Name and characteristics
DefinitionThe Eastern Orthodox Church is defined as the Eastern Christians which recognize the , and usually are in with the , the , the , and the . The Eastern Orthodox churches "are defined positively by their adherence to the definitions of the seven cumenicalcouncils, by the strong sense of not being a or a but simply continuing the , and, despite their varied origins, by adherence to the ." Those churches are negatively defined by their rejection of papal immediate and universal supremacy. The seven ecumenical councils recognized by the Eastern Orthodox churches are: , Constantinople I, , , Constantinople II, Constantinople III, and Nicaea II. Those churches consider the "shar the ecumenical authority of Constantinople III. "By an agreement that appears to be in place in the Orthodox world, possibly the council held in 879 to vindicate the Patriarch Photius will at some future date be recognized as the eight cumenicalcouncil" by the Eastern Orthodox Church. The exists both outside and inside Eastern Orthodoxy. Within Eastern Orthodoxy, it is practised by a of the Antiochian Orthodox church.
NameIn keeping with the church's teaching on universality and with the Nicene Creed, Eastern Orthodox authorities such as Saint have insisted that the full name of the church has always included the term " ", as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church". The official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the "Orthodox Catholic Church". It is the name by which the church refers to itself and which issued in its liturgical or texts. Eastern Orthodox theologians refer to the church as catholic. This name and longer variants containing "Catholic" are also recognized and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Eastern Orthodox writers. The of Philaret (Drozdov) of Moscow published in the 19th century is titled: ''The Longer Catechism of the Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church'' (). The common name of the church, "Eastern Orthodox Church", is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use. From ancient times through the first millennium, Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the flourished, and Greek, being the language in which the was written, was the primary liturgical language of the church. For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" (in contrast to the "Roman" or "Latin" church, which used a Latin translation of the Bible), even before the Great Schism of 1054. After 1054, "Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople, much as "Catholic" did for communion with the Catholic Church. This identification with Greek, however, became increasingly confusing with time. Missionaries brought Eastern Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. In addition, struggles between Rome and Constantinople to control parts of resulted in the conversion of some churches to the Catholic Church, which then also used "Greek Catholic" to indicate their continued use of the Byzantine rites. Today, many of those same churches remain, while a very large number of Eastern Orthodox are not of Greek national origin, and do not use Greek as the language of worship. "Eastern", then, indicates the geographical element in the church's origin and development, while "Orthodox" indicates the faith, as well as communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. There are additional Christian churches in the east that are in communion with neither the Catholic Church nor the Eastern Orthodox Church, who tend to be distinguished by the category named " ". While the Eastern Orthodox Church continues officially to call itself "Catholic", for reasons of universality, the common title of "Eastern Orthodox Church" avoids casual confusion with the Roman Catholic Church.
OrthodoxyThe first known use of the phrase "the catholic Church" (''he katholike ekklesia'') occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another ( Saint Ignatius of Antioch to the eans). The letter states: "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be, even as where Jesus may be, there is the universal atholikeChurch." Thus, almost from the beginning, Christians referred to the Christian Church as the "one, holy, catholic (from the Greek καθολική, 'according to the whole, universal') and apostolic Church". The Eastern Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same early church. A number of other Christian churches also make a similar claim: the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church of the East, Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodox. In the Eastern Orthodox view, the Assyrians and Orientals left the Orthodox Church in the years following the Third Ecumenical What unites Orthodox Christians is the catholic faith as carried through . That faith is expressed most fundamentally in scripture and worship, and the latter most essentially through baptism and in the Divine Liturgy. The lines of even this test can blur, however, when differences that arise are not due to doctrine, but to recognition of jurisdiction. As the Eastern Orthodox Church has spread into the west and over the world, the church as a whole has yet to sort out all the inter-jurisdictional issues that have arisen in the expansion, leaving some areas of doubt about what is proper church governance. Moreover, as in the ancient church persecutions, the aftermath of Persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union, persecutions of Christians in communist nations has left behind some issues of governance and lapse piety that have yet to be completely resolved. All members of the Eastern Orthodox Church profess the same faith, regardless of race or nationality, jurisdiction or local custom, or century of birth. Holy tradition encompasses the understandings and means by which that unity of faith is transmitted across boundaries of time, geography, and culture. It is a continuity that exists only inasmuch as it lives within Christians themselves. It is not static, nor an observation of rules, but rather a sharing of observations that spring both from within and also in keeping with others, even others who lived lives long past. The church proclaims the Holy Spirit maintains the unity and consistency of holy tradition to preserve the integrity of the faith within the church, as given in the scriptural promises. The shared beliefs of Orthodoxy, and its theology, exist within holy tradition and cannot be separated from it, for their meaning is not expressed in mere words alone. Doctrine cannot be understood unless it is prayed. Doctrine must also be lived in order to be prayed, for without action, the prayer is idle and empty, a mere vanity, and therefore the theology of demons.
