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Edgar Allan Poe (; born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, poet, editor, and
literary critic Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which is the philosophical analysis, philosophical discussion of literature ...
. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of mystery and the
macabre The Triumph of Death in St Maria in Bienno In works of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an artistic creation of aesthetics, aesthetic value. Except for "work of art", which may be used ...
. He is widely regarded as a central figure of
Romanticism Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to ...
in the United States, and of
American literature American literature is literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In ...
. Poe was one of the country's earliest practitioners of the
short story A short story is a piece of prose Prose is a form of written or spoken language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...
, and considered to be the inventor of the
detective fiction Detective fiction is a subgenre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an criminal investigation, investigator or a detective—either professional, amateur or retired—investigates a crime, often murder. The detective genre began around ...
genre, as well as a significant contributor to the emerging genre of
science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, Parall ...

science fiction
. Poe was the first well-known American writer to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career. Poe was born in
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
, the second child of actors
David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ''; possibly meaning "beloved one". is described in th ...
and . His father abandoned the family in 1810, and when his mother died the following year, Poe was taken in by John and Frances Allan of
Richmond, Virginia (Thus do we reach the stars) , image_map = , mapsize = 250 px , map_caption = Location within Virginia , pushpin_map = Virginia#USA , pushpin_label ...
. They never formally adopted him, but he was with them well into young adulthood. He attended the
University of Virginia The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA) is a Public university#United States, public research university in Charlottesville, Virginia, founded in 1819 by Thomas Jefferson. It is the flagship university of Virginia and home to the Academic ...

University of Virginia
but left after a year due to lack of money. He quarreled with Allan over the funds for his education, and his gambling debts. In 1827, having enlisted in the
United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare, land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight Uniformed services of the United States, U.S. uniformed services, and is designated as the Army o ...
under an assumed name, he published his first collection ''
Tamerlane and Other Poems ''Tamerlane and Other Poems'' is the first published work by American writer Edgar Allan Poe. The short collection of poems was first published in 1827. Today, it is believed only 12 copies of the collection still exist. Poe abandoned his foster f ...
'', credited only to "a Bostonian". Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement after the death of Allan's wife in 1829. Poe later failed as an officer cadet at
West Point The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point or simply Army is a four-year United States service academy in West Point, New York West Point is the oldest continuously occupied military post in the United States ...
, declared a firm wish to be a poet and writer, and parted ways with Allan. Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the next several years working for
literary journal A literary magazine is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The ...
s and periodicals, becoming known for his own style of literary criticism. His work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City. In 1836, he married his 13-year-old cousin, Virginia Clemm, but she died of
tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the in ...

tuberculosis
in 1847. In January 1845, Poe published his poem "
The Raven "The Raven" is a narrative poem by American writer Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe (; born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, poet, editor, and literary criticism, literary critic. Poe is best know ...

The Raven
" to instant success. He planned for years to produce his own journal ''The Penn'' (later renamed ''
The Stylus ''The Stylus'', originally intended to be named ''The Penn'', was a would-be periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and ...
''), but before it could be produced, he died in Baltimore on October 7, 1849, at age 40, under mysterious circumstances. The cause of his death remains unknown, and has been variously attributed to many causes including disease, alcoholism, substance abuse, and suicide. Poe and his works influenced literature around the world, as well as specialized fields such as
cosmology Cosmology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
and
cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logia ''-logy'' is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in (''- ...

cryptography
. He and his work appear throughout popular culture in literature, music, films, and television. A number of his homes are dedicated museums today. The
Mystery Writers of America Mystery Writers of America (MWA) is an organization of mystery and crime writers, based in New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population o ...
present an annual award known as the
Edgar Award The Edgar Allan Poe Awards, popularly called the Edgars, are presented every year by the Mystery Writers of America Mystery Writers of America (MWA) is an organization of mystery and crime writers, based in New York City. The organization was fou ...
for distinguished work in the mystery genre.


Early life

Edgar Poe was born in , on January 19, 1809, the second child of
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
-born actress and actor David Poe Jr. He had an elder brother named
William Henry Leonard Poe William Henry Leonard Poe, often referred to as Henry Poe, (January 30, 1807 – August 1, 1831) was an American sailor, amateur poet and the older brother of Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe (; born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, ...
and a younger sister named Rosalie Poe. Their grandfather, David Poe Sr., emigrated from
County Cavan County Cavan ( ; gle, Contae an Chabháin) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Cham ...
, Ireland, around 1750. Edgar may have been named after a character in
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national p ...

William Shakespeare
's ''
King Lear ''King Lear'' is a tragedy Tragedy (from the grc-gre, τραγῳδία, ''tragōidia'', ''tragōidia'') is a genre of drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (t ...

