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Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is
Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises authority in accordance with a written or ...
and 14 other
Commonwealth realm A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. Each realm functions as an independent state, equal with the other realms. In 1952, Elizabeth II was the monarch and head of state of seven in ...
s. Elizabeth was born in
Mayfair Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the eastern edge of Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Park Lane. It is one of the most expensive district ...

Mayfair
, London, as the first child of the
Duke and Duchess of York
Duke and Duchess of York
(later
King George VI George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominion The word Dominion was used from 1907 to 1948 to refer to one of several self-governing colonies of the ...

King George VI
and
Queen Elizabeth
Queen Elizabeth
). Her father ascended the throne in 1936 upon
the abdication ''The Abdication'' is a 1974 British historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#Inventions of ...
of his brother,
King Edward VIII Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominion The word Dominion was used from 1907 to 1948 to refer to one of several self-governing colonies ...
, making Elizabeth the
heir presumptive An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An ...
. She was educated privately at home and began to undertake public duties during the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
, serving in the
Auxiliary Territorial Service The Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS; often pronounced as an acronym An acronym is a word or name formed from the initial components of a longer name or phrase, usually using individual initial letters, as in NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Orga ...
. In November 1947, she
married in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouses. It establishes rights and obligations between them, as well as between them and their children, and ...
Philip Mountbatten, a former prince of
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in . Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2021; is its largest and capital city, followed by . Situated on the southern tip of the , ...
and Denmark, with whom she had four children:
Charles, Prince of Wales Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of ind ...

Charles, Prince of Wales
;
Anne, Princess Royal Anne, Princess Royal, (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise; born 15 August 1950) is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 ...

Anne, Princess Royal
;
Prince Andrew, Duke of York Prince Andrew, Duke of York, (Andrew Albert Christian Edward, born 19 February 1960) is the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdo ...
; and
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex (Edward Antony Richard Louis; born 10 March 1964) is the youngest child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At birth, he was third in line of succession to the British throne Succ ...
. When her father died in February 1952, Elizabeth—then 25 years old—became
queen regnant A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of st ...
of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...
,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...
,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities ...
,
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...
, and
Ceylon Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island ...
, as well as
Head of the Commonwealth Head of the Commonwealth is a title used by the ceremonial leader who symbolises "the free association of independent member nations" of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is ...
. Elizabeth has reigned as a
constitutional monarch A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding. Constitutional monarchies differ from a ...
through major political changes such as
the Troubles The Troubles ( ga, Na Trioblóidí) were an ethno-nationalist Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethnonationalism, is a form of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation A na ...
in Northern Ireland,
devolution in the United Kingdom In the United Kingdom, devolution is the Parliament of the United Kingdom's statutory granting of a greater level of self-governance, self-government to the Scottish Parliament, the Senedd (Welsh Parliament), the Northern Ireland Assembly and ...
, the
accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities The Accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities, European Communities (EC) – the collective term for the European Coal and Steel Community, European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community, European Econom ...
, the
United Kingdom's withdrawal
United Kingdom's withdrawal
from the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
, Canadian patriation, and the
decolonisation of Africa Decolonization (American English, American and Oxford English) or decolonisation (other British English) is the undoing of colonialism, the latter being the process whereby a nation establishes and maintains its domination of foreign territories, ...
. The number of her realms has varied over time as territories have gained independence, and as realms, including South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (renamed Sri Lanka), have become republics. Her many visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her
Silver Silver is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same n ...
, Golden, and
Diamond Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure In crystallography Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structur ...
Jubilee A jubilee is a particular anniversary of an event, usually denoting the 25th, 40th, 50th, 60th, and the 70th anniversary. Of Jubilee (biblical), biblical origin, the term is often now used to denote the celebrations associated with the reign of a ...

Jubilee
s in 1977, 2002, and 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a
Sapphire Jubilee In 2017, the term sapphire Sapphire is a precious gemstone A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewellery, jew ...
. In April 2021, after 73 years of marriage, her husband, Prince Philip, died at the age of 99. Elizabeth is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch, the longest-serving female head of state in history, the oldest living and longest-reigning current monarch, and the oldest and longest-serving incumbent head of state. Throughout her reign, Elizabeth has faced republican sentiment and criticism of the
royal family A royal family is the immediate family of kings/queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City New York City (NYC), often simp ...
, particularly after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her ''
annus horribilis ' is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic ...

annus horribilis
'' in 1992, and the 1997 death of her former daughter-in-law
Diana, Princess of Wales Diana, Princess of Wales (born Diana Frances Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997), was a member of the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict lega ...

Diana, Princess of Wales
. However, support for the monarchy in the United Kingdom has been and remains consistently high, as does her personal popularity.


Early life

Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor was born at 02:40 (
GMT Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean There are several kinds of mean in mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra) ...

GMT
) on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather,
King George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom There have been 12 monarchy of the United Kingdom, British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England and the K ...

King George V
. Her father, the Duke of York (later
King George VI George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominion The word Dominion was used from 1907 to 1948 to refer to one of several self-governing colonies of the ...

King George VI
), was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York (later
Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A consti ...

Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
), was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat
Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne Claude George Bowes-Lyon, 14th and 1st Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, (14 March 1855 – 7 November 1944), styled as Lord Glamis from 1865 to 1904, was a British peer and landowner who was the father of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother ...

Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne
. She was delivered by
Caesarean section Caesarean section, also known as C-section, or caesarean delivery, is the surgical procedure Surgery ''cheirourgikē'' (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via la, chirurgiae, meaning "hand work". is a medical or dental s ...
at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17
Bruton Street Bruton Street is a street in London's Mayfair district. It runs from Berkeley Square in the south-west to New Bond Street in the north-east, where it continues as Conduit Street. Notable residents have included Field Marshal John Campbell, 2nd Du ...
, Mayfair. She was
baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian rite of initiation, admission and Adoption (theology), adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. It may be pe ...
by the
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...

Anglican
Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a List of Christian denominations, Christian church which is the established church of England. The archbishop of Canterbury is the most ...
,
Cosmo Gordon Lang William Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1st Baron Lang of Lambeth, (31 October 1864 – 5 December 1945) was a Scottish Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and id ...

Cosmo Gordon Lang
, in the private chapel of
Buckingham Palace Buckingham Palace () is the London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial ce ...

Buckingham Palace
on 29 May, and named Elizabeth after her mother; Alexandra after
her paternal great-grandmother
her paternal great-grandmother
, who had died six months earlier; and Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather, George V, whom she affectionately called "Grandpa England", and during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by later biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling,
Princess Margaret Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, (Margaret Rose; 21 August 1930 – 9 February 2002) was the younger daughter of King George VI George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of th ...

Princess Margaret
, was born in 1930. The two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their
governess 300px, In Rebecca Solomon's 1851 painting ''The Governess'', the title figure (seated right, with her charge) exhibits the modest dress and deportment appropriate to her quasi-invisible role in the Victorian household. A governess is a largely ...

governess
, Marion Crawford. Lessons concentrated on history, language, literature, and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled '' The Little Princesses'' in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family. The book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, and her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations:
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, Winston Churchill in the Second World War, during the Second World War, ...

Winston Churchill
described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved".


