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Although the Norse had explored and colonized northeastern North America c. 1000 CE, the later and more well-known wave of European colonization of the Americas took place in the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
between about 1492 CE and 1800 CE, during the
Age of Exploration The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age of Contact or Contact Period), is an informal and loosely defined term for the early modern period The early modern period of modern history ...
. During this period of time, several European
empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and ...

empire
s—primarily
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...
,
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
, and the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...
—began to explore and claim the
natural resource Natural resources are resource Resource refers to all the materials available in our environment which help us to satisfy our needs and wants. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they are classified into renewabl ...
s and
human capital Human capital is a concept used by human resource professionals to designate personal attributes considered useful in the production process. It encompasses employee knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or someth ...

human capital
of the Americas, resulting in the displacement, disestablishment,
enslavement Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for another person (a slaver), while treated as property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved person being made ...
, and
genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish t ...
of the
Indigenous peoples of the Americas The Indigenous peoples of the Americas, also known as Amerindians or Indians, are the inhabitants of the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the fo ...
, and the establishment of several settler-colonial
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
. Some formerly European settler colonies—including
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...
,
Alaska Alaska (; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, on the northwest extremity of the country's West Coast of the United State ...
, the
Prairies Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the ...
/northern
Great Plains The Great Plains (french: Grandes Plaines), sometimes simply "the Plains", is a broad expanse of flatland ''Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions'' is a satire, satirical novella by the English schoolmaster Edwin Abbott Abbott, first publi ...
, and the "
Northwest Territories The Northwest Territories (commonly abbreviated as NT or NWT; french: Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is a federal territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subd ...
" in North America; the
Isthmus of Tehuantepec File:1852 Andrews Map of Florida, Cuba and the Gulf of Mexico - Geographicus - StraitsofFlorida-andrews-1852.jpg, 300px, Map of the Straits of Florida and Gulf of Mexico. To accompany a report from the United States Department of the Treasury, U. ...

Isthmus of Tehuantepec
, the
Yucatán Peninsula The Yucatán Peninsula (, also , ; es, Península de Yucatán ) is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth ...

Yucatán Peninsula
, and the
Darién Gap The Darién Gap (, , es, Tapón del Darién , literally "Darién plug" ) is a break across the North and South American continents within Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the ...

Darién Gap
in Central America; and the northwest
Amazon Amazon usually refers to: * Amazons In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ancient Greek: Ἀμαζόνες ''Amazónes'', singular Ἀμαζών ''Amazōn'') are portrayed in a number of ancient Greek, ancient epic poems and legends, such as the ...

Amazon
, the , and
the Guianas The Guianas, sometimes called by the Spanish language, Spanish loan-word ''Guayanas'' (''Las Guayanas''), is a region in north-eastern South America which includes the following three territories: * French Guiana, an overseas departments and r ...

the Guianas
in South America—remain relatively rural, sparsely populated and
Indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ' ...
into the 21st century, however several settler-colonial
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
, including
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...
,
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...

Colombia
,
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...
,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, and
the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
grew into settler-colonial
empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and ...

empire
s in their own right.
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
began colonizing the Pacific Northwest in the mid-18th century, seeking pelts for the fur trade. Many of the social structures—including
religions Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
,
political boundaries Borders are geographic Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method ...

political boundaries
, and linguae francae—which predominate the Western Hemisphere in the 21st century are the descendants of the structures which were established during this period. The rapid rate at which Europe grew in wealth and power was unforeseeable in the early 15th century because it had been preoccupied with internal wars and it was slowly recovering from the loss of its population which was caused by the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bact ...

Black Death
. The strength of the Turkish
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
held on trade routes to Asia prompted Western European monarchs to search for alternatives, resulting in the
voyages of Christopher Columbus Between 1492 and 1504, Italian explorer Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born betwee ...
and the accidental of the "
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: " 6c:_from__...
". Upon_the_signing_of_the_Treaty_of_Tordesillas_in_1494,_Portugal_ Portugal,_officially_the_Portuguese_Republic_(_pt,_República_Portuguesa,_links=yes_),__is_a_country A_country_is_a_distinct_territorial_body_or_political_entity A_polity_is_an_identifiable_political_entity—any_group_of_people_who__...
_and_Spain ,__image_flag_____________=_Bandera_de_España.svg ,__image_coat_____________=_Escudo_de_España_(mazonado).svg ,__national_motto_________=___ ,__national_anthem________=__ ,__image_map______________=_ ,__map_caption____________=_ ,__image_map2_____...

_agreed_to_divide_the_Earth_in_two,_with_Portugal_having_dominion_over_non-Christian_lands_in_the_eastern_half,_and_Spain_over_those_in_the_western_half._Spanish_claims_essentially_included_the_entire_of_the_Americas,_however,_the_Treaty_of_Tordesillas_granted_the_eastern_tip_of_South_America_to_Portugal,_where_it_established_ 6c:_from__...
". Upon_the_signing_of_the_Treaty_of_Tordesillas
_in_1494,_Portugal_ Portugal,_officially_the_Portuguese_Republic_(_pt,_República_Portuguesa,_links=yes_),__is_a_country A_country_is_a_distinct_territorial_body_or_political_entity A_polity_is_an_identifiable_political_entity—any_group_of_people_who__...
_and_Spain ,__image_flag_____________=_Bandera_de_España.svg ,__image_coat_____________=_Escudo_de_España_(mazonado).svg ,__national_motto_________=___ ,__national_anthem________=__ ,__image_map______________=_ ,__map_caption____________=_ ,__image_map2_____...

_agreed_to_divide_the_Earth_in_two,_with_Portugal_having_dominion_over_non-Christian_lands_in_the_eastern_half,_and_Spain_over_those_in_the_western_half._Spanish_claims_essentially_included_the_entire_of_the_Americas,_however,_the_Treaty_of_Tordesillas_granted_the_eastern_tip_of_South_America_to_Portugal,_where_it_established_Colonial_Brazil">Brazil_ Brazil_(_pt,_Brasil;_),_officially_the_Federative_Republic_of_Brazil_(Portuguese:_),_is_the_largest_country_in_both_South_America_and_Latin_America._At_8.5 million_square_kilometers_(3.2 million_square_miles)_and_with_over_211_mill_...
_in_the_early_1500s._The_city_of_ 6c:_from__...
". Upon_the_signing_of_the_Treaty_of_Tordesillas
_in_1494,_Portugal_ Portugal,_officially_the_Portuguese_Republic_(_pt,_República_Portuguesa,_links=yes_),__is_a_country A_country_is_a_distinct_territorial_body_or_political_entity A_polity_is_an_identifiable_political_entity—any_group_of_people_who__...
_and_Spain ,__image_flag_____________=_Bandera_de_España.svg ,__image_coat_____________=_Escudo_de_España_(mazonado).svg ,__national_motto_________=___ ,__national_anthem________=__ ,__image_map______________=_ ,__map_caption____________=_ ,__image_map2_____...

_agreed_to_divide_the_Earth_in_two,_with_Portugal_having_dominion_over_non-Christian_lands_in_the_eastern_half,_and_Spain_over_those_in_the_western_half._Spanish_claims_essentially_included_the_entire_of_the_Americas,_however,_the_Treaty_of_Tordesillas_granted_the_eastern_tip_of_South_America_to_Portugal,_where_it_established_Colonial_Brazil">Brazil_ Brazil_(_pt,_Brasil;_),_officially_the_Federative_Republic_of_Brazil_(Portuguese:_),_is_the_largest_country_in_both_South_America_and_Latin_America._At_8.5 million_square_kilometers_(3.2 million_square_miles)_and_with_over_211_mill_...
_in_the_early_1500s._The_city_of_St._Augustine,_Florida">St._Augustine,_in_current-day_Florida,_founded_in_1565_by_the_Spanish,_is_credited_as_the_List_of_North_American_cities_by_year_of_foundation.html" ;"title="St._Augustine,_Florida.html" ;"title="Colonial_Brazil.html" "title="Treaty_of_Tordesillas.html" ;"title="6c: from ...
". Upon the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas">6c: from ...
". Upon the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...
and
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
agreed to divide the Earth in two, with Portugal having dominion over non-Christian lands in the eastern half, and Spain over those in the western half. Spanish claims essentially included the entire of the Americas, however, the Treaty of Tordesillas granted the eastern tip of South America to Portugal, where it established Colonial Brazil">Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...
in the early 1500s. The city of St. Augustine, Florida">St. Augustine, in current-day Florida, founded in 1565 by the Spanish, is credited as the List of North American cities by year of foundation">oldest continuously-inhabited European-established settlement in the contiguous United States. It quickly became clear to other Western European powers that they too could benefit from voyages west and by the 1530s, the British colonization of the Americas, British and French colonization of the Americas, French had begun colonizing the northeast tip of the Americas. Within a century, the Swedish colonies in the Americas, Swedish had established
New Sweden New Sweden ( sv, Nya Sverige; fi, Uusi Ruotsi; la, Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising i ...
, the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
had established
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonl ...
, and
Denmark–Norway Denmark–Norway (Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestr ...
along with the other aforementioned powers had made several claims in the Caribbean, and by the 1700s, Denmark–Norway had revived its former colonies in
Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is an autonomous territory An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administra ...