King Lear
'', which the couple were performing in 1809. His father abandoned the family in 1810, and his mother died a year later from consumption (
pulmonary tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by ''Mycobacterium tuberculosis'' (MTB) bacteria. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections show no symptoms, in which cas ...
). Poe was then taken into the home of John Allan, a successful merchant in
Richmond, Virginia (Thus do we reach the stars) , image_map = , mapsize = 250 px , map_caption = Location within Virginia , pushpin_map = Virginia#USA , pushpin_label ...
, who dealt in a variety of goods, including cloth, wheat, tombstones, tobacco, and slaves. The Allans served as a foster family and gave him the name "Edgar Allan Poe", though they never formally adopted him. The Allan family had Poe baptized into the Episcopal Church in 1812. John Allan alternately spoiled and aggressively disciplined his foster son. The family sailed to the United Kingdom in 1815, and Poe attended the grammar school for a short period in
Irvine, North Ayrshire Irvine ( ; sco, Irvin,
gd, Irbhinn, IPA:
Chelsea Chelsea or Chelsey may refer to: Places Australia * Chelsea, Victoria Canada * Chelsea, Nova Scotia * Chelsea, Quebec United Kingdom * Chelsea, London, an affluent area of South West London, bounded to the south by the River Thames ** Chelsea ...
until summer 1817. He was subsequently entered at the Reverend John Bransby's Manor House School at Stoke Newington, then a suburb north of London. Poe moved with the Allans back to Richmond in 1820. In 1824, he served as the lieutenant of the Richmond youth honor guard as the city celebrated the Visit of the Marquis de Lafayette to the United States, visit of the Marquis de Lafayette. In March 1825, Allan's uncle and business benefactor William Galt died, who was said to be one of the wealthiest men in Richmond, leaving Allan several acres of real estate. The inheritance was estimated at $750,000 (). By summer 1825, Allan celebrated his expansive wealth by purchasing a two-story brick house called Moldavia. Poe may have become engaged to Sarah Elmira Royster before he registered at the
University of Virginia The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA) is a Public university#United States, public research university in Charlottesville, Virginia, founded in 1819 by Thomas Jefferson. It is the flagship university of Virginia and home to the Academic ...

University of Virginia
in February 1826 to study ancient and modern languages. The university was in its infancy, established on the ideals of its founder
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were cr ...

Thomas Jefferson
. It had strict rules against gambling, horses, guns, tobacco, and alcohol, but these rules were mostly ignored. Jefferson had enacted a system of student self-government, allowing students to choose their own studies, make their own arrangements for boarding, and report all wrongdoing to the faculty. The unique system was still in chaos, and there was a high dropout rate. During his time there, Poe lost touch with Royster and also became estranged from his foster father over gambling debts. He claimed that Allan had not given him sufficient money to register for classes, purchase texts, and procure and furnish a dormitory. Allan did send additional money and clothes, but Poe's debts increased. Poe gave up on the university after a year but did not feel welcome returning to Richmond, especially when he learned that his sweetheart Royster had married another man, Alexander Shelton. He traveled to Boston in April 1827, sustaining himself with odd jobs as a clerk and newspaper writer, and he started using the
pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which differs from their original or true name (orthonym). This also differs from a new name tha ...
Henri Le Rennet during this period.


Military career

Poe was unable to support himself, so he enlisted in the
United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare, land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight Uniformed services of the United States, U.S. uniformed services, and is designated as the Army o ...
as a private on May 27, 1827, using the name "Edgar A. Perry". He claimed that he was even though he was 18. He first served at Fort Independence in
Boston Harbor Boston Harbor is a natural harbor and estuary of Massachusetts Bay, and is located adjacent to the city of Boston, Massachusetts. It is home to the Port of Boston, a major shipping facility in the northeastern United States. History Since i ...
for five dollars a month. That same year, he released his first book, a 40-page collection of poetry titled ''
Tamerlane and Other Poems ''Tamerlane and Other Poems'' is the first published work by American writer Edgar Allan Poe. The short collection of poems was first published in 1827. Today, it is believed only 12 copies of the collection still exist. Poe abandoned his foster f ...
'', attributed with the byline "by a Bostonian". Only 50 copies were printed, and the book received virtually no attention. Poe's regiment was posted to
Fort Moultrie Fort Moultrie is a series of fortifications on Sullivan's Island, South Carolina, built to protect the city of Charleston, South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina. The first fort, formerly named Fort Sullivan, built of Cabbage Palme ...

Fort Moultrie
in
Charleston, South Carolina Charleston is the largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, South Carolina, Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston metropolitan area, South Carolina, Charleston–North Charle ...

Charleston, South Carolina
, and traveled by ship on the brig ''Waltham'' on November 8, 1827. Poe was promoted to "artificer", an enlisted tradesman who prepared shells for artillery, and had his monthly pay doubled. He served for two years and attained the rank of Sergeant Major for Artillery (the highest rank that a non-commissioned officer could achieve); he then sought to end his five-year enlistment early. Poe revealed his real name and his circumstances to his commanding officer, Lieutenant Howard, who would only allow Poe to be discharged if he reconciled with Allan. Poe wrote a letter to Allan, who was unsympathetic and spent several months ignoring Poe's pleas; Allan may not have written to Poe even to make him aware of his foster mother's illness. Frances Allan died on February 28, 1829, and Poe visited the day after her burial. Perhaps softened by his wife's death, Allan agreed to support Poe's attempt to be discharged in order to receive an appointment to the
United States Military Academy The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point or simply Army is a four-year United States service academy in West Point, New York West Point is the oldest continuously occupied military post in the United Stat ...
at
West Point, New York West Point is the oldest continuously occupied military post in the United States. Located on the Hudson River The Hudson River is a that flows from north to south primarily through eastern in the United States. It originates in the of ...
. Poe was finally discharged on April 15, 1829, after securing a replacement to finish his enlisted term for him. Before entering West Point, he moved back to Baltimore for a time to stay with his widowed aunt Maria Clemm, her daughter Virginia Eliza Clemm (Poe's first cousin), his brother Henry, and his invalid grandmother Elizabeth Cairnes Poe. In September of that year, Poe received "the very first words of encouragement I ever remember to have heard" in a review of his poetry by influential critic John Neal, prompting Poe to dedicate one of the poems to Neal in his second book ''Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane and Minor Poems'', published in Baltimore in 1829. Poe traveled to West Point and matriculated as a cadet on July 1, 1830. In October 1830, Allan married his second wife Louisa Patterson. The marriage and bitter quarrels with Poe over the children born to Allan out of extramarital affairs led to the foster father finally disowning Poe. Poe decided to leave West Point by purposely getting
court-martial A court-martial or court martial (plural ''courts-martial'' or ''courts martial'', as "martial" is a postpositive adjective A postpositive adjective or postnominal adjective is an adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scien ...
ed. On February 8, 1831, he was tried for gross neglect of duty and disobedience of orders for refusing to attend formations, classes, or church. He tactically pleaded not guilty to induce dismissal, knowing that he would be found guilty. Poe left for New York in February 1831 and released a third volume of poems, simply titled ''Poems.'' The book was financed with help from his fellow cadets at West Point, many of whom donated 75 cents to the cause, raising a total of $170. They may have been expecting verses similar to the satirical ones that Poe had been writing about commanding officers. It was printed by Elam Bliss of New York, labeled as "Second Edition," and including a page saying, "To the U.S. Corps of Cadets this volume is respectfully dedicated". The book once again reprinted the long poems "Tamerlane" and "Al Aaraaf" but also six previously unpublished poems, including early versions of "
To Helen "To Helen" is the first of two poems Poetry (derived from the Greek '' poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifical ...
", " Israfel", and " The City in the Sea". Poe returned to Baltimore to his aunt, brother, and cousin in March 1831. His elder brother Henry had been in ill health, in part due to problems with alcoholism, and he died on August 1, 1831.


