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Eisenach () is a
town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares an origin with the word , the word ...

town
in
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The ...
,
Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas to the north, and the to the south; it covers an area of ...

Germany
with 42,000 inhabitants, located west of
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the and largest city in the state of , central Germany. It is located in the southern part of the , within the wide valley of the . It is located south-west of , south-west of , north of and north-east of . Together wit ...

Erfurt
, southeast of
Kassel Kassel (; in Germany, spelled Cassel until 1926) is a city on the Fulda River The Fulda () is a river of Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a state of the Germ ...

Kassel
and northeast of
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian A Hessian is an inhabitant of the German state of Hesse. Hessian may also refer to: Named from the toponym *Hessian (soldier), eighteenth-century German regiments in service with the Brit ...

Frankfurt
. It is the main urban centre of western Thuringia and bordering northeastern
Hessian A Hessian is an inhabitant of the German state of Hesse. Hessian may also refer to: Named from the toponym *Hessian (soldier), eighteenth-century German regiments in service with the British Empire **Hessian (boot), a style of boot **Hessian fa ...
regions, situated near the former
Inner German border The Inner German border (german: Innerdeutsche Grenze or ; initially also ) was the border between the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) and the West Germany, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Not i ...
. A major attraction is
Wartburg The Wartburg () is a castle originally built in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical ...

Wartburg
castle, which has been a
UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
since 1999. Eisenach was an early capital of Thuringia in the 12th and 13th centuries. St.
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...
lived at the court of the
Ludowingians File:Schauenburg.jpg, Information board at the ruins of the Ludovingian family castle, the Schauenburg (Friedrichroda), Schauenburg near Friedrichroda The Ludovingians or Ludowingians (german: Ludowinger) were the ruling dynasty of Landgraviate o ...
here between 1211 and 1228. Later,
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a Germans, German professor of Christian theology, theology, priest, author, composer, former Order of Saint Augustine, Augustinian monk, and is best known as a seminal f ...

Martin Luther
came to Eisenach and translated the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...
into German. In 1685,
Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the late Baroque music, Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Cello Suites (Bach), Cello Suites and ''Brandenburg Concertos''; keyboard ...

Johann Sebastian Bach
was born here. During the
early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adve ...
, Eisenach was a residence of the Ernestine Wettins and was visited by numerous representatives of
Weimar classicism Weimar Classicism (german: Weimarer Klassik) was a German literary Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, dra ...
like
Johann Wolfgang Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of G ...

Johann Wolfgang Goethe
. In 1869, the
SDAPSDAP may refer to: * Social Democratic Workers' Party (Netherlands), a Dutch political party founded in 1894 that later merged into the Labour Party (Netherlands) * Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany, a German political party founded in 186 ...
, one of the two precursors of the
Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic political party in Germany. It is one of the two major parties of contemporary Germany along with the CDU/CSU, Union parties ...
(SPD) was founded in Eisenach. Car production is an important industry in Eisenach. The ''
Automobilwerk Eisenach The Automobilwerk Eisenach (AWE) was an automobile manufacturer in Eisenach, Germany. History Fahrzeugfabrik Eisenach Heinrich Ehrhardt founded the Fahrzeugfabrik Eisenach (FFE) in Eisenach on 3 December 1896 as a stock company. Initial ...
'' was founded in 1896. In the
German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = Ge ...
, the
Wartburg The Wartburg () is a castle originally built in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical ...
was produced here, before the factory was acquired by
Opel Opel Automobile GmbH (), usually shortened to Opel, is a German automobile manufacturer The automotive industry comprises a wide range of company, companies and organizations involved in the design, Business development, development, manufac ...
in 1990. Eisenach is situated on the river, a tributary of the
Werra The Werra (), a river in central Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas to the north ...
between the
Thuringian Forest The Thuringian Forest (''Thüringer Wald'' in German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German n ...
in the south, the
Hainich Hainich is a forested hill chain in the state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smal ...
mountains in the north-east and the East Hesse Highlands in the north-west.


History


Middle Ages

Eisenach's origin and early history is unknown. An 8th century Frankish settlement near Petersberg hill is regarded as the nucleus of Eisenach. However, there are no written sources about that early period. According to legend,
Louis the Springer Louis the Springer (german: Ludwig der Springer), sometimes called Louis the Jumper or Louis the Leaper (died 8 May 1123), was a German nobleman and count Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a socia ...
began in 1067 to establish
Wartburg The Wartburg () is a castle originally built in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical ...

Wartburg
castle above the settlement. In 1080, the castle was first mentioned in a Saxon chronicle. Eisenach itself followed in a document dating to 1150 where it was referred to as "Isinacha". During the 1180s, the town was established by the construction of three independent market settlements around the Saturday's market (today's Karlsplatz), the Wednesday's market (today's Frauenplan) and the Monday's market (today's Marktplatz). Due to its convenient location at a bottleneck between the
Thuringian Forest The Thuringian Forest (''Thüringer Wald'' in German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German n ...
in the south and the
Hainich Hainich is a forested hill chain in the state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smal ...
mountains in the north, Eisenach benefitted from substantial west-east trade along
Via Regia The Via Regia (Royal Highway) is a European Cultural Route following the route of the historic road of the Middle Ages. There were many such ''viae regiae'' associated with the king in the medieval Holy Roman Empire. History Origins The V ...
from
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian A Hessian is an inhabitant of the German state of Hesse. Hessian may also refer to: Named from the toponym *Hessian (soldier), eighteenth-century German regiments in service with the Brit ...

Frankfurt
to
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the and largest city in the state of , central Germany. It is located in the southern part of the , within the wide valley of the . It is located south-west of , south-west of , north of and north-east of . Together wit ...

Erfurt
and
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
and became a rich merchant town. During the second half of the 12th century, the town walls were erected (the Nikolaitor is an important relict of this wall) and Eisenach got a planned grid of streets and alleys. In the late 12th century, the Wartburg became the main residence of the
Ludowingians File:Schauenburg.jpg, Information board at the ruins of the Ludovingian family castle, the Schauenburg (Friedrichroda), Schauenburg near Friedrichroda The Ludovingians or Ludowingians (german: Ludowinger) were the ruling dynasty of Landgraviate o ...
, making Eisenach a leading place in today's western Thuringia and northern Hesse, which also belonged to the Ludowingian landgraviate. In 1207, the legendary Sängerkrieg supposedly took place at Wartburg castle. In 1221, St.
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...
married Landgrave and she lived in Eisenach or at Wartburg castle until 1228. Later, she became the patroness of Thuringia and Hesse. In 1247, the Ludowingians died out which led to the
War of the Thuringian SuccessionThe War of the Thuringian Succession (German: ''thüringisch-hessischer Erbfolgekrieg'') (1247–1264) was a military conflict over a successor to the last Landgrave of Thuringia This is a list of the rulers of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thü ...
between the Wettins and Duchess
Sophie Sophie is a version of the female given name Sophia (given name), Sophia, meaning "wisdom". People with the name Born in the Middle Ages * Sophie, Countess of Bar (c. 1004 or 1018–1093), sovereign Countess of Bar and lady of Mousson * Sophie of ...
of
BrabantBrabant is a traditional geographical region (or regions) in the Low Countries of Europe. It may refer to: Place names in Europe Belgium * Province of Brabant, which in 1995 was split up into two provinces and an autonomous region: ** Flemish Braba ...
. As a consequence, the landgraviate was divided. Eisenach and the eastern parts went to the Wettins (later becoming Thuringia) and
Kassel Kassel (; in Germany, spelled Cassel until 1926) is a city on the Fulda River The Fulda () is a river of Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a state of the Germ ...

Kassel
,
Marburg Marburg ( or ) is a college town, university town in the States of Germany, German federal state (''Bundesland'') of Hesse, capital of the Marburg-Biedenkopf Districts of Germany, district (''Landkreis''). The town area spreads along the valley ...

Marburg
and the western parts went to Sophie (later becoming Hesse). Eisenach kept a leading position among the Wettin's Thuringian cities by becoming their ''Oberhof'' (leading court), so that their law had to be derived from Eisenach's municipal law and disputes had to be resolved here. The confident citizens of Eisenach fought against the Wettin's rule to become a
free imperial city In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (german: Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (', la, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that h ...
between 1306 and 1308, but lost. In the 14th century various crises followed: in 1342, a big fire destroyed nearly all the buildings and the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague pandemic occurring in Afro-Eurasia from 1346 to 1353. It is the List of epidemics, most fatal pandemic recorded in human history, causing th ...