Heir presumptive

During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the
line of succession to the British throne Succession to the British throne is determined by descent, sex (males born before 28 October 2011 precede their elder sisters in the line of succession), legitimacy, and religion. Under common law, the Crown is inherited by a sovereign's child ...
, behind her uncle
Edward Edward is an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World ...
and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young and likely to marry and have children of his own, who would precede Elizabeth in the line of succession. When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second in line to the throne, after her father. Later that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced
socialite A socialite is a person, typically a woman from a wealthy and aristocratic background, who is prominent in High society (social class), high society. A socialite generally spends a significant amount of time attending various fashionable social ga ...
Wallis Simpson Wallis, Duchess of Windsor (born Bessie Wallis Warfield; June 19, 1896 – April 24, 1986), known as Wallis Simpson, was an American socialite A socialite is a person (usually from a wealthy, or aristocratic background) who plays a promin ...
provoked a constitutional crisis. Consequently, Elizabeth's father became king, taking the
regnal name A regnal name, or regnant name or reign name, is the name used by monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the ...
George VI George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom There have been 12 monarchy of the United Kingdom, British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England an ...

George VI
. Since Elizabeth had no brothers, she became
heir presumptive An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An ...
. If her parents had had a later son, he would have been
heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state A head of state ...
and above her in the line of succession, which was determined by
male-preference primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inherit the parent's entire or main estate in preference to shared inheritance among all or some children, any illegitimate child or any collateral relative ...
at the time. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of
Eton College Eton College () is a public school (private sector) for boys in Eton, Berkshire Eton ( ) is a town in Berkshire, England, on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor, connected to it by Windsor Bridge. The civil parish In ...

Eton College
, and learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A
Girl Guides Girl Guides (known as Girl Scouts in the United States and some other countries) is a movement found worldwide, which was originally and still largely designed for girls and women only. The movement began in 1909 because girls demanded to take ...
company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed specifically so she could socialise with girls her own age. Later, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured Canada and the United States. As in 1927, when they had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours.Pimlott, p. 54 She "looked tearful" as her parents departed.Pimlott, p. 55 They corresponded regularly, and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.


Second World War

In September 1939, Britain entered the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
. Lord Hailsham suggested that Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombings of London by the ''
Luftwaffe The ''Luftwaffe'' () was the aerial-warfare branch of the German ''Wehrmacht The ''Wehrmacht'' (, ) was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the German Army (1935–1945), ''Heer'' (army), th ...
''. This was rejected by their mother, who declared, "The children won't go without me. I won't leave without the King. And the King will never leave." The princesses stayed at
Balmoral Castle Balmoral Castle () is a large estate house Historically, an estate comprises the houses, outbuildings, supporting farmland, and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. It is ...

Balmoral Castle
, Scotland, until Christmas 1939, when they moved to
Sandringham House Sandringham House is a country house An English country house is a large house or mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the la ...

Sandringham House
, Norfolk. From February to May 1940, they lived at
Royal Lodge The Royal Lodge is a Grade II listed A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England in England, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland, in Wales, and t ...

Royal Lodge
, Windsor, until moving to
Windsor Castle Windsor Castle is a at in the English county of . It is strongly associated with the and succeeding , and embodies almost a millennium of . The original castle was built in the 11th century after the by . Since the time of (who re ...

Windsor Castle
, where they lived for most of the next five years. At Windsor, the princesses staged
pantomime Pantomime (; informally panto) is a type of musical comedy Musical theatre is a form of theatre, theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, pathos ...

pantomime
s at Christmas in aid of the Queen's Wool Fund, which bought yarn to knit into military garments. In 1940, the 14-year-old Elizabeth made her first radio broadcast during the
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcasting, broadcaster in the world by ...

BBC
's ''
Children's Hour ''Children's Hour'', initially ''The Children's Hour'', was the BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London London is the capital city, c ...
'', addressing other children who had been evacuated from the cities. She stated: "We are trying to do all we can to help our gallant sailors, soldiers, and airmen, and we are trying, too, to bear our own share of the danger and sadness of war. We know, every one of us, that in the end all will be well." In 1943, Elizabeth undertook her first solo public appearance on a visit to the
Grenadier Guards "Evil be to him who evil thinks" , colors = , colors_label = , march = Quick: "The British Grenadiers "The British Grenadiers" is a traditional marching song of British, Australian and Canadian military units whose badge of identificatio ...

Grenadier Guards
, of which she had been appointed colonel the previous year. As she approached her 18th birthday, parliament changed the law so she could act as one of five
Counsellors of State The counsellors of state are senior members of the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the British ...
in the event of her father's incapacity or absence abroad, such as his visit to Italy in July 1944. In February 1945, she was appointed as an honorary in the
Auxiliary Territorial Service The Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS; often pronounced as an acronym An acronym is a word or name formed from the initial components of a longer name or phrase, usually using individual initial letters, as in NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Orga ...
with the
service number A service number is an identification Identification or identify may refer to: Art and entertainment *Identify (album), ''Identify'' (album) by Got7 *''Kill Command'', 2016 film, also known as ''Identify'' *Identify (song), "Identify" (song) *Id ...
of 230873. She trained as a driver and mechanic and was given the rank of honorary junior commander (female equivalent of
captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a military rank in a ...
at the time) five months later. At the end of the war in Europe, on
Victory in Europe Day Victory in Europe Day is the day celebrating the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II The Allies of World War II were a group of countries that together opposed the during the (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance ...
, Elizabeth and Margaret mingled anonymously with the celebratory crowds in the streets of London. Elizabeth later said in a rare interview, "We asked my parents if we could go out and see for ourselves. I remember we were terrified of being recognised ... I remember lines of unknown people linking arms and walking down
Whitehall Whitehall is a road and area in the City of Westminster, Central London. The road forms the first part of the A roads in Zone 3 of the Great Britain numbering scheme, A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea, London, Chelsea. It is the main ...

Whitehall
, all of us just swept along on a tide of happiness and relief." During the war, plans were drawn up to quell
Welsh nationalism Welsh nationalism ( cy, Cenedlaetholdeb Cymreig) emphasises and celebrates the distinctiveness of Welsh language, culture of Wales, culture, and History of Wales, history, and calls for more self-determination for Wales, which might include more ...
by affiliating Elizabeth more closely with Wales. Proposals, such as appointing her Constable of
Caernarfon Castle Caernarfon Castle ( cy, Castell Caernarfon ) – often anglicised as Carnarvon Castle or Caernarvon Castle – is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon Caernarfon (; ) is a royal town, community A community is a social unit (a g ...

Caernarfon Castle
or a patron of
Urdd Gobaith Cymru Urdd Gobaith Cymru () (known as the Urdd) is a national voluntary youth organisation, which claimed over 56,000 members in 2019 aged between 8 and 25 years old. It provides opportunities for children and young people across Wales to take part in ...
(the Welsh League of Youth), were abandoned for several reasons, including fear of associating Elizabeth with
conscientious objector A conscientious objector (often shortened to conchie) is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia A militia () is ...
s in the Urdd at a time when Britain was at war. Welsh politicians suggested she be made
Princess of Wales Princess of Wales ( cy, Tywysoges Cymru) is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, th ...
on her 18th birthday.
Home Secretary The home secretary, officially the secretary of state for the Home Department, is a Secretary of State (United Kingdom), secretary of state in the Government of the United Kingdom, with overall responsibility for all Home Office business. The ...
,
Herbert Morrison Herbert Stanley Morrison, Baron Morrison of Lambeth, (3 January 1888 – 6 March 1965) was a British Labour politician who held a variety of senior positions in the Cabinet. During the inter-war period, he was Minister of Transport during th ...

