Frederick Philipse (born Frederick Flypsen;
[Appleton, W.S. ''The Heraldic Journal, Recording the Amorial Bearings and Genealogies of American Families'', Wiggen & Lunt, Boston, 1867]
1626 in Bolsward
– December 23, 1702), first Lord of the Manor of Philipseborough
(Philipsburg) and patriarch of the Philipse family
, was a Dutch
immigrant to North America of Bohemian
[(William Jay, The Life of John Jay: with selection of his correspondence and miscellaneous papers. New York: J. & J Harper, 1833, p. 10). On his Bohemian aristocratic ancestry, see also: Thomas Capek, Ancestry of Frederick Philipse: First Lord and Founder of Philipse Manor at Yonkers, N. Y. New York: The Paebar Co., 1939.]
Beginning in 1672 Philipse and some partners started acquiring land in what was to become lower Westchester County, New York
. When the British took over the Dutch colony in 1674, Philipse pledged his allegiance to the Crown and was rewarded with a title and manorship for his holdings, which ultimately grew to some (210 km²).
Upon his death, Philipse was one of the greatest landholders in the Province of New York
. He owned the vast stretch of land spanning from Spuyten Duyvil Creek
, in the Bronx
(then in lower Westchester County
), to the Croton River
. He was regarded by some as the richest man in the Colony.
[ His son Adolphus acquired substantial land north of modern Westchester sanctioned as the royal Philipse Patent. Stripped from the family after the Revolution for their Tory sympathies, the some tract became the present-day Putnam County, New York.
Frederick Philipse emigrated from the Friesland area of the Netherlands to Flatbush, New Netherland, on Long Island, and began his career by selling iron nails then rose to become an owner of taverns.
The land that would become Philipsburg Manor was first bought from Adriaen van der Donck, who had invested in an unsuccessful Dutch patroonship in New Netherland before the English takeover in 1664. Frederick Philipse I, Thomas Delavall, and Thomas Lewis purchased the first tracts of land in 1672 in current-day northern Yonkers. Philipse made several additional purchases between 1680 and 1686 from the Wiechquaeskeck and Sintsink Indian tribes, expanding the property to both the north and south; he also bought a small plot of land from the Tappans west of the Hudson River.
Philipse also bought out his partners' stakes during this time,
enticing friends from New Amsterdam and Long Island to move with him with the promise of free land and limited taxes. The manor grew to around , about (210 km²), comprising much of today's lower Westchester County, New York.
The estate's boundaries were the Spuyten Duyvil Creek, the Croton River, the Hudson River, and the Bronx River. Philipse was granted a royal charter in 1693, creating the Manor of Philipsburg, and making him first lord of the manor. Along with the three other main manors of the colony—Rensselaerswyck, Cortlandt, and Livingston—Philipsburg created one of the richest and most powerful families in the colony.
After swearing allegiance to the English and later being granted his manorship from them, he built in 1693 the first bridge connecting New York City with the mainland, erecting King's Bridge over the Spuyten Duyvil at Marble Hill. He also began construction of the Old Dutch Church of Sleepy Hollow. Although this project had financing, work likely progressed slowly and was completed in 1685. Philipse built a simple residence in today's Getty Square neighborhood of Yonkers, New York near the confluence of the Nepperhan River with the Hudson. Later it was expanded by his descendants into a full-fledged mansion, Philipse Manor Hall. The neighborhood of Kingsbridge, Bronx, is named for his bridge over the Harlem River.
In 1685 Philipse imported about 50 slaves directly from Angola on his own ship. He was also an interloper, trading to the east of the Cape of Good Hope, and becoming a known trading partner of Madagascar pirate-merchant Adam Baldridge, employing traders like Thomas Mostyn and John Thurber
Philipse was on the Governor's executive council from 1691 to 1698, when he was banned from government office by the British governor, Lord Bellomont, for conducting a slave trade into New York.
Philipse died in 1702 and is buried with his two wives in the crypt of the Old Dutch Church of Sleepy Hollow.
