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The First English Civil War was fought in
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
and
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
, from August 1642 to June 1646. It forms one of the conflicts known collectively as the 1638 to 1651
Wars of the Three Kingdoms The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place between 1639 and 1653 in the kingdoms of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country tha ...
, which also took place in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...
and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
. These include the 1638 to 1640
Bishops' Wars The 1639 and 1640 Bishops' Wars were the first of the conflicts known collectively as the 1638 to 1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which took place in Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, Kingdom of England, England and Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland. ...
, the
Irish Confederate Wars The Irish Confederate Wars, also called the Eleven Years' War (from ga, Cogadh na hAon Bhliana Déag), took place in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. It was the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, a series of civil wars in the kin ...
, the
Second English Civil War The 1648 Second English Civil War is one in a series of connected conflicts in the kingdoms of Kingdom_of_England, England, incorporating Wales, Kingdom_of_Scotland, Scotland, and Kingdom_of_Ireland, Ireland. Known collectively as the 1638 to ...
, the
Third English Civil War Third or 3rd may refer to: Numbers *3rd, the ordinal form of the cardinal number 3 *fraction (mathematics) A fraction (from Latin ', "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts. When spoken in everyda ...
, and the
Cromwellian conquest of Ireland The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland (1649–1653) was the conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English g ...
. It is estimated that from 1638 to 1651, 15–20% of all adult males in England and Wales served in the military, and around 4% of the total population died from war-related causes, compared to 2.23% in
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. These figures are important in understanding the impact of the conflict on society, and the bitterness it engendered. In the political conflict leading up to the war, the vast majority supported the institution of monarchy, but disagreed on who held ultimate authority.
Royalists
Royalists
generally supported the primacy of
Charles I Charles is a masculine given name predominantly found in English language, English and French language, French speaking countries. It is from the French form ''Charles'' of the Proto-Germanic, Proto-Germanic name ᚲᚨᚱᛁᛚᚨᛉ (in r ...

Charles I
over
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
, while their
ParliamentarianParliamentarian has two principal meanings. First, it may refer to a member or supporter of a Parliament, as in: *Member of parliament *Roundhead, supporter of the parliamentary cause in the English Civil War Second, in countries that do not refe ...
opponents backed
constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding. Constitutional monarchies differ from ...
. However, this simplifies a very complex reality; many tried to avoid taking sides or went to war with great reluctance and individual choices often came down to personal loyalties. In August 1642, both sides expected the conflict to be settled by a single battle, but it soon became clear this was not the case. Royalist success in 1643 led to a military alliance between Parliament and the Scots
Covenanters Covenanters ( gd, Cùmhnantaich) were members of a 17th-century Kingdom of Scotland, Scottish religious and political movement, who supported a Presbyterian polity, Presbyterian Church of Scotland, and the primacy of its leaders in religious af ...
, and winning a series of battles in 1644, the most significant being the
Battle of Marston Moor The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War The First English Civil War was fought in and , from August 1642 to June 1646. It forms one of the conflicts known collectively as the 1638 t ...
. The formation of the
New Model Army The New Model Army was a standing army formed in 1645 by the Roundhead, Parliamentarians during the First English Civil War, then disbanded after the Stuart Restoration in 1660. It differed from other armies employed in the 1638 to 1651 Wars ...
gave Parliament the first professional military force in England, and their success at
Naseby Naseby is a village in West Northamptonshire West Northamptonshire is a Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority covering part of the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Northamptonshire, England, created in 2021. B ...

Naseby
in June 1645 proved decisive. The war ended with victory for the Parliamentarian alliance in June 1646 and Charles in custody, but his refusal to agree significant concessions and divisions among his opponents led to the
Second English Civil War The 1648 Second English Civil War is one in a series of connected conflicts in the kingdoms of Kingdom_of_England, England, incorporating Wales, Kingdom_of_Scotland, Scotland, and Kingdom_of_Ireland, Ireland. Known collectively as the 1638 to ...
in 1648.


Overview

The 1642 to 1646 First English Civil War is one of a series of connected conflicts in the three kingdoms of
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...
, and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
. Known collectively as the 1638 to 1651
Wars of the Three Kingdoms The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place between 1639 and 1653 in the kingdoms of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country tha ...
, they include the
Irish Confederate Wars The Irish Confederate Wars, also called the Eleven Years' War (from ga, Cogadh na hAon Bhliana Déag), took place in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. It was the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, a series of civil wars in the kin ...
, the 1638 to 1640
Bishops' Wars The 1639 and 1640 Bishops' Wars were the first of the conflicts known collectively as the 1638 to 1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which took place in Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, Kingdom of England, England and Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland. ...
, and the
Cromwellian conquest of Ireland The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland (1649–1653) was the conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English g ...
. Separately, it forms part of the 1642 to 1651
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
, which is divided into three segments; the First (1642–1646),
Second The second (symbol: s, also abbreviated: sec) is the base unit of time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, th ...
(1648–1649), and
Third Third or 3rd may refer to: Numbers *3rd, the ordinal form of the cardinal number 3 *fraction (mathematics), , a fraction that is one of three equal parts *Second#Sexagesimal divisions of calendar time and day, ¹⁄₆₀ of a ''second'', or ¹⁄ ...
(1649–1651). Some argue the latter is actually an Anglo-Scottish War, since it was fought between Scots and English armies, and not accompanied by an uprising in England. The struggle for control between the monarchy and
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
began in 1603 when
James VI and I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of gover ...