Greenland
, and
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
had begun to explore and claim the Pacific Coast from
Alaska Alaska (; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, on the northwest extremity of the country's West Coast of the United State ...
to
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
. Deadly confrontations became more frequent at the beginning of this period as the Indigenous peoples fought fiercely in order to preserve their territorial integrity from increasing numbers of European colonizers, as well as from hostile Indigenous neighbors who were equipped with Eurasian technology. Conflict between the various European empires and the Indigenous peoples was the leading dynamic in the Americas into the 1800s, and although some parts of the continent were gaining their independence from Europe by that time, other regions such as
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
,
Patagonia Patagonia () refers to a geographical region that encompasses the southern end of South America South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convent ...
, the "
Northwest Territories The Northwest Territories (commonly abbreviated as NT or NWT; french: Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is a federal territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subd ...
", and the northern Great Plains experienced little to no colonization at all until the 1800s.


Overview of Western European powers


Norsemen

Norse Norse is demonym for Norsemen, a medieval North Germanic ethnolinguistic group ancestral to modern Scandinavians, defined as speakers of Old Norse from about the 9th to the 13th centuries. Norse may also refer to: Culture and religion * Norse m ...
explorers are the first known Europeans to set foot on what is now North America. Norse journeys to
Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is an autonomous territory An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administra ...

Greenland
and
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
are supported by historical and archaeological evidence. The Norsemen established a colony in Greenland in the late 10th century, and lasted until the mid 15th century, with court and parliament assemblies ('' þing'') taking place at
Brattahlíð Brattahlíð, often anglicised as Brattahlid, was Erik the Red's estate in the Eastern Settlement 350 px, Map of the eastern Norse settlement in medieval Greenland. The area is within the current municipalities of Greenland, municipality of Kujal ...
and a bishop located at Garðar. The remains of a settlement at
L'Anse aux Meadows L'Anse aux Meadows () is an archaeological site An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the peri ...

L'Anse aux Meadows
in
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
, Canada, were discovered in 1960 and were dated to around the year 1000 (carbon dating estimate 990–1050 CE). L'Anse aux Meadows is the only site widely accepted as evidence of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. It was named a
World Heritage site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
in 1978. It is also notable for its possible connection with the attempted colony of
Vinland Vinland, Vineland or Winland ( non, Vínland) was an area of coastal North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the no ...
, established by
Leif Erikson Leif Erikson, Leiv Eiriksson or Leif Ericson; Icelandic: ''Leifur Eiríksson''; Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation an ...
around the same period or, more broadly, with the
Norse colonization of the Americas The Norse colonization of North America began in the late 10th century Common Era, CE when Vikings, Norsemen explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic including the northeastern fringes of North America. Remains of Norse buildings were found ...
. Leif Erikson's brother is said to have had the first contact with the native population of North America which would come to be known as the
skræling ''Skræling'' (Greenlandic Norse, Old Norse and Icelandic language, Icelandic: ''skrælingi'', plural ''skrælingjar'') is the name the Norsemen, Norse Norse colonization of North America#Norse Greenland, Greenlanders used for the Indigenous people ...
s. After capturing and killing eight of the natives, they were attacked at their beached ships, which they defended.


Spain

While some Norse colonies were established in north eastern North America as early as the 10th century, systematic European colonization began in 1492. A
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
expedition Expedition may refer to: * An exploration, journey, or voyage undertaken by a group of people especially for discovery and scientific research Places * Expedition Island, a park in Green River, Wyoming, US * Expedition Range, a mountain range in ...
which was headed by the
Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also

* Genovese, a surname * Genovesi, a surname * * * * * Genova (disambiguati ...
mariner
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
sailed west in order to find a new trade route to the
Far East The Far East is a term to refer to the geographical regions that includes East and Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nati ...

Far East
, the source of spices, silks, porcelains, and other rich trade goods. The overland
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
did not benefit Iberia and the Portuguese who left Spain in order to conduct voyages down the coast of Africa because they needed to find an alternative route. Columbus inadvertently landed in what Europeans would later call the "
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: " 6c: from ...
." This can be seen as a Eurocentric framing, because the Western Hemisphere was also a new world to the first human migrants who arrived in it more than 10,000 years ago. Columbus landed on 12 October 1492 on Guanahani (possibly Cat Island, Bahamas, Cat Island) in The Bahamas, which the Lucayan people had inhabited since the 9th century. Indigenous populations had settled from pole to pole in the hemisphere, so although Europeans deemed the territory
terra nullius ''Terra nullius'' (, plural ''terrae nullius'') is a Latin expression meaning "no man's land, nobody's land". It was a principle sometimes used in international law to justify claims that territory may be acquired by a state's Acquisition of ...
, "nobody's land", it was the homeland of existing indigenous residents. Western European conquest, large-scale exploration and colonization soon followed after the Spanish and Portuguese final of
Iberia The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a penin ...

Iberia
in 1492. Columbus's first two voyages (1492–93) reached the Caribbean island of
Hispaniola Hispaniola (, also ; es, La Española; Latin and french: Hispaniola; ht, Ispayola; tnq, Ayiti) is an island in the Caribbean that is part of the Greater Antilles. Hispaniola is the most populous island in the West Indies, and the region's se ...
and various other
Caribbean islands A list of islands in the Caribbean Sea, in alphabetical order by country of ownership and/or those with full independence and autonomy. Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda (; ) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies ...
, including
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...

Puerto Rico
and
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
. In the 1494
Treaty of Tordesillas The Treaty of Tordesillas, ; pt, Tratado de Tordesilhas . signed in Tordesillas, Spain on June 7, 1494, and authenticated in Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly-discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire The Portuguese ...

Treaty of Tordesillas
ratified by the Pope, the two kingdoms of (in a personal union with other kingdoms of Spain) and Portugal divided the entire non-European world into two spheres of exploration and colonization. The north to south boundary cut through the Atlantic Ocean and the eastern part of present-day
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
. Based on this treaty and on early claims by Spanish explorer
Vasco Núñez de Balboa Vasco may refer to: * Basque language Basque (; , ) is a language spoken by Basques and others of the Basque Country (greater region), Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of Northern Spain and ...

Vasco Núñez de Balboa
, the first European to see the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific Ocean
in 1513. The Spanish explorers, conquerors, and settlers sought material wealth, individual aggrandizement, and the spread of Christianity, often summed up in the phrase "gold, glory, and God". The Spanish justified their claims to the New World based on the ideals of the Christian
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portug ...

Reconquista
of the Iberian peninsula from the Muslims, completed in 1492. In the New World, military conquest to incorporate indigenous peoples into Christendom was considered the "spiritual conquest." In 1492
Pope Alexander VI Pope Alexander VI (born Rodrigo de Borja; ca-valencia, Roderic Llançol i de Borja ; es, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja, lang ; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as th ...

Pope Alexander VI
, the first Spaniard to become Pope, confirmed the rights of
Catholic Monarchs The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with th ...
of Spain and
Ferdinand Ferdinand is a Germanic nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one w ...
the right to explore and convert pagan populations in overseas territories.Bonch-Bruevich, Xenia. "Ideologies of the Spanish Reconquest and Isidore's Political Thought." ''Mediterranean Studies'', vol. 17, 2008, pp. 27–45. ''JSTOR'', www.jstor.org/stable/41167390. Accessed 12 Nov. 2020. After European contact, the native population of the Americas plummeted by an estimated 80% (from around 50 million in 1492 to eight million in 1650), due in part to Old World diseases carried to the New World, and the conditions that colonization imposed on Indigenous populations, such as forced labor and removal from homelands and traditional medicines."La catastrophe démographique" (The Demographic Catastrophe) in ''
L'Histoire ''L'Histoire'' is a monthly mainstream French magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a ...
'' n°322, July–August 2007, p. 17
Some scholars have argued that this demographic collapse was the result of the first large-scale act of
genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish t ...
in the modern era. For example, the labor and tribute of inhabitants of Hispaniola were granted in
encomienda The ''encomienda'' () was a Spanish labor system that rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of conquered non-Christian people. The laborers, in theory, were provided with benefits by the conquerors for whom they labored, the ...
to Spaniards, a practice established in Spain for conquered Muslims. Although not technically slavery, it was coerced labor for the benefit of the Spanish grantees, called ''encomenderos''. Spain had a legal tradition and devised a proclamation known as The Requerimento to be read to indigenous populations in Spanish, often far from the field of battle, stating that the indigenous were now subjects of the Spanish Crown and would be punished if they resisted. When the news of this situation and of the abuse of the institution reached Spain, the
New Laws The New Laws ( Spanish: ''Leyes Nuevas''), also known as the New Laws of the Indies for the Good Treatment and Preservation of the Indians ( Spanish: ''Leyes y ordenanzas nuevamente hechas por su Majestad para la gobernación de las Indias y buen ...
were passed to regulate and gradually abolish the system in the Americas, as well as to reiterate the prohibition of enslaving Native Americans. By the time the new laws were passed, 1542, the Spanish crown had acknowledged their inability to control and properly ensure compliance of traditional laws overseas, so they granted to Native Americans specific protections not even Spaniards had, such as the prohibition of enslaving them even in the case of crime or war. These extra protections were an attempt to avoid the proliferation of irregular claims to slavery. However, as historian Andrés Reséndez has noted, "this categorical prohibition did not stop generations of determined conquistadors and colonists from taking Native slaves on a planetary scale, ... The fact that this other slavery had to be carried out clandestinely made it even more insidious. It is a tale of good intentions gone badly astray." A major event in early Spanish colonization, which had so far yielded paltry returns, was the
Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, also known as the Conquest of Mexico or the Spanish-Aztec War (1519–21), was one of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. There are multiple 16th-century narratives of the eve ...
(1519-1521). It was led by
Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, 1st Marquess of the Valley of Oaxaca (; ; 1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish ''Conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knight ...