The Philipse family is of Bohemian origin. According to Supreme Court Justice John Jay, (whose maternal grandmother, Eva de Vries, had been adopted by Frederick Philipse upon his marriage to Margaret Hardenbroeck de Vries): "Frederick Philipse, whose family, originally of Bohemia, had been compelled by popish persecution to take refuge in Holland, from whence he had emigrated to New York."
[ By another account, Philipse was the son of ''Vicount Philipse'' ] [Savery, Florence M., Cold Springs Recorder, 1912 Spellings of Philipse varied in the New World, among them: F-l-y-p-s-e,
F-i-y-p-s-e-n, V-i-y-p-s-e, Y-i-y-p-s-e-n] of Bohemia and Margaret Dacres, supposed to have been a lady of good family from the parish of Dacre, England [
Philipse had eleven children with his first wife, Margaret: Philip Philipse, Adolphus Philipse, Annetje Philipse, Adolph Phillipse, Anna Philipse, Rombout Philipse, Frederick Phillipse, Charles Phillips, Hendrick Phillips, Catherine Phillips, and William Phillips.
Margaret died in 1691. A year later, Frederick married the widow Catharine Van Cortlandt Derval, who survived him for many years.] [ Glenn, Thomas Allen, ‘’Some colonial mansions and those who lived in them: With genealogies of the various families mentioned’’, H. T. Coates & company, Philadelphia1900"> Glenn, Thomas Allen, ‘’Some colonial mansions and those who lived in them: With genealogies of the various families mentioned’’, H. T. Coates & company, Philadelphia1900]
*Philip Philipse, son of Frederick Philipse II, heir to Philipse Patent.
*Susanna Philipse, middle daughter of Frederick Philipse II, married to Beverley Robinson, mother of Frederick Philipse Robinson, heiress to Philipse Patent. Possible romantic interest of George Washington.
*Sir Frederick Philipse Robinson (1763–1852), son of a Virginian soldier who fought for England during the American War of Independence, also was an Empire Loyalist.
*Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright III (1864–1945), US Congressman and Army officer in the Spanish–American War.
/ref> She was the sister of Stephanus Van Cortlandt, an adviser to the provincial governor. Her brother Jacobus Van Cortlandt married Frederick's adopted daughter Eva and their son Frederick Van Cortlandt later built the Van Cortlandt House Museum in Van Cortlandt Park in the Bronx, New York. Jacobus and Eva's daughter, Mary, was the mother of John Jay by her marriage to Peter Jay.
In 1697 Adolphus Philipse, Frederick's second son, purchased a tract from Dutch traders which received British Royal sanction as the ''Highland Patent''. Subsequently, known as the "Philipse Patent", the roughly 250 square miles parcel extended eastward from the Hudson River at the northern border of Westchester County some 20 or so miles to the Colony of Connecticut.
[Smith, Philip Henry, ''General History of Putnam County: From 1609 to 1876, inclusive'', published by the author, Pawling, NY, 1877, p. 44]
Philip Philipse, the eldest and heir to the Manor, hereditary title, and family commercial holdings, died in either 1699 or 1700. By predeceasing his father, the legacy that would have gone to Philip bypassed him and was distributed between Adolphus and Philip's son, Frederick Philipse II. By the terms of Frederick Philipse's last will and testament, dated 26 October 1700, proved 1702, Adolphus received all the Manor north of Dobb's Ferry, including the present town. He was also named proprietor of a tract of land on the west bank of the Hudson north of Anthony's Nose and executor of Philip's estate.
After the bachelor Adolphus' death in 1749 (Smith, others 1750), his Manor holdings and the Highland Patent passed to his nephew, Frederick Philipse II, his only heir-at-law, who became the second Lord of the Manor at Philipsborough. [Pelletreau, William, S, ''History of Putnam County, New York – With Biographical Sketches of its Prominent Men'', W.W. Preston & Company, Philadelphia, 188]
On Frederick II's death in 1751 all Manor holdings and the title went to his eldest son Frederick Philipse III, the third Lord of the Manner of Philipsburg. The Highland Patent – today's Philipse Patent – was divided among Frederick II's surviving offspring, son Philip Philipse, and daughters, Susannah (wife of Beverley Robinson), Mary (wife of Col. Roger Morris), and Margaret (who died intestate, her share being divided among the other three).
