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The Restoration of the
Stuart monarchy The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a dynasty, royal house of Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, Kingdom of England, England, Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland and later Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain. The family name comes from the off ...
in the kingdoms of
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...
and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
took place in 1660 when King
Charles II
Charles II
returned from exile in continental Europe. The preceding period of
the Protectorate The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order. Archetypal ...
and
the civil wars The Civil Wars were an American musical duo composed of Joy Williams (singer), Joy Williams and John Paul White. Formed in 2008, The Civil Wars won four Grammy Awards prior to their 2014 breakup. History 2008–2010 Both Williams and White h ...
came to be known as the
Interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order. Archetypally, it was the period of time between the reign of one monarch and the next (coming from Latin ''i ...
(1649–1660). The term ''Restoration'' is also used to describe the period of several years after, in which a new political settlement was established. It is very often used to cover the whole reign of King Charles II (1660–1685) and often the brief reign of his younger brother King
James II James II and VII (14 October 1633Old Style and New Style dates, O.S.16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymou ...

James II
(1685–1688). In certain contexts it may be used to cover the whole period of the later Stuart monarchs as far as the death of
Queen Anne Queen Anne often refers to: * Anne, Queen of Great Britain (1665–1714), queen of England, Scotland and Ireland (1702–1707) and of Great Britain (1707–1714) **Queen Anne style architecture, an architectural style from her reign, and its revival ...

Queen Anne
and the accession of the Hanoverian King
George IGeorge I or 1 may refer to: People * Patriarch George I of Alexandria (floruit, fl. 621–631) * George I of Constantinople (d. 686) * George I of Antioch (d. 790) * George I of Abkhazia (ruled 872/3–878/9) * George I of Georgia (d. 1027) * Yuri D ...
in 1714. For example, Restoration comedy typically encompasses works written as late as 1710.


The Protectorate

After
Richard Cromwell Richard Cromwell (4 October 162612 July 1712) was an English statesman who was the latter Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland and son of the first Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell. On his father's death, Richa ...
,
Lord Protector Lord Protector (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...
from 1658 to 1659, ceded power to the
Rump Parliament The Rump Parliament was the Parliament of England, English Parliament after Pride's Purge, Colonel Thomas Pride purged the Long Parliament, on 6 December 1648, of those Members of Parliament, members hostile to the Grandee#Grandee (New Model Army) ...

Rump Parliament
,
Charles Fleetwood Charles Fleetwood (c. 1618 – 4 October 1692) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Engl ...

Charles Fleetwood
and
John LambertJohn Lambert may refer to: *John Lambert (martyr) (died 1538), English Protestant martyred during the reign of Henry VIII *John Lambert (general) (1619–1684), Parliamentary general in the English Civil War *John Lambert of Creg Clare (''fl.'' c. 1 ...
then dominated government for a year. On 20 October 1659
George Monck George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG (6 December 1608 – 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician, and a key figure on both sides of the English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and pol ...

George Monck
, the governor of Scotland under the Cromwells, marched south with his army from Scotland to oppose Fleetwood and Lambert. Lambert's army began to desert him, and he returned to London almost alone whilst Monck marched to London unopposed. The Presbyterian members, excluded in
Pride's Purge Pride's Purge is the name commonly used for an event that took place on 6 December 1648, when soldiers prevented MPs considered hostile to the New Model Army The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Roundhead, Parliamentarian ...
of 1648, were recalled, and on 24 December the army restored the
Long Parliament The Long Parliament was an Parliament of England, English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660. It followed the fiasco of the Short Parliament, which had convened for only three weeks during the spring of 1640 after an Personal Rule, 11- ...
.. Fleetwood was deprived of his command and ordered to appear before Parliament to answer for his conduct. On 3 March 1660, Lambert was sent to the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle A castle is a type of structure built during the predominantly by the or royalty and by . Scholars debate the sc ...

