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Sir Edward German (17 February 1862 – 11 November 1936) was an English musician and composer of Welsh descent, best remembered for his extensive output of
incidental music Incidental music is music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and i ...
for the stage and as a successor to
Arthur Sullivan Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan Royal Victorian Order, MVO (13 May 1842 – 22 November 1900) was an English composer. He is best known for 14 comic opera, operatic Gilbert and Sullivan, collaborations with the dramatist W. S. Gilbert, includin ...

Arthur Sullivan
in the field of English
comic opera Comic opera, sometimes known as light opera, is a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending and often including spoken dialogue. Forms of comic opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater i ...
. Some of his light operas, especially '' Merrie England'', are still performed. As a youth, German played the violin and led the town orchestra of
Whitchurch, Shropshire Whitchurch is a market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collecti ...
. He also began to compose music. While performing and teaching violin at the
Royal Academy of Music The Royal Academy of Music (RAM) in London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head ...

Royal Academy of Music
, German began to build a career as a composer in the mid-1880s, writing serious music as well as light opera. In 1888, he became music director of
Globe Theatre The Globe Theatre was a theatre in London associated with William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English ...
in London. He provided popular
incidental music Incidental music is music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and i ...
for many productions at the Globe and other London theatres, including ''Richard III'' (1889), ''Henry VIII'' (1892) and ''Nell Gwynn'' (1900). He also wrote symphonies, orchestral suites, symphonic poems and other works. He also wrote a considerable body of songs, piano music, and symphonic suites and other concert music, of which his ''Welsh Rhapsody'' (1904) is perhaps best known. German was engaged to finish ''
The Emerald Isle ''The Emerald Isle''; ''or, The Caves of Carrig-Cleena'', is a two-act comic opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan Royal Victorian Order, MVO (13 May 1842 – 22 November 1900) was an English composer. He is bes ...
'' after the death of Arthur Sullivan in 1900, the success of which led to more
comic opera Comic opera, sometimes known as light opera, is a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending and often including spoken dialogue. Forms of comic opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater i ...
s, including ''Merrie England'' (1902) and '' Tom Jones'' (1907). He also wrote the '' Just So Song Book'' in 1903 to
Rudyard Kipling Joseph Rudyard Kipling ( ; 30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)''The Times ''The Times'' is a British daily Daily or The Daily may refer to: Journalism * Daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical pub ...

Rudyard Kipling
's texts and continued to write orchestral music. German wrote little new music of his own after 1912, but he continued to conduct until 1928, the year in which he was knighted.


Life and career

German was born German Edward Jones in Whitchurch, Shropshire, the second of five children and older of two sons of John David Jones, a liquor merchant, brewer, church organist and lay preacher at the local
Congregational Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Calvinist tradition practising Congregationalist polity, congregationalist church governance, in which each Wiktionary:congregation, co ...

Congregational
chapel, and Elizabeth (Betsy) Cox (died 1901), a teacher of Bible classes for young women. His first name was an anglicised form of the Welsh name "Garmon." His parents called him Jim.Prince, John
From liner notes for the 2009 recording of ''Tom Jones''
Naxos 2009
He began to study piano and organ with his father at the age of five. At the age of six, he formed a boys' concert band to perform locally, teaching himself the violin, composition, and music arrangement in the process. He later sang
alto The musical term alto, meaning "high" in Wikt:alto#Italian, Italian (Latin: ''Wikt:altus, altus''), historically refers to the counterpoint, contrapuntal Part (music), part higher than the tenor and its associated vocal range. In SATB, 4-part voic ...

alto
in the church choir and participated in family entertainments above his uncle's grocery shop, often playing piano duets and performing comic sketches with his elder sister, Ruth, who died when he was 15.Rees, Brian
"German, Sir Edward (1862–1936)"
''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 13 October 2008
He also wrote comic poems. His younger sisters were named Mabel and Rachel. In his mid-teens, German's parents attempted to apprentice him to a shipbuilding firm, as they believed their son had an aptitude for engineering. His studies at a boarding-school in
Chester Chester is a walled cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of ...