CatholicityThe Eastern Orthodox Church considers itself to be both orthodox and catholic. The doctrine of the Catholicity, Catholicity of the Church, as derived from the Nicene Creed, is essential to Eastern Orthodox ecclesiology. The term ''Catholicity of the Church'' (Greek language, Greek ) is used in its original sense, as a designation for the universality of the Christian Church, centered around Christ. Therefore, the Eastern Orthodox notion of catholicity is not centered around any singular see, unlike the Catholic Church which has one earthly center. Due to the influence of the Catholic Church in the west, where the English language itself developed, the words "catholic" and "catholicity" are sometimes used to refer to that church specifically. However, the more prominent dictionary sense given for general use is still the one shared by other languages, implying breadth and universality, reflecting comprehensive scope. In a Christian context, the Christian Church, as identified with the original church founded by Christ and his apostles, is said to be catholic (or universal) in regard to its union with Christ in faith. Just as Christ is indivisible, so are union with him and faith in him, whereby the Christian Church is "universal", unseparated, and comprehensive, including all who share that faith. Orthodox bishop Kallistos Ware has called that "simple Christianity". That is the sense of early and patristic usage wherein the church usually refers to itself as the "Catholic Church", whose faith is the "Orthodox faith". It is also the sense within the phrase "one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church", found in the Nicene Creed, and referred to in Orthodox worship, e.g. in the litany of the catechumens in the Divine Liturgy. With the mutual excommunications of the East–West Schism in 1054, the churches in Rome and Constantinople each viewed the other as having departed from the One true church, true church, leaving a smaller but still-catholic church in place. Each retained the "Catholic" part of its title, the "''Roman'' Catholic Church" (or Catholic Church) on the one hand, and the "''Orthodox'' Catholic Church" on the other, each of which was defined in terms of inter-communion with either Rome or Constantinople. While the Eastern Orthodox Church recognises what it shares in common with other churches, including the Catholic Church, it sees catholicity in terms of complete union in communion and faith, with the Church throughout all time, and the sharing remains incomplete when not shared fully.
Early ChurchPaul of Tarsus, Paul and the Twelve Apostles, Apostles traveled extensively throughout the Roman Empire, including Asia Minor, Early centers of Christianity, establishing Churches in major communities, with the first churches appearing in Jerusalem in Christianity, Jerusalem and the Holy Land, then in Antioch, Ethiopia, Egypt, Rome, Alexandria, Athens, Thessalonica, Illyricum (Roman province), Illyricum, and Constantinople, Byzantium, which centuries later would become prominent as the New Rome. Christianity Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, encountered considerable resistance in the Roman Empire, mostly because its adherents refused to comply with the demands of the Roman state—often even when their lives were threatened—by offering sacrifices to the pagan gods. Despite persecution, skepticism, and initial social stigma, the Christian Church spread, particularly following the Constantine I and Christianity, conversion of Emperor Constantine I in 312 AD. By the Christianity in the 4th century, fourth century, Christianity was present in numerous regions well beyond the Levant. A number of influential schools of thought had arisen, particularly the Catechetical School of Alexandria, Alexandrian and School of Antioch, Antiochian philosophical approaches. Other groups, such as the Arians, had also managed to gain influence. However, their positions caused theological conflicts within the Church, thus prompting the Emperor Constantine to call for a great ecumenical synod in order to define the Church's position against the growing, often widely diverging, philosophical and theological interpretations of Christianity. He made it possible for this council to meet not only by providing a location, but by offering to pay for the transportation of all the existing bishops of the church. Most modern Christian churches regard this synod, commonly called the First Council of Nicaea or more generally the First Ecumenical Council, as of major importance.