Tower of London
, from which he escaped a month later. He tried to rekindle the civil war in favour of the
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...
by issuing a proclamation calling on all supporters of the "
Good Old Cause The Good Old Cause was the name given, retrospectively, by the soldiers of the New Model Army The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Roundhead, Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after Stuar ...
" to rally on the battlefield of Edgehill, but he was recaptured by Colonel
Richard Ingoldsby Colonel Sir Richard Ingoldsby (10 August 1617 – 9 September 1685) was an English officer in the New Model Army The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Roundhead, Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disba ...
, a participant in the
regicide Regicide is the purposeful killing of a monarch or sovereign of a polity and is often associated with Usurper, the usurpation of power. A regicide can also be the person responsible for the killing. The word comes from the latin roots of ''re ...
of Charles I who hoped to win a pardon by handing Lambert over to the new regime. Lambert was incarcerated and died in custody in 1684 and Ingoldsby was pardoned. "The restoration was not what George Monck, as an apparent engineer of the Restoration, had intended – if indeed he knew what he intended, for in Clarendon's sardonic words; 'the whole machine was infinitely above his strength ... and it is glory enough to his memory that he was instrumental in bringing those things to pass which he had neither wisdom to foresee, nor courage to attempt, nor understanding to contrive'".


Restoration of Charles II

On 4 April 1660, issued the
Declaration of Breda The Declaration of Breda (dated 4 April 1660) was a proclamation by Charles II of England in which he promised a general pardon for crimes committed during the English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars ...
, in which he made several promises in relation to the reclamation of the crown of England. Whilst he did this, Monck organised the Convention Parliament, which met for the first time on 25 April. On 8 May it proclaimed that King Charles II had been the lawful monarch since the
execution of Charles I The execution of Charles I by beheading occurred on Tuesday 30 January 1649 outside the Banqueting House in Whitehall Whitehall is a road and area in the City of Westminster, Central London. The road forms the first part of the A roads in Zo ...
on 30 January 1649. Historian Tim Harris describes it: "Constitutionally, it was as if the last nineteen years had never happened." Charles returned from exile, leaving
the Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ed ...

the Hague
on 23 May and landing at
Dover Dover () is a town and major ferry port in Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first publishe ...

Dover
on 25 May.Pepys Diary 23 April 1661
He entered London on 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday. To celebrate His Majesty's Return to his Parliament, 29 May was made a public holiday, popularly known as
Oak Apple Day Restoration Day, more commonly known as Oak Apple Day or Royal Oak Day, was an English public holiday, observed annually on 29 May, to commemorate the restoration of the English monarchy The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referr ...
. He was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661. Some contemporaries described the Restoration as "a divinely ordained miracle". The sudden and unexpected deliverance from political chaos was interpreted as a restoration of the natural and divine order. The
Cavalier Parliament , as he would have dressed at the opening of the sessions of the Cavalier parliament. The Cavalier Parliament of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with ...
convened for the first time on 8 May 1661, and it would endure for over 17 years, finally being dissolved on 24 January 1679. Like its predecessor, it was overwhelmingly
Royalist A royalist supports a particular monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. ...

Royalist
. It is also known as the Pensionary Parliament for the many pensions it granted to adherents of the King. The leading political figure at the beginning of the Restoration was
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 16099 December 1674), was an English statesman, lawyer, diplomat and historian who served as chief advisor to Charles I of England, Charles I during the First English Civil War, and Lord Chancell ...
. It was the "skill and wisdom of Clarendon" which had "made the Restoration unconditional". Many Royalist exiles returned and were rewarded.
Prince Rupert of the Rhine Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland, (17 December 1619 (O.S.) / 27 December (N.S.) – 29 November 1682) was a German-English army officer, admiral, scientist and colonial governor. He first came to prominence as a Cavalier, Royalis ...

Prince Rupert of the Rhine
returned to the service of England, became a member of the
privy council A privy council is a body that advises the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may refer to: ...
, and was provided with an annuity.
George Goring, 1st Earl of Norwich George Goring, 1st Earl of Norwich (28 April 1585 – 6 January 1663) was an England, English soldier and politician who sat in the House of Commons of England, House of Commons between 1621 and 1628 when he was raised to the peerage. Goring wa ...
, returned to be the Captain of the King's guard and received a pension.
Marmaduke Langdale Marmaduke Langdale, 1st Baron Langdale ( – 5 August 1661) was a landowner and soldier from Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a Historic counties of England, historic county of Northern Engla ...