Black Death
killed many inhabitants in 1349 and 1393. Since 1406, Eisenach was no longer a Wettin residence, which led to a decline in urban development. In 1485, in the " division of Leipzig", the town fell to the Ernestine line of the Wettins.


Early-modern period

Between 1498 and 1501, the young
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a Germans, German professor of Christian theology, theology, priest, author, composer, former Order of Saint Augustine, Augustinian monk, and is best known as a seminal f ...

Martin Luther
attended the St. George's Latin school in Eisenach in preparation for his following studies at the
University of Erfurt The University of Erfurt (german: Universität Erfurt) is a public university located in Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany. It is located in the southern part of the Thuringia ...
. In 1521/22 he was hidden by
Frederick the Wise Frederick III (17 January 1463 – 5 May 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise ( German ''Friedrich der Weise''), was Elector of Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; hsb, Sakska), officially the Free State of Saxony (German: , Upper Sorbian ...
at Wartburg castle to protect him from the Imperial ban. In that time, Luther translated the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
from Greek into German, in what was an important step both for the
German Reformation German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = Ge ...
and the development of a consistent German standard language. Luther referred to Eisenach as ''ein Pfaffennest'' ("a clerical backwater"), since during his time there were 300 monks and nuns per 1,000 inhabitants. In 1525, there was heavy fighting in the area during the '' Bauernkrieg''. In 1528, the Lutheran Reformation was implemented in Eisenach. In 1596, Eisenach became a ducal residence again for the house of
Saxe-Eisenach Saxe-Eisenach (german: Sachsen-Eisenach) was an Ernestine duchy ruled by the Saxon House of Wettin The House of Wettin () is a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors and monarch, kings that once ruled territories in the present- ...
.
Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the late Baroque music, Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Cello Suites (Bach), Cello Suites and ''Brandenburg Concertos''; keyboard ...

Johann Sebastian Bach
was born in Eisenach in 1685. His father,
Johann Ambrosius Bach Johann Ambrosius Bach (24 February 1645 – ) was a German musician, father to Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque music, Baroque period. He is known for instrumental ...

Johann Ambrosius Bach
worked here as a musician at that time. Other famous composers and musicians associated with Eisenach during that period were
Johann Pachelbel Johann Pachelbel (baptised 1 September 1653 – buried 9 March 1706; also Bachelbel) was a German composer, organist Image:Organist at Lausanne Cathedral.jpg, A cathedral organist in Lausanne Cathedral An organist is a musician who plays any ...
,
Johann Christoph Bach Johann Christoph Bach (baptised – 31 March 1703) was a German composer and organist of the Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a Style (visual arts), style of Baroque architecture, architecture, Baroque music, music, Baroque dance, dance, Bar ...

Johann Christoph Bach
and
Georg Philipp Telemann Georg Philipp Telemann (; – 25 June 1767) was a German Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a Style (visual arts), style of Baroque architecture, architecture, Baroque music, music, Baroque dance, dance, Baroque painting, painting, Baroque sculpt ...

Georg Philipp Telemann
. As the Eisenach dukes died out in 1741, the town and the state became part of
Saxe-Weimar Saxe-Weimar (german: Sachsen-Weimar) was one of the History of Saxony, Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin, Wettin dynasty in present-day Thuringia. The chief town and capital was Weimar. The Weimar ...
. Nevertheless, the cultural life stayed unimpaired. The coterie around the poet met up with famous personalities like
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of G ...

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
and
Christoph Martin Wieland 1805 portrait of Christoph Martin Wieland by Ferdinand Jagemann Christoph Martin Wieland (; 5 September 1733 – 20 January 1813) was a German poet and writer. He is best-remembered for having written the first ''Bildungsroman'' (''Geschichte des A ...

Christoph Martin Wieland
in Eisenach. From 1809 to 1918, Eisenach was part of the Duchy (after 1815 Grand Duchy) of
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (german: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was a historical German state, created as a duchy in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741. It was raised to ...
.


After 1815

In 1817, the
Wartburg Festival The first Wartburg Festival (german: link=no, Wartburgfest) was a convention of about 500 Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to b ...
took place in Eisenach, a meeting of students advocating moves towards a more liberal, constitutional state and a
unification of Germany The unification of Germany into the German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Benningto ...
. The industrial revolution started relatively early in Eisenach. As early as the first half of the 19th century, the first factories were founded. In 1847, Eisenach was connected by the
Thuringian Railway Thuringian is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part of High German languages, High German. Present-day Standard German as a High G ...
to
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the and largest city in the state of , central Germany. It is located in the southern part of the , within the wide valley of the . It is located south-west of , south-west of , north of and north-east of . Together wit ...

Erfurt
and
Halle Halle may refer to: Places Germany * Halle (Saale), also called Halle an der Saale, a city in Saxony-Anhalt ** Halle (region), a former administrative region in Saxony-Anhalt ** Bezirk Halle, a former administrative division of East Germany ** Hall ...
/
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
in the east and in 1849 to
Kassel Kassel (; in Germany, spelled Cassel until 1926) is a city on the Fulda River The Fulda () is a river of Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a state of the Germ ...

Kassel
and
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian A Hessian is an inhabitant of the German state of Hesse. Hessian may also refer to: Named from the toponym *Hessian (soldier), eighteenth-century German regiments in service with the Brit ...

Frankfurt
in the west. In 1858, the Werra Railway to Lichtenfels (and further to
Nuremberg Nuremberg ( ; german: link=no, Nürnberg ; in the local East Franconian dialect: ''Nämberch'' ) is the second-largest city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, and its 518,370 (2019) inhabitants ...

Nuremberg
) was opened. In August 1869, the leading socialists
August Bebel Ferdinand August Bebel (22 February 1840 – 13 August 1913) was a German socialist politician, writer, and orator. He is best remembered as one of the founders of the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (SDAP) in 1869, which in 1875 mer ...
and
Wilhelm Liebknecht Wilhelm Martin Philipp Christian Ludwig Liebknecht
(29 March 1826 – 7 August 1900) was a German sociali ...

Wilhelm Liebknecht
founded the
SDAPSDAP may refer to: * Social Democratic Workers' Party (Netherlands), a Dutch political party founded in 1894 that later merged into the Labour Party (Netherlands) * Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany, a German political party founded in 186 ...
, one of the two predecessors of today's
SPD The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic political party in Germany. It is one of the two major parties of contemporary Germany along with the CDU/CSU, Union parties ...
in Eisenach. The Eisenach Program remained the party's main manifesto for the following years. The late 19th and early 20th century was the period with the fastest urban growth in Eisenach. The ''Fahrzeugfabrik Eisenach'' (FFE), later ''
Automobilwerk Eisenach The Automobilwerk Eisenach (AWE) was an automobile manufacturer in Eisenach, Germany. History Fahrzeugfabrik Eisenach Heinrich Ehrhardt founded the Fahrzeugfabrik Eisenach (FFE) in Eisenach on 3 December 1896 as a stock company. Initial ...
'', basis of car production in Eisenach, was founded in 1896, the first trams ran in 1897, the ' ("fraternity monument") was erected in 1902 and the J. S. Bach museum opened in 1907. Tourists also started to arrive in this period, drawn by the pleasing landscape and the various sights within the town. Between the 1860s and 1938, Eisenach hosted one of the largest Jewish communities in Thuringia with nearly 500 members at the beginning of the 20th century. Many Jews migrated from the area around
Stadtlengsfeld Stadtlengsfeld is a town and a former municipality in the Wartburgkreis Districts of Germany, district of Thuringia, Germany. Since 1 January 2019, it is part of the municipality Dermbach. It is situated in the Rhön Mountains, 8 km southwest ...
to Eisenach after their
emancipation Emancipation is any effort to procure Economic, social and cultural rights, economic and social rights, civil and political rights, political rights or Egalitarianism, equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally, i ...
in the early 19th century. The new synagogue was built in 1885 and destroyed by the Nazis during ''
Kristallnacht ''Kristallnacht'' () or the Night of Broken Glass, also called the November pogrom(s) (german: Novemberpogrome, ), was a pogrom A pogrom is a violent riot Rioters wearing scarves to conceal their identity and filter tear gas A riot ( ...