James VI and I
became king and resurfaced after the 1660
Stuart Restoration The Restoration of the Stuart monarchy The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a dynasty, royal house of Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, Kingdom of England, England, Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland and later Kingdom of Great Britain, Gre ...
. It was only resolved with the 1688
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
, and arguably continued beyond that point; American historian Kevin Phillips identified many similarities between those at stake in 1642 and the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
in 1776.


Royalist and Parliamentarian

Presenting the two parties as
Cavalier Cavalier () was first used by Roundhead Roundheads were the supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War (1642–1651). Also known as Parliamentarians, they fought against King Charles I of England and his supporte ...

Cavalier
s, 'wrong, but romantic', and
Roundheads Roundheads were the supporters of the Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative ass ...
, 'right, but repulsive', has long been accepted as outdated, but still informs modern perceptions. Historians like Tim Harris argue by 1640 there was a general consensus that attempts by Charles to govern without Parliament had gone too far. After the
Grand Remonstrance The Grand Remonstrance was a list of grievances presented to King Charles I of England Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland, and Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland from 27 March 1625 until Execution o ...
was submitted in late 1641, moderates like
Clarendon Clarendon may refer to: Places Australia *Clarendon, New South Wales Clarendon is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Clarendon railway station is on the Richmond branch of the North Shore & Western Line of the Sydney ...
switched sides, arguing Parliament was seeking to change the balance too much the other way. Where
John Pym John Pym (20 May 1584 – 8 December 1643) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Engl ...

John Pym
, leader of the Parliamentary opposition, differed from Clarendon and most of his own colleagues was in recognising Charles would not keep commitments he considered forced on him. An example was his annulment of the 1628
Petition of Right The Petition of Right, passed on 7 June 1628, is an English constitutional document setting out specific individual protections against the state, reportedly of equal value to Magna Carta ( Medieval Latin for "Great Charter of Freed ...

Petition of Right
, while he and his wife
Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (french: link=no, Henriette Marie; 25 November 1609 – 10 September 1669) was Queen of England, Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kin ...
openly told foreign ambassadors any concessions were temporary, and would be retrieved by force. It was also consistent with his approach in the
Bishops Wars The 1639 and 1640 Bishops' Wars were the first of the conflicts known collectively as the 1638 to 1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which took place in Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, Kingdom of England, England and Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland. O ...
, when he only agreed peace terms with the Scots in 1639 to provide time for another attempt in 1640. Regardless of religion or political belief, the vast majority in all three kingdoms believed a 'well-ordered' monarchy was divinely mandated. They disagreed on what 'well-ordered' meant, and who held ultimate authority, especially in clerical affairs; this mattered, because in the 17th century 'true religion' and 'good government' were assumed to be the same.
Royalists
Royalists
generally supported a
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
governed by
bishops A bishop is an ordained Ordination is the process by which individuals are Consecration, consecrated, that is, set apart and elevated from the laity class to the clergy, who are thus then authorization, authorized (usually by the religious denom ...
, appointed by, and answerable to, the king; most Parliamentarians believed he was answerable to the leaders of the church, appointed by their congregations. The idea "
Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of J ...

Puritan
" and "Roundhead" were the same thing is incorrect; the term meant anyone who wanted to 'purify' the Church of England of "Papist" practices and covered a wide range of views. While the majority supported Parliament, some like Sir William Savile supported Charles out of personal loyalty. Many Royalists strongly opposed the appointment of Catholic officers, while the integration of Irish troops in 1643 caused some regiments to mutiny. Puritans were also divided between
Presbyterians Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form ...
like Pym who wanted to reform the Church of England and religious Independents who rejected the very idea of state-mandated religion. They included
Congregationalists Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Crit ...

Congregationalists
like
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English general and statesman who, first as a subordinate and later as Commander-in-Chief, led armies An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" e ...

Oliver Cromwell
and
Baptists Baptists form a major branch of Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Cath ...
. Objections to bishops were based on political as well as religious grounds. They acted as state censors, able to ban sermons and writings considered objectionable, while lay people could be tried by
church courts An ecclesiastical court, also called court Christian or court spiritual, is any of certain court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Par ...
for crimes including
blasphemy Blasphemy is an insult that shows contempt, disrespect, or lack of Reverence (emotion), reverence concerning a deity, a sacred object, or something considered inviolable. Some religions consider blasphemy to be a religious crime. ...
,
heresy Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. The term is usually used in reference to violations of important religi ...
,
fornication Fornication is generally consensual sexual intercourse between two people not married to each other. When one or more of the partners having consensual sexual intercourse is married to a third person, it is called adultery. Nonetheless, John Cal ...
and other 'sins of the flesh', as well as matrimonial or inheritance disputes. Bishops also sat in the
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...

House of Lords
and often blocked legislation opposed by the Crown; their ousting from Parliament by the 1640 Clergy Act was a major step on the road to war. Their removal ended censorship and led to an explosion in the printing of pamphlets, books and sermons, many advocating radical religious and political principles, especially in London. Even before 1642, this radicalism concerned men like Denzil Holles, conservatives who believed in a limited electorate and a Presbyterian church similar to the
Church of Scotland The Church of Scotland (CoS; sco, The Scots Kirk; gd, Eaglais na h-Alba), also known by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis ...

Church of Scotland
. As the war progressed, both they and their colleagues in Scotland came to see the Independents as more dangerous than the Royalists; an alliance between these groups led to the
Second English Civil War The 1648 Second English Civil War is one in a series of connected conflicts in the kingdoms of Kingdom_of_England, England, incorporating Wales, Kingdom_of_Scotland, Scotland, and Kingdom_of_Ireland, Ireland. Known collectively as the 1638 to ...
in 1648. Lastly, England in 1642 was a structured, socially conservative and peaceful society, while the example of the
Thirty Years War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire from 1618 to 1648. Considered one of the most destructive wars in European history, estimates of total deaths caused by the conflict range from 4.5 to 8 million ...