Hernán Cortés
and made possible by securing indigenous alliances with the Aztecs' enemies, mobilizing thousands of warriors against the Aztecs for their own political reasons. The Aztec capital,
Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan ( nah, Tenōchtitlan ; es, Tenochtitlán), also known as Mexico-Tenochtitlan ( nah, Mēxihco Tenōchtitlan ; es, México-Tenochtitlán), was a large Mexica ''altepetl'' in what is now the historic center of Mexico City. The exact ...

Tenochtitlan
, became
Mexico City Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX; nah, Āltepētl Mēxihco) is the capital city, capital and largest city of Mexico, as well as the List of North American cities by population, most populous city in North Americ ...

Mexico City
, the chief city of the "
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as th ...
". More than an estimated 240,000
Aztecs The Aztecs () were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521. The Aztec peoples included different Indigenous peoples of Mexico, ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those ...

Aztecs
died during the
siege of Tenochtitlan The Fall of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance ( nci, Ēxcān Tlahtōlōyān, Help:IPA for Nahuatl, jéːʃkaːn̥ t͡ɬaʔtoːˈlóːjaːn̥, was an alliance of three Nahua peoples, Nahua ...
, 100,000 in combat, while 500–1,000 of the Spaniards engaged in the conquest died. The other great conquest was of the
Inca empire The Inca Empire, also known as Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, and at the time known as the Realm of the Four Parts,,  "four parts together" was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military c ...
(1531–35), led by
Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro González (; ;  – 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knights, soldiers, and explorers of the Spanish Empire, Spanish and t ...

Francisco Pizarro
. The early period of exploration, conquest, and settlement, ca. 1492-1550, the overseas possessions claimed by Spain were only loosely controlled by the crown. With the conquests of the Aztecs and the Incas, the New World now commanded the crown's attention. Both Mexico and Peru had dense, hierarchically organized indigenous populations that could be incorporated and ruled. Even more importantly, both Mexico and Peru had large deposits of silver, which became the economic motor of the Spanish empire and transformed the world economy. In Peru, the singular, hugely rich silver mine of Potosí was worked by traditional forced indigenous labor drafts, known as the
mit'a Mit'a () was mandatory public service in the society of the Inca Empire The Inca Empire ( qu, Tawantinsuyu,  "four parts together"), Quechuan and Aymaran spelling shift, also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest e ...
. In Mexico, silver was found outsize the zone of dense indigenous settlement, so that free laborers migrated to the mines in
Guanajuato Guanajuato (), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guanajuato ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Guanajuato), is one of the 32 states that make up the Federal Entities of Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially ...

Guanajuato
and
Zacatecas , image_map = Zacatecas in Mexico (location map scheme).svg , map_caption = State of Zacatecas within Mexico , coordinates = , coor_pinpoint = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type ...

Zacatecas
. The crown established the
Council of the Indies The Council of the Indies; officially, the Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies ( es, Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias, ), was the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, Imperio Español; la, I ...
in 1524, based in Seville, and issued
laws of the Indies The Laws of the Indies ( es, Leyes de las Indias) are the entire body of laws issued by the Spanish Crown , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image ...
to assert its power against the early conquerors. The crown created the
viceroyalty of New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as t ...
and the
viceroyalty of Peru The Viceroyalty of Peru ( es, Virreinato del Perú, links=no) was a Monarchy of Spain, Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of the Spanish Empire in South Amer ...
to tightened crown control over these rich prizes of conquest.


Portugal

Over this same time frame as Spain,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...
claimed lands in North America (Canada) and colonized much of eastern South America naming it Santa Cruz and Brazil. On behalf of both the Portuguese and Spanish crowns, cartographer explored the South American east coast, and published his new book ''Mundus Novus'' (''New World'') in 1502–1503 which disproved the belief that the Americas were the easternmost part of Asia and confirmed that Columbus had reached a set of continents previously unheard of to any Europeans.
Cartographers Cartography (; from Greek language, Greek χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making and using maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, ca ...
still use a
Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to replace traditional writing sy ...
version of his first name, ''America'', for the two continents. In April 1500, Portuguese noble
Pedro Álvares Cabral Pedro Álvares Cabral ( or ; born ''Pedro Álvares de Gouveia''; c. 1467 or 1468 – c. 1520) was a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, trad ...
claimed the region of
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...
to Portugal; the effective colonization of Brazil began three decades later with the founding of São Vicente in 1532 and the establishment of the system of captaincies in 1534, which was later replaced by other systems. Others tried to colonize the of present-day
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
and the in South America. These explorers include in Newfoundland;
João Fernandes Lavrador João Fernandes Lavrador (1453-1501), () was a Portuguese explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the quest ...
, Gaspar and
Miguel Corte-Real Miguel Corte-Real (; c. 1448 – 1502?) was a Portugal, Portuguese List of explorers, explorer who charted about 600 miles of the coast of Labrador. In 1502, he disappeared while on an expedition and was believed to be lost at sea. Early li ...
and
João Álvares Fagundes João Álvares Fagundes (born c. 1460, Kingdom of Portugal The Kingdom of Portugal ( la, Regnum Portugalliae, pt, Reino de Portugal) was a Portuguese monarchy, monarchy on the western part of Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of the moder ...
, in Newfoundland, Greenland, Labrador, and Nova Scotia (from 1498 to 1502, and in 1520). During this time, the Portuguese gradually switched from an initial plan of establishing trading posts to extensive
colonization Colonization, or colonisation refers to large-scale population movements where the migrants maintain strong links with their—or their ancestors'—former country, gaining significant privileges over other inhabitants of the territory by such l ...
of what is now Brazil. They imported millions of slaves to run their plantations. The Portuguese and Spanish royal governments expected to rule these settlements and collect at least 20% of all treasure found (the ''
quinto real The ''quinto real'' or the quinto del rey, the "King's fifth", was a 20% tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A per ...
'' collected by the '' Casa de Contratación''), in addition to collecting all the taxes they could. By the late 16th century
silver Silver is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical ele ...

silver
from the Americas accounted for one-fifth of the combined total budget of Portugal and Spain. In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Europeans entered ports in the Americas.


France

France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
founded colonies in the Americas: in eastern North America (which had not been colonized by Spain north of
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
), a number of Caribbean islands (which had often already been conquered by the Spanish or depopulated by disease), and small coastal parts of South America. French explorers included
Giovanni da Verrazzano Giovanni da Verrazzano ( , , often misspelled Verrazano in English; 1485–1528) was an Italian (Florentine) explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery Discovery may refer to: * Discovery (observation) ...
in 1524;
Jacques Cartier Jacques Cartier ( , also , , ; br, Jakez Karter; 31 December 14911 September 1557) was a French people, French-Breton people, Breton List of maritime explorers, maritime explorer for Kingdom of France, France. Jacques Cartier was the first ...

Jacques Cartier
(1491–1557),
Henry Hudson Henry Hudson ( 1565 – disappeared 23 June 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the pro ...
(1560s–1611), and
Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain (; c. 13 August 1567 Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date nor his place of birth. – 25 Decemb ...
(1567–1635), who explored the region of Canada he reestablished as
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
. In the French colonial regions, the focus of economy was on sugar plantations in Caribbean. In Canada the
fur trade The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organi ...
with the natives was important. About 16,000 French men and women became colonizers. The great majority became subsistence farmers along the
St. Lawrence River The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes File:Location of the Great Lakes in North America.jpg, upr ...
. With a favorable disease environment and plenty of land and food, their numbers grew exponentially to 65,000 by 1760. Their colony was taken over by Britain in 1760, but social, religious, legal, cultural and economic changes were few in a society that clung tightly to its recently formed traditions.