Marmaduke Langdale
returned and was made "
Baron Langdale Image:Marmaduke Langdale.jpg, 200px, Marmaduke Langdale, 1st Baron Langdale. Baron Langdale was a title that was created twice in British history. The first creation came in the Peerage of England on 4 February 1658 when the prominent Cavalier, roya ...
". William Cavendish, Marquess of Newcastle, returned and was able to regain the greater part of his estates. He was invested in 1666 with the
Order of the Garter (Shame on him who thinks evil of it) , eligibility = , criteria = At Her Majesty's pleasure , status = Currently constituted , founder = Edward III Edward III (13 November 131221 June 1377), also known as Edward ...
(which had been bestowed upon him in 1650), and was advanced to a dukedom on 16 March 1665..


England and Wales


Commonwealth regicides and rebels

The
Indemnity and Oblivion Act The Indemnity and Oblivion Act 1660 is an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of England (12 Cha. II c. 11), the long title of which is "An Act of Free and General Pardon, Indemnity, and Oblivion". This act was a general pardon for everyone ...
, which became law on 29 August 1660, pardoned all past treason against the crown, but specifically excluded those involved in the trial and execution of Charles I. Thirty-one of the 59 commissioners (judges) who had signed the death warrant in 1649 were living. The regicides were hunted down; some escaped but most were found and put on trial. Three escaped to the American colonies.
New Haven, Connecticut New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, and is part of the New York City metropolitan area. With a population ...
, secretly harboured Edward Whalley, William Goffe and John Dixwell, and after American independence named streets after them to honour them as forefathers of the American Revolution. In the ensuing trials, twelve were condemned to death. Fifth Monarchist Thomas Harrison, the first person found guilty of regicide, who had been the seventeenth of the 59 commissioners to sign the death warrant, was the first regicide to be
hanged, drawn and quartered To be hanged, drawn and quartered became a statutory A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislature, legislative authority that governs the legal entities of a city, State (polity), state, or country by way of consent. Typically, ...

hanged, drawn and quartered
because he was considered by the new government still to represent a real threat to the re-established order. In October 1660, at
Charing Cross Charing Cross ( ) is a junction and its focal marker in London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper ...

Charing Cross
or
Tyburn Tyburn was a manor Manor may refer to: Land tenure *Manor, the land belonging to the Lord of the manor under manorialism in parts of medieval Europe, notably England *Manor house, the main residence of the lord of the manor *Lord of the mano ...
, London, ten were publicly hanged, drawn and quartered: Thomas Harrison, John Jones,
Adrian Scrope Colonel Adrian Scrope, also spelt Scroope, 12 January 1601 to 17 October 1660, was a Roundhead, Parliamentarian soldier during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, and one of those who signed the List of regicides of Charles I, death warrant for Char ...
, John Carew,
Thomas Scot Thomas Scot (or Scott; died 17 October 1660) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada. In the UK and ...
, and
Gregory Clement Gregory Clement (1594–1660) was an England, English Member of Parliament (MP) and one of the regicides of King Charles I of England, Charles I. Biography Clements was baptised at St Andrew's, Plymouth on 21 November 1594. His father, John C ...
, who had signed the king's death warrant; the preacher
Hugh Peters Hugh Peter (or Peters) (baptized 29 June 1598 – 16 October 1660) was an English preacher, political advisor and soldier who supported the Parliamentary cause during the English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of c ...
; Francis Hacker and
Daniel Axtell Colonel Daniel Axtell (1622 – 19 October 1660) was captain of the Parliamentary Guard at the trial of King Charles I at Westminster Hall The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, ...

Daniel Axtell
, who commanded the guards at the king's trial and execution; and John Cooke, the solicitor who directed the prosecution. The 10 judges who were on the panel but did not sign the death warrant were also convicted.
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English general and statesman who, first as a subordinate and later as Commander-in-Chief, led armies An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" e ...

Oliver Cromwell
,
Henry Ireton Henry Ireton ((baptised) 3 November 1611 – 26 November 1651) was an English general in the army during the , and the son-in-law of . He died of disease outside in November 1651. Personal details Ireton was the eldest son of a German Ireto ...