Chester
had been delayed by a serious illness, however, and so he was turned away as too old to begin an apprenticeship. In his teens he formed a second band, a quintette, including himself on the violin, his sister on the pianoforte or the bass, and three friends of the family. He prepared the orchestrations for this band. He also led the town orchestra, did some amateur acting, and sang comic songs in local village halls.


The Royal Academy

At the age of 18, he studied privately with Walter Cecil Hay, the conductor of the Whitchurch choral society and director of music at ,
Shrewsbury Shrewsbury ( , ) is a market town and the county town of Shropshire, England. The town is situated on the River Severn, north-west of London, and the 2011 census recorded a population of 71,715. The town centre has a largely unspoilt mediev ...
. German entered the
Royal Academy of Music The Royal Academy of Music (RAM) in London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head ...

Royal Academy of Music
, where he eventually changed his name to J. E. German (and later simply Edward German) to avoid confusion with another student named Edward Jones. He continued his studies of violin and organ, also beginning a more formal study of composition under
Ebenezer Prout Ebenezer Prout (1 March 1835 – 5 December 1909) was an English musical theorist, writer, music teacher and composer, whose instruction, afterwards embodied in a series of standard works still used today, underpinned the work of many British cla ...
.Scowcroft, Philip
"Edward German: Serious or Light?"
MusicWeb-International, 1 December 2001
Many of German's student works were played at Academy concerts. Hulme, David Russell
"German: ''Richard III'' / ''Theme and Six Diversions'' / ''The Seasons''"
Marco Polo/Naxos liner notes, 1994
In 1884, the Academy appointed German a sub-professor of the violin. During his time as an instructor, he was well regarded and won several medals and prizes, such as the Tubbs Bow for his skill with the violin. In 1885, he won the Charles Lucas Medal for his ''Te Deum'' for soloists, choir and organ, leading him to change his focus from violin to composition. He soon wrote a
light opera Comic opera, sometimes known as light opera, is a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending and often including spoken dialogue. Forms of comic opera first developed in late 17th-century Italy. By the 1730s, a new ...
, ''The Two Poets'' (for four soloists and piano), in 1886, which was produced at the Academy and then performed at St. George's Hall. In 1887, his first symphony, in E Minor, was also performed at the Academy. In 1890 he conducted a revised version of this symphony at
the Crystal Palace The Crystal Palace was a cast iron Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content more than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fracture ...
, while ''The Two Poets'' toured successfully in England. During his time at the Royal Academy, German taught at Wimbledon School and played the violin in theatre orchestras, including the
Savoy Theatre The Savoy Theatre is a West End theatre West End theatre is mainstream professional theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the ...

Savoy Theatre
. He visited Germany in 1886 and 1888–89 and was impressed by its opera, particularly at
Bayreuth Bayreuth (, ; bar, Bareid) is a medium-sized town#Germany, town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains. The town's roots date back to 1194. In the 21st centu ...
.Hulme, David Russell
"German, Sir Edward"
Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, accessed 14 October 2008
His circle of close friends at the Academy included Dora Bright and Ethel Mary Boyce (1863–1936) from
Chertsey Chertsey is a town in the Borough of Runnymede The Borough of Runnymede is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district with borough status in the England, English county of Surrey. It is a very prosperous part of the London commu ...
, Surrey. He and Boyce became engaged. She was also a promising composition student and won the Lady Goldsmid scholarship in 1885, the Sterndale Bennett Prize in 1886 and the Charles Lucas Medal in 1889. Although the engagement was broken off, they remained friends. German never married.


Plays and orchestral music

After leaving the Academy, German continued to teach at Wimbledon School and to play the violin in orchestras at various London theatres, including the
Savoy Savoy (; frp, Savouè ; french: Savoie is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps it, Alpi occidentaligerman: Westalpen , photo=Mont Blanc from Punta Helbronner, 2010 July.JPG , photo_caption=Mont Blanc Mont Blanc (french: Mont ...