Thirty Years War
meant many wanted to avoid conflict at any cost. Choice of sides was often driven by personal relationships or loyalties, and in the early stages there were numerous examples of armed neutrality, or local truces, designed to force the two sides to negotiate.


1642

Over the winter of 1641 to 1642, many towns strengthened their defences, and purchased weapons, although this was not necessarily in response to fears of conflict between Charles and his Parliament. Lurid details of the 1641 Irish Rebellion meant many were more concerned by reports of a planned
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
invasion. Although both sides supported raising troops to suppress the Irish rising, alleged Royalist conspiracies to use them against Parliament meant neither trusted the other with their control. When Charles left London after failing to arrest the
Five Members The Five Members were Members of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, ...
in January 1642, he handed Parliament control of the largest city, port and commercial centre in England, its biggest weapons store in the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle A castle is a type of structure built during the predominantly by the or royalty and by . Scholars debate the sc ...

Tower of London
, and best equipped local militia, or
Trained bands Trained Bands were companies of part-time militia A militia () is generally an army or some other Military organization, fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a country, or subjects of a state, who may perform military ...
. Founded in 1572, these were organised by
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...
, controlled by
Lord-lieutenant A lord-lieutenant () is the British monarch's personal representative in each lieutenancy area Lieutenancy areas are the separate areas of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as ...
s appointed by the king, and constituted the only permanent military force in the country. The muster roll of February 1638 shows wide variations in size, equipment and training;
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England England ...

Yorkshire
had the largest, with 12,000 men, followed by London with 8,000, later increased to 20,000. 'Royalist' counties like
Shropshire Shropshire (; alternatively Salop; abbreviated in print only as Shrops; demonym Salopian ) is a landlocked historic Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands region of England. It is bordered by Wales to the we ...

Shropshire
or
Glamorgan , HQ = Cardiff Cardiff (; cy, Caerdydd ) is the capital city of Wales and a Local government in Wales, county. Officially known as the City and County of Cardiff, it is the United Kingdom's eleventh-largest city and the main ...

Glamorgan
had fewer than 500 men. In March 1642, Parliament approved the
Militia Ordinance The Militia Ordinance was passed by the Parliament of England on 15 March 1642. By claiming the right to appoint military commanders without the king's approval, it was a significant step in events leading to the outbreak of the First English Civ ...
, claiming control of the trained bands; Charles responded with his own
Commissions of Array A commission of array was a commission Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for services rendered ** Commission (art), the purchase or the creation of a piece ...
. More important than the men were the local
arsenal An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the ...

arsenal
s, with Parliament holding the two largest in London, and
Hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * Hull (botany), the outer covering of seeds * Hull (watercraft), the body or frame of a ship * Submarine hull Mathematics * Affine hull, in affin ...
. These belonged to the local community, who often resisted attempts to remove them, by either side. In Royalist
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in northwest England North West England is one of nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office re ...

Cheshire
, the towns of
Nantwich Nantwich ( ) is a market town and Civil parishes in England, civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire East in Cheshire, England. It has among the highest concentrations of listed buildings in England, with notably good examples of Tudor ...
,
Knutsford Knutsford () is a market town A market town is a European that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the , a market right, which allowed it to host a regular ; this distinguished it from a or . In Britain, small rural towns with a h ...
and
Chester Chester is a walled cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of ...

Chester
declared a state of armed neutrality, and excluded both parties. Ports were vital for access to internal and external waterways, the primary method of importing and transporting bulk supplies until the advent of railways in the 19th century. Most of the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
declared for Parliament, allowing them to protect the trade routes vital to the London merchant community and block Royalist imports. It also made other countries wary of antagonising one of the strongest navies in Europe by providing support to their opponents. By September, forces loyal to Parliament held every major port in England apart from
NewcastleNewcastle usually refers to either: *Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne (, ), often simply Newcastle, is the most populous City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in North East England. It forms the Tyneside conurbati ...

Newcastle
, which prevented Royalist areas in
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
, South-West and
North-East England North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the First-level NUTS of the European Union, first level of NUTS statistical regions of the United Kingdom, NUTS for Eurostat, statistical purposes. The region includes the counti ...

North-East England
from supporting each other. In February 1642, Charles sent his wife,
Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (french: link=no, Henriette Marie; 25 November 1609 – 10 September 1669) was Queen of England, Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kin ...
, to
the Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ed ...

the Hague
to raise money and purchase weapons; lack of a secure port delayed her return until February 1643, and even then, she narrowly escaped capture. On 1 June 1642, Parliament approved a list of proposals known as the
Nineteen Propositions On 1 June 1642 the English Lords and Commons The commons is the culture, cultural and nature, natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are ...
, which would give them control over ministerial appointments, the army and management of the Royal household, including the education and marriage of his children. These were presented to Charles at Newmarket, who angrily rejected them without further discussion. He was later persuaded to issue a more conciliatory answer, whose objective was primarily to appeal to moderates by placing blame for what now seemed an inevitable military conflict on Pym and his followers. Drafted by Hyde, this response has been seen as the origin of "mixed" or
Constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding. Constitutional monarchies differ from ...
, although whether Charles himself genuinely believed in it is debatable. Both sides expected a single battle and quick victory; for the Royalists, this meant capturing London, for Parliament, 'rescuing' the king from his 'evil counsellors.' After failing to capture Hull in July, Charles left York for
Nottingham Nottingham ( or locally ) is a city status in the United Kingdom, city and Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England. Part of the East Midlands region, it is north of London, south of Sheffield, north ...