Henry Ireton
, Judge
Thomas Pride Colonel Sir Thomas Pride (died 23 October 1658) was a parliamentarian commander in the English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and R ...
, and Judge John Bradshaw were posthumously
attainted In English criminal law Criminal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and i ...
for high treason. Because Parliament is a court, the highest in the land, a
bill of attainder A bill of attainder (also known as an act of attainder or writ of attainder or bill of penalties) is an act of a legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity s ...
is a legislative act declaring a person guilty of treason or felony, in contrast to the regular judicial process of trial and conviction. In January 1661, the corpses of Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw were exhumed and hanged in chains at
Tyburn Tyburn was a manor Manor may refer to: Land tenure *Manor, the land belonging to the Lord of the manor under manorialism in parts of medieval Europe, notably England *Manor house, the main residence of the lord of the manor *Lord of the mano ...
. In 1661
John Okey John Okey (1606–1662) was an English soldier and member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countries with Bicameralism, bicameral parliaments, this cat ...
, one of the regicides who signed the death warrant of Charles I, was brought back from Holland along with
Miles Corbet Miles Corbet (1595–1662) was an English politician, recorder of Yarmouth and Regicide. Life He was the son of Sir Thomas Corbet of Sprowston, Norfolk and the younger brother of Sir John Corbet, 1st Baronet, MP for Great Yarmouth from 16 ...
, friend and lawyer to Cromwell, and
John Barkstead John Barkstead (died 1662) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has event ...
, former constable of the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle A castle is a type of structure built during the predominantly by the or royalty and by . Scholars debate the sc ...

Tower of London
. They were all imprisoned in the Tower. From there they were taken to Tyburn and hanged, drawn and quartered on 19 April 1662. A further 19 regicides were imprisoned for life.
John LambertJohn Lambert may refer to: *John Lambert (martyr) (died 1538), English Protestant martyred during the reign of Henry VIII *John Lambert (general) (1619–1684), Parliamentary general in the English Civil War *John Lambert of Creg Clare (''fl.'' c. 1 ...
was not in London for the trial of Charles I. At the Restoration, he was found guilty of high treason and remained in custody in
Guernsey Guernsey (; Guernésiais Guernésiais, also known as ''Dgèrnésiais'', Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the spoken in . It is sometimes known on the island simply as "". As one of the , it has its roots in , ...

Guernsey
for the rest of his life. Sir
Henry Vane the Younger Sir Henry Vane (baptised 26 March 161314 June 1662) (often referred to as Harry Vane and Henry Vane the Younger to distinguish him from his father, Henry Vane the Elder Sir Henry Vane, the elder (18 February 15891655) was an English politi ...

Henry Vane the Younger
served on the
Council of State A Council of State is a governmental body in a country, or a subdivision of a country, with a function that varies by jurisdiction. It may be the formal name for the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-sha ...
during the
Interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order. Archetypally, it was the period of time between the reign of one monarch and the next (coming from Latin ''i ...
even though he refused to take the oath which expressed approbation (approval) of the King's execution. At the Restoration, after much debate in Parliament, he was exempted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act. In 1662 he was tried for high treason, found guilty and beheaded on
Tower Hill Tower Hill is infamous for the public execution of high status prisoners from the late 14th to the mid 18th century. The execution site on the higher ground north-west of the Tower of London moat is now occupied by Trinity Square Gardens. ...
on 14 June 1662.


Regrant of certain Commonwealth titles

The
Instrument of Government The Instrument of Government was a constitution of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (f ...
,
The Protectorate The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order. Archetypal ...
's written constitutions, gave to the
Lord Protector Lord Protector (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...
the King's power to grant titles of honour. Over 30 new
knighthood A knight is a person granted an honorary title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some ...

knighthood
s were granted under the Protectorate. These knighthoods passed into oblivion upon the Restoration of Charles II, however many were regranted by the restored King. Of the eleven Protectorate
baronet A baronet ( or ; abbreviated Bart or Bt) or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess (, , or ; abbreviation Btss), is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown The Crown is the in all its aspects within ...

baronet
cies, two had been previously granted by Charles I during the Civil War – but under
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...
legislation they were not recognised under the Protectorate (hence the Lord Protector's regranting of them), however when that legislation passed into oblivion these two baronets were entitled to use the baronetcies granted by Charles I – and Charles II regranted four more. Only one now continues: Sir Richard Thomas Willy, 14th baronet, is the direct successor of Sir Griffith Williams. Of the remaining Protectorate baronets one, Sir William Ellis, was granted a knighthood by Charles II. Edmund Dunch was created
Baron Baron is a rank of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of th ...