Herbert Morrison
supported the idea, but the King rejected it because he felt such a title belonged solely to the wife of a Prince of Wales and the Prince of Wales had always been the heir apparent. In 1946, she was inducted into the Welsh
Gorsedd A gorsedd (, plural ''gorseddau'') is a secret society of modern-day bards. The word is of Welsh origin, meaning "throne". It is often spelled gorsedh in Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial ...
of Bards at the
National Eisteddfod of Wales The National Eisteddfod of Wales (Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wal ...
. Princess Elizabeth went on her first overseas tour in 1947, accompanying her parents through southern Africa. During the tour, in a broadcast to the
British Commonwealth The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territories A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the ...
on her 21st birthday, she made the following pledge: "I declare before you all that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong." The speech was written by Dermot Morrah, a journalist for ''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its s ...
''.


Marriage

Elizabeth met her future husband, Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, in 1934 and 1937. They were second cousins once removed through
King Christian IX of Denmark Christian IX (8 April 181829 January 1906) was King of Denmark The Monarchy of Denmark is a constitutional political system, institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark. The Kingdom includes Denmark proper, as well as the a ...

King Christian IX of Denmark
and third cousins through
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
. After another meeting at the in Dartmouth in July 1939, Elizabeth—though only 13 years old—said she fell in love with Philip, and they began to exchange letters. She was 21 when their engagement was officially announced on 9 July 1947. The engagement was not without controversy; Philip had no financial standing, was foreign-born (though a British subject who had served in the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
throughout the Second World War), and had sisters who had married German noblemen with
Nazi Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about th ...
links. Marion Crawford wrote, "Some of the King's advisors did not think him good enough for her. He was a prince without a home or kingdom. Some of the papers played long and loud tunes on the string of Philip's foreign origin." Later biographies reported Elizabeth's mother had reservations about the union initially, and teased Philip as " The Hun". In later life, however, the Queen Mother told biographer
Tim Heald Tim Villiers Heald FRSL The Royal Society of Literature (RSL) is a learned society founded in 1820, by George IV of the United Kingdom, King George IV, to "reward literary merit and excite literary talent". The society is a cultural tenant at Lond ...
that Philip was "an English gentleman". Before the marriage, Philip renounced his Greek and Danish titles, officially converted from
Greek Orthodoxy The Greek Orthodox Church (Greek language, Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἐκκλησία, ''Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía'', ) is the body of several Christian denomination, churches within the larger full communion, communion of Eastern Orth ...
to
Anglicanism Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...
, and adopted the style ''Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten'', taking the surname of his mother's British family. Just before the wedding, he was created
Duke of Edinburgh Duke of Edinburgh, named after the city of Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of th ...
and granted the style ''His Royal Highness''. Elizabeth and Philip were married on 20 November 1947 at
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
. They received 2,500 wedding gifts from around the world. Because Britain had not yet completely recovered from the devastation of the war, Elizabeth required ration coupons to buy the material for her gown, which was designed by
Norman Hartnell Sir Norman Bishop Hartnell, Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, KCVO (12 June 1901 – 8 June 1979) was a leading British fashion designer, best known for his work for the ladies of the British royal family, royal family. Hartnell gai ...

Norman Hartnell
. In post-war Britain, it was not acceptable for Philip's German relations, including his three surviving sisters, to be invited to the wedding. The Duke of Windsor, formerly King Edward VIII, was not invited either. Elizabeth gave birth to her first child,
Prince Charles Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Quee ...

Prince Charles
, on 14 November 1948. One month earlier, the King had issued
letters patent Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) ( always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument ''Legal instrument'' is a legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act acco ...
allowing her children to use the style and title of a royal prince or princess, to which they otherwise would not have been entitled as their father was no longer a royal prince. A second child,
Princess Anne Anne, Princess Royal, (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise; born 15 August 1950) is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. She is 15th in the Succession to the British throne#Current line of suc ...

Princess Anne
, was born in 1950. Following their wedding, the couple leased
Windlesham Moor Windlesham Moor is a country house and, for a time in the 20th century a royal residence, at Windlesham in the English county of Surrey. In its capacity as a royal residence, it was, for nearly two years in the late 1940s, the home of Elizabeth II ...
, near
Windsor Castle Windsor Castle is a at in the English county of . It is strongly associated with the and succeeding , and embodies almost a millennium of . The original castle was built in the 11th century after the by . Since the time of (who re ...

Windsor Castle
, until July 1949, when they took up residence at Clarence House in London. At various times between 1949 and 1951, the Duke of Edinburgh was stationed in the British Crown Colony of Malta as a serving Royal Navy officer. He and Elizabeth lived intermittently in Malta for several months at a time in the hamlet of Gwardamanġa, at Villa Guardamangia, the rented home of Philip's uncle, Lord Mountbatten. The children remained in Britain.


Reign


Accession and coronation

During 1951, George VI's health declined, and Elizabeth frequently stood in for him at public events. When she toured Canada and visited President Harry S. Truman in Washington, D.C., in October 1951, her private secretary, Martin Charteris, carried a draft accession declaration in case the King died while she was on tour. In early 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand by way of Kenya. On 6 February 1952, they had just returned to their Kenyan home, Sagana Lodge, after a night spent at Treetops Hotel, when word arrived of the death of the King and consequently Elizabeth's immediate accession to the throne. Philip broke the news to the new queen. Martin Charteris asked her to choose a
regnal name A regnal name, or regnant name or reign name, is the name used by monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the ...
; she chose to remain Elizabeth, "of course"; thus she was called Elizabeth II, which annoyed many Scots, as she was the first Elizabeth to rule in Scotland. She was Proclamation of accession of Elizabeth II, proclaimed queen throughout her realms and the royal party hastily returned to the United Kingdom. She and the Duke of Edinburgh moved into
Buckingham Palace Buckingham Palace () is the London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial ce ...

Buckingham Palace
. With Elizabeth's accession, it seemed probable the royal house would bear the Duke of Edinburgh's name, in line with the custom of a wife taking her husband's surname on marriage. The Duke's uncle, Lord Mountbatten, advocated the name ''House of Mountbatten''. Philip suggested ''House of Edinburgh'', after his ducal title. The British Prime Minister,
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, Winston Churchill in the Second World War, during the Second World War, ...

Winston Churchill
, and Elizabeth's grandmother, Mary of Teck, Queen Mary, favoured the retention of the House of Windsor, and so on 9 April 1952 Elizabeth issued a declaration that ''Windsor'' would continue to be the name of the royal house. The Duke complained, "I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children." In 1960, after the death of Queen Mary in 1953 and the resignation of Churchill in 1955, the surname ''Mountbatten-Windsor'' was adopted for Philip and Elizabeth's male-line descendants who do not carry royal titles. Amid preparations for the coronation, Princess Margaret told her sister she wished to marry Peter Townsend (RAF officer), Peter Townsend, a divorcé‚ 16 years Margaret's senior, with two sons from his previous marriage. The Queen asked them to wait for a year; in the words of Charteris, "the Queen was naturally sympathetic towards the Princess, but I think she thought—she hoped—given time, the affair would peter out." Senior politicians were against the match and the Church of England did not permit remarriage after divorce. If Margaret had contracted a civil marriage, she would have been expected to renounce her right of succession. Margaret decided to abandon her plans with Townsend. Despite the death of Queen Mary on 24 March, the Coronation of Elizabeth II, coronation on 2 June 1953 went ahead as planned, as Mary had asked before she died. The ceremony in
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
, with the exception of the anointing and Eucharist, communion, was televised for the first time. Coronation gown of Elizabeth II, Elizabeth's coronation gown was embroidered on her instructions with the floral emblems of Commonwealth countries.