Nottingham
, chosen for its proximity to Royalist areas in the
Midlands The Midlands is a part of England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east a ...

Midlands
and Northern Wales. Particularly in the early stages of the conflict, locally raised troops were reluctant to serve outside their own county, and most of the Royalist troops raised in Yorkshire refused to accompany him. On 22 August, Charles formally declared war on Parliamentarian 'rebels', but by early September his army consisted of only 1,500 horse and 1,000 infantry, with much of England hoping to remain neutral. Financing from the London mercantile community and weapons from the Tower enabled Parliament to recruit and equip an army of 20,000. It was commanded by the Presbyterian
Earl of Essex Earl of Essex is a title in the Peerage of England The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union 1707, Act of Union in 1707. In that year, the Peerages of England and Peerage of Sc ...

Earl of Essex
, who left London on 3 September for
Northampton Northampton is a market town A market town is a European that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the , a market right, which allowed it to host a regular ; this distinguished it from a or . In Britain, small rural towns with a ...
. Charles relocated to
Shrewsbury Shrewsbury ( , ) is a market town and the county town of Shropshire, England. The town is situated on the River Severn, north-west of London, and the 2011 census recorded a population of 71,715. The town centre has a largely unspoilt mediev ...
, further away from London, but a key Royalist recruitment centre throughout the war. When Essex learned of this, he marched on
Worcester Worcester may refer to: Places United Kingdom * Worcester, England, a city in Worcestershire ** Worcester (UK Parliament constituency) * Worcester Park, London, England * Worcestershire, a county in England United States * Worcester, Massachus ...
, where the first major encounter of the war took place at Powick Bridge on 23 September. A relatively minor Royalist victory, it established the reputation of
Prince Rupert Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland, (17 December 1619 (O.S.) / 27 December (N.S.) – 29 November 1682) was a German-English army officer An officer is a member of an armed forces A military, also known collectively as ...

Prince Rupert
, and gained a psychological edge over the Parliamentarian cavalry. The Royalist army now numbered around 15,000, although much of the infantry were armed with clubs or
scythe A scythe is an agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentar ...

scythe
s. While better equipped, Essex' force was half-trained, poorly disciplined, and his logistics inadequate to support such numbers. Charles headed for London, while Essex tried to prevent it; on 23 October, the two armies fought a bloody, chaotic, and indecisive battle at Edgehill. Essex continued retreating towards London; after an inconclusive encounter on 16 November at
Turnham Green Turnham Green is a public park on Chiswick High Road, Chiswick, London, and the neighbourhood and Conservation area (United Kingdom), conservation area around it; historically, it was one of the four medieval villages in the Chiswick area, the ...
, west of London, operations ended for the winter. The Royalists withdrew to
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
, which became their capital for the rest of the war. Elsewhere, Sir
William Waller Sir William Waller (c. 159719 September 1668) was an English soldier and politician, who commanded ParliamentarianParliamentarian has two principal meanings. First, it may refer to a member or supporter of a Parliament, as in: *Member o ...

William Waller
secured the
south-east The points of the compass are the Euclidean vector, vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, east, south, and west—each separated by 90 degree ( ...
for Parliament; in December, Lord Wilmot captured
Marlborough Marlborough may refer to: Places United Kingdom * Marlborough, Wiltshire, England ** Marlborough College, public school * Malborough, village in Devon, England * Marlborough School, Woodstock in Oxfordshire, England * The Marlborough Science Acade ...
, opening communications between Oxford, and Royalist forces based at Launceston, in Cornwall.


1643

The events of 1642 showed the need to plan for a lengthy conflict. For the Royalists, this meant fortifying their new capital in Oxford, and connecting areas of support in England and Wales; Parliament focused on consolidating control of the areas they already held. Although peace talks were held, both parties continued to negotiate for Scots and Irish support; Charles sought to end the war in Ireland, allowing troops from the
Royal Irish Army Royal may refer to: People * Royal (name) Royal can be a surname or a given name. Bearers include: Surname * Billy Joe Royal (1942–2015), American country music and pop singer * Calvin Royal III, American ballet dancer * Darrell Royal (1924 ...
to be used to support the Royalists in England. Fighting continued during the winter in Yorkshire, as Royalist leader
NewcastleNewcastle usually refers to either: *Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne (, ), often simply Newcastle, is the most populous City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in North East England. It forms the Tyneside conurbati ...

Newcastle
tried to secure a landing place for an arms shipment from the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
. With insufficient troops to hold the entire area, his task was complicated by Parliamentarian forces under
Lord Fairfax
Lord Fairfax
and his son Sir Thomas, which retained key towns like
Hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * Hull (botany), the outer covering of seeds * Hull (watercraft), the body or frame of a ship * Submarine hull Mathematics * Affine hull, in affin ...
and
Leeds Leeds is the largest city in the county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publis ...

Leeds
. The weapons convoy carrying Henrietta Maria finally managed to land at
Bridlington Bridlington, a coastal town and civil parish on the Holderness Coast of the North Sea, nicknamed the "Lobster Capital of Europe", belongs to the unitary authority and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorksh ...
in late February; on 4 June she left York escorted by 5,000 cavalry, arriving in Oxford in mid-July. In the south-west, Royalist commander
Sir Ralph Hopton Ralph Hopton, 1st Baron Hopton, (159628 September 1652), was an English people, English politician, soldier and landowner. During the 1642 to 1646 First English Civil War, he served as Cavalier, Royalist commander in the West Country, and was ma ...
secured
Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a historic county and ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are ar ...

