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A footbridge (also a pedestrian bridge, pedestrian overpass, or pedestrian overcrossing) is a
bridge A bridge is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules t ...

bridge
designed solely for pedestrians. While the primary meaning for a bridge is a structure which links "two points at a height above the ground", a footbridge can also be a lower structure, such as a
boardwalk A boardwalk (alternatively board walk, boarded path, or promenade An esplanade or promenade is a long, open, level area, usually next to a river or large body of water ( Lysefjord) in Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, ...

boardwalk
, that enables pedestrians to cross wet, fragile, or marshy land. Bridges range from
stepping stones Stepping stones or stepstones are sets of stones arranged to form a simple bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing ...

stepping stones
–possibly the earliest man-made structure to "bridge" water–to elaborate steel structures. Another early bridge would have been simply a fallen tree. In some cases a footbridge can be both functional and artistic. For rural communities in the developing world, a footbridge may be a community's only access to medical clinics, schools, businesses and markets.
Simple suspension bridge A simple suspension bridge (also rope bridge, swing bridge (in New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Isl ...
designs have been developed to be
sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century The 21st (twenty-first) century is the current century in the '' Anno Domini'' era or Common Era, in accordance with the ...

sustainable
and easily constructed in such areas using only local materials and labor. An enclosed footbridge between two buildings is sometimes known as a
skyway A skyway, skybridge, or skywalk is an elevated type of pedway connecting two or more buildings in an urban area, or connecting elevated points within mountainous recreational zones. Urban skyways very often take the form of Covered bridge, enclo ...

skyway
. Bridges providing for both pedestrians and cyclists are often referred to as greenbridges and form an important part of a
sustainable transport Sustainable transport refers to the broad subject of transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a languag ...
system. Footbridges are often situated to allow pedestrians to cross water or railways in areas where there are no nearby roads. They are also located across roads to let pedestrians cross safely without slowing traffic. The latter is a type of
pedestrian separation structure This tunnel at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology allows pedestrians to get between buildings on either side of Ames Street A pedestrian separation structure is any structure that removes pedestrians from a Carriageway, roadway, street or Tr ...
, examples of which are particularly found near schools.


Early history

The simplest type of a bridge is
stepping stones Stepping stones or stepstones are sets of stones arranged to form a simple bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing ...

stepping stones
, so this may have been one of the earliest types of footbridge.
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
people also built a form of a
boardwalk A boardwalk (alternatively board walk, boarded path, or promenade An esplanade or promenade is a long, open, level area, usually next to a river or large body of water ( Lysefjord) in Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, ...

boardwalk
across marshes, of which the
Sweet Track The Sweet Track is an ancient trackway Historic roads (historic trails in USA and Canada) are paths or routes that have historical importance due to their use over a period of time. Examples exist from prehistoric times until the early 20t ...
, and the
Post Track The Post Track is an ancient causeway A causeway is a track, road or railway on the upper point of an embankment Embankment may refer to: Geology and geography * A levee, an artificial bank raised above the immediately surrounding land t ...
are examples from England, that are around 6000 years old. Undoubtedly ancient peoples would also have used
log bridge A log bridge is a timber bridge A timber bridge or wooden bridge is a bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing th ...

