, French chef based in Lyon who was known for the high quality of his restaurants and his innovative approaches to cuisine. A student of Eugénie Brazier, he was one of the ...

Paul Bocuse
, the Troisgros family, Troisgros brothers and Alain Chapel. The Chartreuse Mountains are the source of the green and yellow Digestif liquor, Chartreuse (liquor), Chartreuse produced by the monks of the Grande Chartreuse. Since the 2014 administrative reform, the ancient area of Auvergne is now part of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, region. One of its leading chefs is Regis Marcon. File:Gratin-Dauphinois.jpg, ''Gratin dauphinois'' File:Etalage de bleu du Vercors-Sassenage.jpg, ''Bleu du Vercors-Sassenage'' File:Chartreuse ElixirVegetal 400th71%.jpg, ''Chartreuse (dish), Chartreuse Elixir Végétal'' File:Salade de ravioles.jpg, ''Raviole du Dauphiné, Salade de ravioles'' File:Condrieu Viognier.jpg, ''Condrieu AOC, Condrieu'' wine File:Suisse biscuit.JPG, ' File:Bleu de Bresse cheese.jpg, ''Bleu de Bresse'' File:Salade bressane.jpg, ''Poulet de Bresse'' chicken salad File:Rosettes de Lyon.jpg, ''Rosette de Lyon charcuterie'' File:Noix3coquilles.jpg, ''Grenoble, Noix de Grenoble'', unusual trilaterally symmetric walnut File:Cave Beaufort (Savoie).jpg, Beaufort cheeses ripening in a cellar


Poitou-Charentes and Limousin

Oysters come from the Oléron-Marennes, Charente-Maritime, Marennes basin, while mussels come from the Esnandes#Economy, Bay of Aiguillon. High-quality produce comes from the region's hinterland, especially goat cheese. This region and in the Vendée is grazing ground for ''Parthenaise'' cattle, while poultry is raised in Challans. The region of Poitou-Charentes purportedly produces the best butter and cream in France. Cognac (drink), Cognac is also made in the region along the river Charente (river), Charente. Limousin (region), Limousin is home to the Limousin (cattle), Limousin cattle, as well as sheep. The woodlands offer game and mushrooms. The southern area around Brive draws its cooking influence from Périgord and Auvergne (region), Auvergne to produce a robust cuisine.


Bordeaux, Périgord, Gascony, and Basque country

Bordeaux is known for its wine, with certain areas offering specialty grapes for wine-making. Fishing is popular in the region for the cuisine, sea fishing in the Bay of Biscay, trapping in the Garonne and stream fishing in the Pyrenees. The Pyrenees also has lamb, such as the '':fr: Agneau de Pauillac, Agneau de Pauillac'', as well as sheep cheeses. Beef cattle in the region include the ''Blonde d'Aquitaine'', '':fr: Bœuf de Chalosse, Boeuf de Chalosse'', '':fr: Bœuf de Bazas, Boeuf Gras de Bazas'', and '':fr: Garonnaise, Garonnaise''. Free-range chicken, turkey, pigeon, capon, goose and duck prevail in the region as well. Gascony and Périgord cuisines includes ''pâtés'', '' terrines'', ''confits'' and '':fr:magret, magrets''. This is one of the regions notable for its production of ''foie gras'', or fattened goose or duck liver. The cuisine of the region is often heavy and farm based. Armagnac (drink), Armagnac is also from this region, as are prunes from Agen. File:Confitdecanard.jpg, ''Confit de canard'' File:Foie gras with sauternes.jpg, A '' terrine'' of ''foie gras'' with a bottle of ''Sauternes (wine), Sauternes'' File:Truffe coupée.jpg, Black Périgord ''Truffle'' File:Tourin.jpg, ''Tourin'', a garlic soup from Dordogne


Toulouse, Quercy, and Aveyron

Gers, a department of France, is within this region and has poultry, while La Montagne Noire and Lacaune area offer hams and dry sausages. White corn is planted heavily in the area both for use in fattening ducks and geese for foie gras and for the production of '':fr:millas (plat), millas'', a cornmeal porridge. Haricot beans are also grown in this area, which are central to the dish ''cassoulet''. The finest sausage in France is ''saucisse de Toulouse'', which also part of ''cassoulet'' of Toulouse. The Cahors area produces a specialty "Cahors (wine)#History, black wine" as well as truffles and mushrooms. This region also produces milk-fed lamb. Unpasteurized domestic sheep, ewe's milk is used to produce Roquefort in Aveyron, while in Laguiole is producing unpasteurized cow's milk cheese. Salers cattle produce milk for cheese, as well as beef and veal products. The volcanic soils create flinty cheeses and superb lentils. Mineral waters are produced in high volume in this region as well. Cabécou, Cabécou cheese is from Rocamadour, a medieval settlement erected directly on a cliff, in the rich countryside of :fr: Causses du Quercy, Causses du Quercy. This area is one of the region's oldest milk producers; it has chalky soil, marked by history and human activity, and is favourable for the raising of goats. File:Bowl of cassoulet.JPG, ''Cassoulet'' File:Bol d'aligot.jpg, ''Aligot'' File:Roquefort cheese.jpg, ''Roquefort'' cheese