Publishing career

After his brother's death, Poe began more earnest attempts to start his career as a writer, but he chose a difficult time in American publishing to do so. He was one of the first Americans to live by writing alone and was hampered by the lack of an international
copyright law Copyright is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the exclusive right to copy and distribute a creative work, usually for a limited time. The creative work may be in a literary, artistic, educational, or musical form. Copyrig ...
. American publishers often produced unauthorized copies of British works rather than paying for new work by Americans. The industry was also particularly hurt by the
Panic of 1837 The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis A financial crisis is any of a broad variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, many financial crises we ...
. There was a booming growth in American periodicals around this time, fueled in part by new technology, but many did not last beyond a few issues. Publishers often refused to pay their writers or paid them much later than they promised, and Poe repeatedly resorted to humiliating pleas for money and other assistance. After his early attempts at poetry, Poe had turned his attention to prose, likely based on John Neal's critiques in ''
The Yankee ''The Yankee'' (later retitled ''The Yankee and Boston Literary Gazette'') was one of the first cultural publications in the US, founded and edited by John Neal (writer), John Neal (1793–1876), and published in Portland, Maine. Unique at th ...
'' magazine. He placed a few stories with a
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...

Philadelphia
publication and began work on his only drama '' Politian''. The ''
Baltimore Saturday Visiter October, 1833 The ''Baltimore Saturday Visiter'' was a weekly periodical in Baltimore, Maryland, in the 19th century. It published some of the early work of Baltimore writer Edgar Allan Poe. History It was established in 1832 by Charles Cloud and ...
'' awarded him a prize in October 1833 for his short story " MS. Found in a Bottle". The story brought him to the attention of
John P. Kennedy John Pendleton Kennedy (October 25, 1795 – August 18, 1870) was an American novelist, lawyer and Whig politician who served as United States Secretary of the Navy The secretary of the Navy (or SECNAV) is a statutory officer () and the head ...
, a Baltimorean of considerable means who helped Poe place some of his stories and introduced him to Thomas W. White, editor of the ''
Southern Literary Messenger The ''Southern Literary Messenger'' was a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that appear in a new edition on a regul ...
'' in Richmond. Poe became assistant editor of the periodical in August 1835, but White discharged him within a few weeks for being drunk on the job. Poe returned to Baltimore where he obtained a license to marry his cousin Virginia on September 22, 1835, though it is unknown if they were married at that time. He was 26 and she was 13. Poe was reinstated by White after promising good behavior, and he went back to Richmond with Virginia and her mother. He remained at the ''Messenger'' until January 1837. During this period, Poe claimed that its circulation increased from 700 to 3,500. He published several poems, book reviews, critiques, and stories in the paper. On May 16, 1836, he and Virginia held a
Presbyterian Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of ...
wedding ceremony at their Richmond boarding house, with a witness falsely attesting Clemm's age as 21. Poe's novel ''
The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket ''The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket'' (1838) is the only complete novel written by American writer Edgar Allan Poe. The work relates the tale of the young Arthur Gordon Pym, who stows away aboard a whaling ship called the ''Grampus'' ...
'' was published and widely reviewed in 1838. In the summer of 1839, Poe became assistant editor of ''
Burton's Gentleman's Magazine ''Burton's Gentleman's Magazine and American Monthly Review'' (sometimes ''...and Monthly American Review'' or, more simply, ''Burton's Magazine''), was a literary publication published in Philadelphia from 1837 to 1840. Its founder was William Eva ...
''. He published numerous articles, stories, and reviews, enhancing his reputation as a trenchant critic which he had established at the ''Messenger''. Also in 1839, the collection '' Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque'' was published in two volumes, though he made little money from it and it received mixed reviews. In June 1840, Poe published a
prospectus Prospectus may refer to: * Prospectus (finance), also called a ''concept note'' * Prospectus (university) * Prospectus (book) * Prospectus (album), ''Prospectus'' (album), a 1983 album by saxophonist Steve Lacy * Parkland College's newspaper {{dis ...
announcing his intentions to start his own journal called ''
The Stylus ''The Stylus'', originally intended to be named ''The Penn'', was a would-be periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and ...
'', although he originally intended to call it ''The Penn'', as it would have been based in Philadelphia. He bought advertising space for his prospectus in the June 6, 1840 issue of Philadelphia's ''
Saturday Evening Post ''The Saturday Evening Post'' is an American magazine A magazine is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, enterta ...
'': ''"Prospectus of the Penn Magazine, a Monthly Literary journal to be edited and published in the city of Philadelphia by Edgar A. Poe."'' The journal was never produced before Poe's death. Poe left ''Burton's'' after about a year and found a position as writer and co-editor at the then-very-successful monthly ''
Graham's Magazine ''Graham's Magazine'' was a nineteenth-century periodical based in Philadelphia established by George Rex Graham and published from 1841 to 1858. It was alternatively referred to as ''Graham's Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine'' (1841–1842, and Jul ...
''. In the last number of ''Graham's'' for 1841, Poe was among the co-signatories to an editorial note of celebration of the tremendous success that magazine had achieved in the past year: "Perhaps the editors of no magazine, either in America or in Europe, ever sat down, at the close of a year, to contemplate the progress of their work with more satisfaction than we do now. Our success has been unexampled, almost incredible. We may assert without fear of contradiction that no periodical ever witnessed the same increase during so short a period." Around this time, Poe attempted to secure a position within the administration of President
John Tyler John Tyler (March 29, 1790January 18, 1862) was the 10th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona ( ...