British

British colonization began with North America almost a century after Spain. The relatively late arrival meant that the British could use the other European colonization powers as models for their endeavors.Haring, Clarence H. ''The Spanish Empire in America''. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. Print. Inspired by the Spanish riches from colonies founded upon the conquest of the
Aztecs The Aztecs () were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521. The Aztec peoples included different Indigenous peoples of Mexico, ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those ...

Aztecs
,
Incas The Inca Empire, also known as Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, and at the time known as the Realm of the Four Parts,,  "four parts together" was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military c ...

Incas
, and other large Native American populations in the 16th century, their first attempt at colonization occurred in Roanoke and
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
, although unsuccessful. In 1606, King James I granted a charter with the purpose of discovering the riches at their first permanent settlement in
Jamestown, Virginia The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent British colonization of the Americas, English settlement in the Americas. It was located on the northeast bank of the James River, James (Powhatan) River about southwe ...
in 1607. They were sponsored by
common stock Common stock is a form of corporate equity Equity may refer to: Finance, accounting and ownership *Equity (finance), ownership of assets that have liabilities attached to them ** Stock, equity based on original contributions of cash or other v ...
companies such as the chartered
Virginia Company The Virginia Company was an English trading companyTrading companies are business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services). ...
financed by wealthy Englishmen who exaggerated the economic potential of the land. The
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
of the 16th century broke the unity of Western
Christendom Christendom historically refers to the "Christian world": Christian state A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on th ...
and led to the formation of numerous new religious sects, which often faced persecution by governmental authorities. In England, many people came to question the organization of the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
by the end of the 16th century. One of the primary manifestations of this was the
Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of J ...

Puritan
movement, which sought to "purify" the existing Church of England of its residual Catholic rites. The first of these people, known as the Pilgrims, landed on Plymouth Rock, MA in November 1620. Continuous waves of repression led to the migration of about 20,000 Puritans to
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
between 1629 and 1642, where they founded multiple colonies. Later in the century, the new
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
colony was given to
William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer and religious thinker belonging to the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, a North American colony of English overseas poss ...

William Penn
in settlement of a debt the king owed his father. Its government was established by William Penn in about 1682 to become primarily a refuge for persecuted English Quakers; but others were welcomed. Baptists, German and Swiss Protestants and
Anabaptists Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin , from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. It ...
also flocked to Pennsylvania. The lure of cheap land, religious freedom and the right to improve themselves with their own hand was very attractive. Mainly due to discrimination, there was often a separation between English colonial communities and indigenous communities. The Europeans viewed the natives as savages who were not worthy of participating in what they considered civilized society. The native people of North America did not die out nearly as rapidly nor as greatly as those in Central and South America due in part to their exclusion from British society. The indigenous people continued to be stripped of their native lands and were pushed further out west."Native Americans, Treatment of (Spain vs England)." ''Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History''. Ed. Thomas Carson and Mary Bonk. Detroit: Gale, 1999. N. pag. ''World History in Context''. Web. 30 Mar. 2015. The English eventually went on to control much of , the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
, and parts of
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
. They also gained
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
and
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
in the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
. John Smith convinced the colonists of Jamestown that searching for gold was not taking care of their immediate needs for food and shelter. The lack of
food security Food security is the measure of the availability of food and individuals' Economic inequality, ability to access it. According to the United Nations' Committee on World Food Security, food security is defined as meaning that all people, at all t ...
leading to extremely high mortality rate was quite distressing and cause for despair among the colonists. To support the colony, numerous supply missions were organized.
Tobacco Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defini ...

Tobacco
later became a cash crop, with the work of
John Rolfe John Rolfe (1585–1622) was one of the early English settlers of North America. He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco village in Xanthi, Greece Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the genus Ge ...
and others, for export and the sustaining economic driver of
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
and the neighboring colony of
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware ...

Maryland
. Plantation agriculture was a primary aspect of the colonies in the southeast US and in the Caribbean. They heavily relied on African slave labor to sustain their economic pursuits.Hair, Chris.
Differences Between British and Spanish Colonization of North America: Analysis of J.H. Elliot's Empire's of the Atlantic World.
''The American West: An Eclectic History''. N.p., 20 Nov. 2012. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.
From the beginning of Virginia's settlements in 1587 until the 1680s, the main source of labor and a large portion of the immigrants were
indentured servants Indentured servitude is a form of forced labor in which a person (an indenture) is forced to work without salary for a specific number of years for eventual compensation or debt repayment. Historically, it has been used to punish and relocate cap ...
looking for new life in the overseas colonies. During the 17th century, indentured servants constituted three-quarters of all European immigrants to the Chesapeake region. Most of the indentured servants were teenagers from England with poor economic prospects at home. Their fathers signed the papers that gave them free passage to America and an unpaid job until they became of age. They were given food, clothing, housing and taught farming or household skills. American landowners were in need of laborers and were willing to pay for a laborer's passage to America if they served them for several years. By selling passage for five to seven years worth of work, they could then start on their own in America. Many of the migrants from England died in the first few years. Economic advantage also prompted the
Darien Scheme The Darien scheme was an unsuccessful attempt, backed largely by investors of the Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, duri ...
, an ill-fated venture by the
Kingdom of Scotland The Kingdom of Scotland ( gd, Rìoghachd na h-Alba; sco, Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern thi ...
to settle the
Isthmus of Panama The Isthmus of Panama ( es, Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea The Caribbean Sea ( es, Mar Caribe; french: Mer des Caraïbes; ht, Lamè Ka ...
in the late 1690s. The Darien Scheme aimed to control trade through that part of the world and thereby promote Scotland into a world trading power. However, it was doomed by poor planning, short provisions, weak leadership, lack of demand for trade goods, and devastating disease. The failure of the Darien Scheme was one of the factors that led the Kingdom of Scotland into the
Act of Union 1707 The Acts of Union ( gd, Achd an Aonaidh) were two Act of Parliament, Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland. They put ...
with the
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
creating the united
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", ''The American Pageant, Volume 1'', Cengage Learning (2012) was a s ...

Kingdom of Great Britain
and giving Scotland commercial access to English, now British, colonies.


Dutch

The Netherlands had been part of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
, due to the inheritance of
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
of Spain. Many Dutch people converted to Protestantism and sought their political independence from Spain. They were a seafaring nation and built a global empire in regions where the Portuguese had originally explored. In the
Dutch Golden Age The Dutch Golden Age ( nl, Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the era from 1588 (the birth of the Dutch Republic) to 1672 (the Rampjaar, "Disaster Year"), in which Dutch trade, science, and Dutch art, ...
, it sought colonies. In the Americas, the Dutch conquered the northeast of
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...
in 1630, where the Portuguese had built sugar cane plantations worked by black slave labor from Africa. Prince Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen became the administrator of the colony (1637–43), building a capital city and royal palace, fully expecting the Dutch to retain control of this rich area. As the Dutch had in Europe, it tolerated the presence of Jews and other religious groups in the colony. After Maurits departed in 1643, the Dutch West India Company took over the colony, until it was lost to the Portuguese in 1654. The Dutch retained some territory in Dutch Guiana, now
Suriname Suriname () or Surinam, officially known as the Republic of Suriname ( nl, Republiek Suriname ), is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a rela ...

Suriname
. The Dutch also seized islands in the Caribbean that Spain had originally claimed but had largely abandoned, including
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten (, ) is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands , national_anthem = ) , image_map = Kingdom of the Netherlands (orthographic projection).svg , map_width = 250px , image_map2 = File:KonDerNed-10-10-10.png , ...

Sint Maarten
in 1618,
Bonaire Bonaire ( or ; ; pap, Boneiru, ) is an island in the Leeward Antilles The Leeward Antilles ( nl, Benedenwindse Eilanden) are a chain of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dram ...

Bonaire
in 1634,
Curaçao Curaçao ( ; ; pap, Kòrsou, ) is a Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles ( es, link=no, Antillas Menores; french: link=no, Petites Antilles; pap, Antias Menor; nl, Kleine Antillen) are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea The Cari ...
in 1634,
Sint Eustatius Sint Eustatius (, ), also known locally as Statia (),Tuchman, Barbara W. ''The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution'' New York: Ballantine Books, 1988. is an island in the Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes ...

Sint Eustatius
in 1636,
Aruba Aruba ( , , ) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands , national_anthem = ) , image_map = Kingdom of the Netherlands (orthographic projection).svg , map_width = 250px , image_map2 = File:KonDerNed-10-1 ...

Aruba
in 1637, some of which remain in Dutch hands and retain Dutch cultural traditions. On the east coast of North America, the Dutch planted the colony of
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonl ...
on the lower end of the island of Manhattan, at
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam ( nl, Nieuw Amsterdam, or ) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the ...