Savoy
. In 1888, an introduction by conductor
Alberto Randegger Alberto Randegger (13 April 1832 – 18 December 1911) was an Italian-born composer, conductor and singing teacher, best known for promoting opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing ar ...

Alberto Randegger
to theatre manager
Richard Mansfield Richard Mansfield (24 May 1857 – 30 August 1907) was an English actor-manager Actor-manager Henry Irving An actor-manager is a leading actor An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance (also actress; #The term ac ...
led to German's appointment as conductor and musical director at the
Globe Theatre The Globe Theatre was a theatre in London associated with William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English ...
in London. There he improved the orchestra and began providing
incidental music Incidental music is music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and i ...
for the theatre's lavish productions, starting with ''
Richard III Richard III (2 October 145222 August 1485) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, who initially ruled Kingdom of Wessex, Wessex, one of the heptarchy, seven Anglo-Saxon ...
'' in 1889. This music was well received (''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its s ...
'' called for a concert suite to be arranged), and the overture soon became popular in
concert hall A concert hall is a cultural building with a stage (theatre), stage that serves as a performance venue and an auditorium filled with seats. While early halls built in the 18th and 19th century were designed for Classical music, classi ...

concert hall
s. This eventually led to other incidental music commissions that gained success. In 1892, German composed music for a production of
Henry Irving Sir Henry Irving (6 February 1838 – 13 October 1905), born John Henry Brodribb, sometimes known as J. H. Irving, was an English stage actor in the Victorian era In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the ...

Henry Irving
's version of ''
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for Wives of Henry VIII, his six marriages, including his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon ...
'' at the
Lyceum Theatre, London The Lyceum Theatre (pronounced ) is a West End theatre West End theatre is mainstream professional theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, t ...
, where he incorporated elements of traditional old English dance. Within a year, sheet music of the dance numbers from the play's score had sold 30,000 copies. German was by then in great demand to write music for plays. His commissions included
Henry Arthur Jones Henry Arthur Jones (20 September 1851 – 7 January 1929) was an English dramatist A playwright or dramatist is a person who writes plays. Etymology The word "play" is from Middle English pleye, from Old English plæġ, pleġa, plæġa ("play ...
's ''The Tempter'' in 1893,
Johnston Forbes-Robertson Sir Johnston Forbes-Robertson (16 January 1853 – 6 November 1937''Sir Johnston Forbes Robertson, Beauty And Grace in Acting'', Obituaries, ''The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper ...
's ''
Romeo and Juliet ''Romeo and Juliet'' is a tragedy Tragedy (from the grc-gre, τραγῳδία, ''tragōidia'', ''tragōidia'') is a genre of drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performanc ...

Romeo and Juliet
'' at the Lyceum in 1895,
Herbert Beerbohm Tree Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree (17 December 1852 – 2 July 1917) was an English actor and theatre manager Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actors or actresses, to present the exp ...
's productions of ''As You Like It'' (1896) and ''Much Ado about Nothing'' (1898), and Anthony Hope's ''English Nell'' (later known as ''Nell Gwynn'') in 1900, starring Marie Tempest. At the same time, German was writing music for the concert hall, sometimes adapting music from his theatrical scores. His ''Gipsy Suite'' met with success similar to that of his overture to ''Richard III'' and his popular ''Henry VIII'' and ''Nell Gwynn'' dances. All were written in "a distinctive, if limited, 'olde English' manner, a species of musical mock Tudor music, Tudor with which German came to be particularly associated." He also wrote a number of successful drawing-room songs and solo piano pieces during this time. The success of German's theatrical and concert hall music led to his receiving commissions from orchestral music festivals, including his second symphony for the Norfolk and Norwich Festival, Norwich Festival in 1893. The young critic George Bernard Shaw complained that German's symphonies were limited by the composer's indulgence in a theatricality out of place in symphonic writing. German was thin-skinned, and after receiving this criticism, he wrote no more symphonies. German tried to avoid this charge in the future by characterising his large-scale four-movement works as "symphonic suites". Successful orchestral works included suites for the Leeds Festival in 1895 and ''The Seasons'' for Norwich in 1899, and a symphonic poem, ''Hamlet'', at Birmingham in 1897, conducted by Hans Richter (conductor), Hans Richter. He had planned a violin concerto for the 1901 Leeds Festival, but this was never completed, as German instead turned to light opera. In 1902, he produced a Rhapsody on March Themes for the Brighton Festival.