log bridge
s; that is a
timber bridge A timber bridge or wooden bridge is a bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constructe ...
that fall naturally or are intentionally felled or placed across streams. Some of the first man-made bridges with significant span were probably intentionally felled trees. Among the oldest
timber bridge A timber bridge or wooden bridge is a bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constructe ...
s is the
Holzbrücke Rapperswil-Hurden Holzbrücke Rapperswil-Hurden is a wooden pedestrian bridge between the city of Rapperswil and the village of Hurden crossing the Obersee (Zürichsee), upper Lake Zürich (''Obersee'') in Switzerland. The prehistoric timber piles discovered to the ...
crossing upper
Lake Zürich Lake Zurich (Swiss German/Alemannic German, Alemannic: ''Zürisee''; German language, German: ''Zürichsee''; rm, Lai da Turitg) is a lake in Switzerland, extending southeast of the city of Zürich. Depending on the context, Lake Zurich or ''Z ...
in Switzerland; the prehistoric timber piles discovered to the west of the
Seedamm Seedamm is the partially artificial causeway A causeway is a track, road or railway on the upper point of an embankment Embankment may refer to: Geology and geography * A levee, an artificial bank raised above the immediately surrounding la ...
date back to 1523 B.C. The first wooden footbridge led across
Lake Zürich Lake Zurich (Swiss German/Alemannic German, Alemannic: ''Zürisee''; German language, German: ''Zürichsee''; rm, Lai da Turitg) is a lake in Switzerland, extending southeast of the city of Zürich. Depending on the context, Lake Zurich or ''Z ...
, followed by several reconstructions at least until the late 2nd century AD, when the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
built a wooden bridge. Between 1358 and 1360,
Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria Rudolf IV (1 November 1339 – 27 July 1365), also called Rudolf the Founder (german: der Stifter), was a scion of the House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de ...
, built a 'new' wooden bridge across the lake that has been used to 1878 – measuring approximately in length and wide. On April 6, 2001, the reconstructed wooden footbridge was opened, being the longest wooden bridge in Switzerland. A
clapper bridge A clapper bridge is an ancient form of bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constr ...

clapper bridge
is an ancient form of bridge found on the moors of
Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Ch ...

Devon
(
Dartmoor Dartmoor is an upland area in southern Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a Counties of England, county in South West England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is bou ...

Dartmoor
and
Exmoor Exmoor is loosely defined as an area of hilly open moorland Moorland or moor is a type of habitat In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relatio ...

Exmoor
) and in other upland areas of the United Kingdom including
Snowdonia Snowdonia (Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian W ...

Snowdonia
and
Anglesey Anglesey (; cy, Ynys Môn ), an island off the north-west coast of Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individua ...
,
Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a ...

Cumbria
,
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England England ...

Yorkshire
and
Lancashire Lancashire ( , ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial co ...

Lancashire
. It is formed by large flat slabs of stone, often
granite Granite () is a coarse-grained (phanerite, phaneritic) intrusive rock, intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase. It forms from magma with a high content of silica and alkali metal oxides that slowly cool ...

granite
or
schist Schist ( ) is a medium-grained metamorphic rock , a type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock (geology), rock to new types of rock, in a process called metamorphism upright=1.35, Schematic r ...

schist
, supported on stone piers (across rivers), or resting on the banks of streams. Although often credited with prehistoric origin, most were erected in
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
times, and some in later centuries. A famous example is found in the village of Postbridge. First recorded in the 14th century, the bridge is believed to have been originally built in the 13th century to enable
pack horse A packhorse, pack horse, or sumpter refers to a horse, mule, donkey, or pony used to carry goods on its back, usually in sidebags or panniers. Typically packhorses are used to cross difficult terrain, where the absence of roads prevents the use of ...

pack horse
s to cross the river. Nowadays clapper bridges are only used as footbridges. The
Kapellbrücke The Kapellbrücke (literally, Chapel Bridge) is a covered wooden footbridge spanning the river Reuss (river), Reuss diagonally in the city of Lucerne in central Switzerland. Named after the nearby St. Peter's Chapel, the bridge is unique in cont ...

Kapellbrücke
is a footbridge crossing the River Reuss in the city of
Lucerne , neighboring_municipalities= Adligenswil Adligenswil is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by na ...

Lucerne
in Switzerland. It is the oldest wooden covered bridge in Europe, and one of Switzerland's main tourist attractions. The bridge was originally built 1365 as part of Lucerne's fortifications. An early example of a
skyway A skyway, skybridge, or skywalk is an elevated type of pedway connecting two or more buildings in an urban area, or connecting elevated points within mountainous recreational zones. Urban skyways very often take the form of Covered bridge, enclo ...

skyway
is the
Vasari Corridor The Vasari Corridor ( it, Corridoio Vasariano) is an elevated enclosed passageway in Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica ...
, an elevated, enclosed passageway in
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Al ...