John Tyler
, claiming that he was a member of the Whig Party. He hoped to be appointed to the United States Custom House in Philadelphia with help from President Tyler's son
Robert The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it ...
, an acquaintance of Poe's friend Frederick Thomas. Poe failed to show up for a meeting with Thomas to discuss the appointment in mid-September 1842, claiming to have been sick, though Thomas believed that he had been drunk. Poe was promised an appointment, but all positions were filled by others. One evening in January 1842, Virginia showed the first signs of consumption, now known as
tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the in ...

tuberculosis
, while singing and playing the piano, which Poe described as breaking a blood vessel in her throat. She only partially recovered, and Poe began to drink more heavily under the stress of her illness. He left ''Graham's'' and attempted to find a new position, for a time angling for a government post. He returned to New York where he worked briefly at the ''Evening Mirror'' before becoming editor of the ''
Broadway Journal The ''Broadway Journal'' was a short-lived New York City-based newspaper founded by Charles Frederick Briggs and John Bisco in 1844 and was published from January 1845 to January 1846. In its first year, the publication was bought by Edgar Allan Po ...
'', and later its owner. There Poe alienated himself from other writers by publicly accusing
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "", ', and '. He was the first American to translate 's ' and was one of the from New England. Longfellow was born in , w ...

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
of
plagiarism Plagiarism is the representation of another author An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data ...

plagiarism
, though Longfellow never responded. On January 29, 1845, his poem "
The Raven "The Raven" is a narrative poem by American writer Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe (; born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, poet, editor, and literary criticism, literary critic. Poe is best know ...

The Raven
" appeared in the ''Evening Mirror'' and became a popular sensation. It made Poe a household name almost instantly, though he was paid only $9 for its publication. It was concurrently published in '' The American Review: A Whig Journal'' under the pseudonym "Quarles". The ''Broadway Journal'' failed in 1846, and Poe moved to a cottage in Fordham, New York, in what is now
the Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City New York City is composed of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Each borough is coextensive with a respective Administrative divisions of New York (state)#Count ...
. That home is now known as the Edgar Allan Poe Cottage, relocated to a park near the southeast corner of the Grand Concourse and Kingsbridge Road. Nearby, Poe befriended the
Jesuits The Society of Jesus ( la, Societas Iesu; abbreviated SJ), also known as the Jesuits (; la, Iesuitæ), is a religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome. It was founded by Ignatius of Loyola and six co ...
at St. John's College, now
Fordham University Fordham University () is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly ...
. Virginia died at the cottage on January 30, 1847. Biographers and critics often suggest that Poe's frequent theme of the "death of a beautiful woman" stems from the repeated loss of women throughout his life, including his wife. Poe was increasingly unstable after his wife's death. He attempted to court poet Sarah Helen Whitman who lived in
Providence, Rhode Island Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, prima ...

Providence, Rhode Island
. Their engagement failed, purportedly because of Poe's drinking and erratic behavior. There is also strong evidence that Whitman's mother intervened and did much to derail their relationship. Poe then returned to Richmond and resumed a relationship with his childhood sweetheart Sarah Elmira Royster.


Death

On October 3, 1849, Poe was found delirious on the streets of Baltimore, "in great distress, and... in need of immediate assistance", according to Joseph W. Walker, who found him. He was taken to the Washington Medical College, where he died on Sunday, October 7, 1849, at 5:00 in the morning. Poe was not coherent long enough to explain how he came to be in his dire condition and was wearing clothes that were not his own. He is said to have repeatedly called out the name "Reynolds" on the night before his death, though it is unclear to whom he was referring. Some sources say that Poe's final words were, "Lord help my poor soul". All medical records have been lost, including Poe's
death certificate A death certificate is either a legal document issued by a medical practitioner A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a profe ...
. Newspapers at the time reported Poe's death as "congestion of the brain" or "cerebral inflammation", common euphemisms for death from disreputable causes such as alcoholism. The actual cause of death remains a mystery. Speculation has included ''
delirium tremens Delirium tremens (DTs) is a rapid onset of confusion usually caused by withdrawal from alcohol. When it occurs, it is often three days into the withdrawal symptoms and lasts for two to three days. Physical effects may include shaking Shake m ...
'',
heart disease Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina pectoris, angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs inc ...
,
epilepsy Epilepsy is a group of non-communicable neurological disorder A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system In Biology, biology, the nervous system is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates i ...

epilepsy
,
syphilis Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the older term venereal disease, are infection An infection is the invasion of an orga ...
, meningeal inflammation,
cholera Cholera is an infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body by , their multiplication, and the reaction of tissues to the infectious agents and the s they produce. An infectious disease, also known as a transmissible disea ...

cholera
,
carbon monoxide poisoning Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing Breathing (or ventilation) is the process of moving air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie repr ...
, and
rabies Rabies is a viral disease A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infection, infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells. Structural characteri ...
. One theory dating from 1872 suggests that cooping was the cause of Poe's death, a form of
electoral fraud Forms of electoral fraud, sometimes referred to as election manipulation, voter fraud or vote rigging, involves illegal interference with the process of an election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population ...
in which citizens were forced to vote for a particular candidate, sometimes leading to violence and even murder.


