HOME

TheInfoList




Freiburg im
Breisgau Breisgau () is an Gau (administrative division), area in southwest Germany between the Rhine River and the foothills of the Black Forest. Part of the state of Baden-Württemberg, it centers on the city of Freiburg im Breisgau. The district Breisga ...
(; abbreviated as Freiburg i. Br. or Freiburg i. B.), commonly referred to as Freiburg, is an independent city in
Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a state (''Land'') in southwest Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken. This corresponds roughly to the h ...
, Germany. With a population of about 230,000 (as of December 31, 2018), Freiburg is the fourth-largest city in Baden-Württemberg after
Stuttgart Stuttgart (; Swabian: ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') ...

Stuttgart
,
Mannheim Mannheim (; : or ), officially the University City of Mannheim (german: Universitätsstadt Mannheim), is the in the of after the state capital of , and Germany's , with a 2020 population of 309,119 inhabitants. The city is the cultural and ...

Mannheim
, and
Karlsruhe Karlsruhe ( , , ; South Franconian South Franconian (german: Südfränkisch) is an Upper German dialect which is spoken in the northernmost part of Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a States of Germany, state (''Land'') in s ...

Karlsruhe
. The population of the Freiburg metropolitan area was 656,753 in 2018. In the south-west of the country, it straddles the
Dreisam The Dreisam ( Celtic: ''*tragisamā'', "the very fast one") is a 29 km long river (48.8 km including its source river Rotbach), and a tributary of the Elz in the German state of Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a State ...

Dreisam
river, at the foot of the Schlossberg. Historically, the city has acted as the hub of the
Breisgau Breisgau () is an Gau (administrative division), area in southwest Germany between the Rhine River and the foothills of the Black Forest. Part of the state of Baden-Württemberg, it centers on the city of Freiburg im Breisgau. The district Breisga ...
region on the western edge of the
Black Forest The Black Forest (german: italic=no, Schwarzwald ) is a large forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting ...

Black Forest
in the
Upper Rhine PlainThe Upper Rhine Plain, Rhine Rift Valley or Upper Rhine Graben (German language, German: ''Oberrheinische Tiefebene'', ''Oberrheinisches Tiefland'' or ''Oberrheingraben'', French language, French: ''Vallée du Rhin'') is a major rift, about and on a ...
. A famous old German university town, and
archiepiscopal In many Christian Denominations, an archbishop (, via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as ...
seat, Freiburg was incorporated in the early twelfth century and developed into a major commercial, intellectual, and ecclesiastical center of the upper Rhine region. The city is known for its medieval
minster
minster
and
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...
, as well as for its high
standard of living Standard of living is the level of income, comforts and services available, generally applied to a society or location, rather than to an individual. Standard of living is relevant because it is considered to contribute to an individual's qualit ...
and advanced environmental practices. The city is situated in the heart of the major Baden wine-growing region and serves as the primary tourist entry point to the scenic beauty of the
Black Forest The Black Forest (german: italic=no, Schwarzwald ) is a large forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting ...

Black Forest
. According to meteorological statistics, the city is the sunniest and warmest in Germany, and held the all-time German temperature record of from 2003 to 2015.


History

Freiburg was founded by Konrad and Duke Berthold III of Zähringen in 1120 as a free market town; , also Arnold, Benjamin ''German Knighthood 1050–1300'' (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985) p. 123. hence its name, which translates to "free (or independent) town". ''Frei'' means "free", and ''Burg,'' like the modern English word "
borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...
", was used in those days for an incorporated city or town, usually one with some degree of autonomy. The German word ''Burg'' also means "a fortified town", as in
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = Post ...

Hamburg
. Thus, it is likely that the name of this place means a "fortified town of free citizens". This town was strategically located at a junction of trade routes between the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
and the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
regions, and the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
and
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
rivers. In 1200, Freiburg's population numbered approximately 6,000 people. At about that time, under the rule of
Bertold V
Bertold V
, the last duke of Zähringen, the city began construction of its
Freiburg Münster
Freiburg Münster
cathedral on the site of an older parish church. Begun in the
Romanesque Romanesque may refer to: In art and architecture *First Romanesque, or Lombard Romanesque architectural style *Pre-Romanesque art and architecture, a term used for the early phase of the style *Romanesque architecture, architecture of Europe wh ...
style, it was continued and completed 1513 for the most part as a
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes **Gothic language, an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths **Crimean Gothic, the Gothic language spoken by ...
edifice. In 1218, when Bertold V died, then Egino V von Urach, the count of Urach assumed the title of Freiburg's count as Egino I von Freiburg. The city council did not trust the new nobles and wrote down its established rights in a document. At the end of the thirteenth century there was a feud between the citizens of Freiburg and their lord, Count Egino II of Freiburg. Egino II raised taxes and sought to limit the citizens' freedom, after which the Freiburgers used catapults to destroy the count's castle atop the Schloßberg, a hill that overlooks the city center. The furious count called on his brother-in-law the Bishop of
Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; german: Straßburg ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Bas-Rhin (; Alsatian: ''Unterelsàss'', ' or '; traditional german: links=no, Niederrhein; en, Lower Rhine) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, divi ...
, Konradius von Lichtenberg, for help. The bishop responded by marching with his army to Freiburg. According to an old Freiburg legend, a butcher named Hauri stabbed the Bishop of Strasbourg to death on 29 July 1299. It was a
Pyrrhic victory A Pyrrhic victory ( ) is a victory that inflicts such a devastating toll on the victor that it is tantamount to defeat. A Pyrrhic victory takes a heavy toll that negates any true sense of achievement or damages long-term progress. The phrase origi ...
, since henceforth the citizens of Freiburg had to pay an annual expiation of 300 marks in silver to the count of Freiburg until 1368. In 1366 the counts of Freiburg made another failed attempt to occupy the city during a night raid. Eventually the citizens were fed up with their lords, and in 1368 Freiburg purchased its independence from them. The city turned itself over to the protection of the
Habsburgs The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...
, who allowed the city to retain a large measure of freedom. Most of the nobles of the city died in the
battle of Sempach The Battle of Sempach was fought on 9 July 1386, between Leopold III, Duke of Austria and the Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy, Swiss Confederation (Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used fo ...
(1386). The
patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Patrician (post-Roman Europe), the governing elites of cities in parts of medieval a ...
family Schnewlin took control of the city until the guildsmen revolted. The guilds became more powerful than the patricians by 1389. The silver mines in Mount Schauinsland provided an important source of capital for Freiburg. This silver made Freiburg one of the richest cities in Europe, and in 1327 Freiburg minted its own coin, the ''Rappenpfennig''. In 1377 the cities of Freiburg,
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...