Florence
, central
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
, which connects the
Palazzo Vecchio The Palazzo Vecchio ( "Old Palace") is the City hall, town hall of Florence, Italy. It overlooks the Piazza della Signoria, which holds a copy of Michelangelo's ''David (Michelangelo), David'' statue, and the gallery of statues in the adjacent ...

Palazzo Vecchio
with the
Palazzo Pitti The Palazzo Pitti (), in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast, mainly Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Fu ...

Palazzo Pitti
. Beginning on the south side of the Palazzo Vecchio, it then joins the
Uffizi Gallery The Uffizi Gallery (; it, Galleria degli Uffizi, italic=no, ) is a prominent art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapi ...
and leaves on its south side, crossing the Lungarno dei Archibusieri and then following the north bank of the
River Arno The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. It is the most important river of central Italy after the Tiber. Source and route The river originates on Monte Falterona in the Casentino area of the Apennine Mountains, Apennines, and in ...
until it crosses the river at
Ponte Vecchio The Ponte Vecchio ("Old Bridge", ) is a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and af ...

Ponte Vecchio
. It was built in five months by order of Duke
Cosimo I de' Medici Cosimo I de' Medici (12 June 1519 – 21 April 1574) was the second Duke of Florence The ''Duca della Repubblica Fiorentina'', rendered in English as Duke of the Florentine Republic or Duke of the Republic of Florence, was a title created in ...

Cosimo I de' Medici
in 1565, to the design of
Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (, also , ; 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, engineer, writer, and historian, best known for his ''Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects ''The Lives of the Most Excelle ...

Giorgio Vasari
.
Bank Bridge Bank Bridge (Russian: ''Bankovsky most'', ''Банковский мост'') is a 25-m-long pedestrian bridge crossing the Griboedov Canal near the former :Saint_Petersburg_State_University_of_Economics_and_Finance#Assignation_Bank, Assignation Ban ...

Bank Bridge
is a famous 25 metre long pedestrian bridge crossing the
Griboedov Canal The Griboyedov Canal or Kanal Griboyedova () is a canal Canals are waterways Channel (geography), channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. They may also help with irrigation. It can ...

Griboedov Canal
in
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
. Like other bridges across the canal, the existing structure dates from 1826. The special popularity of the bridge was gained through angular sculptures of four winged lions crowning the
abutment An abutment is the Bridge#Structure type, substructure at the ends of a bridge Span (architecture), span or dam supporting its Bridge#Structure type, superstructure. Single-span bridges have abutments at each end which provide vertical and la ...
s. They were designed by sculptor Pavel Sokolov (1764-1835), who also contributed lions for
Bridge of Lions The Bridge of Lions is a double-leaf bascule bridge that spans the Intracoastal Waterway in St. Augustine, Florida, St. Augustine, Florida, United States. A part of Florida State Road A1A, State Road A1A, it connects downtown St. Augustine to A ...
.


Design

Design of footbridges normally follows the same principles as for other bridges. However, because they are normally significantly lighter than vehicular bridges, they are more vulnerable to
vibration Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparentl ...

vibration
and therefore
dynamics Dynamics (from Greek language, Greek δυναμικός ''dynamikos'' "powerful", from δύναμις ''dynamis'' "power (disambiguation), power") or dynamic may refer to: Physics and engineering * Dynamics (mechanics) ** Aerodynamics, the study o ...
effects are often given more attention in design. International attention has been drawn to this issue in recent years by problems on the Pont de Solférino in Paris and the Millennium Bridge in London. To ensure footbridges are accessible to
disabled A disability is any condition that makes it more difficult for a person to do certain activities or effectively interact with the world around them (socially or materially). These conditions, or impairments, may be cognitive Cognition ( ...