Ecumenical councilsSeveral doctrinal disputes from the 4th century onwards led to the calling of ecumenical councils. In the Orthodox Church, an ecumenical council is the supreme authority that can be invoked to resolve contested issues of the faith. As such, these councils have been held to resolve the most important theological matters that came to be disputed within the Christian Church. Many lesser disagreements were resolved through local councils in the areas where they arose, before they grew significant enough to require an ecumenical council. There are seven councils authoritatively recognised as ecumenical by the Eastern Orthodox Church: # The First Council of Nicaea, First Ecumenical Council was convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine at Nicaea in 325 and presided over by the Patriarch Pope Alexander I of Alexandria, Alexander of Alexandria, with over 300 bishops condemning the view of Arius that the Son is a created being inferior to the Father. # The First Council of Constantinople, Second Ecumenical Council was held at Constantinople in 381, presided over by the Patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch, with 150 bishops, defining the nature of the Holy Spirit against those asserting His inequality with the other persons of the Trinity. # The First Council of Ephesus, Third Ecumenical Council is that of Ephesus in 431, presided over by the Patriarch of Alexandria, with 250 bishops, which affirmed that Mary is truly "Birthgiver" or "Mother" of God (''Theotokos''), contrary to the teachings of Nestorius. # The Council of Chalcedon, Fourth Ecumenical Council is that of Chalcedon in 451, Patriarch of Constantinople presiding, 500 bishops, affirmed that Jesus is truly God and truly man, without mixture of the two natures, contrary to Monophysite teaching. # The Second Council of Constantinople, Fifth Ecumenical Council is the second of Constantinople in 553, interpreting the decrees of Chalcedon and further explaining the relationship of the two natures of Jesus; it also condemned the alleged teachings of Origen on the pre-existence of the soul, etc. # The Third Council of Constantinople, Sixth Ecumenical Council is the third of Constantinople in 681; it declared that Christ has two wills of his two natures, human and divine, contrary to the teachings of the Monothelites. # The Second Council of Nicaea, Seventh Ecumenical Council was called under the Empress Regent Irene of Athens in 787, known as the second of Nicaea. It supports the veneration of icons while forbidding their worship. It is often referred to as "The Triumph of Orthodoxy". There are also two other councils which are considered ecumenical by some E. Orthodox. All E. Orthodox agree that the decisions of these further councils are valid; the disagreement is only whether they carry sufficient importance to be considered truly ''ecumenical:'' :8. The Fourth Council of Constantinople (Eastern Orthodox), Fourth Council of Constantinople was called in 879. It restored St. Photios I of Constantinople, Photius to his See in Constantinople and condemned any alteration of the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed of 381. :9. The Fifth Council of Constantinople was actually a series of councils held between 1341 and 1351. It affirmed the Hesychasm, hesychastic theology of St. Gregory Palamas and condemned the philosopher Barlaam of Calabria. In addition to these councils, there have been a number of other significant councils meant to further define the Orthodox position. They are the Synods of Constantinople, in Synod of Constantinople (1484), 1484, 1583, Oros of the Holy Great Church of Christ, 1755, 1819, and 1872, the Synod of Iași in 1642, and the Pan-Orthodox Synod of Jerusalem (1672), Synod of Jerusalem in 1672. Another council convened in Pan-Orthodox Council, June 2016 to discuss many modern phenomena including Modernism, other Christian confessions, Orthodoxy's relation with other religions and fasting disciplines.