Baron
Burnell of East Wittenham in April 1658, but this barony was not regranted. The male line failed in 1719 with the death of his grandson, also Edmund Dunch, so no one can lay claim to the title. The one hereditary
viscount A viscount ( , for male) or viscountess (, for female) is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qu ...
cy Cromwell created for certain, (making Charles Howard Viscount Howard of Morpeth and Baron Gilsland) continues to this day. In April 1661, Howard was created
Earl of Carlisle Earl of Carlisle is a title that has been created three times in the Peerage of England. History The first creation came in 1322, when the soldier Andrew Harclay, 1st Earl of Carlisle, Andrew Harclay, 1st Baron Harclay, was made Earl of Car ...
, Viscount Howard of Morpeth, and Baron Dacre of Gillesland. The present Earl is a direct descendant of this Cromwellian creation and Restoration recreation.


Venner rebellion (1661)

On 6 January 1661, about 50
Fifth Monarchists The Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men were an extreme Puritan sect active from 1649 to 1660 during the Commonwealth (England), Commonwealth, following the English Civil Wars of the 17th century. They took their name from a prophecy in the ...
, headed by a wine-cooper named
Thomas Venner Thomas Venner (died 19 January 1661) was a cooper and rebel who became the last leader of the Fifth Monarchy Men The Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men were an extreme Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17t ...

Thomas Venner
, tried to gain possession of London in the name of "King Jesus". Most were either killed or taken prisoner; on 19 and 21 January 1661, Venner and 10 others were hanged, drawn and quartered for high
treason Treason is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay: "Cr ...
.


Church of England settlement

The
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
was restored as the national Church in England, backed by the
Clarendon Code In English history, the penal laws were a series of laws that sought to uphold the establishment of the Church of England against Protestantism, Protestant Nonconformist (Protestantism), nonconformists and Catholic Church, Catholicism by imposing ...
and the
Act of Uniformity 1662 The Act of Uniformity 1662 (14 Car 2 c 4) is an Act of the Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology ...
. People reportedly "pranced around May poles as a way of taunting the Presbyterians and Independents" and "burned copies of the
Solemn League and Covenant The Solemn League and Covenant was an agreement between the Scottish Covenanters Covenanters ( gd, Cùmhnantaich) were members of a 17th-century Scottish religious and political movement, who supported a Presbyterian Presbyterianism is ...

Solemn League and Covenant
".


Ireland

"The commonwealth parliamentary union was, after 1660, treated as null and void". As in England the republic was deemed constitutionally never to have occurred. The Convention Parliament was dissolved by Charles II in January 1661, and he summoned his first parliament in Ireland in May 1661. In 1662, 29 May was made a public holiday. Coote, Broghill and Sir Maurice Eustace were initially the main political figures in the Restoration.
George Monck, Duke of Albemarle George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, Order of the Garter, KG (6 December 1608 – 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician, and a key figure on both sides of the English Civil War, as well as the Restoration (England), Restoration of ...

George Monck, Duke of Albemarle
was given the position of
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (), or more formally Lieutenant General and General Governor of Ireland, was the title of the chief governor of Ireland The chief governor was the senior official in the Dublin Castle administration, which maintained E ...
but he did not assume office. In 1662 the 1st Duke of Ormonde returned as the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and became the predominant political figure of the Restoration period.


Scotland

Charles was proclaimed King again on 14 May 1660. He was not crowned, having been previously crowned at
Scone A scone ( or ) is a baked good, usually made of either wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most wi ...
in 1651. The Restoration "presented an occasion of universal celebration and rejoicing throughout Scotland". Charles II summoned his parliament on 1 January 1661, which began to undo all that been forced on his father . The
Rescissory Act 1661 The Rescissory Act, 1661 or Act rescinding and annulling the pretended parliaments in the years 1640, 1641 etc. was added to the Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots language, Scots: ''Scots Pairlament' ...
made all legislation back to 1633 'void and null'.