Griswold's "Memoir"

Immediately after Poe's death, his literary rival
Rufus Wilmot Griswold Rufus Wilmot Griswold (February 13, 1815 – August 27, 1857) was an American anthology, anthologist, editor, poet, and critic. Born in Vermont, Griswold left home when he was 15 years old. He worked as a journalist, editor, and critic in Philadelp ...
wrote a slanted high-profile obituary under a pseudonym, filled with falsehoods that cast him as a lunatic and a madman, and which described him as a person who "walked the streets, in madness or melancholy, with lips moving in indistinct curses, or with eyes upturned in passionate prayers, (never for himself, for he felt, or professed to feel, that he was already damned)". The long obituary appeared in the ''
New York Tribune The ''New-York Tribune'' was an American newspaper founded in 1841 by editor Horace Greeley Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American newspaper editor and publisher who was the founder and newspaper editor, ...
'' signed "Ludwig" on the day that Poe was buried. It was soon further published throughout the country. The piece began, "Edgar Allan Poe is dead. He died in Baltimore the day before yesterday. This announcement will startle many, but few will be grieved by it." "Ludwig" was soon identified as Griswold, an editor, critic, and anthologist who had borne a grudge against Poe since 1842. Griswold somehow became Poe's
literary executor The literary estate of a deceased author consists mainly of the copyright and other intellectual property rights of published works, including film rights, film, translation rights, original manuscripts of published work, unpublished or partially c ...
and attempted to destroy his enemy's reputation after his death. Griswold wrote a biographical article of Poe called "Memoir of the Author", which he included in an 1850 volume of the collected works. There he depicted Poe as a depraved, drunken, drug-addled madman and included Poe's letters as evidence. Many of his claims were either lies or distortions; for example, it is seriously disputed that Poe was a drug addict. Griswold's book was denounced by those who knew Poe well, including John Neal, who published an article defending Poe and attacking Griswold as a "
Rhadamanthus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A beli ...
, who is not to be bilked of his fee, a thimble-full of newspaper notoriety". Griswold's book nevertheless became a popularly accepted biographical source. This was in part because it was the only full biography available and was widely reprinted, and in part because readers thrilled at the thought of reading works by an "evil" man. Letters that Griswold presented as proof were later revealed as
forgeries Forgery is a white-collar crime The term "white-collar crime" refers to financially motivated, nonviolent or non directly violent crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. Th ...
.


Literary style and themes


Genres

Poe's best known fiction works are
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes **Gothic language, an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths **Crimean Gothic, the Gothic language spoken by ...
, adhering to the genre's conventions to appeal to the public taste. His most recurring themes deal with questions of death, including its physical signs, the effects of
decomposition Decomposition is the process by which dead organic substance , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds co ...
, concerns of
premature burial Premature burial, also known as live burial, burial alive, or vivisepulture, means to be buried while still alive. Animals or humans may be buried alive accidentally on the mistaken assumption that they are dead, or intentionally as a form of tort ...
, the reanimation of the dead, and mourning. Many of his works are generally considered part of the dark romanticism genre, a literary reaction to
transcendentalism Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as t ...
which Poe strongly disliked. He referred to followers of the transcendental movement as "Frog-Pondians", after the pond on
Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is sometimes erroneously referred to as the Boston Commons. Dating from 1634, it is the oldest Urban park, city park in the United States. The ...

Boston Common
, and ridiculed their writings as "metaphor—run mad," lapsing into "obscurity for obscurity's sake" or "mysticism for mysticism's sake". Poe once wrote in a letter to
Thomas Holley Chivers Thomas Holley Chivers (October 18, 1809 – December 18, 1858) was an American doctor-turned-poet from the state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. He is best known for his friendship with Edgar Allan Poe and his controversial defense of the poet af ...
that he did not dislike transcendentalists, "only the pretenders and
sophists A sophist ( el, σοφιστής, ''sophistes'') was a teacher in ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th ...
among them". Beyond horror, Poe also wrote
satire Satire is a of the , , and s, usually in the form of and less frequently , in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, often with the intent of shaming or exposing the perceived flaws of individuals, corpora ...
s, humor tales, and hoaxes. For comic effect, he used irony and ludicrous extravagance, often in an attempt to liberate the reader from cultural conformity. " Metzengerstein" is the first story that Poe is known to have published and his first foray into horror, but it was originally intended as a
burlesque A burlesque is a literary, dramatic or musical work intended to cause laughter by caricaturing the manner or spirit of serious works, or by ludicrous treatment of their subjects. William Shakespeare, Shakespeare's Pyramus and Thisbe scene in ''Mi ...
satirizing the popular genre. Poe also reinvented
science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, Parall ...

science fiction
, responding in his writing to emerging technologies such as hot air balloons in "
The Balloon-Hoax "The Balloon-Hoax" is the title used in collections and anthology, anthologies of a newspaper article written by Edgar Allan Poe, first published in 1844 in ''The Sun'' newspaper in New York. Originally presented as a true story, it detailed Euro ...
". Poe wrote much of his work using themes aimed specifically at mass-market tastes. To that end, his fiction often included elements of popular
pseudoscience Pseudoscience consists of statements, belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology include ...
s, such as
phrenology Phrenology () is a pseudoscience which involves the measurement of bumps on the skull to predict mental traits.Wihe, J. V. (2002). "Science and Pseudoscience: A Primer in Critical Thinking." In ''Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience'', pp. 195-203. Cal ...

phrenology
and
physiognomy Physiognomy (from the Greek φύσις '' physis'' meaning "nature" and '' gnomon'' meaning "judge" or "interpreter") is the practice of assessing a person's character or personality from their outer appearance—especially the face. The term ...

physiognomy
.