New Amsterdam
starting in 1624. The Dutch sought to protect their investments and purchased the Manhattan from a band of
Canarse The Canarsee (also Canarse and Canarsie) were a band of Munsee language, Munsee-speaking Lenape who inhabited the westernmost end of Long Island at the time the white Dutch Empire, Dutch colonized New Amsterdam in the 1620s and 1630s. They are cre ...
from Brooklyn who occupied the bottom quarter of Manhattan, known then as the Manhattoes, for 60
guilders Guilder is the English translation of the Dutch and German ''gulden'', originally shortened from Middle High German Middle High German (abbreviated ''MHG'', german: Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. ') is the term for the form of German spoken in the ...
' worth of trade goods. Minuit conducted the transaction with the Canarse chief Seyseys, who accepted valuable merchandise in exchange for an island that was actually mostly controlled by another indigenous group, the
Weckquaesgeek The Wecquaesgeek (also Manhattoe and Manhattan) were a Munsee language, Munsee-speaking band of Wappinger people who once lived along the east bank of the Hudson River in the southwest of today's Westchester County, New York,Their presence on the ...
s. Dutch fur traders set up a network upstream on the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
. There were Jewish settlers from 1654 onward, and they remained following the English capture of New Amsterdam in 1664. The naval capture was despite both nations being at peace with the other.


Russia

Russia came to colonization late compared to Spain or Portugal, or even England.
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...
was added to the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
and
Cossack The Cossacks * russian: казаки́ or * be, казакi * pl, Kozacy * cs, kozáci * sk, kozáci * hu, kozákok, cazacii * fi, Kasakat, cazacii * et, Kasakad, cazacii are a group of predominantly East Slavic languages, East Slav ...
explorers along rivers sought valuable furs of
ermine Ermine may refer to three species of mustelid The Mustelidae (; from Latin ''mustela'', weasel) are a family of carnivorous A carnivore , meaning "meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and killed animals f ...
,
sable The sable (''Martes zibellina'') is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the la ...

sable
, and
fox Foxes are small to medium-sized, s belonging to several of the family . They have a flattened skull, upright triangular ears, a pointed, slightly upturned , and a long bushy (or ''brush''). Twelve belong to the "true foxes" group of ge ...

fox
. Cossacks enlisted the aid of indigenous Siberians, who sought protection from nomadic peoples, and those peoples paid tribute in fur to the czar. Thus, prior to the eighteenth century Russian expansion that pushed beyond the
Bering Strait The Bering Strait (russian: Берингов пролив) is a strait of the Pacific, which separates Russia and the United States slightly south of the Arctic Circle at about 65° 40' N latitude. The present Russia-US east–west boundary is a ...
dividing
Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a ...

Eurasia
from
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
, Russia had experience with northern indigenous peoples and accumulated wealth from the hunting of fur bearing animals. Siberia had already attracted a core group of scientists, who sought to map and catalogue the flora, fauna, and other aspects of the natural world. A major Russian expedition for exploration was mounted in 1742, contemporaneous with other eighteenth-century European state-sponsored ventures. It was not clear at the time whether Eurasia and North America were completely separate continents. Voyages by
Vitus Bering Vitus Jonassen Bering (baptised 5 August 1681 – 19 December 1741),All dates are here given in the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman ...

Vitus Bering
and
Aleksei Chirikov Aleksei Ilyich Chirikov (russian: Алексе́й Ильи́ч Чи́риков; December 24, 1703 – June 4, 1748) was a Russian navigator A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation Navigation is a fi ...
, but permanent settlement began after 1743. Permanent settlements were established by the 1790s. Explorations continued down the Pacific coast, and Russia established a settlement in the early nineteenth century at what is now called
Fort Ross, California Fort Ross (russian: Форт-Росс), originally Fortress Ross (russian: Крѣпость Россъ, Romanization of Russian, tr. ''Krepostʹ Ross''), is a former Russian establishment on the History of the west coast of North America, west co ...

Fort Ross, California
. Russian fur traders forced indigenous
Aleut The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the by the s Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect),
Aleut
men into seasonal labor. Never very profitable, Russia sold its North American holdings to the United States in 1867, called at the time " Seward's Folly."


Christianization

Beginning with the
first wave of European colonization The first European colonization wave began with Castilian Conquest of the Canary Islands The conquest of the Canary Islands by the Crown of Castille took place between 1402 and 1496. It can be divided into two periods: the Conquista señori ...
, the
religious discrimination Religious discrimination is treating a person or group differently because of the particular beliefs which they hold about a religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and prac ...
,
persecution Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another individual or group. The most common forms are religious persecution Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or a group of individua ...
, and
violence Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations ...
toward the Indigenous peoples' native religions was systematically perpetrated by the European Christian colonists and settlers from the 15th-16th centuries onwards. Spain was the most active in attempting to convert the Indigenous peoples to the
Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of d ...

Christian religion
. Pope
Alexander VI Pope Alexander VI (born Rodrigo de Borja; ca-valencia, Roderic Llançol i de Borja ; es, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja, lang ; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as th ...

Alexander VI
issued the ''
Inter caetera ''Inter caetera'' ('Among other orks) was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI Pope Alexander VI (born Rodrigo de Borja; ca-valencia, Roderic Llançol i de Borja ; es, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja, lang ; 1 January 1431 – 18 Aug ...
'' bull in May 1493 that confirmed the lands claimed by the
Kingdom of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
, and mandated in exchange that the Indigenous peoples be converted to
Catholic Christianity The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide . As the world's old ...
. During
Columbus Columbus is a Latinized version of the Italian surname "''Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Kolamba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Kozhumpu, ) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ...

Columbus
's second voyage,
Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Be ...
friars accompanied him, along with twelve other priests. With the
Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, also known as the Conquest of Mexico or the Spanish-Aztec War (1519–21), was one of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. There are multiple 16th-century narratives of the eve ...
, evangelization of the dense Indigenous populations was undertaken in what was called the "spiritual conquest." Several mendicant orders were involved in the early campaign to convert the Indigenous peoples. Franciscans and Dominicans learned Indigenous languages, such as
Nahuatl Nahuatl (; ),The Classical Nahuatl word (noun stem ''nāhua'', + absolutive ''-tl'' ) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Nao ...

Nahuatl
,
Mixtec The Mixtecs (), or Mixtecos, are indigenous Mesoamerica Mesoamerica is a historical and important region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteris ...
, and
Zapotec Zapotec () or zapoteca may refer to: Cultures and languages * Zapotec civilization, a historical indigenous pre-Columbian civilization and archaeological culture of central Mexico * Zapotec languages, a group of closely related indigenous Mesoamer ...
. One of the first schools for Indigenous peoples in Mexico was founded by
Pedro de Gante Fray Pieter van der Moere, also known as Fray Pedro de Gante or Pedro de Mura (c. 1480 – 1572) was a Franciscan order, Franciscan missionary in sixteenth century Mexico. Born in Geraardsbergen in present-day Belgium, he was of Flemish people, Fl ...

Pedro de Gante
in 1523. The friars aimed at converting Indigenous leaders, with the hope and expectation that their communities would follow suit. In densely populated regions, friars mobilized Indigenous communities to build churches, making the religious change visible; these churches and chapels were often in the same places as old temples, often using the same stones. "Native peoples exhibited a range of responses, from outright hostility to active embrace of the new religion." In central and southern Mexico where there was an existing Indigenous tradition of creating written texts, the friars taught Indigenous scribes to write their own languages in
Latin letters Latin script, also known as Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (Writing system#General properties, script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet. This is derived from a form of the Cumae alphabet, Cumaean Greek version of the ...
. There is significant body of texts in Indigenous languages created by and for Indigenous peoples in their own communities for their own purposes. In frontier areas where there were no settled Indigenous populations, friars and
Jesuits The Society of Jesus ( la, Societas Iesu; abbreviated SJ), also known as the Jesuits (; la, Iesuitæ), is a religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome. It was founded by Ignatius of Loyola and six co ...
often created
missions Mission may refer to: Religion *Mission (station) A religious mission or mission station is a location for missionary work, in particular Christian missions. History Historically, missions have been religious communities used to spread ...
, bringing together dispersed Indigenous populations in communities supervised by the friars in order to more easily preach the gospel and ensure their adherence to the faith. These missions were established throughout the Spanish colonies which extended from the southwestern portions of current-day United States through
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
and to
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
and
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
. As
slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
was prohibited between Christians and could only be imposed upon non-Christian prisoners of war and/or men already sold as slaves, the debate on Christianization was particularly acute during the early 16th century, when Spanish conquerors and settlers sought to mobilize Indigenous labor. Later, two Dominican friars,
Bartolomé de Las Casas Bartolomé de las Casas ( ; ; 11 November 1484 – 18 July 1566) was a 16th-century Spanish landowner, friar, priest, and bishop, famed as a historian and social reformer. He arrived in Hispaniola as a layman then became a Dominican friar and ...

Bartolomé de Las Casas
and the
philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mi ...

philosopher
Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda (11 June 1494 – 17 November 1573) was a Spanish Renaissance The Spanish Renaissance was a movement in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España. ...

Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda
, held the
Valladolid debate The Valladolid debate (1550–1551) was the first moral debate in European history to discuss the rights and treatment of an indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochtho ...
, with the former arguing that Native Americans were endowed with
souls In many religious, philosophical, and myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude ...

souls
like all other human beings, while the latter argued to the contrary to justify their enslavement. In 1537, the papal bull ''
Sublimis Deus ''Sublimis Deus'' (English: ''The sublime God''; erroneously cited as ''Sublimus Dei'' and occasionally as ''Sic Dilexit'') is a Papal bull, bull promulgated by Pope Paul III on June 2, 1537, which forbids the enslavement of the indigenous peoples ...
'' definitively recognized that Native Americans possessed souls, thus prohibiting their enslavement, without putting an end to the debate. Some claimed that a native who had rebelled and then been captured could be enslaved nonetheless. The process of Christianization was at first violent: when the first
Franciscans , image = FrancescoCoA PioM.svg , image_size = 250px , caption = A cross, Christ's arm and Saint Francis's arm, a universal symbol of the Franciscans , abbreviation = OFM , predecessor = , ...
arrived in Mexico in 1524, they burned the sacred places dedicated to the Indigenous peoples' native religions."Espagnols-Indiens: le choc des civilisations", in ''
L'Histoire ''L'Histoire'' is a monthly mainstream French magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a ...
'' n°322, July–August 2007, pp. 14–21 (interview with Christian Duverger, teacher at the
EHESS The School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (french: École des hautes études en sciences sociales; also known as EHESS) is one of the most selective and prestigious ''grandes écoles Grandes may refer to: *Agustín Muñoz Grandes Ag ...

EHESS
)
However, in pre-Columbian
Mesoamerica Mesoamerica is a historical and important region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the ...
, burning the temple of a conquered group was standard practice, shown in Indigenous manuscripts, such as
Codex Mendoza The founding of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan; first page of the Codex Mendoza, circa 1541 The Codex Mendoza is an Aztec codices, Aztec codex, believed to have been created around the year 1541. It contains a history of both the Aztec rulers and ...

Codex Mendoza
. Conquered Indigenous groups expected to take on the gods of their new overlords, adding them to the existing pantheon. They likely were unaware that their conversion to Christianity entailed the complete and irrevocable renunciation of their ancestral religious beliefs and practices. In 1539, Mexican bishop
Juan de Zumárraga ''Juan'' is a given name, the Spanish language, Spanish and Manx language, Manx versions of ''John (given name), John''. It is very common in Spain and in other Spanish-speaking communities around the world and in the Philippines, and also (pronounc ...
oversaw the trial and
execution Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

execution
of the Indigenous nobleman Carlos Ometochtzin, Carlos of Texcoco for Apostasy in Christianity, apostasy from Christianity. Following that, the Catholic Church removed Indigenous converts from the jurisdiction of the Inquisition, since it had a chilling effect on evangelization. In creating a protected group of Christians, Indigenous men no longer could aspire to be ordained Christian priests. Throughout the Americas, the
Jesuits The Society of Jesus ( la, Societas Iesu; abbreviated SJ), also known as the Jesuits (; la, Iesuitæ), is a religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome. It was founded by Ignatius of Loyola and six co ...
were active in converting the Indigenous peoples. They had considerable success on the frontiers in
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
in Portuguese Brazil, most famously with Antonio de Vieira, S.J; and in Paraguay, almost an autonomous state within a state.


Religion and immigration

Roman Catholics were the first major religious group to immigrate to the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: "[16c: from ...
, as settlers in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies of Portugal and Spain, and later, France in
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
. No other religion was tolerated and there was a concerted effort to convert indigenous peoples and black slaves to Catholicism. The Catholic Church established three offices of the Inquisition, in Mexico City; Lima, Peru; and Cartagena de Indias in Colombia to maintain religious orthodoxy and practice. The Portuguese did not establish a permanent office of the Inquisition in Brazil, but did send visitations of inquistors in the seventeenth century. English and Dutch colonies, on the other hand, tended to be more religiously diverse. Settlers to these colonies included Anglicans, Dutch Calvinists, English Puritans and other Nonconformist (Protestantism), nonconformists, Maryland Toleration Act, English Catholics, Scottish Presbyterians, French Protestant Huguenots, German and Swedish Lutherans, as well as Jews, Quakers, Mennonites, Amish, and Moravian Church, Moravians. Jews fled to the Dutch colony of
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam ( nl, Nieuw Amsterdam, or ) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the ...

New Amsterdam
when the Spanish and Portuguese inquisitions cracked down on their presence.


Disease and indigenous population loss

The European lifestyle included a long history of sharing close quarters with domesticated animals such as cows, pigs, sheep, goats, horses, dogs and various domesticated fowl, from which many diseases originally stemmed. In contrast to the indigenous people, the Europeans had developed a richer endowment of antibodies. The large-scale contact with Europeans after 1492 introduced Eurasian germs to the indigenous people of the Americas. Epidemics of smallpox (1518, 1521, 1525, 1558, 1589), typhus (1546), influenza (1558), diphtheria (1614) and measles (1618) swept the Americas subsequent to European contact, killing between 10 million and 100 million people, up to 95% of the Indigenous peoples, indigenous population of the Americas. The cultural and political instability attending these losses appears to have been of substantial aid in the efforts of various colonists in New England and Massachusetts to acquire control over the great wealth in land and resources of which indigenous societies had customarily made use. Such diseases yielded human mortality of an unquestionably enormous gravity and scale – and this has profoundly confused efforts to determine its full extent with any true precision. Estimates of the Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, pre-Columbian population of the Americas vary tremendously. Others have argued that significant variations in population size over pre-Columbian history are reason to view higher-end estimates with caution. Such estimates may reflect historical population maxima, while indigenous populations may have been at a level somewhat below these maxima or in a moment of decline in the period just prior to contact with Europeans. Indigenous populations hit their ultimate lows in most areas of the Americas in the early 20th century; in a number of cases, growth has returned. According to scientists from University College London, the colonization of the Americas by Europeans killed so much of the indigenous population that it resulted in climate change and Little Ice Age, global cooling. Some contemporary scholars also attribute significant indigenous population losses in the Caribbean to the widespread practice of slavery and deadly forced labor in gold and silver mines. Historian, Andrés Reséndez, supports this claim and argues that indigenous populations were smaller previous estimations and "a nexus of slavery, overwork and famine killed more Indians in the Caribbean than smallpox, influenza and malaria."


Slavery

Indigenous population loss following European contact directly led to Spanish explorations beyond the Caribbean islands they initially claimed and settled in the 1490s, since they required a labor force to both produce food and to mine gold. Slavery was not unknown in Indigenous societies. With the arrival of European colonists, enslavement of Indigenous peoples "became commodified, expanded in unexpected ways, and came to resemble the kinds of human trafficking that are recognizable to us today".Reséndez, Andrés. ''The Other Slavery : the Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America / Andrés Reséndez.'' Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2016. Print. While disease was the main killer of indigenous peoples, the practice of slavery and forced labor was also significant contributor to the indigenous death toll. With the arrival of Europeans other than Spanish, enslavement of native populations increased since there were no prohibitions against slavery until decades later. It is estimated that from Columbus's arrival to the end of the 19th century between 2.5 and 5 million Native Americans were forced into slavery. Indigenous men, women, and children were often forced into labor in sparsely populated frontier settings, in the household, or in the toxic gold and silver mines.Waite, Kevin. "The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America." ''The Journal of Civil War Era'', vol. 7, no. 3, 2017, p. 473+. ''Gale Academic OneFile'', https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A502506898/AONE?u=tel_a_vanderbilt&sid=AONE&xid=0e6d28ed. Accessed 17 Oct. 2020. This practice was known as the Encomienda, ''encomienda'' system and granted free native labor to the Spaniards. Based upon the practice of exacting tribute from Muslims and Jews during the Reconquista, the Spanish Crown granted a number of native laborers to an ''encomendero'', who was usually a conquistador or other prominent Spanish male. Under the grant, they were theoretically bound to both protecting the natives and converting them to Christianity. In exchange for their Forced conversion#Christianity, forced conversion to Christianity, the natives paid tributes in the form of gold, agricultural products, and labor. The Spanish Crown tried to terminate the system through the Laws of Burgos (1512–13) and the
New Laws The New Laws ( Spanish: ''Leyes Nuevas''), also known as the New Laws of the Indies for the Good Treatment and Preservation of the Indians ( Spanish: ''Leyes y ordenanzas nuevamente hechas por su Majestad para la gobernación de las Indias y buen ...
of the Indies (1542). However, the encomenderos refused to comply with the new measures and the indigenous people continued to be exploited. Eventually, the encomienda system was replaced by the ''repartimientos, repartimiento'' system which was not abolished until the late 18th century. In the Caribbean, deposits of gold were quickly exhausted and the precipitous drop in the indigenous population meant a severe labor shortage. Spaniards sought a high value, low bulk export product to make their fortunes. Cane sugar was the answer. It had been cultivated on the Iberian Atlantic islands. It was a highly desirable, expensive foodstuff. The problem of a labor force was solved by the importation of African slaves, initiating the creation of sugar plantations worked by chattel slaves. Plantations required a significant work force to be purchased, housed, and fed; capital investment in building Engenho, processing plants on-site, since once cane was cut sugar rapidly leaked out. Plantation owners were linked to creditors and a network of merchants to sell processed sugar in Europe. The whole system was predicated on a huge enslaved population. The Portuguese controlled the African slave trade, since the division of spheres with Spain in the
Treaty of Tordesillas The Treaty of Tordesillas, ; pt, Tratado de Tordesilhas . signed in Tordesillas, Spain on June 7, 1494, and authenticated in Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly-discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire The Portuguese ...