Comic operas

Though German had little experience with opera or choral music, Richard D'Oyly Carte invited him to finish
Arthur Sullivan Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan Royal Victorian Order, MVO (13 May 1842 – 22 November 1900) was an English composer. He is best known for 14 comic opera, operatic Gilbert and Sullivan, collaborations with the dramatist W. S. Gilbert, includin ...

Arthur Sullivan
's ''
The Emerald Isle ''The Emerald Isle''; ''or, The Caves of Carrig-Cleena'', is a two-act comic opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan Royal Victorian Order, MVO (13 May 1842 – 22 November 1900) was an English composer. He is bes ...
'' for the
Savoy Theatre The Savoy Theatre is a West End theatre West End theatre is mainstream professional theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the ...

Savoy Theatre
after Sullivan's death in 1900.Stone, David
"Edward German"
, Who Was Who in the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, 2001
He accepted, giving up his violin concerto commission for the Leeds Festival to meet the deadlines. The success of his score for the opera (which was performed into the 1920s) opened up a new career for him. His next comic opera, in 1902, was '' Merrie England'', with Basil Hood, the librettist for ''The Emerald Isle''. This was perhaps German's greatest success, and its dance music was popular separately. It was revived frequently, becoming a light-opera standard in Britain, while several of its songs, including "The English Rose", "O Peaceful England" and "The Yeomen of England", remained popular until the middle of the 20th century. ''Merrie England'' has been so frequently chosen by amateur groups in England that it probably has been performed more often than any other British opera or operetta written in the 20th century. After this, German and Hood collaborated again in 1903 to write ''A Princess of Kensington''. This opera was unsuccessful, although it toured briefly and had a New York production. German turned to other endeavours, composing music to
Rudyard Kipling Joseph Rudyard Kipling ( ; 30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)''The Times ''The Times'' is a British daily Daily or The Daily may refer to: Journalism * Daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical pub ...

Rudyard Kipling
texts, including the twelve songs in the '' Just So Song Book'' in 1903. He also received a steady flow of orchestral commissions, leading to works such as his ''Welsh Rhapsody'' for the Cardiff Festival in 1904, featuring as its climax "Men of Harlech". German returned to writing comic operas, achieving another success with '' Tom Jones'' for the Apollo Theatre in 1907, produced by Robert Courtneidge for the Henry Fielding, Fielding bicentenary. The score is one of German's finest works. It received a production in New York, with German conducting, and was performed for decades, spawning separate performances of its dance music. He next collaborated with W. S. Gilbert on his final (and unsuccessful) opera, ''Fallen Fairies'', at the Savoy in 1909. With German's agreement, Gilbert cast his protege, Nancy McIntosh, as the Fairy Queen, Selene. Critics found her performance weak. Shortly after the opening, the producer C. H. Workman, acting at the request of the syndicate he had gathered, replaced McIntosh with Amy Evans and asked for restoration of a song that Gilbert had cut during rehearsals. Gilbert was outraged and threatened to sue, demanding that German join him. This placed German in a distressing position, and the composer, who habitually preferred to avoid legal battles, declined. In maintaining the Savoy tradition of comic opera, German was composing a style of piece for which public taste had dwindled as fashions in Edwardian musical comedy, musical theatre had changed with the new century.