Literary theory

Poe's writing reflects his literary theories, which he presented in his criticism and also in essays such as "
The Poetic Principle"The Poetic Principle" is an essay An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a letter, a paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mech ...
". He disliked
didacticism Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature, art, and design. In art, design, architecture, and landscape, didacticism is an emerging conceptual approach that is driven by the urgent need to ...
and
allegory As a literary device A narrative technique (known for literary fiction Literary fiction is a term used in the book-trade to distinguish novels that are regarded as having literary merit, from most commercial or "genre" fiction. However, the b ...

allegory
, though he believed that meaning in literature should be an undercurrent just beneath the surface. Works with obvious meanings, he wrote, cease to be art. He believed that work of quality should be brief and focus on a specific single effect. To that end, he believed that the writer should carefully calculate every sentiment and idea. Poe describes his method in writing "The Raven" in the essay "
The Philosophy of Composition"The Philosophy of Composition" is an 1846 essay An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a letter, a paper Paper is a thin sheet material pr ...

The Philosophy of Composition
", and he claims to have strictly followed this method. It has been questioned whether he really followed this system, however. T. S. Eliot said: "It is difficult for us to read that essay without reflecting that if Poe plotted out his poem with such calculation, he might have taken a little more pains over it: the result hardly does credit to the method." Biographer Joseph Wood Krutch described the essay as "a rather highly ingenious exercise in the art of rationalization".


Legacy


Influence

During his lifetime, Poe was mostly recognized as a literary critic. Fellow critic
James Russell Lowell James Russell Lowell (; February 22, 1819 – August 12, 1891) was an American Romantic poet Romantic poetry is the poetry of the Romanticism, Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe tow ...
called him "the most discriminating, philosophical, and fearless critic upon imaginative works who has written in America", suggesting—rhetorically—that he occasionally used prussic acid instead of ink. Poe's caustic reviews earned him the reputation of being a "tomahawk man". A favorite target of Poe's criticism was Boston's acclaimed poet
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "", ', and '. He was the first American to translate 's ' and was one of the from New England. Longfellow was born in , w ...

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
, who was often defended by his literary friends in what was later called "The Longfellow War". Poe accused Longfellow of "the heresy of the didactic", writing poetry that was preachy, derivative, and thematically plagiarized. Poe correctly predicted that Longfellow's reputation and style of poetry would decline, concluding, "We grant him high qualities, but deny him the Future". Poe was also known as a writer of fiction and became one of the first American authors of the 19th century to become more popular in Europe than in the United States. Poe is particularly respected in France, in part due to early translations by
Charles Baudelaire Charles Pierre Baudelaire (, ; ; 9 April 1821 – 31 August 1867) was a French poet List of poets French poetry, who have written in the French language: A * Louise-Victorine Ackermann (1813–1890) * Adam de la Halle (v.1250 – v.1285) * ...

Charles Baudelaire
. Baudelaire's translations became definitive renditions of Poe's work in Continental Europe. Poe's early detective fiction tales featuring C. Auguste Dupin laid the groundwork for future detectives in literature. Sir
Arthur Conan Doyle Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer and physician. He created the character Sherlock Holmes in 1887 for ''A Study in Scarlet'', the first of four novels and fifty-six short stories about Hol ...
said, "Each
f Poe's detective stories F, or f, is the sixth letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as repre ...
is a root from which a whole literature has developed.... Where was the detective story until Poe breathed the breath of life into it?" The
Mystery Writers of America Mystery Writers of America (MWA) is an organization of mystery and crime writers, based in New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population o ...
have named their awards for excellence in the genre the " Edgars". Poe's work also influenced science fiction, notably
Jules Verne Jules Gabriel Verne (;''Longman Pronunciation Dictionary John Christopher Wells (born 11 March 1939) is a British Phonetics, phonetician and Esperantist. Wells is a professor emeritus at University College London, where until his retirement ...

Jules Verne
, who wrote a sequel to Poe's novel ''The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket'' called '' An Antarctic Mystery'', also known as ''The Sphinx of the Ice Fields''. Science fiction author H. G. Wells noted, "''Pym'' tells what a very intelligent mind could imagine about the south polar region a century ago". In 2013, ''The Guardian'' cited ''Pym'' as one of the greatest novels ever written in the English language, and noted its influence on later authors such as Doyle, Henry James, B. Traven, and David Morrell. Horror author and historian H. P. Lovecraft was heavily influenced by Poe's horror tales, dedicating an entire section of his long essay, "Supernatural Horror in Literature", to his influence on the genre. In his letters, Lovecraft stated, "When I write stories, Edgar Allan Poe is my model." Alfred Hitchcock once said, "It's because I liked Edgar Allan Poe's stories so much that I began to make suspense films". Like many famous artists, Poe's works have spawned imitators. One trend among imitators of Poe has been claims by clairvoyants or psychics to be "channeling" poems from Poe's spirit. One of the most notable of these was Lizzie Doten, who published ''Poems from the Inner Life'' in 1863, in which she claimed to have "received" new compositions by Poe's spirit. The compositions were re-workings of famous Poe poems such as "The Bells (poem), The Bells", but which reflected a new, positive outlook. Even so, Poe has also received criticism. This is partly because of the negative perception of his personal character and its influence upon his reputation. William Butler Yeats was occasionally critical of Poe and once called him "vulgar". Transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson reacted to "The Raven" by saying, "I see nothing in it", and derisively referred to Poe as "the jingle man". Aldous Huxley wrote that Poe's writing "falls into vulgarity" by being "too poetical"—the equivalent of wearing a diamond ring on every finger. It is believed that only twelve copies have survived of Poe's first book ''Tamerlane and Other Poems''. In December 2009, one copy sold at Christie's, Christie's auctioneers in New York City for $662,500, a record price paid for a work of American literature.