disabled
and other mobility-impaired people, careful consideration is nowadays also given to provision of access or , as required by relevant legislation (e.g.
Disability Discrimination Act 1995 The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (c. 50) (informally, and hereafter, the DDA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assemb ...
in the UK).Schlaich, Mike, et al., ''Guidelines for the Design of Footbridges'', International Federation for Structural Concrete, 2005, Some old bridges in Venice are now equipped with a
stairlift A stair lift is a mechanical device for lifting people, typically those with disabilities, up and down stairs Stairs is a structure designed to bridge a large vertical direction, vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distance ...

stairlift
so that residents with a disability can cross them.


Types

Types of footbridges include: *
Beam Bridge Beam bridges, also known as stringer bridges'' are the simplest structural forms for bridge spans supported by an abutment or Pier (architecture), pier at each end. No bending moment, moments are transferred throughout the support, hence their ...
*
Boardwalk A boardwalk (alternatively board walk, boarded path, or promenade An esplanade or promenade is a long, open, level area, usually next to a river or large body of water ( Lysefjord) in Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, ...

Boardwalk
*
Clapper bridge A clapper bridge is an ancient form of bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constr ...

Clapper bridge
*
Duckboards A boardwalk (alternatively board walk, boarded path, or promenade) is an elevated footpath, walkway, or causeway built with wooden planks that enables pedestrians to cross wet, fragile, or marshy land. They are also in effect a low type of bridge. ...

Duckboards
,
Timber trackway Historic roads (historic trail A trail is usually a path, track or unpaved lane or road. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, path or is the preferred term for a walking trail. The term is also applied in North America t ...
,
Plank road #REDIRECT Plank road A plank road is a road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or by some form of wikt:c ...
, and
Corduroy road A corduroy road or log road is a type of road or timber trackway Historic roads (historic trail A trail is usually a path, track or unpaved lane or road. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, path or footpath is the pr ...

Corduroy road
*
Moon bridge A moon bridge (円月橋) (''engetsu-kyou'') is a highly-rounded arched pedestrian of Alinga Street and Northbourne Avenue, Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the Federation of Australia, federat ...
*
Simple suspension bridge A simple suspension bridge (also rope bridge, swing bridge (in New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Isl ...
* *
Stepping stones Stepping stones or stepstones are sets of stones arranged to form a simple bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing ...

Stepping stones
* Zig-zag bridge The residential-scale footbridges all span a short distance and can be used for a broad range of applications. Complicated
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
is not needed and the footbridges are built with readily available materials and basic tools.Jeswald, P. (2005). ''How to build paths, steps & Footbridges''. North Adams, Massachusetts: Storey Publishing. Different types of design footbridges include: *
Timber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, sup ...

Timber
footbridges *
Steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appe ...

Steel
footbridges *
Concrete Concrete is a composite material A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a ter ...

Concrete
footbridge Footbridges can also be built in the same ways as road or rail bridges; particularly
suspension bridge A suspension bridge is a type of bridge A bridge is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated el ...

suspension bridge
s and
beam bridge Beam bridges, also known as stringer bridges'' are the simplest structural forms for bridge spans supported by an abutment or Pier (architecture), pier at each end. No bending moment, moments are transferred throughout the support, hence their ...
s. Some former road bridges have had their traffic diverted to alternative crossings and have become pedestrian bridges; examples in the UK include
The Iron Bridge The Iron Bridge is a cast iron arch bridge An arch bridge is a bridge with abutment in Yass, New South Wales Yass is a town in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia in Yass Valley Council. The name appears to have ...
at
Ironbridge Ironbridge is a large village in the borough of Telford and Wrekin in Shropshire, England. Located on the bank of the River Severn, at the heart of the Ironbridge Gorge, it lies in the civil parishes in England, civil parish of The Gorge. Iron ...