Kristallnacht
'' in November 1938. Most Jews emigrated at that time, others were deported to concentration camps and murdered there. Before the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, BMW had produced motorcycles in the town. In preparation for World War II, new barracks were established in Eisenach and the car industry started the production of military equipment. After 1940, around 4,000 forced labourers (most of them from the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
) were pressed to work in the town's factories, where some of them died due to the bad working conditions. Postwar, the managing director of the
BMW Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, commonly referred to as BMW (), is a German multinational corporation which produces luxury vehicle A luxury car is a car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most def ...

BMW
aircraft engine An aircraft engine, often referred to as an aero engine, is the power component of an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by ...

aircraft engine
works, Dr Schaaf, told the Fedden Mission there were as many as 11,000 working in the town, 4,500 in a plant inside a hillside turning out
BMW 132 The BMW 132 was a nine-cylinder radial Radial is a geometric term of location which may refer to: Mathematics and Direction * Vector (geometric), a line * Radius, adjective form of * Radial distance, a directional coordinate in a polar coord ...
engines and parts for the
801 __NOTOC__ Year 801 (Roman numerals, DCCCI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events By place Europe * Emperor Charlemagne formally cedes Nordalbingia, Nordalbian territo ...
, the rest in town. The bombings during the war destroyed about 2,000 housing units and big parts of the car factories, as well as some historic buildings in the town centre, which were rebuilt soon after the war. The US Army arrived in Eisenach on 6 April 1945, but the Soviets took over control of the town on 1 July 1945, making it Communism's westernmost major town. Eisenach was part of the
GDR East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current ...

GDR
after 1949. The
Inner German border The Inner German border (german: Innerdeutsche Grenze or ; initially also ) was the border between the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) and the West Germany, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Not i ...
ran only ten kilometres west of Eisenach and was closed in 1952, cutting off parts of Eisenach's traditional hinterland. The location near the border inhibited the further development during the next 40 years and the population declined through that period. Nevertheless, Eisenach remained an important industrial location. The
BMW Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, commonly referred to as BMW (), is a German multinational corporation which produces luxury vehicle A luxury car is a car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most def ...

BMW
car factory was socialized and under the new name produced the
Wartburg The Wartburg () is a castle originally built in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical ...
, the so-called "Mercedes of the East". The deteriorating condition of many historic houses led to a housing shortage during the 1970s. The government fought this by demolishing some historic quarters (e.g. at Jakobstraße) and rebuilding them with ''
Plattenbau (plural: , german: Platte + Bau, lit=panel/slab' + 'building/ construction) is a building constructed of large, prefabricated Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure A structure is an arrangement and organiz ...

Plattenbau
'' settlements. The biggest ''Plattenbau'' district was built at the northern periphery of Eisenach between 1978 and 1985 with nearly 4,000 housing units. In 1975, the tramway system was discontinued. After
German reunification German reunification (german: Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, peop ...
in 1990, the economic situation changed. The car factory was taken over by
Opel Opel Automobile GmbH (), usually shortened to Opel, is a German automobile manufacturer The automotive industry comprises a wide range of companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity In law, a legal person is any pers ...

Opel
, whereas many other factories were closed. On the other hand, Eisenach moved from the inner German border to the centre of the reunified country. Tourism saw significant growth and the Wartburg castle was designated a
UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
in 1999. Nevertheless, the financial situation of Eisenach remained difficult, unemployment stayed above average and car production suffered from the business problems of Opel.


Geography and climate


Topography

Eisenach is situated at the northern edge of the
Thuringian Forest The Thuringian Forest (''Thüringer Wald'' in German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German n ...
, at an elevation of about 220 m. The terrain is hilly, to the south also mountainous (up to 460 m of elevation), with the central valley crossing the town in east-western direction. The Nesse river enters the Hörsel river in Eisenach after forming a valley through the spur of the Hörselberg mountains in the eastern municipal territory. The northern territory around the Neunkirchen, Stregda and Hötzelsroda districts is relatively flat and in agricultural use. Approximately west of the town centre runs the wide
Werra The Werra (), a river in central Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas to the north ...
valley, where the Hörsel river enters this bigger river near Hörschel district. The southern municipal territory is covered with forest, same as some smaller parts north of the Hörsel river. The
Hainich Hainich is a forested hill chain in the state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smal ...
mountains begin north-east of Eisenach.


Administrative division

Eisenach abuts the municipalities , Mihla, Lauterbach, Bischofroda and Berka vor dem Hainich in the north, Hörselberg-Hainich and
Wutha-Farnroda Wutha-Farnroda is a Municipalities in Germany, municipality in the Wartburgkreis Districts of Germany, district of Thuringia, Germany. Wutha station is located on the Halle–Bebra railway. Population development *1994: 8.770 *2000: 7.794 *200 ...
in the east and
Marksuhl Marksuhl is a village and a former Municipalities in Germany, municipality in the Wartburgkreis Districts of Germany, district of Thuringia, Germany. Since July 2018, it is part of the municipality Gerstungen. References

Former municipaliti ...

Marksuhl
,
Wolfsburg-Unkeroda Wolfsburg-Unkeroda is a former Municipalities in Germany, municipality in the Wartburgkreis Districts of Germany, district of Thuringia, Germany. Since July 2018, it is part of the municipality Gerstungen. References

Former municipalities ...
and
Gerstungen Gerstungen is a Municipalities in Germany, municipality in the Wartburgkreis Districts of Germany, district of Thuringia, Germany. In July 2018 the former municipalities of Marksuhl and Wolfsburg-Unkeroda were merged into Gerstungen. History Bet ...
in the south (all situated in the district
Wartburgkreis Wartburgkreis is a ''Kreis'' (Districts of Germany, district) in the west of Thuringia, Germany. Neighboring districts are (from the north clockwise) the districts Unstrut-Hainich-Kreis, Gotha (district), Gotha, Schmalkalden-Meiningen, and the dis ...
) and
Werra-Meißner-Kreis Werra-Meißner is a ''Kreis'' (district) in the north of Hesse, Germany. Neighboring districts are Göttingen (district), Göttingen, Eichsfeld (district), Eichsfeld, Unstrut-Hainich-Kreis, Wartburgkreis, district-free Eisenach, Hersfeld-Rotenburg, ...
(
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U. ...
, municipality of Herleshausen in the west). The municipal border between Eisenach and Herleshausen was part of the
inner German border The Inner German border (german: Innerdeutsche Grenze or ; initially also ) was the border Borders are boundaries of or legal s, such as s, , , and other . Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities t ...
/
Iron Curtain The Iron Curtain was a political boundary dividing Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geo ...
from 1949 to 1990. The municipality of Eisenach includes beside the inner town the following rural districts (all of them were incorporated in 1994): The village of Fischbach was incorporated in 1922 and is a part of the inner town today.


Climate

Eisenach has a
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climatic Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months t ...
(Dfb) or an
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen classification of climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the deg ...
(''Cfb'') according to the
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climate science, climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by ...
system. ''(direct
Final Revised Paper
''
Summers are warm and sometimes humid, winters are relatively cold. The town's topography creates a microclimate with mostly adequate air circulation along the west-eastern valley which made Eisenach a resort at the end of the 19th century. Annual precipitation is with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Light snowfall mainly occurs from December through February, but snow cover does not usually remain for long in the inner town valley.