Treaty of Tordesillas
, they controlled the African coasts. Black slavery dominated the labor force in tropical zones, particularly where sugar was cultivated, in Portuguese Brazil, the English, French, and Dutch Caribbean islands. On the mainland of North America, the English Thirteen Colonies, southern colonies imported black slaves, starting in First Africans in Virginia, Virginia in 1619, to cultivate other tropical or semi-tropical crops such as tobacco, rice, and cotton. Although black slavery is most associated with agricultural production, in Spanish America enslaved and free blacks and mulattoes were found in numbers in cities, working as artisans. Most newly transported African slaves were not Christians, but their conversion was a priority. For the Catholic Church, black slavery was not incompatible with Christianity. The
Jesuits The Society of Jesus ( la, Societas Iesu; abbreviated SJ), also known as the Jesuits (; la, Iesuitæ), is a religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome. It was founded by Ignatius of Loyola and six co ...
created hugely profitable agricultural enterprises and held a significant black slave labor force. European whites often justified the practice through the belts of latitude theory, supported by Aristotle and Ptolemy. In this perspective, belts of latitude wrapped around the earth and corresponded with specific human traits. The peoples from the "cold zone" in Northern Europe were "of lesser prudence", while those of the "hot zone" in sub-Sahara Africa were intelligent but "weaker and less spirited". According to the theory, those of the "temperate zone" across the Mediterranean reflected an ideal balance of strength and prudence. Such ideas about latitude and character justified a natural human hierarchy. Africans slaves were a highly valuable commodity, enriching those involved in the trade. Africans were transported to slave ships to the Americas, were primarily obtained from their African homelands by coastal tribes who captured and sold them. Europeans traded for slaves with the local native African tribes who captured them elsewhere in exchange for rum, guns, gunpowder, and other manufactures. The total slave trade to islands in the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
, the Portuguese, Spanish, French, Dutch, and British Empires is estimated to have involved 12 million Africans. The vast majority of these slaves went to sugar colonies in the Caribbean and to Brazil, where life expectancy was short and the numbers had to be continually replenished. At most about 600,000 African slaves were imported into the United States, or 5% of the 12 million slaves brought across from Africa. There is debate over whether the indigenous population of the Americas suffered a greater demographic decline than the African continent, despite the latter having lost roughly 12.5 million individuals to the transatlantic slave trade.


Colonization and race

Throughout the South American hemisphere, there were three large regional sources of populations: Native Americans, arriving Europeans, and forcibly transported Africans. The mixture of these cultures impacted the ethnic makeup that predominates in the hemisphere's largely independent states today. The term to describe someone of mixed European and indigenous ancestry is mestizo while the term to describe someone of mixed European and African ancestry is mulatto. The mestizo and mulatto population are specific to Iberian-influenced current-day Latin America because the conquistadors had (often forced) sexual relations with the indigenous and African women. The social interaction of these three groups of people inspired the creation of a caste system based on skin tone. The hierarchy centered around those with the lightest skin tone and ordered from highest to lowest was the Peninsulares, Criollos, mestizos, indigenous, mulatto, then African. Unlike the Iberians, the British men came with families with whom they planned to permanently live in what is now North America. They kept the natives on the margins of colonial society. Because the British colonizers' wives were present, the British men rarely had sexual relations with the native women. While the mestizo and mulatto population make up the majority of people in Latin America today, there is only a small mestizo population in present-day North America (excluding Central America).


Impact of colonial land ownership on long-term development

Eventually, most of the Western Hemisphere came under the control of Western European governments, leading to changes to its landscape, population, and plant and animal life. In the 19th century over 50 million people left Western Europe for the Americas. The post-1492 era is known as the period of the Columbian Exchange, a dramatically widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations (including Atlantic slave trade, slaves), ideas, and Native American disease and epidemics, communicable disease between the American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres following Columbus's voyages to the Americas. Most scholars writing at the end of the 19th century estimated that the pre-Columbian population was as low as 10 million; by the end of the 20th century most scholars gravitated to a middle estimate of around 50 million, with some historians arguing for an estimate of 100 million or more. A recent estimate is that there were about 60.5 million people living in the Americas Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, immediately before depopulation, of which 90 per cent, mostly in Central and South America, perished from wave after wave of disease, along with war and Slavery among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, slavery playing their part. Geographic differences between the colonies played a large determinant in the types of political and economic systems that later developed. In their paper on institutions and long-run growth, economists Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson (economist), Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson (economist), James A. Robinson argue that certain natural endowments gave rise to distinct colonial policies promoting either smallholder or coerced labor production. Densely settled populations, for example, were more easily exploitable and profitable as slave labor. In these regions, landowning elites were economically incentivized to develop forced labor arrangements such as the Peru
mit'a Mit'a () was mandatory public service in the society of the Inca Empire The Inca Empire ( qu, Tawantinsuyu,  "four parts together"), Quechuan and Aymaran spelling shift, also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest e ...
system or Argentinian latifundias without regard for democratic norms. French and British colonial leaders, conversely, were incentivized to develop Capitalism, capitalist markets, property rights, and democratic institutions in response to natural environments that supported smallholder production over forced labor. James Mahony, James Mahoney proposes that colonial policy choices made at critical junctures regarding land ownership in coffee-rich Central America fostered enduring path dependence, path dependent institutions. Coffee economies in Guatemala and El Salvador, for example, were centralized around large plantations that operated under coercive labor systems. By the 19th century, their political structures were largely authoritarian and militarized. In Colombia and Costa Rica, conversely, liberal reforms were enacted at critical junctures to expand commercial agriculture, and they ultimately raised the bargaining power of the middle class. Both nations eventually developed more democratic and egalitarian institutions than their highly concentrated landowning counterparts.


List of European colonies in the Americas

There were at least a dozen European countries involved in the colonization of the Americas. The following list indicates those countries and the Western Hemisphere territories they worked to control.


British colonization of the Americas, British and (before 1707) English

* British America (1607–1783) ** Thirteen Colonies (1607–1783) ** Rupert's Land (1670–1870) ** History of British Columbia, British Columbia (1793–1871) ** British North America (1783–1907) * British West Indies * Belize


Courland colonization of the Americas, Courland (indirectly part of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth)

* New Courland (Tobago) (1654–1689); Courland is now part of Latvia


Danish colonization of the Americas, Danish

* ''Danish West Indies, Dano-Norwegian West Indies'' (1754–1814) * Danish West Indies (1814–1917) * ''North Greenland, Dano-Norwegian North Greenland'' (1721–1814) * ''South Greenland, Dano-Norwegian South Greenland'' (1728?–1814) *
Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is an autonomous territory An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administra ...

Greenland
(1814–1953)


Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

*
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonl ...
(1609–1667) * Essequibo (colony), Essequibo (1616–1815) * Dutch Virgin Islands (1625–1680) * Berbice (1627–1815) * Tobago, New Walcheren (1628–1677) * Dutch Brazil (1630–1654) * Pomeroon (colony), Pomeroon (1650–1689) * Cayenne (Dutch colony), Cayenne (1658–1664) * Demerara (1745–1815) * Suriname (Dutch colony), Suriname (1667–1954) (Remained within the Kingdom of the Netherlands until 1975 as a constituent state) * Curaçao and Dependencies (1634–1954) (Aruba and Curaçao are still in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Bonaire; 1634–present) * Sint Eustatius and Dependencies (1636–1954) (Sint Maarten is still in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Sint Eustatius and Saba; 1636–present)


French colonization of the Americas, French

*
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
(1604–1763) ** Acadia (1604–1713) ** Canada, New France, Canada (1608–1763) ** Louisiana (New France), Louisiana (1699–1763, 1800–1803) ** Newfoundland French, Newfoundland (1662–1713) ** Cape Breton Island#History, Île Royale (1713–1763) * French Guiana (1763–present) * French West Indies * Saint-Domingue (1659–1804, now Haiti) * Tobago * History of the British Virgin Islands, Virgin Islands * France Antarctique (1555–1567) * Equinoctial France (1612–1615) * French Florida (1562–1565)


Hospitaller colonization of the Americas, Knights of Malta

* Saint Barthélemy (1651–1665) * Saint Kitts, Saint Christopher (1651–1665) * Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Saint Croix (1651–1665) * Collectivity of Saint Martin, Saint Martin (1651–1665)