Continuing evolution of the Commonwealth

From Elizabeth's birth onwards, the British Empire continued its transformation into the Commonwealth of Nations. By the time of her accession in 1952, her role as head of multiple independent states was already established. In 1953, the Queen and her husband embarked on a seven-month round-the-world tour, visiting 13 countries and covering more than by land, sea and air. She became the first reigning monarch of Australia and
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...
to visit those nations. During the tour, crowds were immense; three-quarters of the population of Australia were estimated to have seen her. Throughout her reign, the Queen has made hundreds of List of state visits made by Elizabeth II, state visits to other countries and List of Commonwealth visits made by Elizabeth II, tours of the Commonwealth; she is the most widely travelled head of state. In 1956, the British and French prime ministers, Sir Anthony Eden and Guy Mollet, discussed the possibility of France joining the Commonwealth. The proposal was never accepted and the following year France signed the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community, the precursor to the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. In November 1956, Britain and France Suez Crisis, invaded Egypt in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to capture the Suez Canal. Lord Mountbatten claimed the Queen was opposed to the invasion, though Eden denied it. Eden resigned two months later. The absence of a formal mechanism within the Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party for choosing a leader meant that, following Eden's resignation, it fell to the Queen to decide whom to Kissing hands, commission to form a government. Eden recommended she consult Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury, Lord Salisbury, the Lord President of the Council. Lord Salisbury and Lord Kilmuir, the Lord Chancellor, consulted the British Cabinet, Churchill, and the Chairman of the backbench 1922 Committee, resulting in the Queen appointing their recommended candidate: Harold Macmillan. The Suez crisis and the choice of Eden's successor led, in 1957, to the first major personal criticism of the Queen. In a magazine, which he owned and edited, John Grigg (writer), Lord Altrincham accused her of being "out of touch". Altrincham was denounced by public figures and slapped by a member of the public appalled by his comments. Six years later, in 1963, Macmillan resigned and advised the Queen to appoint Alec Douglas-Home, the Earl of Home as prime minister, advice she followed.Hardman, p. 22; Pimlott, pp. 324–335; Roberts, p. 84 The Queen again came under criticism for appointing the prime minister on the advice of a small number of ministers or a single minister. In 1965, the Conservatives adopted a formal mechanism for electing a leader, thus relieving her of involvement. In 1957, she made a state visit to the United States, where she addressed the United Nations General Assembly on behalf of the Commonwealth. On the same tour, she opened the 23rd Canadian Parliament, becoming the first monarch of Canada to open a parliamentary session. Two years later, solely in her capacity as Queen of Canada, she revisited the United States and toured Canada. In 1961, she toured Cyprus, India, Pakistan, Kingdom of Nepal, Nepal, and Imperial State of Iran, Iran. On a visit to Ghana the same year, she dismissed fears for her safety, even though her host, List of heads of state of Ghana, President Kwame Nkrumah, who had replaced her as head of state, was a target for assassins. Harold Macmillan wrote, "The Queen has been absolutely determined all through ... She is impatient of the attitude towards her to treat her as ... a film star ... She has indeed 'Speech to the Troops at Tilbury, the heart and stomach of a man' ... She loves her duty and means to be a Queen."Macmillan, pp. 466–472 Before her tour through parts of Quebec in 1964, the press reported extremists within the Quebec sovereignty movement, Quebec separatist movement were plotting Elizabeth's assassination. No attempt was made, but a riot did break out while she was in Montreal; the Queen's "calmness and courage in the face of the violence" was noted. Elizabeth's pregnancies with Princes Prince Andrew, Duke of York, Andrew and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, Edward, in 1959 and 1963, mark the only times she has not performed the State Opening of Parliament, State Opening of the British parliament during her reign. In addition to performing traditional ceremonies, she also instituted new practices. Her first royal walkabout, meeting ordinary members of the public, took place during a tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1970.


Acceleration of decolonisation

The 1960s and 1970s saw an acceleration in the decolonisation of Africa and the Caribbean. Over 20 countries gained independence from Britain as part of a planned transition to self-government. In 1965, however, the Rhodesian Prime Minister, Ian Smith, in opposition to moves towards majority rule, Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, unilaterally declared independence while expressing "loyalty and devotion" to Elizabeth, declaring her "Queen of Rhodesia". Although the Queen formally dismissed him, and the international community applied sanctions against Rhodesia, his regime survived for over a decade. As Britain's ties to its former empire weakened, the British government sought entry to the European Community, a goal it Accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities, achieved in 1973. In February 1974, the British Prime Minister, Edward Heath, advised the Queen to call a February 1974 United Kingdom general election, general election in the middle of her tour of the Austronesian Pacific Rim, requiring her to fly back to Britain. The election resulted in a hung parliament; Heath's Conservatives were not the largest party, but could stay in office if they formed a coalition with the Liberal Party (UK), Liberals. Heath only resigned when discussions on forming a coalition foundered, after which the Queen asked the Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom), Leader of the Opposition, Labour Party (UK), Labour's Harold Wilson, to form a government. A year later, at the height of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, the Australian Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam, was dismissed from his post by Governor-General of Australia, Governor-General Sir John Kerr (governor-general), John Kerr, after the Opposition-controlled Australian Senate, Senate rejected Whitlam's budget proposals.Bond, p. 96; Marr, p. 257; Pimlott, p. 427; Shawcross, p. 110 As Whitlam had a majority in the House of Representatives (Australia), House of Representatives, Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives, Speaker Gordon Scholes appealed to the Queen to reverse Kerr's decision. She declined, saying she would not interfere in decisions reserved by the Constitution of Australia for the Governor-General. The crisis fuelled Australian republicanism.


Silver Jubilee

In 1977, Elizabeth marked the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II, Silver Jubilee of her accession. Parties and events took place throughout the Commonwealth, many coinciding with List of events during the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II, her associated national and Commonwealth tours. The celebrations re-affirmed the Queen's popularity, despite virtually coincident negative press coverage of Princess Margaret's separation from her husband, Lord Snowdon. In 1978, the Queen endured a state visit to the United Kingdom by Romania's communist leader, Nicolae Ceaușescu, and his wife, Elena Ceaușescu, Elena, though privately she thought they had "blood on their hands". The following year brought two blows: one was the unmasking of Anthony Blunt, former Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, as a communist spy; the other was the assassination of her relative and in-law Lord Mountbatten by the Provisional Irish Republican Army. According to Paul Martin Sr., by the end of the 1970s the Queen was worried the Crown "had little meaning for" Pierre Trudeau, the Canadian prime minister. Tony Benn said the Queen found Trudeau "rather disappointing". Trudeau's supposed republicanism seemed to be confirmed by his antics, such as sliding down banisters at Buckingham Palace and pirouetting behind the Queen's back in 1977, and the removal of various Canadian royal symbols during his term of office. In 1980, Canadian politicians sent to London to discuss the patriation of the Canadian constitution found the Queen "better informed ... than any of the British politicians or bureaucrats". She was particularly interested after the failure of Bill C-60, which would have affected her role as head of state. Patriation removed the role of the British parliament from the Canadian constitution, but the monarchy was retained. Trudeau said in his memoirs that the Queen favoured his attempt to reform the constitution and that he was impressed by "the grace she displayed in public" and "the wisdom she showed in private".