Cornwall
with victory at Braddock Down in January. In June, he advanced into
Wiltshire Wiltshire (; abbreviated Wilts) is a Ceremonial counties of England, county in South West England with an area of . It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire and Berkshire. The count ...
, inflicting a serious defeat on
Waller's
Waller's
'Army of the Southern Association' at Roundway Down on 13 July. Arguably the most comprehensive Royalist victory of the war, it isolated Parliament's garrisons in the west and
Prince Rupert Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland, (17 December 1619 (O.S.) / 27 December (N.S.) – 29 November 1682) was a German-English army officer An officer is a member of an armed forces A military, also known collectively as ...

Prince Rupert
stormed
Bristol Bristol () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routle ...
on 26 July. This gave the Royalists control of the second largest city in Britain and landing point for reinforcements from Ireland. By late August, the Parliamentarian cause was close to collapse but was saved by Pym's leadership and determination, which resulted in important reforms. Both sides struggled to properly supply troops fighting outside their home regions and Parliament agreed steps to mitigate the problem. Seeing an opportunity to force Parliamentary moderates into a negotiated peace, in September the Royalists agreed a new three-part offensive. After taking Gloucester, Prince Rupert would advance on London, while Newcastle would tied down the
Eastern Association The Eastern Association of counties was a Parliamentarian organisation during the English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a w ...
army by advancing into
East Anglia East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. This region was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics purposes from 1999. It includes the ceremonial ...
and
Lincolnshire Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a Counties of England, county in the East Midlands of England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south-east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south-w ...

Lincolnshire
. Finally, Hopton would march into
Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a Counties of England, county in South East England on the coast of the English Channel. The county town is Winchester, but the county is named after Southampton. Its two largest cities are Southampton a ...

Hampshire
and
Sussex Sussex (), from the Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, e ...

Sussex
, threatening London from the south, and closing the iron foundries that were Parliament's main source of armaments. However, Essex forced Prince Rupert to retreat from Gloucester, then checked his advance on London at
Newbury Newbury may refer to: Places United Kingdom * Newbury, Berkshire, a town * Newbury (district), Berkshire, a district formed in 1974 * Newbury (UK Parliament constituency) * Newbury, Kent, a hamlet United States * Newbury, Connecticut, former name ...
on 20 September. Although Hopton reached
Winchester Winchester is a cathedral city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London ...

Winchester
, Waller prevented him making further progress; in October, Newcastle abandoned the second siege of Hull, while victory at
Winceby Winceby is a village in the civil parish of Lusby with Winceby (where the population is included) in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. It is in the Lincolnshire Wolds, and about from both Horncastle, Lincolnshire, Horncastle an ...
secured eastern England for Parliament. Royalist failure ended any chance of concluding the war in the near future, leading both sides to step up the search for allies. In September, the Royalists in Ireland agreed a truce with the
Catholic Confederation Confederate Ireland was the period of Irish Catholic Church, Catholic self-government between 1642 and 1649, during the Irish Confederate Wars, Eleven Years' War. During this time, two-thirds of Ireland was governed by the Irish Catholic Confed ...
, allowing Ormond to transfer troops to England but cost Charles the support of many Irish Protestants, especially in
Munster Munster ( gle, an Mhumhain or ) is one of the provinces of Ireland Since pre-historic times, there have been four Provinces of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.ht ...

Munster
. At the same time, details emerged of the "Antrim scheme", an alleged plan to use 20,000 Irish troops to recapture Southern Scotland for Charles; although highly impractical, the
Covenanter Covenanters ( gd, Cùmhnantaich) were members of a 17th-century Kingdom of Scotland, Scottish religious and political movement, who supported a Presbyterian polity, Presbyterian Church of Scotland, and the primacy of its leaders in religious af ...
government ended negotiations with the Royalists. Shortly thereafter, they signed the
Solemn League and Covenant The Solemn League and Covenant was an agreement between the Scottish Covenanters Covenanters ( gd, Cùmhnantaich) were members of a 17th-century Scottish religious and political movement, who supported a Presbyterian Presbyterianism is ...

Solemn League and Covenant
, agreeing to provide Parliament military backing in return for subsidies, and discussions on creating a single, Presbyterian church.


1644

The Solemn League created a
Committee of Both Kingdoms#REDIRECT Committee of Both KingdomsThe Committee of Both Kingdoms, (known as the Derby House Committee from late 1647), was a committee set up during the English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and politi ...
to co-ordinate strategy in all three war zones, England, Scotland and Ireland, although Pym's death in December 1643 deprived Parliament of their most important leader. The Scots under Leven were ordered to take Newcastle, securing coal supplies for London, and closing the major import point for Royalist war supplies. He besieged the town in early February, but made little progress, observed by the Earl of Newcastle from his base in
Durham
Durham
. On 29 March, Waller ended the offensive in Southern England by defeating Hopton at Cheriton, then joined Essex to threaten Oxford. Two weeks later, the Earl of Manchester defeated a Royalist force at
Selby Selby is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in North Yorkshire, England, south of York on the River Ouse, Yorkshire, River Ouse, with a population at the 2011 census of 14,731. The town was historically part of the West ...
, forcing Newcastle to leave Durham and garrison York. The city was besieged by the Scots, Sir Thomas Fairfax, and Manchester's Army of the Eastern Association. In May, Prince Rupert left
Shrewsbury Shrewsbury ( , ) is a market town and the county town of Shropshire, England. The town is situated on the River Severn, north-west of London, and the 2011 census recorded a population of 71,715. The town centre has a largely unspoilt mediev ...
, and marched north, capturing
Liverpool Liverpool is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. With a population of in 2019, it is the List of English districts by population, tenth largest English district by population, and its ...