Basel
,
Colmar Colmar (, ; Alsatian language, Alsatian: ' ; German language, German during 1871–1918 and 1940–1945: ') is a city and Communes of France, commune in the Haut-Rhin Departments of France, department and Grand Est Regions of France, region of ...

Colmar
, and
Breisach Breisach (formerly Altbreisach) is a town with approximately 16,500 inhabitants, situated along the Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). ...
entered into a monetary alliance known as the ''Genossenschaft des Rappenpfennigs'' (Rappenpfennig Collective). This alliance facilitated commerce among the cities and lasted until the end of the sixteenth century. There were 8,000–9,000 people living in Freiburg between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and 30 churches and monasteries. At the end of the fourteenth century the veins of silver were dwindling, and by 1460 only approximately 6,000 people still lived within Freiburg's
city walls A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorize ...

city walls
. A university city, Freiburg evolved from its focus on mining to become a cultural centre for the arts and sciences. It was also a commercial center. The end of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
and the dawn of the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
was a time of both advances and tragedy for Freiburg. In 1457, , Regent of
Further Austria Further Austria, Outer Austria or Anterior Austria (german: Vorderösterreich, formerly ''die Vorlande'' (pl.)) was the collective name for the early (and later) possessions of the House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively sp ...
, established Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, one of Germany's oldest universities. In 1498, Emperor
Maximilian IMaximilian I may refer to: *Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, reigned 1486/93–1519 *Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, reigned 1597–1651 *Maximilian I, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1636-1689) *Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, reigned 1795– ...

Maximilian I
held a
Reichstag is a German word generally meaning parliament, more directly translated as ''Diet (assembly), Diet of the Realm'' or ''National diet'', or more loosely as ''Imperial Diet''. It may refer to: Buildings and places is the god specific German word ...
in Freiburg. In 1520, the city ratified a set of legal reforms, widely considered the most progressive of the time. The aim was to find a balance between city traditions and old
Roman Law Roman law is the law, legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the ''Corpus Juris Civilis'' (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor J ...
. The reforms were well received, especially the sections dealing with civil process law, punishment, and the city's constitution. In 1520, Freiburg decided not to take part in the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...
and became an important centre for
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholicism
on the
Upper Rhine The Upper Rhine (german: Oberrhein ; french: Rhin Supérieur) is the section of the Rhine in the Upper Rhine Plain between Basel in Switzerland and Bingen am Rhein, Bingen in Germany. The river is marked by Rhine-kilometres 170 to 529 (the ...
.
Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae. ''Desiderius'' was a self-adopted additional name, which he used from 1496. The ''Roterodamus'' was a schol ...

Erasmus
moved here after
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...

Basel
accepted the Reformation. In 1536, a strong and persistent belief in
witchcraft In many cultures, witchcraft traditionally means the use of magic Magic or Magick may refer to: * Ceremonial magic, encompasses a wide variety of rituals of magic * Chaos magic#REDIRECT Chaos magic {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from m ...

witchcraft
led to the city's first
witch-hunt A witch-hunt, or a witch purge, is a search for people who have been labeled witches or a search for evidence of witchcraft In many cultures, witchcraft traditionally means the use of magic or supernatural powers, usually to harm others. A ...
. The need to find a scapegoat for calamities such as the
Black Plague The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bac ...
, which claimed 2,000 area residents (25% of the city population) in 1564, led to an escalation in witch-hunting that reached its peak in 1599. A plaque on the old city wall marks the spot where burnings were carried out. The seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries were turbulent times for Freiburg. At the beginning of the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
there were 10,000–14,000 citizens in Freiburg; by its end only 2,000 remained. During this war and other conflicts, the city belonged at various times to the
Austrians Austrians (german: Österreicher) are a Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Pro ...
, the , the
Swedes Swedes ( sv, svenskar) are a North Germanic The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct Eas ...

Swedes
, the
Spaniards Spaniards, or Spanish people, are a predominantly Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, ...

Spaniards
, and various members of the
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had ...

German Confederation
. Between 1648 and 1805, when the city was not under French occupation it was the administrative headquarters of
Further Austria Further Austria, Outer Austria or Anterior Austria (german: Vorderösterreich, formerly ''die Vorlande'' (pl.)) was the collective name for the early (and later) possessions of the House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively sp ...
, the Habsburg territories in the southwest of Germany. In 1805, the city, together with the
Breisgau Breisgau () is an Gau (administrative division), area in southwest Germany between the Rhine River and the foothills of the Black Forest. Part of the state of Baden-Württemberg, it centers on the city of Freiburg im Breisgau. The district Breisga ...
and
Ortenau The Ortenau, originally called Mortenau, is a historic region in the present-day German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For cit ...
areas, became part of
Baden__notoc__ Baden (; ) is a historical territory in South Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken. This corresponds roughly to the hi ...
. In 1827, when the
Archdiocese of Freiburg The Archdiocese of Freiburg im Breisgau (Latin ''Archidioecesis Friburgensis'') is a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman ...
was founded, Freiburg became the seat of a
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
archbishop. On 22 October 1940, the
Nazi Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about th ...
Gauleiter A ''Gauleiter'' () was a regional leader of the Nazi Party The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (german: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), was a far-right Far-right politics ...