Ironbridge
,
Shropshire Shropshire (; alternatively Salop; abbreviated in print only as Shrops; demonym Salopian ) is a landlocked historic Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands region of England. It is bordered by Wales to the we ...

Shropshire
, the at
Pontypridd Pontypridd () is a town and Community (Wales), community in Rhondda Cynon Taf, Wales. Colloquially known as ''"Ponty"'', it is north of Cardiff. Geography Pontypridd comprises the electoral wards of Cilfynydd, Glyncoch, Graig Pontypridd, Grai ...

Pontypridd
and
Windsor Bridge The Windsor Bridge or Windsor Town Bridge, an iron and granite arch bridge An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads partially into ...

Windsor Bridge
at
Windsor, Berkshire Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. It is the site of Windsor Castle, one of the official residences of the Monarchy of the United Kingdom, British monarch. ...

Windsor, Berkshire
. Most footbridges are equipped with
guard rail Guard rail, guardrails, or protective guarding, in general, are a boundary feature and may be a means to prevent or deter access to dangerous or off-limits areas while allowing light and visibility in a greater way than a fence A fence is ...
s to reduce the risk of pedestrians falling. Where they pass over busy roads or railways, they may also include a fence or other such barrier to prevent pedestrians from jumping, or throwing projectiles onto the traffic below.


Railways

It was originally usual for passengers to cross from one
railway platform A railway platform is an area alongside a railway Track (rail transport), track providing convenient access to trains. Almost all stations have some form of platform, with larger stations having multiple platforms. The world's longest station p ...

railway platform
to another by stepping over the tracks, but from the mid-19th century onwards safety demanded the provision of a footbridge (or
underpass A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline Pipeline may refer to: Electronics, computers and computing * Pipeline (computi ...
) at busier places. However, in some quieter areas, crossing the line by walking over the tracks is possible.


Catwalk

Narrow footbridges or walkways to allow workers access to parts of a structure otherwise difficult to reach are referred as catwalks or cat walks. Such catwalks are located above a stage ( theater catwalk) in a theater, between parts of a building, along the side of a bridge, on the inside of a tunnel, on the outside of any large
storage tank Storage tanks are containers that hold liquids, compressed gases (gas tank; or in U.S.A "pressure vessel", which is not typically labeled or regulated as a storage tank) or mediums used for the short- or long-term storage of heat or cold. The t ...
in a
refinery A refinery is a production facility composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value. Types of refineries Different types of refineries are ...
or elsewhere, etc. The walkway on the outside (top) of a
railroad car A railroad car, railcar (American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the Unite ...

railroad car
s such as
boxcar A boxcar is the North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical region ...

boxcar
s, before air brakes came into use, or on top of some
covered hopper A covered hopper is a self-clearing enclosed railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road tr ...
cars is also called a catwalk. With the exception of those on top of railroad cars, catwalks are equipped with railings or
handrail A handrail is a rail that is designed to be grasped by the hand so as to provide safety or support. Handrails are usually used to provide support for body or to hold clothings in a bathroom or similar areas.Handrails are commonly used while asc ...

handrail
s.


In developing countries

Since the early 1980s, several charities have developed standardized footbridge designs that are
sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century The 21st (twenty-first) century is the current century A century is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered nam ...

sustainable
for use in
developing countries A developing country is a sovereign state with a less developed Industrial sector, industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no ...

developing countries
. The first charity to develop such designs was Helvetas, located in Zurich, Switzerland.
Designs that can be sustainably and efficiently used in developing countries are typically made available to the public gratis.