Roussillon, Languedoc, and Cévennes

Restaurants are popular in the area known as ''Le Midi''. Oysters come from the Étang de Thau, to be served in the restaurants of Bouzigues, Mèze, and Sète. Mussels are commonly seen here in addition to fish specialties of Sète, '':fr: Bourride, bourride'', '':fr:Tielle, tielles'' and ''rouille de seiche''. In the Languedoc ''jambon cru'', sometimes known as ''jambon de montagne'' is produced. High quality ''Roquefort'' comes from the ''brebis'' (sheep) on the Larzac plateau. The Cévennes, Les Cévennes area offers mushrooms, chestnuts, berries, honey, lamb, game, sausages, ''pâté, pâtés'' and goat cheeses. Catalan people, Catalan influence can be seen in the cuisine here with dishes like ''brandade'' made from a purée of dried Cod (food), cod wrapped in Chard, mangold leaves. Snails are plentiful and are prepared in a specific ''Catalonian, Catalan'' style known as a ''Caragols a la llauna, cargolade''. Wild boar can be found in the more mountainous regions of the ''Midi''.


Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

The Provence and Côte d'Azur region is rich in quality citrus, vegetables, fruits and herbs; the region is one of the largest suppliers of all these ingredients in France. The region also produces the largest amount of olives, and creates superb olive oil. Lavender is used in many dishes found in ''Haute Provence''. Other important herbs in the cuisine include thyme, Common sage, sage, rosemary, basil, Satureja, savory, fennel, marjoram, tarragon, oregano, and bay leaf. Honey is a prized ingredient in the region. Seafood is widely available throughout the coastal area and is heavily represented in the cuisine. Goat cheeses, air-dried sausages, lamb, beef, and chicken are popular here. Garlic and anchovies are used in many of the region's sauces, as in ''Poulet Provençal'', which uses white wine, tomatoes, herbs, and sometimes anchovies, and Pastis is found everywhere that alcohol is served. The cuisine uses a large amount of vegetables for lighter preparations. Truffles are commonly seen in Provence during the winter. Thirteen desserts in Provence are the traditional Christmas dessert, e.g. quince cheese, biscuits, almonds, nougat, apple, and ''fougasse (bread), fougasse''. Rice is grown in the Camargue, which is the northernmost rice growing area in Europe, with Camargue red rice being a specialty. Anibal Camous, a Marseillais who lived to be 104, maintained that it was by eating garlic daily that he kept his "youth" and brilliance. When his eighty-year-old son died, the father mourned: "I always told him he wouldn't live long, poor boy. He ate too little garlic!" (''cited b
chef Philippe Gion
') File:Ratatouille-Dish.jpg, ''Ratatouille'' File:Flickr - cyclonebill - Salade niçoise (2).jpg, ''Salade niçoise'' File:Flickr - cyclonebill - Bouillabaisse med rouille.jpg, ''Bouillabaisse'' File:Daube de boeuf carottes.jpg, ''Daube'' File:Pissaladière.jpg, ''Pissaladière'' File:Pan-bagnat002.jpg, ''Pan bagnat'' File:AOC Vacqueyras rosé + lavande.jpg, Vacqueyras AOC, Vacqueyras wine File:Bourride de fruits de mer.JPG, '':fr:Bourride, Bourride de fruits de mer'' File:Salade mesclun et chèvre chaud sur toasts.jpg, ''Mesclun, Salade Mesclun'' File:Pieds et paquets 2.jpg, ''Pieds paquets''