Gauleiter
of Baden,
Robert Heinrich Wagner Robert Heinrich Wagner, born as Robert Heinrich Backfisch (13 October 1895 – 14 August 1946) was a Nazi Party The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (german: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterp ...
, ordered the deportation of all of Baden's and 350 of Freiburg's
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
population. They were deported to
Camp Gurs Gurs internment camp was an internment camp and prisoner of war camp constructed in 1939 in Gurs, a site in southwestern France, not far from Pau. The camp was originally set up by the French government after the fall of Catalonia Cata ...
in the south of France, where many died. On 18 July 1942, the remaining Baden and Freiburg Jews were transferred to
Auschwitz The Auschwitz concentration camp () was a complex of over 40 concentration In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or ...

Auschwitz
in Nazi-occupied Poland, where almost all were murdered. A living memorial has been created in the form of the 'footprint' in marble on the site of the city's original
synagogue A synagogue, ', 'house of assembly', or ', "house of prayer"; Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches ...

synagogue
, which was burned down by the Nazi Germans on 9 November 1938, during the
pogrom A pogrom is a violent riot Rioters wearing scarves to conceal their identity and filter tear gas A riot () is a form of civil disorder Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance, civil unrest, or social unrest is an activity arising ...
known as ''
Kristallnacht ''Kristallnacht'' () or the Night of Broken Glass, also called the November Pogrom(s) (german: Novemberpogrome, ), was a pogrom A pogrom is a violent riot aimed at the massacre or expulsion of an ethnic or religious group, particularly on ...

Kristallnacht
''. The memorial is a children's paddling pool and contains a bronze plaque commemorating the original building and the Jewish community which perished. The pavements of Freiburg carry memorials to individual victims, in the form of outside their former residences. Freiburg was heavily bombed during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. In May 1940, aircraft of the
Luftwaffe The ''Luftwaffe'' () was the aerial-warfare branch of the German ''Wehrmacht The ''Wehrmacht'' (, ) was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the German Army (1935–1945), ''Heer'' (army), th ...
mistakenly dropped approximately 60 bombs on Freiburg near the railway station, killing 57 people. On 27 November 1944, a raid by more than 300
bomber A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), launching aerial torpedo, torpedoes, or deploying air-launched cruise missiles. The first use of bombs dropped from an ...
s of
RAF Bomber Command RAF Bomber Command controlled the Royal Air Force The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The G ...
(
Operation Tigerfish Operation Tigerfish was the military code name in World War II for the aerial warfare, air raid on Freiburg in the evening of 27 November 1944 by the Royal Air Force with about 2,800 dead. The name ''Tigerfish'' goes back to Air Vice-Marshal Robe ...
) destroyed a large portion of the city centre, with the notable exception of the ''Münster'', which was only lightly damaged. After the war, the city was rebuilt on its medieval plan. It was occupied by the
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
on 21 April 1945, and Freiburg was soon allotted to the French Zone of Occupation. In December 1945 Freiburg became the seat of government for the German state Badenia, which was merged into
Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a state (''Land'') in southwest Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken. This corresponds roughly to the h ...
in 1952. The
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
maintained a presence in Freiburg until 1991, when the last French Army division left the city, and left Germany. On the site of the former French Army base, a new neighborhood for 5,000 people, Vauban, began in the late 1990s as a "sustainable model district". Solar power provides electricity to many of the households in this small community.


Points of interest

Because of its scenic beauty, relatively warm and sunny climate, and easy access to the Black Forest, Freiburg is a hub for regional
tourism Tourism is travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of th ...

tourism
. In 2010, Freiburg was voted as the Academy of Urbanism's European City of the Year in recognition of the exemplary sustainable urbanism it has implemented over the past several decades. The longest cable car run in Germany, which is long, runs from Günterstal up to a nearby mountain called ''
Schauinsland The Schauinsland (literally "look-into-the-country"; near Freiburg im Breisgau Freiburg im Breisgau (; abbreviated as Freiburg i. Br. or Freiburg i. B.), commonly referred to as Freiburg, is an independent city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ...

Schauinsland
''. The city has an unusual system of gutters (called '' Freiburg Bächle'') that run throughout its centre. These ''Bächle'', once used to provide water to fight fires and feed livestock, are constantly flowing with water diverted from the
Dreisam The Dreisam ( Celtic: ''*tragisamā'', "the very fast one") is a 29 km long river (48.8 km including its source river Rotbach), and a tributary of the Elz in the German state of Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a State ...

Dreisam
. They were never intended to be used for sewage, and even in the Middle Ages such use could lead to harsh penalties. During the summer, the running water provides natural cooling of the air, and offers a pleasant gurgling sound. It is said that if one accidentally falls or steps into a ''Bächle'', they will marry a Freiburger, or 'Bobbele'. The ''Augustinerplatz'' is one of the central squares in the old city. Formerly the location of an
AugustinianAugustinian may refer to: *Augustinians Augustinians are members of Christian religious orders that follow the Rule of Saint Augustine, written in about 400 AD by Augustine of Hippo. There are two distinct types of Augustinians in Catholic relig ...
monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical l ...
that became the Augustiner Museum in 1921, it is now a popular social space for Freiburg's younger residents. It has a number of restaurants and bars, including the local brewery 'Feierling', which has a
Biergarten A beer garden (a Calque, loan translation from the German ''Biergarten'') is an outdoor area in which beer and local food are served, typically at shared tables. Common entertainment includes music, song, and games, enjoyed in an atmosphere of ...