Demographics

Eisenach has always been one of the larger towns in Thuringia with 4,000 to 5,000 inhabitants during the Middle Ages. By 1800, the population rose to 8,000 and further to 10,000 as industrialisation started around 1850. In 1875, the town had 16,000 inhabitants, 30,000 in 1900, 43,000 in 1925 and more than 50,000 in 1940, as the peak was reached. Like the most other east German mid-sized towns, Eisenach has had a shrinking population since 1950. It declined to 48,000 in 1990, 44,000 in 2000 and 42,000 in 2012. During the last few years (2009–2012), the annual change was . Suburbanization played only a small role in Eisenach. It occurred after reunification for a short time in the 1990s, but most of the suburban areas are situated within the administrative town borders. The birth deficit was 240 in 2012, or -5.7 per 1,000 inhabitants (Thuringian average: -4.5; national average: -2.4). The net migration rate was +6.5 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2012 (Thuringian average: -0.8; national average: +4.6). The most important regions of origin of people who have moved to Eisenach are rural areas of Thuringia as well as foreign countries like Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. Like in other eastern German cities, only a small share of Eisenach's population is foreign: circa 2.3% are non-Germans by citizenship and overall 4.9% are classified as "migrants" (according to the
2011 EU census 2011 EU census, or EU population and housing census 2011 was an European Union, EU-wide census in 2011 in all Member state of the European Union, EU member states. 2011 EU member state censuses {, class="wikitable sortable" ! Country ! Dedicated a ...
). Differing from the national average, the biggest groups of migrants in Eisenach are
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...
,
Russians , native_name_lang = ru , image = , caption = Wedding ceremony in the national Russian tradition. , population = 134 million , popplace = 117,319,000 , region1 = , pop1 = 7,170,00 ...
and
Ukrainians , native_name_lang = uk , image = , caption = , population = 37-40 million , popplace = 37,541,693 , region1 = , pop1 = 3,269,992 , ref1 = , region2 = ...
. Due to the official atheism of the former
German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ger ...
, most of the population is non-religious: 23.0% are members of the
Evangelical Church in Central Germany The Evangelical Church in Central Germany ( German:''Evangelische Kirche in Mitteldeutschland'') is a United church body covering most of the German states of Saxony-Anhalt Saxony-Anhalt (german: Sachsen-Anhalt (; Low German , , (in a stric ...
and 4.4% are Catholics (according to the 2011 EU census).


Economy


Agriculture, industry and services

The region around Eisenach is the part of Thuringia with the strongest economic base. Agriculture is not very important in Eisenach, because of the hilly terrain, the—compared to central Thuringia further east—less fertile soil and the relatively humid climate. However, 43% of the total municipal territory are in agricultural use, mostly as
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

maize
and
rapeseed Rapeseed (''Brassica napus ''subsp.'' napus''), also known as rape, or oilseed rape, is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae Brassicaceae () or Cruciferae () is a medium-sized and economically important family ...

rapeseed
fields or as cattle pasture. The industrial structure is relatively focused on car production. The German auto manufacturer
Opel Opel Automobile GmbH (), usually shortened to Opel, is a German automobile manufacturer The automotive industry comprises a wide range of companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity In law, a legal person is any pers ...

Opel
built an entirely new plant in the northwest of the town, after the
Wartburg The Wartburg () is a castle originally built in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical ...
car plant had ceased production in 1991. The new plant opened in 1992. Most other large manufacturers in Eisenach serve as suppliers for Opel, the largest among them is Bosch.
BMW Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, commonly referred to as BMW (), is a German multinational corporation which produces luxury vehicle A luxury car is a car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most def ...

BMW
runs a factory in the neighbouring municipality of that supplies car parts. Another component supplier is "Truck-Lite Europe". In 2012, there were a total of 19 industrial companies with more than 20 workers in Eisenach, employing 5,600 people and generating a turnover of more than 1.8 billion euros. Of those employees, 3,000 work for just two companies (Opel and Bosch), underlining the dependence of Eisenach on the
automotive industry The automotive industry comprises a wide range of and s involved in the , , , , and of s. It is one of the world's largest by . The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the of following delivery to the end-user, such ...
. Services in Eisenach are focused on tourism with 166,000 overnight visitors spending a total of 311,000 nights in hotels in 2012. In addition, there are large numbers of (mostly German) one-day visitors. Eisenach also provides services to the region (retail, hospitals, theatres, cinemas etc.). During recent years, the economic situation of the town improved: the unemployment rate declined from 17% in 2005 to 9% in 2013.


Attractions

The
Wartburg The Wartburg () is a castle originally built in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical ...

Wartburg
castle is, aside from
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany (cultural area), Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east, approximately southwest of Leipzig, nor ...

Weimar
, the most-visited tourist attraction in Thuringia. Further sights are:


Museums

Eisenach hosts a number of museums: * The '' Bachhaus'' at Frauenplan was the first museum worldwide to be dedicated to the life and work of
Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the late Baroque music, Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Cello Suites (Bach), Cello Suites and ''Brandenburg Concertos''; keyboard ...

Johann Sebastian Bach
in 1906. It was established through the
Neue Bachgesellschaft The Neue Bachgesellschaft, or New Bach Society, is an organisation based in Leipzig, Germany, devoted to the music of the composer Johann Sebastian Bach. It was founded in 1900 as the successor to the Bach Gesellschaft, which between 1850 and 1900 ...
. The house is over 600 years old and stands near the site of the house in the Rittergasse, which is directly in back of the museum, where Bach was born on 31 March 1685. Today, a 2007 expansion has been added to the museum and it holds several artifacts and a variety of 18th and 19th century musical instruments. * The '' Lutherhaus'' at Lutherplatz is one of the oldest
half-timbered Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timber Lumber, also known as timber, is a type of wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems an ...

half-timbered
buildings remaining in Eisenach.
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a Germans, German professor of Christian theology, theology, priest, author, composer, former Order of Saint Augustine, Augustinian monk, and is best known as a seminal f ...

Martin Luther
is said to have lived here as a pupil during his school days in Eisenach from 1498 to 1501 as a guest of the Cotta family. The building was destroyed in a fire in 1944 but had been completely rebuilt by 1966. Currently, this house is a museum featuring multimedia exhibits relating to the period. The museum is split into five parts illustrating Luther's life and times as well as his teachings. * ''Automobile Welt'' at Friedrich-Naumann-Straße exhibits the tradition of car production in Eisenach since 1898. It includes the Wartburg cars of 1899–1991, AWE racing cars from 1956 and classic BMW cars. * The ''Thüringer Museum'' inside the palace at Marktplatz is the art-historical museum of Eisenach and shows a collection focusing on
porcelain Porcelain () is a ceramic A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant Corrosion is a Erosion, natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide, ...

porcelain
and art handicrafts. * The ''Reuter-Wagner-Museum'' at Reuterweg hosts an exhibition on the poet
Fritz Reuter Fritz Reuter (7 November 1810 – 12 July 1874; born as ''Heinrich Ludwig Christian Friedrich Reuter'') was a novelist from Northern Germany Northern Germany (german: Norddeutschland) is the region in the northern part of Germany ) , i ...

Fritz Reuter
and the composer
Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( ; ; 22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemic Polemic () is contentious rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or ...

Richard Wagner
. Built by between 1866 and 1868, this
neo-renaissance Renaissance Revival architecture (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is a group of 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Greek Revival The Greek Revival was an architectural upright=1.45, alt=Plan d ...
house was the home of Fritz Reuter, a well-known poet of the Low German dialect, from 1868 until his death in 1874. Reuter's home was acquired by the town in 1895 and turned into a memorial. That same year the collection of Nicolaus Oesterlein containing several thousand books on Richard Wagner (virtually the complete primary and secondary literature on Wagner of the 19th century) was added. Since 1997, this collection—the second largest in the world after
Bayreuth Bayreuth (, ; bar, Bareid) is a medium-sized town#Germany, town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains. The town's roots date back to 1194. In the 21st centu ...
—has been presented in a new exhibit on the ground floor, which also includes all the material on ''
Tannhäuser Tannhäuser (; Middle High German: ''Tanhûser'') was a Germany, German Minnesang, Minnesinger and poet. Historically, his biography is obscure beyond the poetry, which dates between 1245 and 1265. His name becomes associated with a "fairy queen ...
'', an opera set at the Wartburg. * The museum inside the ''Predigerkirche'' at Predigerplatz hosts the medieval art division of the ''Thüringer Museum''. * The ''Goldener Löwe'' at Marienstraße shows an historical exhibition of German social democracy. On 7 August 1869 the Social Democratic Worker's Party (later to become the '' Social-Democratic Party of Germany'') was founded at this site. The "August Bebel Society" offers lectures and seminars on topics of historical and current political interest.