Physics and cosmology

''Eureka: A Prose Poem'', an essay written in 1848, included a cosmological theory that presaged the Big Bang theory by 80 years, as well as the first plausible solution to Olbers' paradox. Poe eschewed the scientific method in ''Eureka'' and instead wrote from pure intuition (knowledge), intuition. For this reason, he considered it a work of art, not science, but insisted that it was still true and considered it to be his career masterpiece. Even so, ''Eureka'' is full of scientific errors. In particular, Poe's suggestions ignored Newton's laws of motion, Newtonian principles regarding the density and rotation of planets.


Cryptography

Poe had a keen interest in
cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logia ''-logy'' is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in (''- ...

cryptography
. He had placed a notice of his abilities in the Philadelphia paper ''Alexander's Weekly (Express) Messenger'', inviting submissions of ciphers which he proceeded to solve. In July 1841, Poe had published an essay called "A Few Words on Secret Writing" in ''Graham's Magazine''. Capitalizing on public interest in the topic, he wrote "The Gold-Bug" incorporating ciphers as an essential part of the story. Poe's success with cryptography relied not so much on his deep knowledge of that field (his method was limited to the simple Substitution cipher, substitution cryptogram) as on his knowledge of the magazine and newspaper culture. His keen analytical abilities, which were so evident in his detective stories, allowed him to see that the general public was largely ignorant of the methods by which a simple substitution cryptogram can be solved, and he used this to his advantage. The sensation that Poe created with his cryptography stunts played a major role in popularizing cryptograms in newspapers and magazines. Two ciphers he published in 1841 under the name "W. B. Tyler" were not solved until 1992 and 2000 respectively. One was a quote from Joseph Addison's play ''Cato''; the other is probably based on a poem by Hester Thrale. Poe had an influence on cryptography beyond increasing public interest during his lifetime. William Friedman, America's foremost cryptologist, was heavily influenced by Poe. Friedman's initial interest in cryptography came from reading "The Gold-Bug" as a child, an interest that he later put to use in deciphering Japan's Purple (cipher machine), PURPLE code during World War II.


In popular culture


As a character

The historical Edgar Allan Poe has appeared as a fictionalized character, often representing the "mad genius" or "tormented artist" and exploiting his personal struggles. Many such depictions also blend in with characters from his stories, suggesting that Poe and his characters share identities. Often, fictional depictions of Poe use his mystery-solving skills in such novels as ''The Poe Shadow'' by Matthew Pearl.


Preserved homes, landmarks, and museums

No childhood home of Poe is still standing, including the Allan family's Moldavia estate. The oldest standing home in Richmond, the Old Stone House, is in use as the Edgar Allan Poe Museum (Richmond), Edgar Allan Poe Museum, though Poe never lived there. The collection includes many items that Poe used during his time with the Allan family, and also features several rare first printings of Poe works. 13 West Range is the dorm room that Poe is believed to have used while studying at the University of Virginia in 1826; it is preserved and available for visits. Its upkeep is now overseen by a group of students and staff known as the Raven Society. The earliest surviving home in which Poe lived is in Baltimore, preserved as the Edgar Allan Poe House and Museum. Poe is believed to have lived in the home at the age of 23 when he first lived with Maria Clemm and Virginia (as well as his grandmother and possibly his brother William Henry Leonard Poe). It is open to the public and is also the home of the Edgar Allan Poe Society. Of the several homes that Poe, his wife Virginia, and his mother-in-law Maria rented in Philadelphia, only the last house has survived. The Spring Garden home, where the author lived in 1843–1844, is today preserved by the National Park Service as the Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site. Poe's final home is preserved as the Edgar Allan Poe Cottage in the Bronx. In Boston, a commemorative plaque on Boylston Street is several blocks away from the actual location of Poe's birth. The house which was his birthplace at 62 Carver Street no longer exists; also, the street has since been renamed "Charles Street South". A "square" at the intersection of Broadway, Fayette, and Carver Streets had once been named in his honor, but it disappeared when the streets were rearranged. In 2009, the intersection of Charles and Boylston Streets (two blocks north of his birthplace) was designated "Edgar Allan Poe Square". In March 2014, fundraising was completed for construction of a permanent memorial sculpture, known as ''Poe Returning to Boston'', at this location. The winning design by Stefanie Rocknak depicts a life-sized Poe striding against the wind, accompanied by a flying raven; his suitcase lid has fallen open, leaving a "paper trail" of literary works embedded in the sidewalk behind him. The public unveiling on October 5, 2014, was attended by former U.S. United States Poet Laureate, poet laureate Robert Pinsky. Other Poe landmarks include a building on the Upper West Side where Poe temporarily lived when he first moved to New York. A plaque suggests that Poe wrote "The Raven" here. On Sullivan's Island in Charleston, South Carolina, the setting of Poe's tale "The Gold-Bug" and where Poe served in the Army in 1827 at Fort Moultrie, there is a restaurant called Poe's Tavern. In Fell's Point, Baltimore, a bar still stands where legend says that Poe was last seen drinking before his death. Now known as "The Horse You Came in On", local lore insists that a ghost whom they call "Edgar" haunts the rooms above.