Long footbridges

The record for the longest footbridge in the world was claimed by then New York (state), New York State Governor David Paterson in an Oct. 3, 2009 Poughkeepsie Journal article about The Walkway Poughkeepsie Bridge across the Hudson River at Poughkeepsie, New York. On July 22, 2017, the Champlain Bridge Ice Structure (french: l'Estacade Champlain, a bridge built for bicycles and foot traffic only to parallel the Champlain Bridge, Montreal (2019–present), Champlain Bridge from Brossard, Quebec west to Nun's Island (L'ile Des Soeurs) & the Island of Montreal, was measured by a calibrated device as being 7,512 feet (2,292 meters) long or 1.4227 miles or 2.292km, starting and ending where the treadway rises above the ground and a pedestrian could access the bridge as close as possible to the St Lawrence River. Arouca 516, the longest pedestrian suspension bridge, which spans the River Paiva, Arouca, Portugal, Arouca Geopark, Portugal, opened in April 2021. The 516 metres bridge hangs 175 meters above the river. The Walkway Over The Hudson footbridge was originally built for trains, it was recently restored as a pedestrian walkway. The footbridge has a total length of 2,063 meters (6,768 feet). Before it was demolished in 2011, the Hornibrook Bridge which crossed Bramble Bay in Queensland, Australia was longer than the Poughkeepsie Bridge at 2.684 km (1.7 mi).


Other footbridges

* The
Bank Bridge Bank Bridge (Russian: ''Bankovsky most'', ''Банковский мост'') is a 25-m-long pedestrian bridge crossing the Griboedov Canal near the former :Saint_Petersburg_State_University_of_Economics_and_Finance#Assignation_Bank, Assignation Ban ...

Bank Bridge
and the Bridge of Four Lions in
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
* The Big Dam Bridge between Little Rock, Arkansas, Little Rock and North Little Rock, Arkansas * The Big Four Bridge between Louisville, Kentucky and Jeffersonville, Indiana * The Capilano Suspension Bridge in British Columbia *The Central Elevated Walkway, an extensive network of footbridges in Central, Victoria City, Hong Kong * The Chain of Rocks Bridge near St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri * The Corktown Footbridge in Ottawa * The Davenport Skybridge in Davenport, Iowa * The Dunlop Bridge at the Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans, Sarthe, France * The Esplanade Riel in Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba * The Gateshead Millennium Bridge, London, England * The Goodwill Bridge, Brisbane, Goodwill Bridge at Brisbane, Australia * the Gorkha Bridge in the Gorkha District of Nepal * The Ha'penny Bridge in Dublin, Republic of Ireland, Ireland * The Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges, London, England * The Jade Belt Bridge in the Summer Palace in Beijing * The Bob Kerrey Pedestrian Bridge, Omaha, Nebraska * The Kingsgate Bridge in Durham, England * The Liberty Bridge at Falls Park on the Reedy in Greenville, South Carolina * The London Millennium Bridge, Millennium Bridge and the high-level walkways in Tower Bridge in London * The Matagarup Bridge in Perth, Western Australia * The Mishima Skywalk in Mishima, Shizuoka, Japan * The Newport Southbank Bridge between Newport, Kentucky and Cincinnati * The Pont des Arts in Paris * The Ponte Milvio in Rome * The Ponte Sant'Angelo in Rome * The Andreyevsky Bridge, Pushkinsky and Krasnoluzhsky Bridge, Bogdan Khmelnitsky Pedestrian bridges in Moscow * The Rolling Bridge at Paddington Basin, London * The St Elmo Bridge in Valletta, Malta * The Southbank footbridge in Southbank, Victoria * The Shelby Street Bridge in Nashville, Tennessee * The Eglinton Tournament bridge, Tournament Bridge* The Waco Suspension Bridge in Waco, Texas * The pedestrian walkway over the Tropicana – Las Vegas Boulevard intersection in Paradise, Nevada * The Walnut Street Bridges in Walnut Street Bridge (Harrisburg), Harrisburg, Pennsylvania and Walnut Street Bridge (Tennessee), Chattanooga, Tennessee * The Webb bridge in the Melbourne Docklands * The Willimantic Footbridge in Willimantic, Connecticut