Image Gallery

File:Thuringia Eisenach asv2020-07 img14 Bach Museum.jpg, Bachhaus File:Lutherhaus DSCN3667.jpg, Lutherhaus File:ESA AWE.JPG, "Automobile Welt" File:Thuringia Eisenach asv2020-07 img29 Market Square.jpg, ''Thüringer Museum'' inside the palace File:Eisenach Reuterhaus 2009.jpg, Reuter-Wagner-Museum File:ESA PREDIGERKL14.jpg, Predigerkirche File:Thuringia Eisenach asv2020-07 img01 Goldener Löwe.jpg, ''Goldener Löwe''


Townscape

The town of Eisenach developed during the Middle Ages at the exit of ''Mariental'' valley, opening to the Hörsel valley around Marktplatz, Karlsplatz and Frauenplan in a triangle structure. The early-modern period brought extensions to the west (Katharinenstraße), to the north (Jakobstraße) and to the east (in front of Nikolaitor gate). The construction boom between 1850 and 1914 led to a strict division in urban development. South of the historic centre, mansion districts were established on the hillsides of Mariental valley, where the rich factory owners, rentiers and other upper-class people lived. These districts are among the most important examples of this urban type in Germany, and one of the largest in Europe. North of the historic centre, next to the railway and Hörsel river, factories and worker quarters were established. These also host some examples of interesting
Gründerzeit in Leipzig, Germany (1892) (; "founders' period") was the economic phase in 19th-century Germany and Austria before the great Panic of 1873, stock market crash of 1873. In Central Europe, the age of industrialisation had been taking place since ...
architecture. After
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, the town extended further to the north on the other bank of Hörsel river, where some new residential areas were developed before 1990.


Square ensembles

* ''Karlsplatz'': adjoins the Nikolaikirche (Church of St. Nicholas) and the Romanesque Nikolaitor (St. Nicholas Gate), the only surviving town gate (out of five). The square is seen as the nucleus of the town, it was first mentioned in 1368. * ''Marktplatz'': the market square with the Georgenkirche (Church of St. George), the town hall, the Baroque ''Stadtschloss'', as well as a number of highly decorative administration buildings and merchants' houses. It also features the gilded market fountain designed by Hans Leonardt in 1549, showing St. George, the patron saint of Eisenach. * ''Jakobsplan'': named after a chapel destroyed by fire in the Middle Ages. Jakobsplan comprises a monument to St. George in the centre of the square, part of the old town walls (including one of the watch towers), and the Goethe Garden. * ''Frauenplan'': a small courtyard-type square that takes its name from the "Church of Our Lady". The church was demolished for defence purposes in 1306. Today Frauenplan is the location of the ''Bachhaus'' and the Bach monument in front of it.


Sights and architectural heritage


Churches

* ''St. George's Church'' (Lutheran) at the market square was first built in the 12th century. The church in which St. Elisabeth was married was demolished in 1515 and replaced by a new structure. Martin Luther held a sermon there on 2 May 1521. In 1525, the church was heavily damaged during the ''Bauernkrieg'' and during the Reformation it served as a stables. It was rededicated in 1558. On 23 March 1685, Johann Sebastian Bach was baptized in the church (the 16th century baptismal font still remains). The tower was added in 1898–1902. * ''St. Nicholas' Church'' (Lutheran), located on the Karlsplatz, served the
Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Be ...
convent once located in the area. This triple-naved basilica was built in 1180. It is considered the latest example of
Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of style in the visual arts gen ...
in Thuringia. * ''Preachers' Church'' (secularized) at Predigerplatz was part of a former
Dominican Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, República Dominicana, ) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the C ...
monastery (founded in 1240 and the only monastery buildings of which remain in the town), today used as a museum for medieval art. * ''St. Elizabeth's Church'' (Roman Catholic) at Sophienstraße is the Catholic parish church of Eisenach, built in
neo-Gothic style Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an Architectural style, architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Its momentum grew in the early 19th century, when increasingly serious and le ...
in the 1880s. * ''St. Anne's Church'' (Lutheran) at Georgenstraße was founded together with a hospital by St. Elizabeth in 1226. * ''St. Clement's Chapel'' (Lutheran) at Clemensstraße is a small 13th century Romanesque chapel. * ''Holy Cross Church'' (secularized) at the old cemetery was built in the 1690s.


Image Gallery

File:Thuringia Eisenach asv2020-07 img18 StGeorge Church.jpg, St. George's Church File:ESA Nikolaikirche.jpg, St. Nicholas' Church File:ESA Predigerkloster.jpg, Preachers' Church File:Thuringia Eisenach asv2020-07 img07 StElisabeth Church.jpg, St. Elizabeth's Church File:ESA Annenkirche.jpg, St. Anne's Church File:Clemenskapelle2.JPG, St. Clement's Chapel File:Thuringia Eisenach asv2020-07 img31 Cross Church.jpg, Holy Cross Church


Castles and palaces

* The most important castle is the Wartburg above the town. For further information, see:
Wartburg The Wartburg () is a castle originally built in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical ...

Wartburg
. * The ''Stadtschloss'' (town palace) is situated at the north end of the Marktplatz and was built between 1742 and 1745. This palace was constructed to the plans of Gottfried Heinrich Krohne, architect of Duke Ernst August I of
Saxe-Weimar Saxe-Weimar (german: Sachsen-Weimar) was one of the Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-lin ...
. After 1777
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of G ...

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
frequently stayed here in his capacity as the duke's prime minister. Today the Stadtschloss acts as a venue for special exhibitions and as a museum for artistic and historical artifacts from Thuringia. * ''Hellgrevenhof'' at Georgenstraße is part of a former inner-town castle, named after Heinrich Hellgreve, a rich citizen who lived here in the late 13th century. It consists of five buildings, the oldest dating to around 1200, although it has been modified several times over the centuries. * ''Bechtolsheim Palace'' at Jakobsplan is a
neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17th century ** Neoclassical architecture, an arc ...
palace, built in the late 18th century. * ''Schloss Fischbach'' in Fischbach district is a small 17th-century castle. * ''Jagdschloss Hohe Sonne'' is a hunting lodge south of the city in the Thuringian Forest. It was built in the mid-18th century in the Baroque style. * ''Alte Residenz'' at Esplanade is the relic of the former ducal residence, rebuilt in the Renaissance style after older predecessors.


Image Gallery

File:Thuringia Eisenach asv2020-07 img23 Wartburg Castle.jpg, Wartburg File:City castle of Eisenach (3).jpg, ''Stadtschloss'' File:ESA Bechtholzheim.jpg, Bechtolsheim Palace File:ESA FISCHBACH.jpg, ''Schloss Fischbach'' File:ESA HOHESONNE2.JPG, ''Jagdschloss Hohe Sonne'' File:ESA RESIDENZHS2.jpg, ''Alte Residenz''


Memorials

* The ''Bach monument'' was constructed in 1884 by Adolf von Donndorf. Financed by other well-known musicians, the more-than-life-size figure portrays Johann Sebastian Bach in his choir-master's clothes and wig. It is situated on the Frauenplan next to the ''Bachhaus''. * The ''Martin Luther monument'' at Karlsplatz was designed by Adolf von Donndorf and was dedicated on 4 May 1895 on the 374th anniversary of Luther's arrival at Wartburg castle. The more-than-life-size statue of Martin Luther on a pedestal also has reliefs depicting events of his life leading up to and including his stay in Eisenach as well as the title of one of his most famous hymns, "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" ("
A Mighty Fortress Is Our God "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God" (German: "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott") is one of the best known hymns by the Protestant Reformers, reformer Martin Luther, a prolific hymnodist. Luther wrote the words and composed the hymn tune, melody sometime ...
"). * The ''Burschenschaftsdenkmal'' (literally: "Monument to Student Fraternities") on Göpelskuppe hill was built in 1902. The monument stands on a hill opposite the Wartburg in memory of the members of the liberal and nationalistic student movement and others who were killed in the struggle for a united Germany between 1864 and 1871. The monument that reaches a height of 33 meters and proclaims "Honour, Freedom, and Fatherland", was dedicated on 22 May 1902 and was extended in 1933 to honour those who fell in World War I. Since reunification, fraternities again have been meeting in Eisenach in memory of the demonstrations held at the Wartburg in the past. * '' The “Dejudaization Institute” Memorial'' was unveiled on May 6, 2019 at the beginning of Bornstrasse. A plaque with text, which is integrated in the memorial, acknowledges the churches’ guilt, summarizes the " Dejudaization Institute’s" work and impact, and remembers the victims of the church’s
anti-Judaism Anti-Judaism is the "total or partial opposition to Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, monotheism, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization ...
and
anti-Semitism Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an ...
.


