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Le Viandier
''Le Viandier'' (often called ''Le Viandier de Taillevent'', ) is a recipe collection generally credited to Guillaume Tirel File:Tombe de Taillevent.jpg, Guillaume Tirel's tombstone at the church of :fr:Église Saint-Léger de Saint-Germain-en-Laye Guillaume Tirel, known as Taillevent (French language, French: "wind-cutter" i.e. an idle swaggerer) (born ca. 1310 in Po ..., alias ''Taillevent''. However, the earliest version of the work was written around 1300, about 10 years before Tirel's birth. The original author is unknown, but it was common for medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ... recipe A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something, especially a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), so ...
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Bibliothèque Mazarine
The Bibliothèque Mazarine, or Mazarin Library, is located within the Palais de l'institut de France, or the Palace of the Institute of France (previously the Collège des Quatre-Nations of the University of Paris), at 23 quai de Conti in the 6th arrondissement, on the Left Bank of the Seine facing the Pont des Arts and the Louvre. Originally created by Cardinal Mazarin as his personal library in the 17th century, it today has one of the richest collections of rare books and manuscripts in France, and is the oldest public library in the country. History The founder of the library, Cardinal Jules Raymond Mazarin (1602–1661), was born Giulio Ramondo Mazzarino in Pescina in the Kingdom of Naples, into a noble but poor family. He went into the church, studied at the Jesuit Collegio Romano, College in Rome, though he declined to join their order. He went into the Papal service, where he became known for his diplomatic, political and military skills, and was assigned as a nunci ...
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14th-century Books
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was a century lasting from January 1, 1301 (Roman numerals, MCCCI), through December 31, 1400 (Roman numerals, MCD). The term is often used to refer to the 1300s, the century between 1300 and 1399. It is estimated that the century witnessed the death of more than 45 million lives from political and natural disasters in both Europe and the Mongol Empire. West Africa and the Indian Subcontinent experienced economic growth and prosperity. In History of Europe, Europe, the Black Death claimed 25 million lives wiping out one third of the European population while the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France fought in the protracted Hundred Years' War after the death of Charles IV of France, Charles IV, King of France led to a claim to the French throne by Edward III of England, Edward III, King of England. This period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both ...
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The Forme Of Cury
''The Forme of Cury'' (''The Method of Cooking'', from Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured ... : 'to cook') is an extensive 14th-century collection of medieval English recipes. Although the original manuscript is lost, the text appears in nine manuscripts, the most famous in the form of a scroll '', Vatican Library The Vatican Apostolic Library ( la, Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana, it, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly known as the Vatican Library or informally as the Vat, is the library A library is a curated co ... with a headnote citing it as the work of "the chief Master Cooks of King Richard II". The name ''The Forme of Cury'' is generally used for the family of recipes rather than any single manuscript text. It ...
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Medieval Cuisine
Medieval cuisine includes foods, eating habits, and cooking methods of various European cultures during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ..., which lasted from the fifth to the fifteenth century. During this period, diets The Low Countries comprise the coastal Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta region in Western Europe, whose definition usually includes the modern countries of Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. Both Belgium and the Netherlands derived their n ... and cooking changed less than they did in the early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since ...
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Apicius
''Apicius'' is a collection of Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ... cookery Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the Earth, world, from grilling food over an open fire to using e ... recipes. It is thought to have been compiled in the 1st century AD in a language in many ways closer to Vulgar Vulgar is a Latin word meaning "common" or "pertaining to ordinary people." Language * Vulgar or common language, the vernacular speech of a region or a people * Language use characterised by vulgarity, see Vulgarism and Other uses *A vulg ... than to Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language ...
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Printing Press
A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an ink Ink is a gel, sol, or solution Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, Making a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water. The salt is the solute and the water the solvent. In chemistry, a solution ...ed surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. It marked a dramatic improvement on earlier printing methods in which the cloth, paper or other medium was brushed or rubbed repeatedly to achieve the transfer of ink, and accelerated the process. Typically used for texts, the invention and global spread of the printing press The global spread of the printing press began with the invention of the printing press A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a printing, print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereb ... was one of the most influential events in ...
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Operation Overlord
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allies of World War II, Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Front (World War II), Western Europe during World War II. The operation was launched on 6 June 1944 with the Normandy landings, Normandy Landings (D-Day). A 1,200-plane Airborne forces, airborne assault preceded an amphibious warfare, amphibious assault involving more than 5,000 vessels. Nearly 160,000 troops crossed the English Channel on 6 June, and more than two million Allied troops were in France by the end of August. The decision to undertake a cross-channel invasion in 1944 was taken at the Trident Conference in Washington, D.C., Washington in May 1943. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was appointed commander of Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, and General Bernard Montgomery was named as commander of the 21st Army Group, which comprised all the land forces involved in the invasion. The c ...
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Georges Vicaire
Georges Vicaire (8 December 1853 – 4 November 1921) was a French bibliophile and bibliographer. The son of (1802-1865), General Director of forests, and Marthe Vicaire Blais, Georges Vicaire was the father of Jean Vicaire and (1893–1976), an orientalist painter. Biography Georges Vicaire was responsible for special work on the preparation of the printed catalogs of the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, then was attached to the Bibliothèque Mazarine. In 1909, the Institut de France appointed curator of the , created by and located in Chantilly, Oise, Chantilly, next to the Musée Condé, which houses the very large Library of Henri d'Orléans, Duke of Aumale. He was also correspondent to the Vatican Library. He had hence access to funds from both institutions. Vicaire is the author of bibliographies of Honoré de Balzac, José-Maria de Heredia, George Sand, Stendhal, Victor Hugo and gastronomic literature and a very important work in 8 volumes on the literature of the nineteenth ...
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Jérôme Pichon
Baron Jérome-Frédéric Pichon (3 December 1812 – 26 August 1896) was a 19th-century French bibliographer and bibliophile. He was one of the most important France, French art collectors of his time. Biography Jérôme Pichon was the second son of Alexandrine Émilie Brongniart (1780–1847), whose father was the architect Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart, and of Baron Louis-André Pichon. After a brief stay at the École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr, École de Saint-Cyr, he studied law and was then appointed an auditor at the Council of State (France), Conseil d’État before withdrawing completely from public life in 1846. He was also Consul General to Smyrna. He began his collection of old books in 1831 and soon became indebted to booksellers for 6,000 francs, a sum that his father reimbursed without difficulty: the young man's love of books had turned into a devouring passion, which was to remain with him. He also collected numerous antique objects of various natures ...
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Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô (, ) is a Communes of France, commune in north-western France, the capital of the Manche Departments of France, department in the Regions of France, region of Normandy (administrative region), Normandy.Commune de Saint-Lô (50502)
INSEE
Although it is the second largest city of Manche after Cherbourg-en-Cotentin, Cherbourg, it remains the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the department. It is also chef-lieu of an Arrondissements of France, arrondissement and two Cantons of France, cantons (Canton of Saint-Lô-1, Saint-Lô-1 and Canton of Saint-Lô-2, Saint-Lô-2). The placename derives from that of a local saint, Laud of Coutances. The commune has 18,931 inhabitantsMunicipal population 2012. who are called Saint-Lois(es). The names of Laudois(es) ...
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Biblioteca Vaticana
The Vatican Apostolic Library ( la, Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana, it, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly known as the Vatican Library or informally as the Vat, is the library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs on a daily basis. A library provi ... of the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian ..., located in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Cidade do Vatica .... ...
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