Corsica

Goats and sheep proliferate on the island of Corsica, and lamb are used to prepare dishes such as '':it:stufato, stufato'', ''ragouts'' and roasts. Cheeses are also produced, with ''brocciu'' being the most popular. Chestnuts, growing in the Castagniccia forest, are used to produce flour, which is used in turn to make bread, cakes and ''polenta''. The forest provides acorns used to feed the pigs and boars that provide much of the protein for the island's cuisine. Fresh fish and seafood are common. The island's pork is used to make fine hams, sausage and other unique items including ''capicola, coppa'' (dried rib cut), '':fr:lonzu, lonzu'' (dried pork fillet), '':fr:figatellu, figatellu'' (smoked and dried liverwurst), ''salumu'' (a dried sausage), ''salcietta'', ''Panzetta'', bacon, and '':fr: prisuttu, prisuttu'' (farmer's ham). Clementines (which hold an AOC designation), lemons, nectarines and figs are grown there. Candied citron is used in nougats, while and the aforementioned ''brocciu'' and chestnuts are also used in desserts. Corsica offers a variety of wines and fruit liqueurs, including Cap Corse, Patrimonio, Cedratine, Cédratine, Bonapartine, '':fr:liqueur de myrte, liqueur de myrte'', ''vins de fruit'', :fr:Rappu, Rappu, and ''eau-de-vie de châtaigne''.


French Guiana

French Guianan cuisine or Guianan cuisine is a blend of the different cultures that have settled in French Guiana. Creole and Chinese restaurants are common in major cities such as Cayenne, Kourou and Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni. Many indigenous animal species such as caiman and tapir are used in spiced stews.


Specialties by season

French cuisine varies according to the season. In summer, salads and fruit dishes are popular because they are refreshing and produce is inexpensive and abundant. Greengrocers prefer to sell their fruits and vegetables at lower prices if needed, rather than see them rot in the heat. At the end of summer, mushrooms become plentiful and appear in stews throughout France. The hunting season begins in September and runs through February. Game of all kinds is eaten, often in elaborate dishes that celebrate the success of the hunt. Shellfish are at their peak when winter turns to spring, and oysters appear in restaurants in large quantities. With the advent of deep-freeze and the air-conditioned ''hypermarché'', these seasonal variations are less marked than hitherto, but they are still observed, in some cases due to legal restrictions. Crayfish (food), Crayfish, for example, have a short season and it is illegal to catch them out of season. Moreover, they do not freeze well.


Foods and ingredients

French regional cuisines use locally grown vegetables, such as ''pomme de terre'' (potato), ''blé'' (wheat), ''Green bean, haricots verts'' (a type of French green bean), ''carotte'' (carrot), ''poireau'' (
leek The leek is a vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including t ...

leek
), ''navet'' (turnip), ''aubergine'' (eggplant), ''courgette'' (zucchini), and ''échalotte'' (shallot). French regional cuisines use locally grown fungi, such as ''truffe'' (Tuber (genus), truffle), ''champignon de Paris'' (button mushroom), ''chanterelle ou girolle'' (chanterelle), ''pleurote (en huître)'' (oyster mushrooms), and ''cèpes'' (porcini). Common fruits include oranges, tomatoes, tangerines, peaches, apricots, apples, pears, plums, Cherry, cherries, Strawberry, strawberries, Raspberry, raspberries, redcurrants, Blackberry, blackberries, grapes, grapefruit, and blackcurrants. Varieties of meat consumed include ''poulet'' (Chicken (food), chicken), ''pigeon'' (
squab In culinary Culinary arts, in which ''culinary Culinary arts, in which '' culinary'' means "related to cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. C ...
), ''canard'' (Duck (food), duck), ''oie'' (goose, the source of foie gras), ''bœuf'' (beef), ''veau'' (veal), ''porc'' (pork), ''agneau'' (Lamb (food), lamb), ''mouton'' (mutton), ''caille'' (quails in cookery, quail), ''cheval'' (horse meat, horse), ''grenouille'' (frog legs, frog), and ''escargot'' (snails). Commonly consumed fish and seafood include Cod (food), cod, canned sardines, sardine (food), fresh sardines, canned tuna, fresh tuna, Salmon (food), salmon, trout, mussels, Herring (food), herring, oysters, Shrimp (food), shrimp and calamari. Eggs are fine quality and often eaten as: omelettes, hard-boiled with mayonnaise, Scrambled eggs, scrambled plain, scrambled ''haute cuisine'' preparation, '':fr:œuf à la coque, œuf à la coque''. Herbs and seasonings vary by region, and include ''fleur de sel'', ''herbes de Provence'', tarragon, rosemary, marjoram, lavender, thyme, fennel, and Common sage, sage. Fresh fruit and vegetables, as well as fish and meat, can be purchased either from supermarkets or specialty shops. Street markets are held on certain days in most localities; some towns have a more permanent covered market enclosing food shops, especially meat and fish retailers. These have better shelter than the periodic street markets. File:Herbesdeprovence.jpg, ''Herbes de provence'' File:Charetveau.jpg, ''Charolais cattle'' File:Champignons Agaricus.jpg, ''Champignon de Paris'' File:HaricotsVerts2.JPG, ''Haricot bean, Haricots verts'' File:France-AOC Piment d'Espelette-2005-08-05.jpg, ''Espelette pepper, Piments d'Espelette'' File:Fleur de sel2.jpg, ''Fleur de sel de Guérande'' File:Wine grapes03.jpg, ''Grape, Grappe de raisin'' File:Bressehühner-1.jpg, ''Poulet de Bresse'' File:Wheat close-up.JPG, ''Blé (Wheat)'' File:Truffe noire du Périgord.jpg, ''Black Truffle, Black Périgord truffle''