Biergarten
. On warm summer nights, hundreds of students gather here. At the centre of the
old cityOld City often refers to old town, the historic or original core of a city or town. Old City may refer to several places: Historical cities or regions of cities ''(by country)'' *Old City (Baku), Azerbaijan *Old Quebec, Canada, also called ''Old C ...
is the Münsterplatz or Cathedral Square, Freiburg's largest square. A farmers market is held here every day except Sundays. This is the site of Freiburg's
Münster Münster ( , ; nds, Mönster) is an independent city#Germany, independent city (''Kreisfreie Stadt'') in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the Westphalia reg ...

Münster
, a
gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes **Gothic language, an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths **Crimean Gothic, the Gothic language spoken by ...
minster
cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...

cathedral
constructed of red sandstone, built between 1200 and 1530 and noted for its towering spire. The Historical Merchants' Hall (''Historisches Kaufhaus''), is a Late Gothic building on the south side of Freiburg's ''Münsterplatz''. Built between 1520 and 1530, it was once the center of the financial life of the region. Its façade is decorated with statues and the
coat of arms#REDIRECT coat of arms A coat of arms is a heraldry, heraldic communication design, visual design on an escutcheon (heraldry), escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the fu ...

coat of arms
of four
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...

Habsburg
emperors. The ''Altes Rathaus'', or old city hall, was completed in 1559 and has a painted façade. The ''Platz der alten Synagoge'' "Old Synagogue Square" is one of the more important squares on the outskirts of the historic old city. The square was the location of a synagogue until it was destroyed on in 1938. Zum Roten Bären, the oldest hotel in Germany, is located along ''Oberlinden'' near the
Swabia Swabia ; german: Schwaben , colloquially ''Schwabenland'' or ''Ländle''; archaic English also Suabia or Svebia is a cultural, historic History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the stud ...

Swabia
n Gate. The '''', or victory monument, is a monument to the German victory in the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. It is situated at the northern edge of the historic city center of Freiburg, and was built by Karl Friedrich Moest. In everyday language of people living in Freiburg, it serves as an orientation marker or as a meeting place. To the east of the city centre, the Schlossberg hill provides extensive views over the city and surrounding region. The castle (Schloss) from which the hill takes its name was demolished in the 1740s, and only ruins remain. Schlossberg retained its importance to the city, however, and 150 years ago the city leaders opened up walks and views to make the mountain available to the public. Today, the Schlossbergbahn
funicular railway A funicular (, , ) is a transportation system that uses cable-driven cars to connect points along a steep incline. By definition, a funicular uses two counterbalanced passenger cars attached to opposite ends of the same cable, which is looped ...

funicular railway
connects the city centre to the hill. Other museums in the city include the Archaeology Colombischlössle Museum.


List of major sights

* Arboretum Freiburg-Günterstal, an arboretum in the suburb of Günterstal * Freiburg Botanic Garden *
University of Freiburg The University of Freiburg (colloquially german: Uni Freiburg), officially the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg (german: Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg), is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice ...
* University Library Freiburg, the newly renovated library features a modern design * The Whale House, which, in
Dario Argento Dario Argento (; born 7 September 1940) is an Italian film director, producer, screenwriter, actor and film critic, critic. His influential work in the horror film, horror genre during the 1970s and 1980s, particularly in the subgenre known as ...
's 1977 horror film ''
Suspiria ''Suspiria'' () is a 1977 Italian supernatural horror film Supernatural horror film is a film genre that combines aspects of horror film and supernatural film. Supernatural occurrences in such films often include ghosts and demons, and many supe ...
'', served as the Dance Academy, the film's central location * Augustiner Museum * Freiburg Munster *
Schauinsland The Schauinsland (literally "look-into-the-country"; near Freiburg im Breisgau Freiburg im Breisgau (; abbreviated as Freiburg i. Br. or Freiburg i. B.), commonly referred to as Freiburg, is an independent city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ...

Schauinsland
*
Schlossberg (Freiburg) The Schlossberg (German for "Castle Hill") is a tree-covered hill of located in the area of the city of Freiburg im Breisgau. It is directly to the east of Freiburg’s Old Town and belongs to the Black Forest. The main geological fault is at the ...
* Colombischlössle Archeological Museum * Green Spaces in Freiburg * Vauban, Freiburg, a sustainable eco-community * Cobblestone mosaics (Freiburg im Breisgau) * Kybfelsen castle


Geography

Freiburg is bordered by the Black Forest mountains Roßkopf (Breisgau), Rosskopf and Bromberg to the east, Schönberg and Tuniberg to the south, with the Kaiserstuhl (Baden-Württemberg), Kaiserstuhl hill region to the west.


Climate

Köppen climate classification classifies its climate as oceanic climate, oceanic (Cfb). However, it is close to being humid subtropical (Cfa) due to the mean temperatures in July and August just under . Marine features are limited however, as a result of its vast distance from oceans and seas. As a result, summers have a significant humid subtropical climate, subtropical influence as the inland air heats up. Thus July and August are, along with
Karlsruhe Karlsruhe ( , , ; South Franconian South Franconian (german: Südfränkisch) is an Upper German dialect which is spoken in the northernmost part of Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a States of Germany, state (''Land'') in s ...