Press scrutiny and Thatcher premiership

During the 1981 Trooping the Colour ceremony, six weeks before the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer, six shots were fired at the Queen from close range as she rode down The Mall, London, on her horse, Burmese (horse), Burmese. Police later discovered the shots were blanks. The 17-year-old assailant, Marcus Sarjeant, was sentenced to five years in prison and released after three. The Queen's composure and skill in controlling her mount were widely praised. Months later, in October, the Queen was the subject of another attack while on a visit to Dunedin, New Zealand. New Zealand Security Intelligence Service documents, declassified in 2018, revealed that 17-year-old Christopher John Lewis fired a shot with a .22 rifle from the fifth floor of a building overlooking the parade, but missed. Lewis was arrested, but never charged with attempted murder or treason, and sentenced to three years in jail for unlawful possession and discharge of a firearm. Two years into his sentence, he attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital in order to assassinate Charles, who was visiting the country with Diana, Princess of Wales, Diana and their son Prince William. From April to September 1982, the Queen's son, Prince Andrew, served with British forces in the Falklands War, for which she reportedly felt anxiety and pride. On 9 July, she awoke in her bedroom at Buckingham Palace to find an intruder, Michael Fagan incident, Michael Fagan, in the room with her. In a serious lapse of security, assistance only arrived after two calls to the Palace police switchboard. After hosting US President Ronald Reagan at Windsor Castle in 1982 and visiting Rancho del Cielo, his California ranch in 1983, the Queen was angered when his administration ordered the United States invasion of Grenada, invasion of Grenada, one of her Caribbean realms, without informing her. Intense media interest in the opinions and private lives of the royal family during the 1980s led to a series of sensational stories in the press, not all of which were entirely true. As Kelvin MacKenzie, editor of ''The Sun (United Kingdom), The Sun'', told his staff: "Give me a Sunday for Monday splash on the Royals. Don't worry if it's not true—so long as there's not too much of a fuss about it afterwards." Newspaper editor Donald Trelford wrote in ''The Observer'' of 21 September 1986: "The royal soap opera has now reached such a pitch of public interest that the boundary between fact and fiction has been lost sight of ... it is not just that some papers don't check their facts or accept denials: they don't care if the stories are true or not." It was reported, most notably in ''The Sunday Times'' of 20 July 1986, that the Queen was worried that Margaret Thatcher's Thatcherism#economicposition, economic policies fostered social divisions and was alarmed by high unemployment, 1981 England riots, a series of riots, the violence of a UK miners' strike (1984–85), miners' strike, and Thatcher's refusal to apply sanctions against the apartheid regime in South Africa. The sources of the rumours included royal aide Michael Shea (diplomat), Michael Shea and Commonwealth Secretary-General Shridath Ramphal, but Shea claimed his remarks were taken out of context and embellished by speculation. Thatcher reputedly said the Queen would vote for the Social Democratic Party (UK), Social Democratic Party—Thatcher's political opponents. Thatcher's biographer, John Campbell (biographer), John Campbell, claimed "the report was a piece of journalistic mischief-making". Belying reports of acrimony between them, Thatcher later conveyed her personal admiration for the Queen, and the Queen gave two honours in her personal gift—membership in the Order of Merit and the Order of the Garter—to Thatcher after her replacement as prime minister by John Major. Brian Mulroney, Canadian prime minister between 1984 and 1993, said Elizabeth was a "behind the scenes force" in ending apartheid. By the end of the 1980s, the Queen had become the target of satire. The involvement of younger members of the royal family in the charity game show ''It's a Royal Knockout'' in 1987 was ridiculed. In Canada, Elizabeth publicly supported politically divisive Meech Lake Accord, constitutional amendments, prompting criticism from opponents of the proposed changes, including Pierre Trudeau. The same year, the elected Fijian government was deposed in 1987 Fijian coups d'état, a military coup. As monarch of Fiji, Elizabeth supported the attempts of Governor-General of Fiji, Governor-General Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau to assert executive power and negotiate a settlement. Coup leader Sitiveni Rabuka deposed Ganilau and declared Fiji a republic.


Turbulent 1990s and ''annus horribilis''

In 1991, in the wake of coalition victory in the Gulf War, the Queen became the first British monarch to address a Joint session of the United States Congress, joint meeting of the United States Congress. In a speech on 24 November 1992, to mark her Ruby Jubilee of Elizabeth II, Ruby Jubilee on the throne, Elizabeth called 1992 her ''annus horribilis'' (''horrible year''). Republican feeling in Britain had risen because of press estimates of the Queen's private wealth – which were contradicted by the Palace – and reports of affairs and strained marriages among her extended family. In March, her second son, Prince Andrew, and his wife, Sarah, Duchess of York, Sarah, separated, and Mauritius removed Elizabeth as Queen of Mauritius, head of state; in April, her daughter, Princess Anne, divorced Captain Mark Phillips; during a state visit to Germany in October, angry demonstrators in Dresden threw eggs at her; and, in November, 1992 Windsor Castle fire, a large fire broke out at Windsor Castle, one of her official residences. The monarchy came under increased criticism and public scrutiny. In an unusually personal speech, the Queen said that any institution must expect criticism, but suggested it be done with "a touch of humour, gentleness and understanding". Two days later, Prime Minister John Major announced reforms to the royal finances planned since the previous year, including the Queen paying income tax from 1993 onwards, and a reduction in the civil list. In December, Prince Charles and his wife, Diana, formally separated. The year ended with a lawsuit, as the Queen sued ''The Sun (United Kingdom), The Sun'' newspaper for breach of copyright when it published the text of her Royal Christmas Message, annual Christmas message two days before it was broadcast. The newspaper was forced to pay her legal fees and donated £200,000 to charity. The Queen's lawyers had taken action against ''The Sun'' five years earlier for breach of copyright, after it published a photograph of the Duchess of York and Princess Beatrice. The case was solved with an out-of-court settlement that made the newspaper pay $180,000. In the years to follow, public revelations on the state of Charles and Diana's marriage continued. Even though support for republicanism in Britain seemed higher than at any time in living memory, republicanism was still a minority viewpoint, and the Queen herself had high approval ratings. Criticism was focused on the institution of the monarchy itself and the Queen's wider family rather than her own behaviour and actions. In consultation with her husband and the Prime Minister, John Major, as well as the Archbishop of Canterbury, George Carey, and her private secretary, Robert Fellowes, Baron Fellowes, Robert Fellowes, she wrote to Charles and Diana at the end of December 1995, saying a divorce was desirable. In August 1997, a year after the divorce, Diana was killed in Death of Diana, Princess of Wales, a car crash in Paris. The Queen was on holiday with her extended family at Balmoral Castle, Balmoral. Diana's two sons by Charles – Princes Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, William and Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex, Harry – wanted to attend church and so the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh took them that morning. Afterwards, for five days the Queen and the Duke shielded their grandsons from the intense press interest by keeping them at Balmoral where they could grieve in private, but the royal family's silence and seclusion, and the failure to fly a flag at half-mast over Buckingham Palace, caused public dismay. Pressured by the hostile reaction, the Queen agreed to return to London and do a Addresses to the nation by Elizabeth II, live television broadcast on 5 September, the day before Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales, Diana's funeral. In the broadcast, she expressed admiration for Diana and her feelings "as a grandmother" for the two princes.Bond, p. 134; Brandreth, p. 359; Lacey, pp. 13–15; Pimlott, pp. 623–624 As a result, much of the public hostility evaporated. In October 1997, Elizabeth and Philip made a state visit to India, which included a controversial visit to the site of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre to pay her respects. Protesters chanted "Killer Queen, go back", and there were demands for her to apologise for the action of British troops 78 years earlier. At the memorial in the park, she and the Duke paid their respects by laying a wreath and stood for a 30‑second moment of silence. As a result, much of the fury among the public softened and the protests were called off. In November of that year, the Queen and her husband held a reception at Banqueting House to mark their golden wedding anniversary. She made a speech and praised Philip for his role as a consort, referring to him as "my strength and stay".