Liverpool
and
Bolton Bolton (, locally ) is a large town in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boro ...
en route. To avoid being shut up in Oxford, a field army nominally commanded by Charles retreated to
Worcester Worcester may refer to: Places United Kingdom * Worcester, England, a city in Worcestershire ** Worcester (UK Parliament constituency) * Worcester Park, London, England * Worcestershire, a county in England United States * Worcester, Massachus ...
; Essex ordered Waller to remain there, while he went west to relieve the
siege of Lyme Regis The siege of Lyme Regis was an eight-week blockade during the First English Civil War. The port of Lyme Regis, in Dorset, was considered to be of strategic importance because of its position along the main shipping route between Bristol and t ...
. On 29 June, Waller clashed with Charles at
Cropredy Bridge Cropredy Bridge is a bridge in north Oxfordshire that carries the minor road between Cropredy and the hamlet of Williamscot. It spans the River Cherwell, which is also the boundary between the Civil parishes in England, civil parishes of Wardingto ...
; although losses were minimal, his men were demoralised, and the army disintegrated, allowing Charles to pursue Essex into the West Country. On the same day, Prince Rupert arrived at
Knaresborough Knaresborough ( ) is a market and spa town and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below dis ...

Knaresborough
, 30 kilometres from York, to find himself facing a superior force. In the largest battle of the war on 2 July, the two armies met at
Marston Moor The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War of 1642–1646. The combined forces of the English Roundhead, Parliamentarians under Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Lord Fairfax of Cameron, Lord Fairfax and t ...
, a decisive Royalist defeat that lost them the North. York surrendered on 16 July, and the Earl of Newcastle went into exile. Essex forced the Royalists to abandon Lyme Regis, then continued into Cornwall, ignoring orders to return to London. In September, his army was trapped at
Lostwithiel Lostwithiel (; kw, Lostwydhyel) is a civil parishes in England, civil parish and small town in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom at the head of the estuary of the River Fowey. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 2,739, increasi ...
; 5,000 infantry were forced to surrender, although Essex and the cavalry escaped. At Second Newbury on 27 October, the Royalists lifted the siege of
Donnington Castle Donnington Castle is a ruined medieval castle, situated in the small village of Donnington, just north of the town of Newbury Newbury may refer to: Places United Kingdom * Newbury, Berkshire, a town * Newbury (district), Berkshire, a district fo ...

Donnington Castle
, and Charles re-entered Oxford. In military terms, by the end of 1644 the Royalists had recovered from the disaster at Marston Moor; of greater concern was their ability to finance the war. Unlike Parliament, which could levy taxes on imports and exports through London and other commercial centres, the Royalists simply took supplies from the areas they controlled. This led to the creation of
Clubmen Clubmen were bands of local defence vigilantes during the English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), main ...
, or local self-defence associations; they opposed confiscations by either party, but were a bigger issue in Royalist areas like Cornwall and
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the s ...

Hertfordshire
. The deaths of John Pym and
John Hampden John Hampden (24 June 1643) was an English landowner and politician whose opposition to arbitrary taxes imposed by Charles I of England, Charles I made him a national figure. An ally of Roundhead, Parliamentarian leader John Pym, and cousin to O ...

John Hampden
in 1643 removed a unifying force within Parliament, and deepened divisions. Supported by the Scots, the 'Peace Party' were concerned by political radicals like the
Levellers The Levellers were a political movement A political movement is a collective attempt by a group of people to change government policy or social values. Political movements are usually in opposition to an element of the status quo  and are ...
, and wanted an immediate, negotiated settlement. The 'War Party' fundamentally mistrusted Charles, and saw military victory as the only way to secure their objectives. Many were religious Independents who opposed any state church, and strongly objected to Scottish demands for a unified, Presbyterian church of England and Scotland;
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English general and statesman who, first as a subordinate and later as Commander-in-Chief, led armies An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" e ...

Oliver Cromwell
claimed he would fight, rather than accept such an outcome. Failure to exploit Marston Moor, Essex' capitulation at Lostwithiel, and Manchester's alleged unwillingness to fight at Newbury led to claims some senior commanders were not committed to victory. Accusations against Manchester and Essex in particular were not confined to Cromwell, but shared by some Presbyterians, including Waller. In December,
Sir Henry Vane
Sir Henry Vane
introduced the
Self-denying Ordinance The Self-denying Ordinance was passed by the English Parliament on 3 April 1645. All members of the House of Commons or Lords who were also officers in the Parliamentary army or navy were required to resign one or the other, within 40 days fro ...
, requiring any military officers who also sat in Parliament to resign one office or the other. Manchester and Essex were automatically removed, since they could not resign their titles, although they could be re-appointed, 'if Parliament approved.' It also led to the creation of the
New Model Army The New Model Army was a standing army formed in 1645 by the Roundhead, Parliamentarians during the First English Civil War, then disbanded after the Stuart Restoration in 1660. It differed from other armies employed in the 1638 to 1651 Wars ...
, a centralised, professional force, able and willing to operate wherever needed. Many of its recruits had served with Cromwell in the Eastern Association, or shared his views, and opponents viewed the New Model with suspicion from the outset. To offset this, they appointed the moderates Fairfax and
Philip Skippon Philip Skippon (c. 1600, West Lexham, Norfolk – c. 20 February 1660) supported the Parliamentry cause during the English Civil War as a senior officer in the New Model Army. Prior to the war he fought in the religious wars on the continent. Dur ...
as Commander-in-Chief and head of the infantry respectively, as well as retaining some regional forces. These included the Northern and Western Associations, plus those serving in
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in northwest England North West England is one of nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office re ...