Karlsruhe
, the warmest within Germany. Winters are moderate but usually with frequent frosts. However, more year-round rain occurs than in the Rhine plateau because of the closeness to the Black Forest. The city is close to the Kaiserstuhl, a range of hills of volcanic origin located a few miles away which is one of the warmest places in Germany and therefore considered as a viticultural area.


Government

Freiburg is known as an "eco-city". It has attracted the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, Solar power, solar industries, and research; the German green party, Greens have a stronghold there (the strongest in any major German city; up to 35% of the overall city vote, in some neighbourhoods reaching 40% or more in the 2012 national elections). The newly built neighbourhoods of Vauban, Freiburg, Vauban and Rieselfeld were developed and built according to the idea of sustainability. The citizens of Freiburg are known in Germany for their love of cycling and recycling. The former mayor (bürgermeister, Oberbürgermeister), Dieter Salomon (in office 2002–2018), was the first member of German Green Party, Bündnis 90/Die Grünen to hold such an office in a city with more than 100,000 inhabitants. In May 2018, Martin Horn (politician), Martin Horn, an independent candidate formerly associated with the Social Democratic Party of Germany, SPD and supported by the SPD and Free Democratic Party (Germany), FDP, became mayor of Freiburg, having received 34.7% in the first round of voting and 44.2% in the second. During his post-election party, he was punched in the face by a local man with known psychiatric problems. In June 1995, the Freiburg city council adopted a resolution that it would permit construction only of "low-energy house, low-energy buildings" on municipal land, and all new buildings must comply with certain "low energy" specifications. Low-energy housing uses solar power passively as well as actively. In addition to solar panels and collectors on the roof, providing electricity and hot water, many passive features use the sun's energy to regulate the temperature of the rooms. Freiburg is host to a number of international organisations, in particular, ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability, International Solar Energy Society, and the City Mayors Foundation. The composition of Freiburg city council is as follows:


Education

Freiburg is a center of academia and research, in which numerous intellectual figures and Nobel Laureates have lived, worked, and taught. The city houses one of the oldest and most renowned of German universities, the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, as well as its University Medical Center Freiburg, medical center. Home to some of the greatest minds of the western culture, West, including such eminent figures as Johann Eck, Max Weber, Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, and Friedrich Hayek, it is one of Europe's top research and teaching institutions. Freiburg also plays host to various other educational and research institutes, such as the Freiburg University of Education, the Protestant University for Applied Sciences Freiburg, Hochschule für Musik Freiburg, Freiburg Music Academy, the Catholic University of Applied Sciences Freiburg, the International University of Cooperative Education IUCE, three Max Planck Society, Max Planck institutes, and five Fraunhofer Society, Fraunhofer institutes. The city is home to the Institute for the International Education of Students, IES Abroad European Union program, which allows students to study the development and activities of the European Union, EU. The DFG / LFA Freiburg, a French-German high school established by the 1963 Élysée Treaty, is in the city.


Religion

Christianity Freiburg belonged to Austria until 1805 and remained Catholic, although surrounding villages like Haslach (Freiburg), Haslach, Opfingen, Tiengen, and the surrounding land ruled by the Margrave of Baden became Protestant as a result of the Reformation. The city was part of the Diocese of Konstanz until 1821. That same year, Freiburg became an episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Freiburg. Due to a dispute between the government of Baden and the Holy See, the Archbishop of Freiburg, archbishop officially took office in 1827. The borders of the archdiocese correspond with the borders of the former State of Baden, province of Baden and the former Margraviate of Hohenzollern. The cathedral, in which the Bishop resides, is Freiburg Minster. Also part of the ecclesiastical province of Freiburg are the suffragan dioceses of Roman Catholic Diocese of Mainz, Mainz and Roman Catholic Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart, Rottenburg-Stuttgart. Until 1929, the dioceses of Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg, Limburg and Roman Catholic Diocese of Fulda, Fulda also belonged to this ecclesiastical province. The Archbishop of Freiburg holds the title of metropolitan and the German headquarters of the Caritas Internationalis, Caritas International is in Freiburg. Saint George (the flag of Freiburg has the cross of George), Lambert of Maastricht and the catacomb saint, Alexander of Bergamo, Alexander, are the patron saints of Freiburg. Many works of art depicting these saints are in the Freiburg Minster, on the Minster square, just as in the museums and archives of the city, including some by Hans Baldung Grien, Hans Holbein the Younger and Gregorius Sickinger. In 1805, with the attack of Breisgau on the Grand Duchy of Baden by a Catholic ruler, many Protestants moved into the city. Since 2007, any Protestants who are not part of a ‘free church’ belong to the newly founded deanery of Freiburg as part of the parish of Südbaden which in itself is a part of the Landeskirche Baden. The seat of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Baden, a free Lutheran church, is situated in Freiburg. There are multiple other free Protestant churches: e.g. the Calvary Chapel or Chrischona International. An old congregation has existed in Freiburg since the late 1900s, which utilises the old monastery church of the Ursulines in the black monastery at the border of the old city center. The Catholic Church of St. Maria Schutz has been made available for Masses by Greek, Serbian, Russian and Rumanian Orthodox congregations. Judaism Jews are said to have lived in the city before 1230, but it was only after 1230 that they supposedly founded an official community in the Webergasse (a small street within the city center). The counts of Freiburg bought the lucrative Schutzjude, which means that all personal information on Jews living in Freiburg was directly sent to Konrad II and his co-reigning son Friedrich. The two issued a comprising letter promising safety and liberty to all local Jews on 12 October 1338. It lost all value shortly after, however, on 1 January 1349. Although the Plague (disease), plague had not yet broken out in the city, Jews were accused of having spread it and taken into custody. All Jews except pregnant women were burned alive on 31 January 1349. The remaining children were forced to be baptised. This pogrom left Jews very hesitant to resettle in the city. In 1401, the city council decreed a regulation banning all Jews from Freiburg (orig. Middle High German dialect: “daz dekein Jude ze Friburg niemmerme sin sol”[27]. This was officially reaffirmed by King Sigismund with a ban for life (orig. German: “Ewige Vertreibung”) in 1424. Not until 1809 were Jews again allowed permanent residence within the city. They subsequently founded a Jewish community in 1836. At the
Kristallnacht ''Kristallnacht'' () or the Night of Broken Glass, also called the November Pogrom(s) (german: Novemberpogrome, ), was a pogrom A pogrom is a violent riot aimed at the massacre or expulsion of an ethnic or religious group, particularly on ...