Golden Jubilee

In 2002, Elizabeth marked her Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II, Golden Jubilee, which is the 50th anniversary of her accession to the throne. Her sister and mother died in February and March respectively, and the media speculated whether the Jubilee would be a success or a failure. She again undertook an extensive tour of her realms, which began in Jamaica in February, where she called the farewell banquet "memorable" after a power cut plunged the King's House, Jamaica, King's House, the official residence of the Governor-General of Jamaica, governor-general, into darkness. As in 1977, there were street parties and commemorative events, and monuments were named to honour the occasion. A million people attended each day of the three-day main Jubilee celebration in London, and the enthusiasm shown by the public for the Queen was greater than many journalists had expected. Though generally healthy throughout her life, in 2003 the Queen had keyhole surgery on both knees. In October 2006, she missed the opening of the new Emirates Stadium because of a strained back muscle that had been troubling her since the summer. In May 2007, ''The Daily Telegraph'', citing unnamed sources, reported the Queen was "exasperated and frustrated" by the policies of the British prime minister, Tony Blair, that she was concerned the British Armed Forces were overstretched in Iraq and Afghanistan, and that she had raised concerns over rural and countryside issues with Blair. She was, however, said to admire Blair's efforts to Northern Ireland peace process, achieve peace in Northern Ireland. She became the first British monarch to celebrate a diamond wedding anniversary in November 2007. On 20 March 2008, at the Church of Ireland St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh (Church of Ireland), St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh, the Queen attended the first Royal Maundy, Maundy service held outside England and Wales. Elizabeth addressed the UN General Assembly for a second time in 2010, again in her capacity as Queen of all Commonwealth realms and Head of the Commonwealth. The UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon, introduced her as "an anchor for our age". During her visit to New York, which followed a tour of Canada, she officially opened a memorial garden for British victims of the September 11 attacks. The Queen's 11-day visit to Australia in October 2011 was her 16th visit to the country since 1954. By invitation of the Irish President, Mary McAleese, she made the first State visit of Elizabeth II to the Republic of Ireland, state visit to the Republic of Ireland by a British monarch in May 2011.


Diamond Jubilee

The Queen's 2012 Diamond Jubilee marked 60 years on the throne, and celebrations were held throughout her realms, the wider Commonwealth, and beyond. In a message released on Accession Day, Elizabeth wrote: She and her husband undertook an extensive tour of the United Kingdom, while her children and grandchildren embarked on royal tours of other Commonwealth states on her behalf. On 4 June, Jubilee beacons were lit around the world. While touring Manchester as part of her Jubilee celebrations, the Queen made a surprise appearance at a wedding party at Manchester Town Hall, which then made international headlines. In November, the Queen and her husband celebrated their blue sapphire wedding anniversary (65th). On 18 December, she became the first British sovereign to attend a peacetime Cabinet of the United Kingdom, Cabinet meeting since George III in 1781. The Queen, who opened the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, also opened the 2012 Summer Olympics and 2012 Summer Paralympics, Paralympics in London, making her the first List of people who have opened the Olympic Games, head of state to open two Olympic Games in two countries. For the London Olympics, she played herself in Happy & Glorious, a short film as part of the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, opening ceremony, alongside Daniel Craig as James Bond. On 4 April 2013, she received an honorary BAFTA for her patronage of the film industry and was called "the most memorable Bond girl yet" at the award ceremony. On 3 March 2013, Elizabeth was admitted to King Edward VII's Hospital as a precaution after developing symptoms of gastroenteritis. She returned to Buckingham Palace the following day. A week later, she signed the new Charter of the Commonwealth. Because of her age and the need for her to limit travelling, in 2013 she chose not to attend the biennial Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting for the first time in 40 years. She was represented at the summit in Sri Lanka by Prince Charles. She underwent cataract surgery in May 2018. In March 2019, she opted to give up driving on public roads, largely as a consequence of a car crash involving her husband two months earlier. The Queen surpassed her great-great-grandmother,
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
, to become the List of British monarchs by longevity, longest-lived British monarch on 21 December 2007, and the List of monarchs in Britain by length of reign#Overall, longest-reigning British monarch and List of longest-reigning monarchs, longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state in the world on 9 September 2015. She became the oldest current monarch after Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia died on 23 January 2015. She later became the longest-reigning current monarch and the List of current state leaders by date of assumption of office, longest-serving current head of state following the death of Bhumibol Adulyadej, King Bhumibol of Thailand on 13 October 2016, and the Lists of state leaders by age, oldest current head of state on the resignation of Robert Mugabe on 21 November 2017. On 6 February 2017, she became the first British monarch to commemorate a
Sapphire Jubilee In 2017, the term sapphire Sapphire is a precious gemstone A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewellery, jew ...
, and on 20 November, she was the first British monarch to celebrate a platinum wedding anniversary. Philip had retired from his official duties as the Queen's consort in August 2017. On 20 April 2018, the government leaders of the Commonwealth of Nations announced that she will be succeeded by Charles as
Head of the Commonwealth Head of the Commonwealth is a title used by the ceremonial leader who symbolises "the free association of independent member nations" of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is ...
. The Queen stated it was her "sincere wish" that Charles would follow her in the role.