Later years

In the wake of the failure of ''Fallen Fairies'' and his unhappy experience with it, German effectively ended his career as a composer of new works, only returning to composition on a few rare occasions. In 1911 he became the first composer to write music for a British film; he was commissioned for 50 guineas to write 16 bars of music for the coronation scene in the film ''Henry VIII (film), Henry VIII''. The same year, he composed his Coronation March (Edward German), march and hymn for the coronation of George V of the United Kingdom, King George V. Among the few works of his later years was the ''Theme and Six Diversions'' in 1919, and his final major work, the Othello-inspired tone poem ''The Willow Song'' in 1922. After that, German all but ceased composing. Correspondence shows that he felt uncomfortable with the changing musical styles, such as jazz and modernist classical music. Like Sullivan before him, he regretted that his popularity stemmed mostly from his comic operas. However, German was a perfectionist and continually revised his works and produced new arrangements for publication. He also recorded some of them and encouraged their production and broadcast on the radio. German lived, from 1886, in Hall Road, Maida Vale, near Lord's, Lord's Cricket Ground, London, where he was an avid enthusiast of that game. He lived a quiet life, enjoying walking, cycling and fishing, though he often attended the theatre. He developed a strong friendship with Edward Elgar, Sir Edward Elgar. German was injured in a road accident during World War I, but continued to be a highly sought-after conductor, accepting many conducting engagements, until he suffered an eye condition that left him blind in his right eye in 1928. He was the first British conductor invited by Dan Godfrey to conduct his own music at Bournemouth. Beginning in 1916, he was also one of the first composers to conduct his own music for recording, producing full renderings of ''Merrie England'' and ''Theme and Six Diversions''. German was knighted in 1928, when the respect in which he was held by fellow musicians was shown by the number of eminent musicians who attended the celebratory dinner, including Elgar, Alexander Mackenzie (composer), Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Hugh Allen (conductor), Sir Hugh Allen, Landon Ronald, Sir Landon Ronald, and Gerald Tyrwhitt-Wilson, 14th Baron Berners, Lord Berners. In 1934 German received the Royal Philharmonic Society's highest honour, its gold medal, presented by Thomas Beecham, Sir Thomas Beecham at an RPS concert. He was elected an Honorary Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Musicians in 1936, and he was a leader of the Performing Rights Society, which fought for composers' rights to fair compensation for the performances of their works. German died of prostate cancer at his Maida Vale home, aged 74. He was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium, Golders Green, and his ashes are interred in the Whitchurch, Shropshire, Whitchurch cemetery. He left an estate valued at £56,191.


Legacy

German lived long enough to witness the beginning of a decline in the popularity of his orchestral works. A note found after his death bears this poignant message: "I die a disappointed man because my serious orchestral works have not been recognised". However, his best-known orchestral pieces continued to see occasional performances, and his light operas ''Merrie England'' and ''Tom Jones'' were kept alive by the productions of amateur companies. Beecham recorded his ''Gipsy Suite'' in 1956. A recording of his ''Richard III'', ''Theme and Six Diversions'' and ''The Seasons'' was released by Naxos in 1994, conducted by Andrew Penny. The first complete professional recording of ''Tom Jones'' followed in 2009. Dutton Vocalion, Dutton Epoch released a selection of German's music, including his Symphony No. 2, in 2007, and a recording of some of his incidental music for plays, together with two marches and a hymn in 2012.


Analysis

The music scholar David Russell Hulme wrote of German that French influences are clearly apparent in his music "and there are even occasional reminders of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Tchaikovsky, but paradoxically he was, like Elgar, a stylistic cosmopolitan who wrote music that is quintessentially English." Hulme also observes that though he is seen as Sullivan's successor, German's music is quite different in style, and his lyric ballads especially show "a romantic warmth that struck a new note in British operetta". ''The Times'' argued that German was so frequently spoken of as Sullivan's successor that his contemporaries failed to notice that he was "an artist of genius" in his own right. Many of German's colleagues in the musical establishment did, however, find his work to be of the highest quality, including Elgar and Sir John Barbirolli. Hulme writes that "German's orchestral music certainly does not deserve the neglect it has suffered, for it still has much to offer modern audiences. Beautifully crafted, colourful and vital, its pleasing and distinctive personality is still capable of inspiring the kind of affectionate regard it once so readily kindled." German's music often reflected a romanticised Shakespearian or semi-mythical English merry-making past. This appealed to contemporary taste, as his ''Three Dances from 'Henry VIII'' (1892) was the most frequently performed English orchestral work in the first decade of The Proms, with well over 30 performances between 1895 and 1905, and his ''Three Dances from 'As You Like It'' (1896) were similarly popular.