Image Gallery

File:Thuringia Eisenach asv2020-07 img15 Monument to Bach.jpg, Bach monument File:Thuringia Eisenach asv2020-07 img11 Monument to Luther.jpg, Luther monument File:Burschenschaftsdenkmal 07.jpg, ''Burschenschaftsdenkmal'' File:Eisenach Entjudungsinstitut Gedenktafel Ecke.jpg, "Dejudaization Institute" Memorial


Other sights

* The ''town walls'' were built during the 13th century and demolished in the 19th century. Remains visible today are the ''Nikolaitor'' and the ''Glockenturm''. * The ''Kartausgarten'' is all that remains of the original
Carthusian The Carthusians, also known as the Order of Carthusians ( la, Ordo Cartusiensis), are an enclosed religious order Enclosed religious orders or ''cloistered clergy'' are religious orders whose members strictly separate themselves from the affai ...
monastery, consecrated to St. Elizabeth in 1380. In 1700 it became a royal kitchen garden and around 1800 was changed into a park. The "Wandelhalle" (covered walk and foyer), built in 1906, was originally intended as a pump room to a
spa A spa is a location where mineral-rich spring water (and sometimes seawater) is used to give medicinal baths. Spa towns or spa resorts (including hot springs resorts) typically offer various health treatments, which are also known as baln ...

spa
planned for Eisenach that never materialised. * The ''town hall'' at Marktplatz was a former wine cellar and became the townhall of Eisenach in 1596. The building, having been destroyed by fire in 1636, was rebuilt in 1641. The southern part of the complex suffered considerable damage in a bombing raid in 1945 during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. It was renovated in 1996 and it now houses the municipal administration offices. * The ''Landestheater'' (state theatre) was established in 1879 by Julius von Eichel-Streiber and constructed to the design of the
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
architect Karl Weichardt. It was later renovated in 1993. The theatre holds an audience of 600 and has two balconies. * The ''narrow house'' may be the narrowest half-timbered house in Germany. It was built before 1750 and is only 2.05 meters wide. Inside visitors can view a small exhibition. Notably, Bach composed several sonnets here as he liked the acoustics of the house.


Image Gallery

File:Nikolaitor Eisenach.jpg, Town gate ''Nikolaitor'' File:Thuringia Eisenach asv2020-07 img05 Wandelhalle.jpg, The ''Wandelhalle'' at Kartausgarten File:Thuringia Eisenach asv2020-07 img06 Old Town Hall.jpg, Town hall File:Landestheater Eisenach.jpg, Theatre File:Eisenach Schmales Haus.jpg, Narrow House


Politics


Mayor and city council

The first freely elected mayor after German reunification was Hans-Peter Brodhun of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), who served from 1990 to 2000. He was succeeded by fellow CDU member Gerhard Schneider from 2000 and 2006. Matthias Doht of the
Social Democratic Party The name Social Democratic Party or Social Democrats has been used by many Political party, political parties in various countries around the world. Such parties are most commonly aligned to social democracy as their Ideologies of parties, pol ...
(SPD) was elected mayor in 2006. In 2012, Katja Wolf of The Left won the mayoralty, becoming the first female mayor in Eisenach's history. The most recent mayoral election was held on 15 April 2018, with a runoff held on 29 April, and the results were as follows: ! rowspan=2 colspan=2, Candidate ! rowspan=2, Party ! colspan=2, First round ! colspan=2, Second round , - ! Votes ! % ! Votes ! % , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Katja Wolf , align=left, The Left , 7,854 , 47.4 , 7,859 , 58.0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Michael Klostermann , align=left,
Social Democratic Party The name Social Democratic Party or Social Democrats has been used by many Political party, political parties in various countries around the world. Such parties are most commonly aligned to social democracy as their Ideologies of parties, pol ...
, 3,193 , 19.3 , 5,686 , 42.0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Christoph Ihling , align=left, Christian Democratic Union , 3,033 , 18.3 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Gregor Modos , align=left,
Alternative for Germany Alternative for Germany (german: link=no, Alternative für Deutschland, AfD) is a German nationalist German nationalism is an ideological notion that promotes the unity of Germans The Germans (german: Deutsche) are a Germanic peoples, ...
, 2,484 , 15.0 , - ! colspan=3, Valid votes ! 16,564 ! 98.9 ! 13,545 ! 98.7 , - ! colspan=3, Invalid votes ! 181 ! 1.1 ! 184 ! 1.3 , - ! colspan=3, Total ! 16,745 ! 100.0 ! 13,729 ! 100.0 , - ! colspan=3, Electorate/voter turnout ! 34,930 ! 47.9 ! 34,925 ! 39.3 , - , colspan=7, Source
Wahlen in Thüringen
The most recent city council election was held on 26 May 2019, and the results were as follows: ! colspan=2, Party ! Lead candidate ! Votes ! % ! +/- ! Seats ! +/- , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, The Left (Die Linke) , align=left, Katja Wolf , 12,542 , 21.6 , 7.7 , 8 , 2 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Christian Democratic Union (CDU) , align=left, Raymond Walk , 11,985 , 20.7 , 9.4 , 7 , 4 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Social Democratic Party The name Social Democratic Party or Social Democrats has been used by many Political party, political parties in various countries around the world. Such parties are most commonly aligned to social democracy as their Ideologies of parties, pol ...
(SPD) , align=left, Michael Klostermann , 6,871 , 11.9 , 0 , 4 , ±0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Alternative for Germany Alternative for Germany (german: link=no, Alternative für Deutschland, AfD) is a German nationalist German nationalism is an ideological notion that promotes the unity of Germans The Germans (german: Deutsche) are a Germanic peoples, ...
(AfD) , align=left, Michael Stein , 6,766 , 11.7 , New , 4 , New , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Alliance 90/The Greens Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (german: Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or '; ), is a green Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum. It is evoked by light which has a dominant wavelength of roughly 4955 ...
(Grüne) , align=left, Joachim West , 5,985 , 10.3 , 3.0 , 4 , 1 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, (NPD) , align=left, Patrick David Wieschke , 5,886 , 10.2 , 2.8 , 4 , 1 , - , , align=left, Citizens for Eisenach (BfE) , align=left, Heike Apel-Spengler , 4,058 , 7.0 , 1.2 , 2 , ±0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Free Democratic PartyFree Democratic Party is the name of several political parties around the world. It usually designates a party ideologically based on liberalism. Current parties with that name include: *Free Democratic Party (Germany), a liberal political party in ...
(FDP) , align=left, Kord-Henning Uber , 2,587 , 4.5 , 2.0 , 2 , 1 , - , , align=left, Eisenacher Awakening , align=left, Thomas May , 1,301 , 2.2 , 1.5 , 1 , ±0 , - ! colspan=3, Valid votes ! 19,609 ! 98.2 ! ! ! , - ! colspan=3, Invalid votes ! 351 ! 1.8 ! ! ! , - ! colspan=3, Total ! 19,960 ! 100.0 ! ! 36 ! ±0 , - ! colspan=3, Electorate/voter turnout ! 34,446 ! 57.9 ! 6.9 ! ! , - , colspan=8, Source
Wahlen in Thüringen


Twin towns – sister cities

Eisenach is twinned with: *
Marburg Marburg ( or ) is a college town, university town in the States of Germany, German federal state (''Bundesland'') of Hesse, capital of the Marburg-Biedenkopf Districts of Germany, district (''Landkreis''). The town area spreads along the valley ...

Marburg
, Germany (1988) *
Sedan Sedan may refer to: Transportation * Sedan (automobile), a passenger car in a three-box configuration * Litter (vehicle), or sedan chair, a human-powered, wheelless device for transport of persons * Franklin Sedan, built by H. H. Franklin Manufa ...