Structure of meals


Breakfast

''Le petit déjeuner'' (breakfast) is traditionally a quick meal consisting of ''tartines'' (slices) of French bread with butter and honey or jam (sometimes brioche), along with ''café au lait'' (also called ''café crème''), or black coffee, or tea and rarely hot chicory. Children often drink hot chocolate in bowls or cups along with their breakfasts. ''Croissants'', ''pain aux raisins'' or ''pain au chocolat'' (also named ''chocolatine'' in the south-west of France) are mostly included as a weekend treat. Breakfast of some kind is always served in cafés opening early in the day. There are also savoury dishes for breakfast. An example is ''le petit déjeuner gaulois'' or ''petit déjeuner fermier'' with the famous long narrow bread slices topped with soft white cheese or boiled ham, called ''mouillettes'', which is dipped in a soft-boiled egg and some fruit juice and hot drink. Another variation called ''le petit déjeuner chasseur'', meant to be very hearty, is served with ''pâté'' and other ''charcuterie'' products. A more classy version is called ''le petit déjeuner du voyageur'', where delicatessens serve gizzard, bacon, salmon, omelet, or ''croque monsieur'', with or without soft-boiled egg and always with the traditional coffee/tea/chocolate along fruits or fruit juice. When the egg is cooked sunny-side over the ''croque-monsieur'', it is called a ''croque-madame''. In ''Germinal'' and other novels, Émile Zola also reported the ''briquet'': two long bread slices stuffed with butter, cheese and or ham. It can be eaten as a standing/walking breakfast, or meant as a "second" one before lunch. In the movie ''Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis'', Philippe Abrams (Kad Merad) and Antoine Bailleul (Dany Boon) share together countless breakfasts consisting of ''Maroilles cheese, tartines de Maroilles'' (a rather strong cheese) along with their hot chicory.


Lunch

''Le déjeuner'' (lunch) is a two-hour mid-day meal or a one-hour lunch break . In some smaller towns and in the south of France, the two-hour lunch may still be customary . Sunday lunches are often longer and are taken with the family. Restaurants normally open for lunch at noon and close at 2:30 pm. Some restaurants are closed on Monday during lunch hours. In large List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants (1999 census), cities, a majority of working people and List of colleges and universities in France, students eat their lunch at a corporate or school cafeteria, which normally serves complete meals as described above; it is not usual for students to bring their own lunch to eat. For companies that do not operate a cafeteria, it is mandatory for employees to be given lunch vouchers as part of their employee benefits. These can be used in most restaurants, supermarkets and ''traiteur (culinary profession), traiteurs''; however, workers having lunch in this way typically do not eat all three courses of a traditional lunch due to price and time constraints. In smaller cities and towns, some working people leave their workplaces to return home for lunch. Also, an alternative, especially among blue-collar workers, is eating sandwiches followed by a dessert; both dishes can be found ready-made at bakeries and supermarkets at budget prices.


Dinner

''Le dîner'' (dinner) often consists of three full course dinner, courses, ''
hors d'œuvre An hors d'oeuvre ( ; french: hors-d'œuvre ), appetizer or starter is a small dish (food), dish served before a meal in European cuisine. Some hors d'oeuvres are served cold, others hot. Hors d'oeuvres may be served at the dinner table as a ...
'' or ''
entrée An entrée (, ; ) in modern French table service and that of much of the English-speaking world (apart from the United States and parts of Canada) is a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be e ...

entrée
'' (appetizers or introductory course, sometimes soup), ''plat principal'' (main course), and a cheese course or dessert, sometimes with a salad offered before the cheese or dessert. Yogurt may replace the cheese course, while a simple dessert would be fresh fruit. The meal is often accompanied by bread,
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flow ...
and mineral water. Most of the time the bread would be a baguette which is very common in France and is made almost every day. Main meat courses are often served with vegetables, along with potatoes, rice or pasta. Restaurants often open at 7:30 pm for dinner, and stop taking orders between the hours of 10:00 pm and 11:00 pm. Some restaurants close for dinner on Sundays.