Edward German Festival

The first Edward German Festival was held in 2006 in German's birth town, Whitchurch, Shropshire. Events included performances by festival patron and cellist, Julian Lloyd Webber and a concert version of German's best-known work, ''Merrie England''. Another festival was held on 23–28 April 2009, sponsored by the Friends of Whitchurch Heritage. This programme included a concert version of ''Tom Jones'' (for which a new recording was released by Naxos in 2009) and a school adaptation of ''Merrie England''. Other events featured clarinettist Emma Johnson (clarinettist), Emma Johnson, German scholar David Russell Hulme and the Hallé Orchestra."Sir Edward German Music Festival 2009"
, Sir Edward German Music Festival 2009 website


Works


Operas

* ''The Two Poets'' (1886), later revised as ''The Rival Poets'' (1901) * ''
The Emerald Isle ''The Emerald Isle''; ''or, The Caves of Carrig-Cleena'', is a two-act comic opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan Royal Victorian Order, MVO (13 May 1842 – 22 November 1900) was an English composer. He is bes ...
'' (1901; completion of the opera left unfinished by Arthur Sullivan, Sullivan at his death) * '' Merrie England'' (1902) * ''A Princess of Kensington'' (1903) * '' Tom Jones'' (1907) * ''Fallen Fairies'' (1909)


Incidental music to plays

* ''Richard III'' (1889) * ''Henry VIII'' (1892) * ''The Tempter'' (1893) * ''Romeo and Juliet'' (1895) * ''Michael and his Lost Angel'' (1896) * ''As You Like It'' (1896) * ''Much Ado about Nothing'' (1898) * ''English Nell'' (1900), later known as ''Nell Gwyn'' * ''The Conqueror'' (1905)


Orchestral

* ''The Guitar'' (1883) * ''Bolero'' (1883) * ''Symphony No 1 in E minor'' (1887) * ''March Solennelle'' (1891) * ''On German Airs'' (1891) * ''Gipsy Suite'' (1892) * ''Symphony No 2 ("Norwich") in A minor'' (1893) * ''Symphonic Suite in D minor ("Leeds")'' (1895) * ''In Commemoration'' (1897) [revised in 1902 as ''March Rhapsody on Original Themes''] * ''Hamlet'', Symphonic Poem (1897) * ''The Seasons'', Symphonic Suite (1899) * ''Welsh Rhapsody'' (1904) * ''Coronation March (Edward German), Coronation March and Hymn'' (1911) * ''The Irish Guards'' (1918) * ''Theme and Six Diversions'' (1919) * ''The Willow Song'' (1922) * ''Cloverley Suite'' (1934)


Choral works and part songs

* Te Deum in F (1885) * The Chase (1886) * Antigone (c 1887) * O Lovely May (1894) * Who is Sylvia? (1894) * Banks of the Bann (1899) * ''Just So Songs'' (originally written for solo voice in 1903, part-song arrangements by the composer from 1916–1933) * Canada Patriotic Hymn (1904) * O Peaceful Night (1904) * Introit: Bread of Heaven (1908) * Grace: Non Nobis Domine (1911) * Pure as the Air (1911) * The Three Knights (1911) * Beauteous Morn (1912) * In Praise of Neptune (1912) * My Bonnie Lass (1912) * Sleeping (1912) * Sweet Day So Cool (1912) * Morning Hymn (1912) * Intercessory Hymn: Father Omnipotent (1915) * London Town (1920) * Rolling Down to Rio