Roman/Byzantine EmpireEastern Christian culture reached its golden age during the high point of the and continued to flourish in Ukraine and , after the fall of Constantinople. Numerous churches were established in Europe: Greece, Georgia, Ukraine, as well as in Russia and Asia. In the 530s the Hagia Sophia, Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) was built in Constantinople under Emperor Justinian I. Beginning with subsequent Byzantine architecture, Hagia Sophia became the paradigmatic Eastern Orthodox church architecture, Orthodox church form and its architectural style was emulated by Ottoman architecture#Classical period (1437–1703), Ottoman mosques a thousand years later. Being the episcopal see of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople, it remained the world's largest cathedral for nearly a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520. Hagia Sophia has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world", and architectural and cultural icon of Byzantine culture, Byzantine and Eastern Orthodox Culture, Eastern Orthodox civilization,. and it is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is said to have "changed the history of architecture".
Early schismsThere are the "Nestorianism, Nestorian" churches resulted from the reaction of the (431), which are the earliest surviving Eastern Christian churches that keep the faith of only the first two ecumenical councils, i.e., the First Council of Nicaea (325) and the First Council of Constantinople (381) as legitimate. "Nestorian" is an outsider's term for a tradition that predated the influence of Nestorius, the origin of which might lay in certain sections of the School of Antioch or via Nestorius' teachers Theodore of Mopsuestia or Diodore of Tarsus. The modern incarnation of the "Nestorian Church" is commonly referred to as "the Assyrian Church" or fully as the Assyrian Church of the East. The church in Egypt (Patriarchate of Alexandria) split into two groups following the (451), over a dispute about the relation between the divine and human natures of Jesus. Eventually this led to each group Anathema#Religious usage, anathematizing the other. Those that remained in communion with the other patriarchs (by accepting the Council of Chalcedon) are known today as the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, where the adjective "Greek" refers to their ties to the Greek-speaking culture of the Byzantine Empire. However, those who disagreed with the findings of the Council of Chalcedon were the majority in Egypt, and today they are known as the Coptic Orthodox Church, having maintained a separate patriarchate. The Coptic Orthodox Church is currently the largest Christian church in Egypt and in the whole Middle East. There was also a similar, albeit smaller scale, split in Syria (Patriarchate of Antioch), which resulted in the separation of the Syriac Orthodox Church from the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, Byzantine Patriarchate of Antioch. Those who disagreed with the Council of Chalcedon are sometimes called "Oriental Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodox" to distinguish them from the "Eastern Orthodox", who accepted the Council of Chalcedon. Oriental Orthodox are also sometimes referred to as "non-Chalcedonians", or "anti-Chalcedonians". The Oriental Orthodox Church denies that it is monophysite and prefers the term "miaphysite", to denote the "united" nature of Jesus (two natures united into one) consistent with St. Cyril's theology: "The term union ... signifies the concurrence in one reality of those things which are understood to be united" and "the Word who is ineffably united with it in a manner beyond all description" (St. Cyril of Alexandria, ''On the Unity of Christ''). This is also defined in the Coptic Orthodox Church , Coptic liturgy, where it is mentioned "He made it [his humanity] one with his divinity without mingling, without confusion and without alteration", and "His divinity parted not from his humanity for a single moment nor a twinkling of an eye." They do not accept the teachings of Eutyches, or Eutychianism. Both the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches formally believe themselves to be the continuation of the true church, although over the last several decades there has been considerable reconciliation and the prospect of reunification has been discussed.