Beverages and drinks

In French cuisine, beverages that precede a meal are called ''apéritifs'' (literally: "that opens the appetite"), and can be served with ''amuse-bouches'' (literally: "mouth amuser"). Those that end it are called ''digestifs''. ;''Apéritifs'' The ''apéritif'' varies from region to region: Pastis is popular in the south of France, Crémant d'Alsace in the eastern region.
Champagne Champagne (, ) is a sparkling wine Sparkling wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus ...

Champagne
can also be served. Kir (cocktail), Kir, also called ''Blanc-cassis'', is a common and popular ''apéritif''-cocktail made with a measure of ''crème de cassis'' (blackcurrant liqueur) topped up with white wine. The phrase ''Kir Royal'' is used when white wine is replaced with a ''Champagne'' wine. A simple glass of red wine, such as Beaujolais nouveau, can also be presented as an ''apéritif'', accompanied by ''amuse-bouches''. Some ''apéritifs'' can be fortified wines with added herbs, such as cinchona, gentian and vermouth. Trade names that sell well include Suze (drink), Suze (the classic gentiane), Byrrh, Dubonnet, and Noilly Prat. ;''Digestifs'' ''Digestifs'' are traditionally stronger, and include Cognac (brandy), Cognac, Armagnac (brandy), Armagnac, Calvados (brandy), Calvados, ''Eau de vie'' and fruit alcohols.


Christmas

A typical French Christmas dish is turkey with chestnuts. Other common dishes are smoked salmon, oysters, caviar and ''foie gras''. The Yule log is a very French tradition during Christmas. Chocolate and cakes also occupy a prominent place for Christmas in France. This cuisine is normally accompanied by Champagne. Tradition says that thirteen desserts complete the Christmas meal in reference to the twelve apostles and Christ.


Food establishments


History

The modern restaurant has its origins in French culture. Prior to the late 18th century, diners who wished to "dine out" would visit their local
guild A guild is an association of artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functiona ...
member's kitchen and have their meal prepared for them. However, guild members were limited to producing whatever their guild registry delegated to them. These guild members offered food in their own homes to steady clientele that appeared day-to-day but at set times. The guest would be offered the meal ''table d'hôte'', which is a meal offered at a set price with very little choice of dishes, sometimes none at all. The first steps toward the modern restaurant were locations that offered ''restorative'' Bouillon (broth), bouillons, or ''restaurants''—these words being the origin of the name "restaurant". This step took place during the 1760s–1770s. These locations were open at all times of the day, featuring ornate tableware and reasonable prices. These locations were meant more as meal replacements for those who had "lost their appetites and suffered from jaded palates and weak chests." In 1782 Antoine Beauvilliers, pastry chef to the future Louis XVIII, opened one of the most popular restaurants of the time—the ''Grande Taverne de Londres''—in the arcades of the Palais-Royal. Other restaurants were opened by chefs of the time who were leaving the failing Kings of France, monarchy of France, in the period leading up to the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
. It was these restaurants that expanded upon the limited menus of decades prior, and led to the full restaurants that were completely legalized with the advent of the French Revolution and abolition of the guilds. This and the substantial discretionary income of the French Directory's ''nouveau riche'' helped keep these new restaurants in business.


Restaurant staff

Larger restaurants and hotels in France employ extensive staff and are commonly referred to as either the ''kitchen brigade'' for the kitchen staff or ''dining room brigade'' system for the dining room staff. This system was created by
Georges Auguste Escoffier Georges Auguste Escoffier (; 28 October 1846 – 12 February 1935) was a French chef, restaurateur and culinary writer who popularized and updated traditional French cooking methods. Much of Escoffier's technique was based on that of Marie-Antoin ...
. This structured team system delegates responsibilities to different individuals who specialize in certain tasks. The following is a list of positions held both in the kitchen and dining rooms brigades in France:


See also

* Cuisine of Quebec * Acadian cuisine * Cajun cuisine * French Americans * French Canadians * French paradox * ''Larousse Gastronomique'' * ''Le Répertoire de la Cuisine'' * List of French cheeses * List of French desserts * List of French dishes * List of French restaurants * List of French soups and stews * List of restaurants in Paris


References


Further reading

* Patrick Rambourg, ''Histoire de la cuisine et de la gastronomie françaises'', Paris, Ed. Perrin (coll. tempus n° 359), 2010, 381 pages. * Bryan Newman,
Behind the French Menu
,


External links


France stages first-ever Gastronomy Day
Radio France Internationale in English {{DEFAULTSORT:French Cuisine French cuisine, French chefs