Cheshire
and South Wales, all commanded by supporters of the Presbyterian faction in Parliament. Although he remained an MP, Cromwell was given command of the cavalry, under a 'temporary' three-month commission, constantly renewed.


1645

In January, representatives of both sides met at
Uxbridge Uxbridge () is a suburban town in West London and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Situated west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridg ...

Uxbridge
to discuss peace terms, but talks ended without agreement in February. Failure strengthened the pro-war parties, since it was clear Charles would never make concessions voluntarily, while divisions among their opponents encouraged the Royalists to continue fighting. In early 1645, the Royalists still controlled most of the West Country, Wales, and counties along the English border, despite losing their key supply base at Shrewsbury in February. Lord Goring's Western Army made another attempt on Portsmouth and Farnham; although he was forced to retreat, it showed Parliament could not assume this area was secure, while Montrose's Highland Campaign opened another front in the war. On 31 May, Prince Rupert stormed
Leicester Leicester is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routled ...

Leicester
; in response, Fairfax and the New Model Army abandoned their blockade of Oxford, and on 14 June, won a decisive victory at
Naseby Naseby is a village in West Northamptonshire West Northamptonshire is a Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority covering part of the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Northamptonshire, England, created in 2021. B ...

Naseby
. Defeat cost the Royalists their most formidable field army, along with their artillery train, stores, and Charles' personal baggage. This included his private correspondence, detailing efforts to gain support from the
Irish Catholic Confederation Confederate Ireland was the period of Irish Catholic Church, Catholic self-government between 1642 and 1649, during the Irish Confederate Wars, Eleven Years' War. During this time, two-thirds of Ireland was governed by the Irish Catholic Confe ...
, the
Papacy The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

Papacy
and France. Published by Parliament in a pamphlet entitled ''The King's Cabinet Opened'', it seriously damaged his reputation. After Naseby, Royalist strategy was to preserve their positions in the West and Wales, while taking their cavalry north to link up with Montrose in Scotland. Charles also hoped the Confederation would supply him 10,000 Irish troops, who would land in Bristol, then combine with Lord Goring to smash the New Model. These plans were largely fantasy, and the only result was to deepen divisions among the Royalist leadership. Concerned by the wider implications of Royalist defeat, French chief minister
Cardinal Mazarin Cardinal Jules Mazarin (, also , , ; 14 July 1602 – 9 March 1661), born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino () or Mazarini, was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic g ...

Cardinal Mazarin
now looked for ways to restore Charles with minimal French intervention. Talks were held between his representative, de Montereul, and Lord Lothian, a senior Covenanter who was deeply suspicious of Cromwell and the Independents. Ultimately, these made little progress. Prince Rupert was sent to supervise the defence of Bristol and the West, while Charles made his way to
Raglan Castle Raglan may refer to: Places Australia *County of Raglan, a cadastral division in Queensland, Australia *Raglan, New South Wales, a suburb of Bathurst, Australia *Raglan, Queensland, a town in Gladstone Region, Australia *Raglan, Victoria, a tow ...

Raglan Castle
, then headed for the Scottish border. He reached as far north as
Doncaster Doncaster (, ) is a large minster town in South Yorkshire South Yorkshire is a ceremonial county, ceremonial and metropolitan county in England. It is the southernmost county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and had a population ...

Doncaster
in Yorkshire, before retreating to Oxford in the face of superior Parliamentarian forces. In July, Fairfax lifted the siege of Taunton; a few days later at
Langport Langport is a small town and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administrati ...
, he destroyed Lord Goring's Western Army, the last significant Royalist field force. At the end of August, Charles left Oxford to relieve
Hereford Hereford () is a cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the ...

Hereford
, which was besieged by the Covenanter army; as he approached, Leven was ordered to return to Scotland, following Montrose's victory at
Kilsyth Kilsyth (; Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgag ...
. The king moved onto Chester, where he learned Prince Rupert had surrendered
Bristol Bristol () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routle ...
on 10 September; shocked by the loss, Charles dismissed his nephew. A detachment from the New Model under
Colonel Rainsborough
Colonel Rainsborough
captured
Berkeley Castle Berkeley Castle ( ; historically sometimes spelt ''Berkley Castle'' or ''Barkley Castle'') is a castle in the town of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom. The castle's origins date back to the 11th century, and it has been designated ...

Berkeley Castle
, another led by Cromwell took Royalist positions at
Basing House Basing House was a major Tudor Tudor most commonly refers to: * House of Tudor, English royal house of Welsh origins ** Tudor period, a historical era in England coinciding with the rule of the Tudor dynasty Tudor may also refer to: Architec ...
and Winchester. Having secured his rear, Fairfax began reducing remaining positions in the west; by now,
Clubmen Clubmen were bands of local defence vigilantes during the English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), main ...
militia in Hampshire and Dorset were as big an issue as the Royalist army. After his remaining cavalry were scattered at Rowton Heath on 24 September, Charles returned to Newark. On 13 October, news reached him of Montrose's defeat at Philiphaugh a month earlier, ending plans for taking the war into Scotland. The loss of
Carmarthen Carmarthen (; cy, Caerfyrddin , "Merlin The Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) is an interferometer array of radio telescopes spread across England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is ...
and
Chepstow Chepstow ( cy, Cas-gwent) is a town and community A community is a social unit The term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from t ...