Kristallnacht
in 1938, the synagogue, built in 1870, was set afire. Numerous shops and apartments of Jewish citizens of Freiburg were devastated and plundered by National Socialists without the intervention of police or fire department. Male, wealthy, Jewish citizens were kidnapped and taken to concentration camps (in Buchenwald and Dachau, Bavaria, Dachau) where they were subjected to forced labor or executed and their money and property stolen. On 22 October 1940, the remaining Jews of Baden and Pfalz were deported to Gurs internment camp, Camp de Gurs in southern France. One among many collecting points was Annaplatz. So-called 'Stolpersteine', tiles with names and dates on them, commemorate the victims of the prosecution of Jews during the Nazi-Era in the city's cobble. Journalist Käthe Vordtriede of the Volkswacht (Freiburg), Volkswacht even received two Stolpersteine to commemorate her life. The first one was inserted into the ground in front of the Vordtriede-Haus Freiburg in 2006 and the second one in front of the Basler Hof, the regional authorities, in spring 2013. This was also the seat of the Gestapo until 1941, where unrelenting people were cruelly interrogated, held prisoner or deported. The only solutions were flight or emigration. The Werner Vordtriede, Vordtriede family managed to escape in time.


Transport

Freiburg has an extensive Auto-free zone, pedestrian zone in the city centre where no motor cars are allowed. Freiburg also has an excellent public transport system, operated by the city-owned Freiburger Verkehrs AG, VAG Freiburg. The backbone of the system is the Trams in Freiburg im Breisgau, Freiburg tramway network, supplemented by feeder buses. The tram network is very popular as the low fares allow for unlimited transport in the city and surrounding area. Furthermore, any ticket for a concert sports or other event is also valid for use on public transport. The tram network is so vast that 70% of the population live within 500m of a tram stop with a tram every 8 mins. Freiburg is on the main Mannheim–Karlsruhe–Basle railway, Frankfurt am Main – Basel railway line, with frequent and fast long-distance passenger services from the Freiburg Hauptbahnhof to major German and other European cities. Other railway lines run east into the
Black Forest The Black Forest (german: italic=no, Schwarzwald ) is a large forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting ...

Black Forest
and west to
Breisach Breisach (formerly Altbreisach) is a town with approximately 16,500 inhabitants, situated along the Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). ...
and are served by the Breisgau S-Bahn. The line to Breisach is the remaining stub of the Freiburg–Colmar railway, Freiburg–Colmar international railway, severed in 1945 when the railway bridge over the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
at Breisach was destroyed, and was never replaced. The city also is served by the Bundesautobahn 5, A5 Frankfurt am Main –
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...

Basel
motorway. Freiburg is served by EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg in France, close to the borders of both Germany and Switzerland, south of Freiburg. Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport is approximately north of Freiburg and is also served by several airlines. The nearest larger international airports include Stuttgart (), Frankfurt/Main (), and Munich (). The nearby Flugplatz Freiburg , a small airfield in the Messe Freiburg, Messe, Freiburg district, lacks commercial service but is used for private aviation. Car share websites such as BlaBlaCar are commonly used among Freiburg residents, since they are considered relatively safe. The investment in transport has resulted in a large increase in both cycle, pedestrian and public transport usage with projections of car journeys accounting for 29% of journey times.


Sports

Freiburg is home to football teams SC Freiburg, which plays at the SC-Stadion, Europa-Park Stadion and is represented in the 1. or 2. Bundesliga since 1978, and Freiburger FC, German championship winner of 1907. In 2016, SC Freiburg got promoted to the highest league for the fifth time in its club history. The club became generally known in Germany for its steady staffing policy. Achim Stocker was president of the club from 1972 until his death in 2009. Longtime coach was Volker Finke (1991-2007), to whose initiative the football school of the club goes back. In 2004, SC Freiburg celebrated its 100th anniversary. Since December 2011, the coach is Christian Streich. The women's team of SC Freiburg plays in the first Women's Bundesliga. Freiburg also has the EHC Freiburg ice hockey team, which plays at the Franz-Siegel Halle. In the season 2003/2004 the EHC Freiburg (the wolves) played in the Deutsche Eishockey Liga, DEL, the highest German ice hockey league. Currently, season 2018/19, they play in the second league (DEL2). Additionally, there is the RC Freiburg Rugby union team, which competes in the 2. Rugby-Bundesliga, second Bundesliga South (Baden Württemberg). The home ground of the club, the only rugby sports field in the wider area, is located in March-Hugstetten. Then, there is the volleyball men's team of the Freiburger Turnerschaft von 1844, FT 1844 Freiburg, which plays in the second Bundesliga since 2001 and the handball women's team of the HSG Freiburg, which plays in the 3rd Women's Handball League. Freiburg is represented in the first women's basketball league by the Eisvögel (Kingfisher) USC Freiburg. In the season 2005/2006, the Kingfishers took second place after the end of the second round, in the season 2006/2007 it was the fourth place. The men's team of the USC played in the 2009/10 season in the ProA (2nd Bundesliga). The Freiburg men's team played their last first-division season in 1998/1999. Currently, season 2018/19, the men's team plays in the Oberliga and the women's team in the regional league. From 1925 to 1984, the ADAC Schauinsland Races, Schauinsland Races took place on an old logging track. The course is still used periodically for European Hill Climb Championships.