Sedan
, France (1991) * Waverly, United States (1992) *
Skanderborg Skanderborg is a town in Skanderborg municipality, Denmark. It is situated on the north and north eastern brinks of #The lake, Skanderborg Lake and there are several smaller ponds and bodies of water within the city itself, like Lillesø, Sortes ...
, Denmark (1993) *
Mogilev Mogilev (russian: Могилёв, ) or Mahilioŭ, also Mahilyow ( be, Магілёў, ) is a city in eastern Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk Minsk ( be, Мінск , russian: link=no, Минск) is the cap ...
, Belarus (1996) *
Sárospatak ---- Sárospatak (german: Potok am Bodroch; sk, Šarišský Potok, Blatný Potok) (English language, English rough translation: ''Muddy Stream'' or ''Muddy Brook'' on the Bodrog) is a town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, northern Hungary. It l ...
, Hungary (2008)


Infrastructure


Transport

Eisenach is connected by the
Thuringian Railway Thuringian is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part of High German languages, High German. Present-day Standard German as a High G ...
to
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the and largest city in the state of , central Germany. It is located in the southern part of the , within the wide valley of the . It is located south-west of , south-west of , north of and north-east of . Together wit ...

Erfurt
and
Halle Halle may refer to: Places Germany * Halle (Saale), also called Halle an der Saale, a city in Saxony-Anhalt ** Halle (region), a former administrative region in Saxony-Anhalt ** Bezirk Halle, a former administrative division of East Germany ** Hall ...
/
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
to the east and to
Kassel Kassel (; in Germany, spelled Cassel until 1926) is a city on the Fulda River The Fulda () is a river of Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a state of the Germ ...

Kassel
and
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian A Hessian is an inhabitant of the German state of Hesse. Hessian may also refer to: Named from the toponym *Hessian (soldier), eighteenth-century German regiments in service with the Brit ...

Frankfurt
to the west. Furthermore, there is the Werra Railway, a former main-line railway between north and south Germany from Eisenach via
Meiningen Meiningen () is a town in the southern part of the state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in the region of Franconia and has a population of around 25,000 (2020). Meiningen is the capital and the largest town of the Schmalkalden-Meiningen d ...
to
Eisfeld Eisfeld is a town and a municipality in the district of Hildburghausen, in Thuringia, Germany. It is situated on the river Werra, 12 km east of Hildburghausen, and 19 km north of Coburg. The former municipality Sachsenbrunn was merged i ...

Eisfeld
, which since the division of Germany after World War II has served only for regional transport. At the former inner German border, it is still interrupted between Eisfeld and
Coburg Coburg () is a Town#Germany, town located on the Itz (river), Itz river in the Upper Franconia region of Bavaria, Germany. Long part of one of the Thuringian states of the Ernestine duchies, Wettin line, it joined Bavaria by popular vote only ...

Coburg
, but rebuilding is in discussion. Eisenach station is a stop of all long-distance trains from Frankfurt to Leipzig/
Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its second most populous city, after Leipzig. It is the List of cities in German ...

Dresden
, running once an hour. Local trains, also once an hour, start in Eisenach to Halle via Erfurt, to
Sonneberg Sonneberg is a town in Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixteen German St ...
via Meiningen and Eisfeld and to
Bebra Bebra is a small town in Hersfeld-Rotenburg district in northeastern Hesse, Germany. Geography Location Bebra lies some south of Kassel on the Fulda River, Fulda. The town is easy to find on most maps thanks to its prominent location on the ''Ful ...
via
Gerstungen Gerstungen is a Municipalities in Germany, municipality in the Wartburgkreis Districts of Germany, district of Thuringia, Germany. In July 2018 the former municipalities of Marksuhl and Wolfsburg-Unkeroda were merged into Gerstungen. History Bet ...
. Freight transport is important at Eisenach's Opel factory which has its own terminal. Further local passenger stations are Eisenach-West, Eisenach-Opelwerk and Hörschel. Eisenach is located on the
Bundesautobahn 4 is an autobahn The Autobahn (; German plural ) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany. The official German term is Bundesautobahn (abbreviated ''BAB''), which translates as "federal motorway". The literal meaning of ...

Bundesautobahn 4
from Frankfurt in the west to Erfurt and Dresden in the east. Since 2010, the Autobahn has been moved to a new route farther away from the town to protect the residents from noise and air pollution. Moreover, it was not possible to expand the old route because of the mountainous topography. After 2010, parts of the old route became a town highway, whereas other parts were renaturalized. A second Autobahn between Eisenach and Kassel is in construction (
Bundesautobahn 44 is a German Autobahn The Autobahn (; German plural ) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany. The official German term is Bundesautobahn (abbreviated ''BAB''), which translates as "federal motorway". The literal meaning o ...
). There are four
Bundesstraße ''Bundesstraße'' (German language, German for "federal highway"), abbreviated ''B'', is the denotation for Germany, German and Austrian national highways. Germany Germany's ''Bundesstraßen'' network has a total length of about 40,000 km. G ...

Bundesstraße
n connecting Eisenach: The
Bundesstraße 7 The Bundesstraße 7 (abbr. B7) is a German federal highway (Bundesstraße) that stretches from the Netherlands, Dutch border at Venlo in the West to Rochlitz near Chemnitz in the East. It is approximately 530 km long. Because of its western or ...

Bundesstraße 7
runs to Kassel in the north-west, whereas its eastern branch to
Gotha Gotha () is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazi ...

Gotha
was annulled in 2010. The Bundesstraße 19 leads to Meiningen in the south, the Bundesstraße 84 to
Bad Langensalza Bad Langensalza (; until 1956: Langensalza) is a spa town A spa town is a resort town based on a mineral spa (a developed mineral spring). Patrons visit spas to "take the waters" for their purported health benefits. The word ''spa'' is d ...
in the north-east and to
Fulda Fulda () (historically in English called Fuld) is a town in Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a German states, state in Germany. Its capital city is Wiesbaden ...

Fulda
via Vacha in the south-west and the
Bundesstraße 88 ''Bundesstraße'' (German language, German for "federal highway"), abbreviated ''B'', is the denotation for Germany, German and Austrian national highways. Germany Germany's ''Bundesstraßen'' network has a total length of about 40,000 km. G ...
is a connection to
Ilmenau Ilmenau () is a town in Thuringia, Germany. It is the largest town within the Ilm-Kreis, Ilm district with a population of 36,000, while the district capital is Arnstadt. Ilmenau is located approximately south of Erfurt and north of Nuremberg ...
in the south-east. Furthermore, there are two important secondary roads to
Mühlhausen Mühlhausen () is a city in the north-west of Thuringia, Germany, north of Niederdorla, the country's Central Germany (geography)#Geographical centre, geographical centre, north-west of Erfurt, east of Kassel and south-east of Göttingen. ...

Mühlhausen
via Mihla in the north and to Herleshausen in the west through the Hörsel valley. Downtown traffic is concentrated on Rennbahn street, which often leads to congestion due to a large number of commuters and the town's narrow topography. The next local airports are the Erfurt-Weimar Airport, about to the east and the Kassel Calden Airport, roughly to the north-west. Both offer service to tourist destinations. The next major international airport is
Frankfurt Airport Frankfurt Airport (; german: link=no, Flughafen Frankfurt Main , also known as ''Rhein-Main-Flughafen''), is a major international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an with extended facilities, mostly f ...

Frankfurt Airport
, circa to the south-west. Kindel Airfield, east of Eisenach, is a former Soviet military base, today used for private aviation. Biking is getting more and more popular since the construction of quality cycle tracks began in the 1990s. Long distance trails include the ''Werra trail'', the ''
Rennsteig The () is a ridge walk as well as an historical boundary path in the Thuringian Forest, Thuringian Highland and Franconian Forest in Central Germany (cultural area), Central Germany. The long-distance trail runs for about from and the valley ...