''History of Putnam County, New York''
[French's Gazetteer of the State of New York (1860): "The Philipses Patent… divided among the remaining three hildren Philip… Susannah married to Beverly Robinson, and Mary married to Col. Roger Morris. On the 7th of Feb 1754, the patent was divided into 9 lots: 3, each 4 mi. square, bordering upon the Hudson and denominated ‘water lots;’ 3, each 4 mi. wide by 12 long, extending N. and S. across the patent, and denominated ‘long lots;’ 3, each 4 mi. square, upon the E. border denominated ‘back lots.’ Philip, Susannah and Mary Philipse each owned one of each kind of lots.]
Frederick III leased the entirety of his property to William Pugsley before siding with the British in the American Revolution and leaving New York City for England in 1783. After the Revolution, the entire Philipse holdings, including the Manor and other lands in today's Westchester County, and the Highland Patent, were seized by New York and sold by its Commissioners of Forfeitures. In all, the lands were divided up into almost 200 different parcels, with the vast majority of the Philipse Patent becoming today's Putnam County, and other large parcels going to Dutch New York businessman Henry Beekman.
*John Jay (1745–1829), delegate and president of Continental Congress, drafter of the US Constitution, US Ambassador to France and Spain, first Chief Justice of the US
*Henry Brockholst Livingston (1757–1823), Justice of US Supreme Court
*Alexander Slidell MacKenzie (1842–67), an officer in the United States Navy during the American Civil War and his brother General Ranald S. Mackenzie.
*Jay Pierrepont Moffat (1896–1943), notable American diplomat, historian and statesman who, between 1917 and 1943, served the State Department in a variety of posts, including that of Ambassador to Canada during the first year of United States participation in World War II.
*John Watts de Peyster (1821–1907), Brigadier General in the New York State Militia during the American Civil War and philanthropist and military historian after the war.
*Eva Philipse, adopted daughter of Frederick Philipse I, born Eva de Vries 1660, married Jacobus van Cortland
*Margaret Philipse, youngest daughter of Frederick II, bap. Feb. 4, 1733; heiress to Philipse Patent, died intestate some time after 1751 bequeathal and before 1754 division; share redistributed to siblings Philip, Mary, and Susanna.
*Mary Philipse (1730–1825), eldest daughter of Frederick Philipse II, and possible early romantic interest of George Washington, loyalist, wife of British Colonel Roger Morris, owner of the Mount Morris in Manhattan. Heiress to Philipse Patent.Philipse Memorial Hall website
On March 14, 1757, Joseph Chew began writing a series of letters to George Washington, starting the legend of a Washington/Mary Philipse doomed love. The Washington half of the correspondence has not been found:
*March 14, 1757: "I am now at Mr. Robinson’s, he, Mrs. Robinson and his Dear Little Family are all well and they desire their Compliments to you. Pretty Miss Polly is in the same Condition & situation* as you saw her." * "Condition & situation" refer to Mary’s affections for Washington.
*July 13, 1757: "As to the Latter part of your Letter what shall I say? I often had the Pleasure of Breakfasting with the Charming Polly. Roger Morris* was there (don’t be startled) but not always; you know he is a Lady’s man…" *Roger Morris ultimately marries Mary Philipse in January 1758.
*July 13, 1757: "I intend to set out to-morrow for New York where I will not be wanting to let Miss Polly know the sincere Regard a Friend* of mine has for her and I am sure if she had my Eyes to see thro she would Prefer him to all others" * The "Friend" being George Washington.
*Van Cortlandt family
Category:American members of the Dutch Reformed Church
Category:American people of Bohemian descent
Category:American people of Dutch descent
Category:People from Bolsward
Category:People of colonial New York
Category:People of New Netherland