Norwegian colonization of the Americas, Norwegian

* Norse colonization of North America#Norse Greenland, Greenland (986–1408) * ''South Greenland, Dano-Norwegian South Greenland'' (1728?–1814) * ''North Greenland, Dano-Norwegian North Greenland'' (1721–1814) * ''Danish West Indies, Dano-Norwegian West Indies'' (1754–1814) * Cooper Island (British Virgin Islands), Cooper Island (1844–1905) * Sverdrup Islands (1898–1930) * Erik the Red's Land (1931–1933)


Portuguese colonization of the Americas, Portuguese

* Colonial Brazil (1500–1815) became a Kingdom, United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. * Labrador, Terra do Labrador (1499/1500–?) Claimed region (sporadically settled). * Newfoundland (island), Land of the Corte-Real, also known as Bacalhau, Terra Nova dos Bacalhaus (Land of Codfish) – Terra Nova (Newfoundland) (1501–?) Claimed region (sporadically settled). ** Portugal Cove-St. Philip's (1501–1696) * Nova Scotia (1519?–1520s?) Claimed region (sporadically settled). * Barbados (c.1536–1620) * Colonia del Sacramento, Colonia do Sacramento (1680–1705/1714–1762/1763–1777 (1811–1817)) * Cisplatina (1811–1822, now Uruguay) * French Guiana (1809–1817)


Russian colonization of the Americas, Russian

* Russian America (Alaska) (1799–1867) * Fort Ross (Sonoma County, California) * Russian Fort Elizabeth (Hawaii)


Scottish colonization of the Americas, Scottish

* Nova Scotia (1622–1632) *
Darien Scheme The Darien scheme was an unsuccessful attempt, backed largely by investors of the Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, duri ...
on the
Isthmus of Panama The Isthmus of Panama ( es, Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea The Caribbean Sea ( es, Mar Caribe; french: Mer des Caraïbes; ht, Lamè Ka ...
(1698–1700) * Scottish colonization of the Americas#Stuarts Town, Carolina (1684), Stuarts Town, Carolina (1684–1686)


Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish

*
Hispaniola Hispaniola (, also ; es, La Española; Latin and french: Hispaniola; ht, Ispayola; tnq, Ayiti) is an island in the Caribbean that is part of the Greater Antilles. Hispaniola is the most populous island in the West Indies, and the region's se ...
(1493–1697); the island currently comprising Haiti and the Dominican Republic, under Spanish rule in whole from 1492 to 1697; under partial rule under the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo (1697-1821), then again as the Dominican Republic (1861-1865). *
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...

Puerto Rico
(1493–1898); first as the Captaincy General of Puerto Rico * Colony of Santiago (1509-1655); conquered by Britain in 1655, currently Jamaica *
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
(1607-1898); first as the Captaincy General of Cuba * Viceroyalty of New Granada (1717–1819) ** Captaincy General of Venezuela * New Spain, Viceroyalty of New Spain (1535–1821) ** Nueva Extremadura ** Nueva Galicia ** New Kingdom of León, Nuevo Reino de León ** Nuevo Santander ** Nueva Vizcaya, New Spain, Nueva Vizcaya ** The Californias, Las Californias ** Santa Fe de Nuevo México ** Captaincy General of Guatemala * Louisiana (New Spain) (1769-1801) * Spanish Florida (1565-1763) * Spanish Texas (1716-1802) * Viceroyalty of Peru (1542–1824) * Captaincy General of Chile (1544-1818) * Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata (1776–1814)


Swedish colonization of the Americas, Swedish

*
New Sweden New Sweden ( sv, Nya Sverige; fi, Uusi Ruotsi; la, Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising i ...
(1638–1655) * Saint Barthélemy (1784–1878) * Guadeloupe (1813–1814)


Failed attempts


German colonization of the Americas, German

* Klein-Venedig (Holy Roman Empire) * :de:Hanauisch-Indien, Hanauisch-Indien ''(in German)'' * Saint Thomas (Brandenburg colony), Saint Thomas (Brandenburg colony) * German interest in the Caribbean (German Empire)


Italy and the colonization of the Americas, Italian

* Thornton expedition (now French Guiana)


Exhibitions and collections

In 2007, the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History and the Virginia Historical Society (VHS) co-organized a traveling exhibition to recount the strategic alliances and violent conflict between European empires (England, English, Spain, Spanish, France, French) and the Native people living in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
. The exhibition was presented in three languages and with multiple perspectives. Artifacts on display included rare surviving Native and European artifacts, maps, documents, and ceremonial objects from museums and royal collections on both sides of the Atlantic. The exhibition opened in Richmond, Virginia, Richmond,
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
on March 17, 2007, and closed at the Smithsonian International Gallery on October 31, 2009. The related online exhibition explores the international origins of the societies of
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
and the United States and commemorates the 400th anniversary of three lasting settlements in Jamestown, Virginia, Jamestown (1607), Quebec City (1608), and Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe (1609). The site is accessible in three languages.


See also

* Atlantic history * Atlantic world * Bandeirantes * Chronology of the colonization of North America * Colonial history of the United States * Colonialism * Columbian Exchange * Conquistador *
Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, 1st Marquess of the Valley of Oaxaca (; ; 1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish ''Conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knight ...

Hernán Cortés
* European colonization of the Southern United States * Former colonies and territories in Canada * History of the west coast of North America *
Indigenous peoples of the Americas The Indigenous peoples of the Americas, also known as Amerindians or Indians, are the inhabitants of the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the fo ...
* Influx of disease in the Caribbean * Imperialism * List of North American cities founded in chronological order *
Norse colonization of the Americas The Norse colonization of North America began in the late 10th century Common Era, CE when Vikings, Norsemen explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic including the northeastern fringes of North America. Remains of Norse buildings were found ...
*
Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro González (; ;  – 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knights, soldiers, and explorers of the Spanish Empire, Spanish and t ...

Francisco Pizarro
* Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas * Portuguese Empire * Romanus Pontifex and
Inter caetera ''Inter caetera'' ('Among other orks) was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI Pope Alexander VI (born Rodrigo de Borja; ca-valencia, Roderic Llançol i de Borja ; es, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja, lang ; 1 January 1431 – 18 Aug ...
* Settler colonialism * Spanish conquest of Yucatán *
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
* Thirteen Colonies, which became the United States in 1776 * Timeline of the European colonization of North America * Timeline of imperialism#Colonization of North America * Treaty of Alcáçovas *
Treaty of Tordesillas The Treaty of Tordesillas, ; pt, Tratado de Tordesilhas . signed in Tordesillas, Spain on June 7, 1494, and authenticated in Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly-discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire The Portuguese ...

Treaty of Tordesillas
* European emigration


Notes


Bibliography

* Bernard Bailyn, Bailyn, Bernard, ed. ''Atlantic History: Concept and Contours'' (Harvard UP, 2005) * Bannon, John Francis. ''History of the Americas'' (2 vols. 1952), older textbook * Bolton, Herbert E. "The Epic of Greater America," ''American Historical Review'' 38, no. 3 (April 1933): 448–47
in JSTOR
* Davis, Harold E. ''The Americas in History'' (1953), older textbook * Egerton, Douglas R. et al. ''The Atlantic World: A History, 1400–1888'' (2007) * Eltis, David. ''The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas'' (2000). * Hinderaker, Eric; Horn, Rebecca. "Territorial Crossings: Histories and Historiographies of the Early Americas," ''William and Mary Quarterly'', (2010) 67#3 pp. 395–43
in JSTOR
* Lockhart, James, and Stuart B. Schwartz. ''Early Latin America: A History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil'' (1983). * Merriman, Roger Bigelow. ''The Rise of The Spanish Empire in the Old World and in the New'' (4 vol. 1934) * Samuel Eliot Morison, Morison, Samuel Eliot. ''The European Discovery of America: The northern voyages, A.D. 500–1600'' (1971) * Morison, Samuel Eliot. ''The European Discovery of America: The southern voyages, 1492–1616'' (1971) * Parry, J.H. ''The Age of Reconnaissance: Discovery, Exploration, and Settlement, 1450–1650'' (1982) * Sarson, Steven, and Jack P. Greene, eds. ''The American Colonies and the British Empire, 1607–1783'' (8 vol, 2010); primary sources * Sobecki, Sebastian. "New World Discovery". Oxford Handbooks Online (2015). * Starkey, Armstrong (1998). ''European-Native American Warfare, 1675–1815''. University of Oklahoma Press * Vickers, Daniel, ed. ''A Companion to Colonial America'' (2003)


External links


"The Political Force of Images," Vistas: Visual Culture in Spanish America, 1520–1820.
{{DEFAULTSORT:European Colonization Of The Americas European colonization of the Americas, Age of Discovery Christianization Colonization history of the United States, Europe History of Central America, European History of European colonialism, Americas History of indigenous peoples of the Americas, European History of North America, European History of South America, European History of the Americas, European History of the Caribbean, European History of the United States by topic