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Sustainable Urbanism
Sustainable urbanism is both the study of cities and the practices to build them (urbanism Urbanism is the study of how inhabitants of urban areas, such as towns and cities, interact with the built environment. It is a direct component of disciplines such as urban planning, which is the profession focusing on the physical design and man ...), that focuses on promoting their long term viability by reducing consumption, waste and harmful impacts on people and place while enhancing the overall well-being of both people and place. Well-being includes the physical, ecological, economic, social, health and equity factors, among others, that comprise cities and their populations. In the context of contemporary urbanism, the term cities refers to several scales of human settlements from towns to cities, metropolises and mega-city regions that includes their peripheries / suburbs / exurbs. Sustainability is a key component to professional practice in urban planning and urban design alon ...
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Energy Efficiency Of Different Transport Modes
In physics, energy is the physical quantity, quantitative physical property, property that must be #Energy transfer, transferred to a physical body, body or physical system to perform Work (thermodynamics), work on the body, or to heat it. Energy is a Conservation law, conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be Energy transformation, converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The unit of measurement in the International System of Units (SI) of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work (physics), work of moving it a distance of one metre against a force of one newton (unit), newton. Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force Classical field theory, field (gravitational field, gravitational, electric field, electric or magnetic field, magnetic), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical ...
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New Urbanism
New Urbanism is an urban design While many assume urban design is about the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a commu ... movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating walkable Walkability is a measure of how friendly an area is to walking Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of terrestrial locomotion among legged animals. Walking is typically slower than running Running is a method of t ... neighbourhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ... in the early 1980s, and has g ...
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Volatile Organic Compound
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are organic chemicals , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to Catenation, catenate (form chains with other carbon ... that have a high vapour pressure Vapor pressure (or vapour pressure in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial cod ... at room temperature Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperature Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy, present in all matter, which is the source of the occurrence of heat .... High vapor pressure correlates with a low boiling point The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vap ...
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Passive Solar Building Design
In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, reflect, and distribute solar energy Solar energy is Solar irradiance, radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of technologies such as solar power to generate electricity, solar thermal energy including solar water heating, and solar architecture. It ..., in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design because, unlike active solar heating A solar thermal collector collects heat by Absorption (optics), absorbing sunlight. The term "solar collector" commonly refers to a device for solar hot water panel, solar hot water heating, but may refer to large power generating installations s ... systems, it does not involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices. The key to designing a passive solar building is to best take advantage of the local climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather ...
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New York City Department Of Design & Construction
New York City Department of Design and Construction is the department of the government of New York City that builds many of the civic facilities in New York City. As the city’s primary capital construction project manager, it provides new or renovated facilities such as firehouses, libraries, police precincts, courthouses and manage the city's sewer systems, bioswales and water mains. To manage this portfolio, valued at over $15 billion, the department works with other city agencies, as well as with architects and consultants. The Department of Design and Construction staff of almost 1,400 delivers public buildings and infrastructure construction projects in all five boroughs. History Formed in 1996 by New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani, the Department of Design and Construction's function was to unify the New York City Department of Transportation, Department of Transportation's street construction program, the Department of Environmental Protection's water main and sewer con ...
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Wildlife Corridor
A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat Ibex in an alpine habitat In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. ... connecting wildlife Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functi ... populations separated by human activities or structures (such as roads, development, or logging). This allows an exchange of individuals between populations, which may help prevent the negative effects of inbreeding Inbreeding is the production of offspring In biology, offspring are the young born of living organism, organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case ...
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Biophilia Hypothesis
The biophilia hypothesis (also called BET) suggests that humans possess an innate tendency to seek connections with nature and other forms of life. E. O. Wilson, Edward O. Wilson introduced and popularized the hypothesis in his book, ''Biophilia'' (1984). He defines biophilia as "the urge to affiliate with other forms of life". Natural affinity for living systems "Biophilia" is an innate affinity of life or living systems. The term was first used by Erich Fromm to describe a Erich Fromm, psychological orientation of being attracted to all that is alive and vital. Wilson uses the term in a related sense when he suggests that biophilia describes "the connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life." He proposed the possibility that the deep affiliations humans have with other life forms and nature as a whole are rooted in our biology. Both positive and negative (including phobic) affiliations toward natural objects (species, phenomenon) as compared to artifi ...
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Mixed-use Development
Mixed-use is a style of urban development Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through ..., urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of ... and/or a zoning Zoning is a method of urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design of land use and the bu ... type that blends residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or entertainment uses into one space, where those functions are to some degree physically a ...
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Impervious Surface
Impervious surfaces are mainly artificial structures—such as pavements (road A road is a wide way leading from one place to another, typically one with a specially prepared surface which vehicles and bikes can use. Roads consist of one or two roadway A carriageway (British English British English (BrE) is the ...s, sidewalk A sidewalk (North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety (linguistics), variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and cultures, p ...s, driveway Image:Driveway apron and sloped curb to street.jpg, Driveway apron and sloped curb (road), curb to a public street, all under construction A driveway (also called ''drive'' in UK English) is a type of private road for local access to one or a smal ...s and parking lot Car park with drop arm in Dazaifu, Fukuoka A parking lot (American English American English (AmE, ...
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Nonpoint Source Pollution
Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution refers to diffuse contamination Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity Impurities are chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by ... (or pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminant Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity, or some other undesirable element that spoils, corrupts, infects, makes unfit, or makes inferior a material, physical body, natural en ...) of water or air that does not originate from a single discrete source. This type of pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. It is in contrast to point source pollution A point source of pollution is a single identifiable source of air, water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, taste ...
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Automobile Dependence
Automobile dependency or car dependency is the concept that some city layouts cause car, automobiles to be favoured over alternate forms of transportation, such as bicycle, bicycles, public transport, public transit, and walking. Overview In many modern cities, automobiles are convenient and sometimes necessary to move easily. When it comes to automobile use, there is a spiraling effect where traffic congestion produces the 'demand' for more and bigger roads and removal of 'impediments' to traffic flow. For instance, pedestrians, signalized crossings, traffic light, traffic lights, cyclists, and various forms of street-based public transit, such as trams. These measures make automobile use more pleasurable and advantageous at the expense of other modes of transport, so greater traffic volumes are induced. Additionally, the urban design of cities adjusts to the needs of automobiles in terms of movement and space. Buildings are replaced by parking lots. Open-air shopping streets ...
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Urban Sprawl
Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is the unrestricted growth in many urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbati ...s of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of .... In addition to describing a special form of urbanization Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000.">South_Karelia.html" ;"title="Lappeenranta, ...
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