COVID-19 pandemic

On 19 March 2020, the Queen moved to Windsor Castle and sequestered there as a precaution, as the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom, COVID-19 pandemic hit the United Kingdom. Public engagements were cancelled and Windsor Castle followed a strict sanitary protocol nicknamed "HMS Bubble". On 5 April, the Queen addressed the Commonwealth in a televised broadcast, in which she asked people to "take comfort that while we may have more still to endure, better days will return". She added, "we will be with our friends again; we will be with our families again; we will meet again". The broadcast was watched by an estimated 24 million viewers on television in the United Kingdom. On 8 May, the 75th anniversary of VE Day, the Queen addressed the nation again, at 9pm, the exact time at which her father George VI broadcast in 1945, in which she asked people to "never give up, never despair". In October, the Queen carried out her first public engagement since March, and visited the UK's Defence Science and Technology Laboratory to officially open its new Energetics Analysis Centre. On 4 November, she appeared masked for the first time, during a private pilgrimage to the The Unknown Warrior, tomb of the Unknown Warrior at Westminster Abbey, to mark the centenary of his burial. The same month, due to the rise in the risk of COVID infection, the Queen and Prince Philip returned to Windsor Castle, where they celebrated their 73rd wedding anniversary. On 9 January 2021, Buckingham Palace announced that the Queen and Prince Philip had received their first dose of the vaccine against COVID-19. She received her second dose in April, before her first in-person public appearance of 2021. After 73 years of marriage, Prince Philip Death and funeral of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, died on 9 April 2021, making Elizabeth the first British monarch to reign as a widow or widower since Queen Victoria, Victoria. She remarked in private that his death "left a huge void". Despite the pandemic, the Queen took part in the 2021 State Opening of Parliament, and hosted a reception for G7 leaders in Cornwall, as part of the 47th G7 summit. On 5 July 2021, the 73rd anniversary of the founding of the NHS, the Queen announced in a personal handwritten message that the NHS would be awarded the George Cross to "recognise all NHS staff, past and present, across all disciplines and all four nations". In October 2021, Elizabeth began using a walking stick for comfort during public engagements, having last been seen using one after an operation in 2004. On 19 October, she declined ''The Oldie'' The Oldie#Oldie of the Year Awards, Oldie of the Year Award, telling nominator Gyles Brandreth in a letter: "You're only as old as you feel". She was briefly hospitalised on 20 October, after cancelling a visit to Northern Ireland on health grounds, but left hospital the following day. The Queen's hospitalisation was only confirmed by the Palace after ''The Sun (United Kingdom), The Sun'' ran the story as a front-page exclusive. The same week, she cancelled her plans to travel to the 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP26 summit in Glasgow following advice from her doctor to rest, instead delivering her address via video message. The Queen was also unable to attend the 2021 National Service of Remembrance after spraining her back; this was said to be unrelated to previous medical advice for rest. On 21 November, after returning to public duties, she attended a rare joint christening of two of her great-grandchildren at the Royal Lodge in Windsor Great Park, Berkshire. On 30 November, Barbados removed the Queen as head of state, Republicanism in Barbados, becoming a republic.


Platinum Jubilee

The Queen's Platinum Jubilee of Elizabeth II, Platinum Jubilee is planned for 2022, and she would surpass Louis XIV of Kingdom of France, France as the List of longest-reigning monarchs, longest-reigning monarch of a sovereign state in verified world history on 27 May 2024. She does not intend to abdicate, though Prince Charles and other family members began to take on more of her duties when she entered her nineties and began carrying out fewer public engagements.


Public perception and character

Since Elizabeth rarely gives interviews, little is known of her personal feelings. She has not explicitly expressed her own political opinions in a public forum, and it is against convention to ask or reveal her views. During the UK miners' strike (1984-85), miners' strike of 1984-85 ''Times of London, Times'' journalist Paul Routledge asked the Queen for her opinions on the strike, to which she replied that it was "all about one man" (a reference to Arthur Scargill), which Routledge disagreed with. Routledge was widely criticised in the media for asking the question; he claimed that he was not initially due to be present for the Queen's visit and was unaware of the protocols. After the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, Prime Minister David Cameron claimed that she was pleased with the outcome. She had arguably issued a public coded statement about the referendum by telling one woman outside Balmoral Kirk that she hoped people would think "very carefully" about the outcome. It emerged later that Cameron had asked the Queen to register her concern. Elizabeth has a deep sense of religious and civic duty, and takes her Coronation Oath, coronation oath seriously. Aside from her Monarchy of the United Kingdom#Religious role, official religious role as Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Supreme Governor of the State religion, established Church of England, she is a member of that church and also of the national Church of Scotland. She has demonstrated support for Interfaith dialogue, inter-faith relations and has met with leaders of other churches and religions, including five popes: Pope Pius XII, Pius XII, Pope John XXIII, John XXIII, Pope John Paul II, John Paul II, Pope Benedict XVI, Benedict XVI, and Pope Francis, Francis. A personal note about her faith often features in her annual Christmas Message broadcast to the Commonwealth. In 2000, she said: She is patron of over 600 organisations and charities. The Charities Aid Foundation estimated that Elizabeth has helped raised over £1.4 billion for her patronages during her reign. Her main leisure interests include equestrianism and dogs, especially her Pembroke Welsh Corgis. Her lifelong Royal corgis, love of corgis began in 1933 with Dookie, the first corgi owned by her family. Scenes of a relaxed, informal home life have occasionally been witnessed; she and her family, from time to time, prepare a meal together and do the washing up afterwards. In the 1950s, as a young woman at the start of her reign, Elizabeth was depicted as a glamorous "fairytale Queen". After the trauma of the Second World War, it was a time of hope, a period of progress and achievement heralding a "new Elizabethan age". Lord Altrincham's accusation in 1957 that her speeches sounded like those of a "priggish schoolgirl" was an extremely rare criticism. In the late 1960s, attempts to portray a more modern image of the monarchy were made in the television documentary ''Royal Family (documentary), Royal Family'' and by televising Prince Charles's Investiture of the Prince of Wales, investiture as Prince of Wales. In public, she took to wearing mostly solid-colour overcoats and decorative hats, which allow her to be seen easily in a crowd. At her Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II, Silver Jubilee in 1977, the crowds and celebrations were genuinely enthusiastic, but, in the 1980s, public criticism of the royal family increased, as the personal and working lives of Elizabeth's children came under media scrutiny. Her popularity sank to a low point in the 1990s. Under pressure from public opinion, she began to pay income tax for the first time, and Buckingham Palace was opened to the public. Discontent with the monarchy reached its peak on the death of the former Princess of Wales, Diana, although Elizabeth's personal popularity – as well as general support for the monarchy – rebounded after her live television broadcast to the world five days after Diana's death. In November 1999, a 1999 Australian republic referendum, referendum in Australia on the future of the Australian monarchy favoured its retention in preference to an indirectly elected head of state. Many republicans have credited Elizabeth's personal popularity with the survival of the monarchy in Australia. Prime Minister Julia Gillard said in 2010 there was a "deep affection" for the Queen in Australia and said another referendum on the monarchy should wait until after her reign. Her successor, Malcolm Turnbull, who led the republican campaign in 1999, similarly believes that Australians would not vote to become a republic in her lifetime. "She's been an extraordinary head of state," Turnbull said in 2021, "and I think frankly, in Australia, there are more Elizabethans than there are monarchists". Similarly, referendums in both 2008 Tuvaluan constitutional referendum, Tuvalu in 2008 and 2009 Vincentian constitutional referendum, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 2009 saw voters reject proposals to become republics. Polls in Britain in 2006 and 2007 revealed strong support for Elizabeth, and in 2012, her Diamond Jubilee year, approval ratings hit 90 percent. Her family came under scrutiny again in 2019 and 2020 due to her son Andrew's association with convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein and her grandson Harry and his wife Meghan, Duchess of Sussex, Meghan's Megxit, exit from the monarchy and subsequent move to the United States. Elizabeth has been portrayed in a variety of media by many notable artists, including painters Pietro Annigoni, Peter Blake (artist), Peter Blake, Chinwe Chukwuogo-Roy, Terence Cuneo, Lucian Freud, Rolf Harris, Damien Hirst, Juliet Pannett, and Tai-Shan Schierenberg. Notable photographers of Elizabeth have included Cecil Beaton, Yousuf Karsh, Annie Leibovitz, Patrick Anson, 5th Earl of Lichfield, Lord Lichfield, Terry O'Neill (photographer), Terry O'Neill, John Swannell (photographer), John Swannell, and Dorothy Wilding. The first official portrait of Elizabeth was taken by Marcus Adams (photographer), Marcus Adams in 1926.