English Colonies


Caribbean

Barbados Barbados is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or c ...
, as a haven for refugees fleeing the
English republic The Commonwealth was the political structure during the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, were governed as a republic after the end of the Second English Civil War and the High Court of Ju ...
, had held for Charles II under Lord Willoughby until defeated by
George Ayscue Sir George Ayscue (c. 1616 – 5 April 1672) was an English naval officer who served in the English Civil War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars who rose to the rank of Admiral of the white, Admiral of the White. He also served as Governor of Scilly Isles ...
. When news reached Barbados of the King's restoration,
Thomas Modyford Colonel Colonel (; abbreviated as Col., Col or COL) is a senior military Officer (armed forces), officer rank used in many countries. It is also used in some police forces and paramilitary organizations. Historically, in the 17th, 18th and 19t ...
declared Barbados for the King in July 1660. The planters, however, were not eager for the return of the former governor Lord Willoughby, fearing disputes over titles, but the King ordered he be restored.
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...

Jamaica
had been a conquest of
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English general and statesman who, first as a subordinate and later as Commander-in-Chief, led armies An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" e ...

Oliver Cromwell
's and Charles II's claim to the island was therefore questionable. However, Charles II chose not to restore Jamaica to Spain and in 1661 it became a British colony and the planters would claim that they held rights as Englishmen by the King's assumption of the dominion of Jamaica. The first governor was
Lord Windsor Image:Earl of Plymouth.jpg, 200px, Robert Windsor-Clive, 1st Earl of Plymouth Earl of Plymouth is a title that has been created three times: twice in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. History The first creatio ...
. He was replaced in 1664 by Thomas Modyford who had been ousted from Barbados.


North America

New England, with its Puritan settlement, had supported the Commonwealth and
the Protectorate The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order. Archetypal ...
. Acceptance of the Restoration was reluctant in some quarters as it highlighted the failure of puritan reform. Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Rhode Island declared in October 1660 and Massachusetts Bay Colony, Massachusetts lastly in August 1661. New Haven Colony, New Haven provided refuge for Regicide#Execution of Charles I of England, Regicides such as Edward Whalley, William Goffe and John Dixwell and would be subsequently merged into Connecticut Colony, Connecticut in 1662, perhaps in punishment. John Winthrop Jr., John Winthrop, a former governor of Connecticut, and one of whose sons had been a captain in George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, Monck's army, went to England at the Restoration and in 1662 obtained a Royal Charter for Connecticut with New Haven annexed to it. Province of Maryland, Maryland had resisted the republic until finally occupied by New England Puritans/Parliamentary forces after the Battle of the Severn in 1655. In 1660 the Governor Josias Fendall tried to turn Maryland into a Commonwealth of its own in what is known as Josias Fendall#Fendall.27s Rebellion, Fendall's Rebellion but with the fall of the republic in England he was left without support and was replaced by Phillip Calvert (governor), Philip Calvert upon the Restoration. Colony of Virginia, Virginia was the most loyal of King Charles II's dominions. It had, according to the eighteenth-century historian Robert Beverley Jr., been "the last of all the King's Dominions that submitted to the Usurpation". Virginia had provided sanctuary for Cavaliers fleeing the
English republic The Commonwealth was the political structure during the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, were governed as a republic after the end of the Second English Civil War and the High Court of Ju ...
. In 1650, Virginia was one of the Royalist colonies that became the subject of Parliaments An Act for prohibiting Trade with the Barbadoes, Virginia, Bermuda and Antego. Sir William Berkeley (governor), William Berkeley, who had previously been governor up until 1652, was elected governor in 1660 by the House of Burgesses and he promptly declared for the King. The Episcopal Church (United States)#Colonial era, Anglican Church was restored as the established church. The Somers Isles, alias Bermuda (originally named ''Virgineola''), was originally part of Virginia, and was administered by the Somers Isles Company, a spin-off of the Virginia Company, until 1684. The already existing contest between the mostly Parliamentarian Adventurers (shareholders) of the company in England and the Bermudians, who had their own House of Assembly of Bermuda, House of Assembly (and many of whom were becoming landowners as they were sold the land they had previously farmed as tenants as the profitability of the tobacco farmed exclusively for the company fell), placed the Bermudians on the side of the Crown despite the large number of Puritans in the colony. Bermudians were attempting to shift their economy from tobacco to a maritime one and were being thwarted by the company, which relied on revenue from tobacco cultivation. Bermuda was the first colony to recognise Charles II as King in 1649. It controlled its own "army" (of militia) and deposed the Company appointed Governor, electing a replacement. Its Independent Puritans were forced to emigrate, settling the Bahamas under prominent Bermudian settler, sometime Governor of Bermuda, and Parliamentary loyalist William Sayle as the Eleutheran Adventurers. Although eventually reaching a compromise with the Commonwealth, the Bermudians dispute with the company continued and was finally taken before the restored Crown, which was keen for an opportunity to re-assert its authority over the wealthy businessmen who controlled the Somers Isles Company. The islanders' protest to the Crown initially concerned the mis-treatment of Perient Trott and his heirs (including Nicholas Trott), but expanded to include the company's wider mismanagement of the colony. This led to a lengthy court case in which the Crown championed Bermudians against the company, and resulted in the company's Royal Charter being revoked in 1684. From that point onwards the Crown assumed responsibility for appointing the Colony's governors (it first re-appointed the last company governor). Freed of the company's restraints, the emerging local merchant class came to dominate and shape Bermuda's progress, as Bermudians abandoned agriculture en masse and turned to seafaring. In 1663 the Province of Carolina was formed as a reward given to Lords Proprietors#Lords Proprietary of Carolina, some supporters of the Restoration. The province was named after the King's father, Charles I of England, Charles I. The town of Charleston, South Carolina, Charleston was established in 1669 by a party of settlers from Bermuda (some being Bermudians aboard Bermudian vessels, others having passed through Bermuda from as far as England) under the same William Sayle who had led the Eleutheran Adventurers to the Bahamas. In 1670, Sayle became the first Colonial Governor of the Province of Carolina.