Chepstow
in South Wales cut connections with Irish Royalists (see Map), forcing Charles back to Oxford, where he spent the winter besieged by the New Model.


1646

Following the fall of Hereford in December 1645, the Royalists held only Devon, Cornwall, North Wales, and isolated garrisons in Exeter, Oxford, Newark, and
Scarborough Castle Scarborough Castle is a former medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of ...

Scarborough Castle
. Chester surrendered in February, after which the Northern Association Army joined the Covenanters besieging Newark. Hopton replaced Lord Goring as commander of the Western Army, and attempted to relieve Exeter. Defeated by the New Model at Torrington on 16 February, he surrendered at
Truro Truro (; kw, Truru) is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and civil parishes in England, civil parish in Cornwall, England. It is Cornwall's county town, sole city and centre for administration, leisure and retail trading. Its ...
on 12 March. The last pitched battle of the war took place at
Stow-on-the-Wold Stow-on-the-Wold is a market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and col ...
on 21 March, when 3,000 Royalists were dispersed by Parliamentary forces. With the end of the war in sight, Parliament issued a proclamation, allowing favourable terms for any Royalists who ' compounded' prior to 1 May. Those whose estates had been confiscated could regain them on payment of a fine, which was calculated on the value of their lands, and level of support; many took advantage of this. After capturing Exeter and
Barnstaple Barnstaple ( or ) is a river-port town in North Devon, England, at the lowest crossing point of the River Taw flowing into the Bristol Channel. From the 14th century, it was licensed to export wool. Great wealth ensued. Later it imported Irish ...

Barnstaple
in April, the New Model marched on Oxford; on 27 April, Charles left the city in disguise, accompanied by two others. Parliament learned of his escape on 29th, but for over a week had no idea where he was. On 6 May, they received a letter from David Leslie, the Scottish commander at Newark, announcing he had Charles in custody. Newark surrendered the same day, and the Scots went north to Newcastle, taking the king with them. This led to furious objections from Parliament, who approved a resolution ordering the Scots to leave England immediately. After lengthy negotiations, Oxford capitulated on 24 June; the garrison received passes to return home, Prince Rupert and his brother,
Prince Maurice
Prince Maurice
, were ordered to leave England.
Wallingford Castle Wallingford Castle was a major medieval castle situated in Wallingford, Oxfordshire, Wallingford in the England, English county of Oxfordshire (historically Berkshire), adjacent to the River Thames. Established in the 11th century as a motte-and ...
surrendered on 27 July, then the remaining Royalist strongholds, although
Harlech Castle Harlech Castle ( cy, Castell Harlech; ) in Harlech, Wales, Harlech, Gwynedd, Wales, is a Grade I-listed England in the Middle Ages, medieval fortification built onto a hill castle, rocky knoll close to the Irish Sea. It was built by Edward I d ...

Harlech Castle
in Wales held out until 13 March 1647.


Aftermath

In 1642, many Parliamentarians assumed military defeat would force Charles to agree terms, which proved a fundamental misunderstanding of his character. In August 1645, Prince Rupert suggested the war could no longer be won; Charles wrote back that he agreed, if seen from a military viewpoint, but 'God will not suffer rebels and traitors to prosper'. This deeply-held conviction meant he refused to agree any substantial concessions, frustrating both allies and opponents. Although Charles correctly assumed widespread support for the institution of monarchy made his position extremely strong, he failed to appreciate the impact of his constant prevarications, both before and during the war. He made peace with the Scots in 1639, then raised an army against them in 1640; his actions prior to March 1642 convinced Parliament he would not keep his promises, and any money they supplied would be employed against them. At one point in 1645, he was negotiating separately with the Irish Confederation, the English Independents, the Covenanters, English Presbyterians, France, and the Papacy. This created a political grouping that believed a political settlement could not be agreed with Charles, and the ability to enforce it in the New Model Army. Often grouped together as 'Independents', the reality was far more fluid; Sir Thomas Fairfax was a Presbyterian, who fought for Charles in 1639, and refused to participate in his execution, while even Cromwell initially viewed him with great respect. Charles continued to stall, to the increasing frustration of all parties, especially members of the New Model, many of whom had not been paid for over a year, and wanted to go home. In March 1647, moderates in Parliament led by Denzil Holles decided to remove the threat by sending the army to Ireland; only those who agreed would receive their arrears. When regimental representatives, or
Agitator The Agitators were a political movement as well as elected representatives of soldiers, including the New Model Army of Oliver Cromwell, during the English Civil War. They were also known as ''adjutators''. Many of the ideas of the movement were ...

Agitator
s, demanded full payment for all in advance, Parliament disbanded the New Model, which refused. Although both Cromwell and Fairfax were disturbed by the radicalism shown by parts of the army, they sympathised with them over pay, and took their side against Parliament. These tensions led to the outbreak of the
Second English Civil War The 1648 Second English Civil War is one in a series of connected conflicts in the kingdoms of Kingdom_of_England, England, incorporating Wales, Kingdom_of_Scotland, Scotland, and Kingdom_of_Ireland, Ireland. Known collectively as the 1638 to ...
in 1648.


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

* * {{authority control English Civil War Wars of the Three Kingdoms 17th century in England 17th century in Wales 17th century in Ireland 17th century in Scotland