Advantages

Much rural travel takes place on local footpaths, tracks and village roads. These provide essential access to water, firewood, farm plots and the classified road network. Communities and/or local government are generally responsible for this infrastructure.Dennis, R. (2004)
"Foot Bridges"
Retrieved June 25, 2010


Disadvantages

Pedestrian overpasses over highways or railroads are expensive, especially when elevators or long ramps for wheelchair users are required. Without elevators or ramps, people with mobility handicaps will not be able to use the structure. People may prefer to walk across a busy road rather than climb a bridge, and this may be attributed to being in a hurry, perceiving the safety and security of the footbridge to be low, or simply because of feeling tiredness when climbing the stairs. It is recommended that overpasses should only be used where the number of users justify the costs. The operational concept of the footbridge is based on the notion that pedestrians need to walk a longer distance and exert more physical effort so that the traffic flow is not interrupted. This is not in line with the sustainability goals of the transport system promoting active travel such as walking and cycling. A change of policy to increase safety and walkability could involve transferring that effort of crossing the road to drivers who will need to wait longer so pedestrians can cross the road safely at street level. Narrow, enclosed structures can result in perceptions of low personal security among users. Wider structures and good lighting can help reduce this.


Gallery

File:Fagne.Ardenne.JPG, Boardwalk across the High Fens, Ardenne, Belgium File:Bp bridge.JPG, The BP Pedestrian Bridge is a concealed box girder beam bridge in Millennium Park, Chicago. File:StressedRibbonBridgeUnderside7138.JPG, A stressed ribbon bridge for pedestrians, bicycles, and pipelines in Grants Pass, Oregon File:20101014 Pantanassa Orthodox Church Porto Lagos Vistonida Lake Xanthi Prefecture Thrace Greece.jpg, A footbridge to an orthodox church in Greece File:Sandridge Bridge across Yarra 2009.jpg, Melbourne's Sandridge Bridge which overpasses the Yarra River. File:Puente de la Mujer - Puerto Madero.jpg, The Puente de la Mujer in Puerto Madero is a footbridge and swing bridge. File:Traffic circle with pedestrian overcrossing, China, 1987.jpg, A pedestrian overcross in Nanjing Road, Shanghai. File:KITLV - 110650 - Kusakabe, Kimbei - Footbridge over the Fujikawa (Fuji) river at Suruga in Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan - circa 1890.tif, A footbridge over the Fujikawa (Fuji) river at Suruga Province, Suruga in Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan. File:Footbridge with elevator.jpg, A footbridge with elevators on each corner of a four-way Intersection (road), intersection in Tokyo. File:Tamchog Chakzam, Bhutan 01.jpg, Tamchog Chakzam bridge, Bhutan File:Quarto ponte sul Canal Grande.jpg, Ponte della Costituzione footbridge over the Grand Canal (Venice), Grand Canal in Venice, Italy. File:Footbridge 6840.JPG, A footbridge for hikers in Washington (state), Washington state's Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, USA. File:AT over US hiway 11 in Middlesex PA.png, Footbridge, part of the Appalachian Trail, USA. File:Wooden_footbridge_in_Vang_Vieng_and_blue_sky.jpg, Wooden footbridge in Vang Vieng, Laos. File:Ypsilon gangbro.jpg, The "Ypsilon" Y-bridge in Drammen, Norway. File:08907jfQuezon Avenue EDSA Buildings Landmarks Quezon Cityfvf 12.jpg, MMDA Footbridge in EDSA, Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines. File:Matagarup_Bridge_from_the_railway_bridge.jpg, Matagarup Bridge in Perth, Australia.


See also

*Footpath *Garden Bridge, London, England *Hoogholtje bridge, Netherlands *Pedestrian separation structure (overpass) *Pedway *Walkway and Canopy walkway *Wildlife crossing


References


External links


How To Build a FootbridgeTimber Pedestrian Bridge Images
{{Authority control Footbridges, Bridges by mode of traffic Pedestrian infrastructure, * Garden features Landscape architecture