Culture

The Restoration and Charles' coronation mark a reversal of the stringent Puritan morality, "as though the pendulum [of England's morality] swung from repression to licence more or less overnight". Theatres reopened after having been closed during the protectorship, Puritanism lost its momentum, and bawdy comedy became a recognisable genre. In addition, women were allowed to perform on the commercial stage as professional actresses for the first time. In Scotland, the bishops returned as the Episcopacy was reinstated. To celebrate the occasion and cement their diplomatic relations, the Dutch Republic presented Charles with the Dutch Gift, a fine collection of old master paintings, classical sculptures, furniture, and a yacht.


Literature

Restoration literature includes the roughly homogenous styles of literature that centre on a celebration of or reaction to the restored court of King Charles II. It is a literature that includes extremes, for it encompasses both ''Paradise Lost'' and the John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, Earl of Rochester's ''Sodom, or the Quintessence of Debauchery, Sodom'', the high-spirited Sex comedy, sexual comedy of ''The Country Wife'' and the moral wisdom of ''The Pilgrim's Progress''. It saw John Locke, Locke's ''Two Treatises of Government, Treatises of Government'', the founding of the Royal Society, the experiments and holy meditations of Robert Boyle, the hysterical attacks on theatres from Jeremy Collier, and the pioneering of literary criticism from John Dryden and John Dennis (dramatist), John Dennis. The period witnessed news become a commodity, the essay develop into a periodical art form, and the beginnings of textual criticism.


Style

The return of the king and his court from exile led to the replacement of the Puritan severity of the Cromwellian style with a taste for magnificence and opulence and to the introduction of Dutch and French artistic influences. These are evident in furniture in the use of floral marquetry, walnut instead of oak, twisted turned supports and legs, exotic Wood veneer, veneers, cane seats and backs on chairs, sumptuous tapestry and velvet upholstery and ornate carved and gilded scrolling bases for cabinets. Similar shifts appear in prose style.


Comedy

Comedy, especially bawdy comedy, flourished, and a favourite setting was the bed-chamber. Indeed, sexually explicit language was encouraged by the king personally and by the rakish style of his court. Historian George Norman Clark argues: The socially diverse audiences included both aristocrats, their servants and hangers-on, and a substantial middle-class segment. These playgoers were attracted to the comedies by up-to-the-minute topical writing, by crowded and bustling plots, by the introduction of the first professional actresses, and by the rise of the first celebrity actors. This period saw the first professional female playwright, Aphra Behn.