Songs for solo voice

* All Friends Around the Wrekin: A Song of Shropshire * Big Steamers * A Song in Storm, Be Well Assured (from ''The Fringes of the Fleet'') * My Boy Jack (poem), Have You News of My Boy Jack? (1916) * Charming Chloe * Cupid at the Ferry * Love the Pedlar * Sea Lullaby * Heigh Ho * Bird of Blue * Glorious Devon * Who'll Buy My Lavender? * Recompense


Piano

* ''Suite for Pianoforte'': "Impromptu", "Valse Caprice", "Bourrée", "Elegy", "Mazurka", "Tarantella" (1889) * ''Four Pianoforte Duets'' (1890) * ''Graceful Dance in F'' (1891) * ''Polish Dance'' (1891) * ''Valse in A Flat'' (1891) * ''Album Leaf'' (1892) * ''Intermezzo in A Minor'' (1892) * ''Valsette pour Piano'' (1892) * ''Minuet in G'' (1893) * ''Second Impromptu'' (1894) * ''Concert Study in A Flat'' (1894) * ''Gipsy Suite: Four Characteristic Dances -duet- (1895) * ''Melody in E Flat'' (1895) * ''Suite for Four Hands'' (1896) * ''"Columbine" Air de Ballet'' (1898) * ''Abendlied "Evensong"'' (1900) * ''Melody in E. "The Queen's Carol" (1905)


Violin

* ''Nocturne'' (1882) * ''Chanson d'Amour'' (1880s) * ''Barcarolle'' (1880s) * ''Album Leaf'' (1880s) * ''Sprites' Dance'' (1880s) * ''Bolero'' (1883) * ''Scotch Sketch for 2 Violins and Pianoforte'' (1890) * ''Moto Perpetuo Pour Violin Accompagnement de Piano'' (1890) * ''Souvenir for Violin and Pianoforte'' (1896) * ''Song without Words'' (1898) * ''Three Sketches'': "Valsette", "Souvenir", "Bolero" (1897)


Woodwind, chamber music and organ

* ''Saltarello'' (for flute and piano) (1889) * ''Pastorale and Bourrée'' (for woodwinds) (1891) * ''Suite: Three Pieces'' (for woodwinds) (1892) * ''Andante and Tarantella'' (for woodwinds) (1892) * ''Romance'' (for woodwinds) (1892) * ''Intermezzo'' (for woodwinds) (1894) * ''Early One Morning'' (for woodwinds) (1900) * ''Trio in D for Violin, Violoncello, and Pianoforte'' (c. 1883) * ''Serenade'' (for chamber ensemble) (1890s) * ''Andante in B Flat'' (for organ) (1880s)


References


Sources

* *


Further reading

* * Gänzl, Kurt. ''The encyclopaedia of the musical theatre'', 2 vols. (1994) * * Lamb, Andrew. "German, Sir Edward", ''New Grove Dictionary of Music'' * Parker, D. C. "Sir Edward German", ''RAM Magazine'', No 179, 1961, pp. 31–33. *


External links

*
Edward German
at Allmusic *
The Edward German Discography

Detailed biographical sketch
from Naxos
"Edward German. A Biographical Sketch"
''The Musical Times'', Vol. 45, No. 731, 1 January 1904, pp. 20–24 * Hulme, David Russell. "Orpheus With His Lute: Sources of Edward German's Music for the Victorian and Edwardian Drama", ''Brio'', Autumn/Winter 2000. * * {{DEFAULTSORT:German, Edward 1862 births 1936 deaths 19th-century British composers 19th-century classical composers 19th-century male conductors (music) 19th-century conductors (music) 19th-century English musicians 20th-century British composers 20th-century British male musicians 20th-century classical composers 20th-century British conductors (music) 20th-century English musicians Academics of the Royal Academy of Music Alumni of the Royal Academy of Music Composers awarded knighthoods English classical composers English conductors (music) British male conductors (music) English male classical composers English opera composers English people of Welsh descent English Romantic composers Knights Bachelor Light music composers Male opera composers Musicians from Shropshire People associated with Gilbert and Sullivan People from Maida Vale People from Whitchurch, Shropshire Royal Philharmonic Society Gold Medallists