Press

''Badische Zeitung'' is the main local daily paper, covering the Black Forest region.


Twin towns – sister cities

Freiburg im Breisgau is Sister city, twinned with: *Besançon, France (1959) *Granada, Spain (1991) *Guildford, United Kingdom (1979) *Innsbruck, Austria (1963) *Isfahan, Iran (2000) *Lviv, Ukraine (1989) *Madison, Wisconsin, Madison, United States (1987) *Matsuyama, Japan (1988) *Padua, Italy (1967) *Suwon, South Korea (2015) *Tel Aviv, Israel (2015) *Wiwilí de Jinotega, Nicaragua (2015) Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's controversial comments, which included questioning the dimension of the Holocaust, have sparked discussions concerning Freiburg's relationship with Isfahan. Immediately following the comments, Freiburg mayor Salomon postponed a trip to Isfahan, but most people involved, especially those in the Alliance '90/The Greens party, were opposed to cancelling the relationship.


Symbols

The city's
coat of arms#REDIRECT coat of arms A coat of arms is a heraldry, heraldic communication design, visual design on an escutcheon (heraldry), escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the fu ...

coat of arms
is Argent a cross Gules, the St George's Cross. Saint George is the city's patron saint. The cross also appears on the city's flag, which dates from about 1368, and is identical to that of Flag of England, England, which has the same patron. The city also has a seal (emblem), seal that can be seen in a few places in the inner city. It is a stylised depiction of the façade of the ''Wasserschlössle,'' a castle-like waterworks facility built into a hill that overlooks the residential district of Wiehre. The seal depicts a three-towered red castle on a white background, with green-clad trumpeters atop the two outer towers. Beneath the castle is a gold fleur-de-lis.


Notable people


Pre-18th century

* Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466–1536), Dutch Renaissance humanist and theologian * Berthold Schwarz (c. 1310–1388), fabled Alchemy, alchemist who introduced gunpowder to Germany * Martin Waldseemüller (c.1470–1520), Renaissance cartographer


18th century

* Joseph von Auffenberg (1798–1857), playwright and poet * Aloysius Bellecius (1704–1757), Jesuit Asceticism, ascetic author * Jean-Henri Naderman (1734–1799), leading harp-maker and a music publisher * Johann Nepomuk Locherer (1773–1837), Roman Catholic priest, theologian and professor * Karl von Rotteck (1775–1840), political activist, historian, politician and political scientist * Heinrich Schreiber (1793–1872), Catholic theologian and historian, wrote about Freiburg


19th century

* Sepp Allgeier (1895–1968), cinematographer, worked with Leni Riefenstahl * Kurt Bauch (1897–1975), art historian * Walter Benjamin (1892–1940), literary critic and philosopher * Alfred Döblin (1878–1957), physician and novelist * Barney Dreyfuss (1865–1932), baseball entrepreneur, co-founder of the Major League Baseball world series * Walter Eucken (1891–1950) economist of the Freiburg school and father of ordoliberalism * Arnold Fanck (1889–1974) film director and pioneer of the mountain film genre * Adolf Furtwangler (1853–1907), archaeologist, teacher, art historian and museum director. * Max von Gallwitz (1852–1937), general and politician * Friedrich Gempp (1873–1947), Major General and the founder and first director of the Department Defence of Reichswehr * Hans F. K. Günther (1891–1968) Nazi eugenicist * Friedrich von Hayek (1899–1992), economist, philosopher, Nobel Prize laureate in economics * Martin Heidegger (1889–1976) philosopher * Edmund Husserl (1859–1938), philosopher who established the school of Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology * Hans Jantzen (1881–1967), art historian, specialised in Medieval art * Wilhelm Lamey (1854–1910), jurist * Felix H. Man (1893–1985), photographer, art collector and pioneer photojournalist for Picture Post * Carl Christian Mez (1866–1944), botanist * Bernhard Sigmund Schultze (1827–1919), obstetrician and gynecologist * Hermann Staudinger (1881–1965), Nobel Prize laureate in chemistry "for discoveries about macromolecular chemistry" * Edith Stein (1891–1942), nun, Saint of the Catholic Church, martyred by the Nazis, Freiburg university faculty member * Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883–1970), recipient in 1931 of Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine * Max Weber (1864–1920), lawyer, political economist, and sociologist * August Weismann (1834–1914), evolutionary biologist * Joseph Wirth (1879–1956), politician (center), member of the Reichstag, chancellor, foreign minister, minister of the interior * Engelbert Zaschka (1895–1955), inventor and one of the first German helicopter pioneers