Spectacular

The Restoration spectacular, or elaborately staged machine play, hit the London public stage in the late 17th-century Restoration period, enthralling audiences with action, music, dance, moveable scenery baroque illusionistic painting, gorgeous costumes, and special effects such as trapdoor tricks, "flying" actors, and fireworks. These shows have always had a bad reputation as a vulgar and commercial threat to the witty, "legitimate" Restoration drama; however, they drew Londoners in unprecedented numbers and left them dazzled and delighted. Basically home-grown and with roots in the early 17th-century court masque, though never ashamed of borrowing ideas and stage technology from French opera, the spectaculars are sometimes called "English opera". However, the variety of them is so untidy that most theatre historians despair of defining them as a genre at all. Only a handful of works of this period are usually accorded the term "opera", as the musical dimension of most of them is subordinate to the visual. It was spectacle and scenery that drew in the crowds, as shown by many comments in the diary of the theatre-lover Samuel Pepys. The expense of mounting ever more elaborate scenic productions drove the two competing theatre companies into a dangerous spiral of huge expenditure and correspondingly huge losses or profits. A fiasco such as John Dryden's ''Albion and Albanius'' would leave a company in serious debt, while blockbusters like Thomas Shadwell's ''Psyche'' or Dryden's ''King Arthur (opera), King Arthur'' would put it comfortably in the black for a long time.


End of the Restoration

The Glorious Revolution ended the Restoration. The Glorious Revolution which overthrew King James II of England was propelled by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of England, William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his accession to the English throne as William III of England jointly with his wife Mary II of England, James' daughter.John Miller, ''The Glorious Revolution'' (Routledge, 2014). In April 1688, James had re-issued the ''Declaration of Indulgence'' and ordered all Anglican clergymen to read it to their congregations. When seven bishops, including the Archbishop of Canterbury, submitted a petition requesting the reconsideration of the King's religious policies, they were arrested and tried for seditious libel. On 30 June 1688, a group of seven Protestant nobles invited the William III of England, Prince of Orange to come to England with an army. By September it became clear that William would invade England.Tim Harris, "James II, the Glorious Revolution, and the destiny of Britain." ''Historical Journal'' 51.3 (2008): 763–77
online
When William arrived on 5 November 1688, James lost his nerve, declined to attack the invading Dutch and tried to flee to France. He was captured in Kent. Later, he was released and placed under Dutch protective guard. Having no desire to make James a martyr, William, Prince of Orange, let him escape on 23 December. James was received in France by his cousin and ally, Louis XIV, who offered him a palace and a pension. William convened a Convention Parliament (1689), Convention Parliament to decide how to handle the situation. While the Parliament refused to depose James, they declared that James, having fled to France had effectively abdicated the throne, and that the throne was vacant. To fill this vacancy, James's daughter Mary was declared Queen; she was to rule jointly with her husband William, Prince of Orange, who would be king. The English Parliament passed the Bill of Rights of 1689 that denounced James for abusing his power.Steven C. A. Pincus, ''England's Glorious Revolution 1688-1689: A Brief History with Documents'' (2005). The abuses charged to James included the suspension of the Test Acts, the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for merely petitioning the crown, the establishment of a standing army, and the imposition of cruel punishments. The bill also declared that henceforth no Roman Catholic was permitted to ascend the English throne, nor could any English monarch marry a Roman Catholic.


Notes


References

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Further reading

*


External links

* https://web.archive.org/web/20050707081040/http://www.debretts.co.uk/royal_connections/sovereigns_england_17_century.html
Review of 'Revolution and Counter-Revolution in England, Ireland and Scotland 1658–60', by Brian Manning


By Sir Charles Harding Firth
"The Restoration"
BBC Radio 4 discussion with Mark Goldie, Richard Ollard and Clare Jackson (''In Our Time'', 15 February 2001) {{DEFAULTSORT:Restoration The Restoration, 1660 establishments in England 1660 establishments in Ireland 1660 establishments in Scotland 1714 disestablishments in Great Britain 1714 disestablishments in Ireland Restorations (politics), England 1660 in politics History of the British Isles English royalty Stuart England Charles II of England