Rennsteig
trail'' and the ''Radweg Thüringer Städtekette'' ("Thuringian town string trail"). These all connect points of touristic interest, the first along the
Werra The Werra (), a river in central Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas to the north ...
valley from the
Thuringian Forest The Thuringian Forest (''Thüringer Wald'' in German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German n ...
to the
Weser The Weser () is a river of Lower Saxony in north-west Germany. It begins at Hann. Münden, Hannoversch Münden through the confluence of the Werra and Fulda (river), Fulda. It passes through the Hanseatic League, Hanseatic city of Bremen. Its m ...
river in Hann. Münden, the second through the Thuringian Forest along its crest to the
Saale The Saale (), also known as the Saxon Saale (german: Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (german: Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin ...

Saale
river near
Hof Hof or HOF may refer to: Places Hof, a Germanic word for "house, dwelling, hall; temple, sanctuary". It may refer to: *the German for "farming estate", see Hof (estate), and hence a German placename: **Hof, Upper Austria, see Sankt Marienkirchen ...
and the third follows near the medieval
Via Regia The Via Regia (Royal Highway) is a European Cultural Route following the route of the historic road of the Middle Ages. There were many such ''viae regiae'' associated with the king in the medieval Holy Roman Empire. History Origins The V ...
from the Werra valley/Eisenach via Gotha, Erfurt and
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany (cultural area), Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east, approximately southwest of Leipzig, nor ...

Weimar
to
Altenburg Altenburg () is a city in Thuringia, Germany, located south of Leipzig, west of Dresden and east of Erfurt. It is the capital of the Altenburger Land district and part of a polycentric old-industrial textile and metal production region betw ...

Altenburg
. Public transport in Eisenach is by a bus network servicing the downtown areas as well as the neighbouring towns and villages. The three-line tramway system of Eisenach was in operation between 1897 and 1975.


Education

After reunification, the educational system was reformed. Eisenach currently has six state-run and one Protestant primary schools. There are two types of secondary school in Germany. The
gymnasium Gymnasium may refer to: *Gymnasium (ancient Greece), educational and sporting institution *Gymnasium (school), type of secondary school that prepares students for higher education **Gymnasium (Denmark) **Gymnasium (Germany) **Gymnasium UNT, high ...
prepares students for higher education at a university and students graduate after a total of 12 or 13 years of education with an
Abitur ''Abitur'' () is a qualification granted at the end of secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a sta ...
. There are two public and one evangelical gymnasium in Eisenach named after personalities of the cities history: * ''Elisabeth Gymnasium'' (named after St. Elisabeth. This public gymnasium is partner school for the handball project of the local ThSV Eisenach handball club which is one of clubs playing in Germany's first league ('' Handball Bundesliga''). Students can specialise in science, languages or music & art and are offered an intense course in economics & law in year 11 and 12). * ''Ernst Abbe Gymnasium'' (named after
Ernst Abbe Ernst Karl Abbe HonFRMS The Royal Microscopical Society (RMS) is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an discipline (a ...

Ernst Abbe
. This public gymnasium offers specialisations in science and languages and offers its student a ''MINT'' - math, IT, science, technology - certificate, similar to a degree in
STEM fields Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a broad term used to group together these academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, ...
. * ''Luther Gymnasium'' (named after
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a Germans, German professor of Christian theology, theology, priest, author, composer, former Order of Saint Augustine, Augustinian monk, and is best known as a seminal f ...

Martin Luther
. In addition to its religious focus, this Protestant gymnasium offers specialisations in science and languages. Career guidance and a diaconal internship are part of year 11 and 12). Another form of secondary school is the ''
Realschule ''Realschule'' () is a type of secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary e ...

Realschule
'' where students graduate after a total of ten years of education. There are four public and one free sponsored ''Realschulen'' in Eisenach. In addition, there is one Waldorf school where education spans from primary school to gymnasium. In 1998, the '' Berufsakademie Eisenach'' was founded. The roughly 600 students can obtain a bachelor's degree there, either in economics or in technics.


Sport

ThSV Eisenach is a professional
handball Handball (also known as team handball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outcourt players and a Handball goalkeeper, goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of th ...
club that plays in the
second division In sport, the Second Division, also called Division 2 or Division II is usually the second highest division of a league, and will often have promotion and relegation with divisions above and below. Following the rise of Premier League style competi ...
.


Notable people

* St. Elisabeth (1207-1231) Princess of the kingdom Hungary and catholic saint *
Ernst Abbe Ernst Karl Abbe HonFRMS The Royal Microscopical Society (RMS) is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an discipline (a ...

Ernst Abbe
(1840–1905), physicist and entrepreneur *
Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the late Baroque music, Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Cello Suites (Bach), Cello Suites and ''Brandenburg Concertos''; keyboard ...

Johann Sebastian Bach
(1685-1750), composer of the baroque, organist and harpsichordist * Ingedore Grünfeld Villaça Koch (1933-2018), German-Brazilian linguist * Harry Lange (film designer) (1930–2008) * (1908–1997), navy officer *
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a Germans, German professor of Christian theology, theology, priest, author, composer, former Order of Saint Augustine, Augustinian monk, and is best known as a seminal f ...

Martin Luther
(1483–1546), professor of theology, reformer * (1643–1712) physician and polymath *
Hermann Wislicenus Hermann Wislicenus (20 September 1825 – 25 April 1899) was a Germany, German history painting, historical painter. He is chiefly known for his mural paintings in the Imperial Palace of Goslar. Biography Born in Eisenach in the Thuringian Duchy o ...

Hermann Wislicenus
(1825–1899), painter


Sons and daughters of the town

* Johann Ernst Bach (1722-1777), composer, court and municipal organist at the Church of St. Georg in Eisenach *
Charlotte von Stein Charlotte Albertine Ernestine von Stein (also mentioned as ''Charlotta Ernestina Bernadina von Stein'' ), born von Schardt; 25 December 1742, Eisenach – 6 January 1827, Weimar, was a lady-in-waiting at the court in Weimar and a close friend t ...

Charlotte von Stein
(1742-1827) close friend of Goethe *
Johann Georg Bach Johann Georg Bach (30 September 1751, in Eisenach – 12 April 1797, in Eisenach) was a German organist. A member of the Bach family, as the son of Johann Ernst Bach II, Johann Ernst Bach. From 1777 he was organist at Georgenkirche (Eisenach), Geo ...
(1751-1797), court and municipal organist at the Church of St. Georg in Eisenach *
Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz (27 December 1796 – 2 August 1877) was a Prussian Prussia, , Old Prussian: ''Prūsa'' or ''Prūsija'' was a historically prominent Germans, German state that originated in 1525 with Duchy of Prussia, a duchy ...

Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz
(1796-1877), Prussian Generalfeldmarschall * Hermann Hahn (born 1841), architect *
Walter Flex Walter Flex (6 July 1887 – 16 October 1917) was a German author of ''The Wanderer between the Two Worlds: An Experience of War'' (''Der Wanderer zwischen beiden Welten'') of 1916, a war novel dealing with themes of humanity, friendship, and suffe ...

Walter Flex
(1887-1917), World War I poet *
Hans Severus Ziegler Hans may refer to: *Hans (name) Hans is a Germanic languages, Germanic masculine given name in German language, German, Danish language, Danish, Dutch language, Dutch, Estonian language, Estonian, Faroese language, Faroese, Norwegian language, Nor ...
(1893-1978), writer and director * Eugen Glückauf (born 1906), chemist and expert on nuclear power *
Botho Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein Botho Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein (''His Serene Highness Prince Botho of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein'') (16 February 1927 in Eisenach – 27 January 2008 in Salzburg) was a German politician. He was a member of the Christian Democratic ...

Botho Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein
(1927-2008), politician and resistance fighter *
Sabine Bergmann-Pohl Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (née Schulz; ; born 20 April 1946) is a German doctor and politician. A member of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU), she was president of the People's Chamber of East Germany East Germany, officially the ...

Sabine Bergmann-Pohl
(born 1946), doctor and politician (CDU) * Thomas C. Breuer (born 1952), writer and comedian * Thomas Reuter (born 1952), composer * Oliver Schwerdt (born 1979), Jazz pianist and musicologist


References

*


External links

*
Info-Portal EisenachOnline

Burschenschaftsdenkmal

Lokalradio Wartburg-Radio 96,5

Landestheater Eisenach
{{Authority control Martin Luther Opel Burial sites of the Ludovingians Burial sites of the House of Leiningen Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Bezirk Erfurt Holocaust locations in Germany