20th century

* Wolfram Aichele (1924–2016), artist * Hannah Arendt (1906–1975), political theorist * Jürgen Aschoff (1913–1998), physician, biologist and behavioral physiologist, co-founded chronobiology * Hans Bender (1907–1991), lecturer on parapsychology * Nikolaus Brender (b. 1949), journalist * Johannes Boesiger (b. 1962), scriptwriter and producer * Alexander Bonde (b. 1975) in the Bundestag for Alliance '90/The Greens 2002 to 2011 * Borwin, Duke of Mecklenburg (b. 1956), head of the House of Mecklenburg * Stephan Burger (b. 1962) Roman Catholic clergyman, Archbishop of Freiburg since 2014 * Hoimar von Ditfurth (1921–1989), physician * Martin Egel (b. 1944), bass-baritone in opera and concert * Hedy Epstein (1924–2016), Holocaust refugee and political activist * Anna Ewers (b. 1993), fashion model from Freiburg * Georg Gädker (b. 1981), operatic baritone * Heiner Garg (b. 1966), politician (FDP) * Miriam Gebhardt (b. 1962) historian and writer * Svetlana Geier (1923–2010), translator * Michael Glatthaar (b. 1953), medieval scholar * Heinrich Haussler (b. 1984), professional cyclist Cervelo TestTeam * Dany Heatley (b. 1981), former professional ice hockey winger * Peter W. Heller (b. 1957), former Deputy Mayor of Freiburg, environmental scientist and venture philanthropist * Thomas Hengelbrock (b. 1958), violinist, musicologist and conductor; co-founded the Freiburger Barockorchester * Andreas Holschneider (1931–2019), music historian * Waldemar Hoven (1903–1948), Nazi physician executed for war crimes * Marie-Laurence Jungfleisch (b. 1990), high-jump athlete * Walter Kaufmann (philosopher), Walter Kaufmann (1921–1980), philosopher, translator and poet * Fritz Keller (b. 1957), football administrator * Boris Kodjoe (b. 1973), U.S.based model and actor * Benjamin Lebert (b. 1982), author and newspaper columnist * Joachim Löw (b. 1960), coach of the Germany national football team, German national football team since 2006 * Michael Leuschner (b. 1948), classical pianist and professor of piano at the Hochschule für Musik Freiburg * Hanns Ludin (1905–1947), Nazi diplomat executed for war crimes * Andreas Lutz (b. 1981), media artist analyzes perception versus reality * Christoph von Marschall (b. 1959), journalist * Christian Meyer (cyclist), Christian Meyer (b. 1969) track cyclist and gold medallist at the 1992 Summer Olympics * Herbert Niebling (1905–1966), master designer of lace knitting * Karl Rahner SJ (1904–1984), Jesuit priest and influential Roman Catholic theologian * Dieter Salomon (b. 1960), Alliance '90/The Greens politician, Mayor of Freiburg until 2018 * Wolfgang Schäuble (b. 1942), CDU politician, President of the Bundestag since 2017 * Jürgen E. Schrempp (b. 1944), former head of DaimlerChrysler * Angelika Schrobsdorff (1927–2016), writer and actress * Til Schweiger (b. 1963) actor and director * Klaus Tschira (1940–2015), entrepreneur * Bernhard Witkop (1917–2010), organic chemist * Joana Zimmer (b. 1979), blind pop singer IMDb Database
retrieved 27 August 2018


Gallery

File:Muenster gegenlicht 1.jpg, Freiburg Minster File:Octagonal belfrey.jpg, Inside the belfry of Freiburg Minster File:Freiburg Landschaft vom schlossberg aus.jpg, Landscape from the Schlossberg (Freiburg), Schlossberg Tower File:Kolleggebäude I Uni.Fr.jpg,
University of Freiburg The University of Freiburg (colloquially german: Uni Freiburg), officially the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg (german: Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg), is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice ...
File:Freiburg - Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg1.jpg, University Library Freiburg File:Freiburg Martinstor.jpg, Martinstor File:Freiburg Schwabentor.jpg, The Schwabentor File:Freiburg Muensterplatz Kaufhaus.jpg, Historic Merchants Hall at the Münsterplatz File:Sanierter Schlossbergturm mit Stahlstützen in Freiburg 4.jpg, Schlossberg (Freiburg), Schlossberg Tower File:Freiburg Hauptbahnhof.JPG, Freiburg Hauptbahnhof, Main railway station File:Konzerthaus Freiburg.JPG, Konzerthaus Freiburg, The concert hall File:Freiburger Stadttheater.JPG, Theater Freiburg, Stadttheater File:20120802-DSC 2665.jpg, View of Freiburg File:Luftbild Freiburg 1944.jpg, Freiburg 1944 File:Haus zum Walfisch, Freiburg im Breisgau, 1999.jpg, The Whale House File:Colombi Palace 2.jpg, Colombischlössle Archeological Museum, Colombi Palace Museum File:Fischbrunnen Freiburg.jpg, Fish Fountain File:Freiburg Eingangstor Hauptfriedhof.jpg, Main cemetery Freiburg File:1830 Augustinermuseum Neu 2.jpg, Augustiner Museum File:Écoquartier vauban freibourg1.JPG, Vauban, Freiburg a sustainable model district


References


Further reading

*
The Freiburg Charter for Sustainable Urbanism
– a collaboration between the City of Freiburg and The Academy of Urbanism


External links

*
Freiburg Breisgau digital city tourFreiburg Breisgau Tourism & History & Pictures
– Panoramic views and virtual tours
AugustinermuseumFreiburg University of Education

''VAG Freiburg'' Freiburg Public Transit Authority

Freiburg-Home.com – Information & Reviews about FreiburgWebcams in Freiburg and the Black Forest
*
fudder – a popular online magazine about Freiburg (Winner of Grimme Online Award
2007)]
Freiburg's History for PedestriansHotels in Freiburg
*[http://peterjockisch.de/Freiburg/Freiburg_en.html Freiburg Excursion Destinations and Film Recommendations] {{DEFAULTSORT:Freiburg Im Breisgau Freiburg im Breisgau, Freiburg (region) Populated places established in the 12th century Former states and territories of Baden-Württemberg Baden Holocaust locations in Germany 1120s establishments in the Holy Roman Empire 1120 establishments in Europe Vauban fortifications