Finances

Elizabeth's personal fortune has been the subject of speculation for many years. In 1971, Jock Colville, her former private secretary and a director of her bank, Coutts, estimated her wealth at £2 million (equivalent to about £ in ). In 1993, Buckingham Palace called estimates of £100 million "grossly overstated". In 2002, she inherited an estate worth an estimated £70 million from her mother. The ''Sunday Times Rich List 2020'' estimated her personal wealth at £350 million, making her the 372nd richest person in the UK. She was number one on the list when it began in the ''Sunday Times Rich List 1989'', with a reported wealth of £5.2 billion, which included state assets that were not hers personally, (approximately £ in today's value). The Royal Collection, which includes thousands of historic works of art and the British Crown Jewels, is not owned personally but is held Trust law, in trust by the Queen, as are her official residences, such as
Buckingham Palace Buckingham Palace () is the London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial ce ...

Buckingham Palace
and
Windsor Castle Windsor Castle is a at in the English county of . It is strongly associated with the and succeeding , and embodies almost a millennium of . The original castle was built in the 11th century after the by . Since the time of (who re ...

Windsor Castle
, and the Duchy of Lancaster, a property portfolio valued at £472 million in 2015. (The Paradise Papers, leaked in 2017, show that the Duchy of Lancaster held investments in two tax haven overseas territories, the Cayman Islands and Bermuda.)
Sandringham House Sandringham House is a country house An English country house is a large house or mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the la ...

Sandringham House
and
Balmoral Castle Balmoral Castle () is a large estate house Historically, an estate comprises the houses, outbuildings, supporting farmland, and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. It is ...

Balmoral Castle
are personally owned by the Queen. The British Crown Estate – with holdings of £14.3 billion in 2019 – is held in trust and cannot be sold or owned by her in a personal capacity.


Titles, styles, honours, and arms


Titles and styles

* 21 April 192611 December 1936: ''Her Royal Highness'' Princess Elizabeth of York * 11 December 193620 November 1947: ''Her Royal Highness'' The Princess Elizabeth * 20 November 19476 February 1952: ''Her Royal Highness'' The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh * Since 6 February 1952: ''Her Majesty'' The Queen Elizabeth has held many titles and honorary military positions throughout the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth, is sovereign of many orders in her own countries, and has received honours and awards from around the world. In each of her realms she has a distinct title that follows a similar formula: ''Queen of Jamaica and her other realms and territories'' in Jamaica, ''Queen of Australia and her other realms and territories'' in Australia, etc. In the Channel Islands and Isle of Man, which are Crown dependencies rather than separate realms, she is known as Duke of Normandy and Lord of Mann, respectively. Additional styles include Fidei defensor, Defender of the Faith and Duke of Lancaster. When conversing with the Queen, the correct etiquette is to address her initially as ''Your Majesty'' and thereafter as ''Ma'am'' pronounced with a short 'a' as in ''jam''.


Arms

From 21 April 1944 until her accession, Elizabeth's arms consisted of a Lozenge (heraldry), lozenge bearing the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a Label (heraldry), label of three points argent, the centre point bearing a Tudor rose and the first and third a St George's Cross, cross of St George. Upon her accession, she inherited the various arms her father held as sovereign. The Queen also possesses Banner#Heraldic banners, royal standards and personal flags for use in Royal Standard of the United Kingdom, the United Kingdom, Royal standards of Canada, Canada, Queen's Personal Australian Flag, Australia, Queen's Personal Flag for New Zealand, New Zealand, Queen's Personal Jamaican Flag, Jamaica, and elsewhere.


Issue


Ancestry


See also

* Household of Elizabeth II * List of things named after Elizabeth II * List of Jubilees of British monarchs#Elizabeth II, List of Jubilees of Elizabeth II * Royal Address to the Nation#Elizabeth II, List of special addresses made by Elizabeth II * Royal eponyms in Canada * Royal descendants of Queen Victoria and King Christian IX


Notes


Citations


References

* Jennie Bond, Bond, Jennie (2006). ''Elizabeth: Eighty Glorious Years''. London: Carlton Publishing Group. * Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Gary (2002). ''Fifty Years the Queen''. Toronto: Dundurn Press. * Sarah Bradford, Bradford, Sarah (2012). ''Queen Elizabeth II: Her Life in Our Times''. London: Penguin. * Gyles Brandreth, Brandreth, Gyles (2004). ''Philip and Elizabeth: Portrait of a Marriage''. London: Century. * Asa Briggs, Briggs, Asa (1995). ''The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: Volume 4''. Oxford: Oxford University Press. * John Campbell (biographer), Campbell, John (2003). ''Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady''. London: Jonathan Cape. * Marion Crawford, Crawford, Marion (1950). ''The Little Princesses''. London: Cassell & Co. * Hardman, Robert (2011). ''Our Queen''. London: Hutchinson. * Tim Heald, Heald, Tim (2007). ''Princess Margaret: A Life Unravelled''. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. * Hoey, Brian (2002). ''Her Majesty: Fifty Regal Years''. London: HarperCollins. * Robert Lacey, Lacey, Robert (2002). ''Royal: Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II''. London: Little, Brown. * Harold Macmillan, Macmillan, Harold (1972). ''Pointing The Way 1959–1961'' London: Macmillan. * Andrew Marr, Marr, Andrew (2011). ''The Diamond Queen: Elizabeth II and Her People''. London: Macmillan. * Andrew Neil, Neil, Andrew (1996). ''Full Disclosure''. London: Macmillan. * Harold Nicolson, Nicolson, Sir Harold (1952). ''King George the Fifth: His Life and Reign''. London: Constable & Co. * Jonathan Petropoulos, Petropoulos, Jonathan (2006). ''Royals and the Reich: the princes von Hessen in Nazi Germany''. New York: Oxford University Press. * Ben Pimlott, Pimlott, Ben (2001). ''The Queen: Elizabeth II and the Monarchy''. London: HarperCollins. * Andrew Roberts (historian), Roberts, Andrew; Edited by Antonia Fraser (2000). ''The House of Windsor''. London: Cassell & Co. * William Shawcross, Shawcross, William (2002). ''Queen and Country''. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. * Margaret Thatcher, Thatcher, Margaret (1993). ''The Downing Street Years''. London: HarperCollins. * Pierre Trudeau, Trudeau, Pierre Elliott (1993). ''Memoirs''. Toronto: McLelland & Stewart. * Williamson, David (1987). ''Debrett's Kings and Queens of Britain''. Webb & Bower. * Woodrow Wyatt, Wyatt, Woodrow; Edited by Sarah Curtis (1999). ''The Journals of Woodrow Wyatt: Volume II''. London: Macmillan.


External links


The Queen
at the Royal Family website
Queen Elizabeth II's profile
on
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcasting, broadcaster in the world by ...

BBC
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