Photographs

Early daguerreotypes of Poe continue to arouse great interest among literary historians. Notable among them are: * "Ultima Thule" ("far discovery") to honor the new photographic technique; taken in November 1848 in Providence, Rhode Island, probably by Edwin H. Manchester * "Annie", given to Poe's friend Annie L. Richmond; probably taken in June 1849 in Lowell, Massachusetts, photographer unknown


Poe Toaster

Between 1949 and 2009, a bottle of cognac and three roses were left at Poe's original grave marker every January 19 by an unknown visitor affectionately referred to as the "Poe Toaster". Sam Porpora was a historian at the Westminster Church in Baltimore where Poe is buried, and he claimed on August 15, 2007, that he had started the tradition in 1949. Porpora said that the tradition began in order to raise money and enhance the profile of the church. His story has not been confirmed, and some details which he gave to the press are factually inaccurate. The Poe Toaster's last appearance was on January 19, 2009, the day of Poe's bicentennial.


List of selected works

Short stories * "The Black Cat (short story), The Black Cat" * "The Cask of Amontillado" * "A Descent into the Maelström" * "The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar" * "The Fall of the House of Usher" * "The Gold-Bug" * "Hop-Frog" * "The Imp of the Perverse (short story), The Imp of the Perverse" * "Ligeia" * "The Masque of the Red Death" * "Morella (short story), Morella" * "The Murders in the Rue Morgue" * "Never Bet the Devil Your Head" * "The Oval Portrait" * "The Pit and the Pendulum" * "The Premature Burial" * "The Purloined Letter" * "The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether" * "The Tell-Tale Heart" * "Loss of Breath" Poetry * "Al Aaraaf" * "Annabel Lee" * "The Bells (poem), The Bells" * " The City in the Sea" * "The Conqueror Worm" * "A Dream Within a Dream" * "Eldorado (poem), Eldorado" * "Eulalie" * "The Haunted Palace (poem), The Haunted Palace" * "
To Helen "To Helen" is the first of two poems Poetry (derived from the Greek '' poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifical ...
" * "Lenore (poem), Lenore" * "Tamerlane (poem), Tamerlane" * "
The Raven "The Raven" is a narrative poem by American writer Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe (; born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, poet, editor, and literary criticism, literary critic. Poe is best know ...

The Raven
" * "Ulalume" Other works * '' Politian'' (1835) – Poe's only play * ''
The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket ''The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket'' (1838) is the only complete novel written by American writer Edgar Allan Poe. The work relates the tale of the young Arthur Gordon Pym, who stows away aboard a whaling ship called the ''Grampus'' ...
'' (1838) – Poe's only complete novel * ''The Journal of Julius Rodman'' (1840) – Poe's second, unfinished novel * "
The Balloon-Hoax "The Balloon-Hoax" is the title used in collections and anthology, anthologies of a newspaper article written by Edgar Allan Poe, first published in 1844 in ''The Sun'' newspaper in New York. Originally presented as a true story, it detailed Euro ...
" (1844) – A journalistic hoax printed as a true story * "
The Philosophy of Composition"The Philosophy of Composition" is an 1846 essay An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a letter, a paper Paper is a thin sheet material pr ...

The Philosophy of Composition
" (1846) – Essay * ''Eureka: A Prose Poem'' (1848) – Essay * "
The Poetic Principle"The Poetic Principle" is an essay An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a letter, a paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mech ...
" (1848) – Essay * "The Light-House" (1849) – Poe's last, incomplete work


See also

* Edgar Allan Poe and music * Edgar Allan Poe in television and film * Edgar Allan Poe in popular culture * List of coupled cousins * USS E.A. Poe (IX-103), USS ''E.A. Poe'' (IX-103)


References


Citations


Sources

* * * Based on * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * . Harrowitz discusses Poe's "tales of ratiocination" in the light of Charles Sanders Peirce's logic of making good guesses or abductive reasoning. * * * * * * * * * * (1992 reprint: ) * * * * * * * * * * * * * (Originally published in 1941 by New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.) * * * * * * * * * * * * (1968 edition printed by Rutgers University Press) * * *


Further reading

* * * * * * * Marilynne Robinson, Robinson, Marilynne, "On Edgar Allan Poe", ''The New York Review of Books'', vol. LXII, no. 2 (February 5, 2015), pp. 4, 6. *


External links

* * * * *
Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site

Edgar Allan Poe Society in Baltimore

Poe Museum in Richmond, Virginia

Edgar Allan Poe's Personal Correspondence
Shapell Manuscript Foundation
Edgar Allan Poe's Collection
at the Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas at Austin
'Funeral' honours Edgar Allan Poe
BBC News (with video) 2009-10-11
Selected Stories
from American Studies at the University of Virginia * *
Finding aid to Edgar Allan Poe papers at Columbia University. Rare Book & Manuscript Library.
{{DEFAULTSORT:Poe, Edgar Allan Edgar Allan Poe, 1809 births 1849 deaths 19th-century American novelists 19th-century American poets 19th-century American short story writers American detective fiction writers American mystery writers American horror writers American science fiction writers American male novelists American male short story writers American male poets Romantic poets Novelists from Maryland Novelists from Massachusetts Novelists from New York (state) Novelists from Pennsylvania Novelists from Virginia Writers of American Southern literature Writers of Gothic fiction Writers from Baltimore Writers from Boston Writers from Philadelphia Writers from Richmond, Virginia Recreational cryptographers United States Army soldiers United States Military Academy alumni University of Virginia alumni American people of English descent American people of Irish descent People from the Bronx Hall of Fame for Great Americans inductees Burials at Westminster Hall and Burying Ground Weird fiction writers 19th-century pseudonymous writers Poe family (United States)