Conversion of South and East SlavsIn the 9th and 10th centuries, Christianity made great inroads into pagan Europe, including Bulgarian Empire, Bulgaria (864) and later Kievan Rus' (988). This work was made possible by saints Cyril and Methodius of Thessaloniki, two brothers chosen by Michael III, Byzantine emperor Michael III to fulfill the request of Rastislav of Moravia for teachers who could minister to the Moravians in their own language. Cyril and Methodius began translating the divine liturgy, other liturgical texts, and the Gospels along with some other Bible, scriptural texts into local languages; with time, as these translations were copied by speakers of other dialects, the hybrid literary language Church Slavonic was created. Originally sent to convert the Slavs of Great Moravia, Cyril and Methodius were forced to compete with Frankish mythology, Frankish missionaries from the Roman diocese; their Saint Sava (disciple of Saints Cyril and Methodius), disciples were driven out of Great Moravia in AD 886 and emigrated to Bulgarian Empire, Bulgaria. After the Christianization of Bulgaria, Christianisation of Bulgaria in 864, Saint Angelar, the disciples of saints Cyril and Methodius in Bulgarian Empire, Bulgaria, the most important being Saint Clement of Ohrid and Saint Naum of Preslav, were of great importance to the Orthodox faith in the First Bulgarian Empire. In a short time they managed to prepare and instruct the future First Bulgarian Empire, Bulgarian clergy into the biblical texts and in 870 AD the Fourth Council of Constantinople (Roman Catholic), Fourth Council of Constantinople granted the Bulgarians the oldest organised Orthodox Slavs, Slavic Orthodox Church, which shortly thereafter became Patriarchate. The success of the Christianization of Bulgaria, conversion of the Bulgarians facilitated the conversion of East Slavic peoples, most notably the Rus' people, Rus', predecessors of Belarusians, Russians, and Ukrainians. A major event in this effort was the development of the Cyrillic script in Bulgaria, at the Preslav Literary School in the 9th century; this script, along with the liturgical Old Church Slavonic, also called Old Bulgarian, were declared official in Bulgaria in 893. The work of Cyril and Methodius and their disciples had a major impact on the Serbs as well.''Columbia Encyclopedia'', Sixth Edition. 2001–05, s.v. "Cyril and Methodius, Saints" They accepted Christianity collectively along familial and tribal lines, a gradual process that occurred between the 7th and 9th centuries. In commemoration of their baptisms, each Serbian family or tribe began to celebrate an exclusively Serbian custom called Slava (patron saint) in a special way to honor the Saint on whose day they received the sacrament of Holy Baptism. It is the most solemn day of the year for all Serbs of the Orthodox faith and has played a role of vital importance in the history of the Serbian people. Slava remains a celebration of the conversion of the Serbian people, which the Church blessed and proclaimed a Church institution. The missionaries to the East and South Slavs had great success in part because they used the people's native language rather than Greek language, Greek, the predominant language of the Byzantine Empire, or Latin, as the Roman priests did. Perhaps the greatest legacy of their efforts is the Russian Orthodox Church, which is the largest of the Orthodox Churches.
Great Schism (1054)In the 11th century, what was recognised as the East–West Schism, Great Schism took place between Rome and Constantinople, which led to separation between the Church of the West, the Catholic Church, and the Eastern Byzantine Churches, now the Orthodox. There were doctrinal issues like the filioque clause and the authority of the Roman involved in the split, but these were greatly exacerbated by political factors of both Church and state, and by cultural and linguistic differences between Latins and Greeks. Regarding papal supremacy, the Eastern half grew disillusioned with the Pope's centralisation of power, as well as his blatant attempts of excluding the Eastern half in regard to papal approvals. It used to be that the emperor would at least have say when a new Pope would be elected, but towards the high Middle Ages, the Christians in Rome were slowly consolidating power and removing Byzantine influence. However, even before this exclusionary tendency from the West, well before 1054, the Eastern and Western halves of the Church were in perpetual conflict, particularly during the periods of Eastern iconoclasm and the . The final breach is often considered to have arisen after the capture and sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204; the final break with Rome occurred circa 1450. The sacking of Hagia Sophia, Church of Holy Wisdom and establishment of the Latin Empire as a seeming attempt to supplant the Orthodox in 1204 is viewed with some rancour to the present day. In 2004, Pope John Paul II extended a formal apology for the sacking of Constantinople in 1204, which had also been strongly condemned by the Pope at the time, Pope Innocent III, Innocent III; the apology was formally accepted by Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople. However, many items stolen during this time, such as relic, holy relics and riches, are still held in various European cities, particularly Venice. Reunion was attempted twice, at the 1274 Second Council of Lyon and the 1439 Council of Florence. The Council of Florence briefly reestablished communion between East and West, which lasted until after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. In each case, however, the councils were rejected by the Orthodox people as a whole, and the union of Florence also became very politically difficult after Constantinople came under Ottoman rule. However, in the time since, several local Orthodox Christian churches have renewed union with Rome, known as the Eastern Catholic Churches. Recent decades have seen a renewal of ecumenical spirit and dialogue between the Catholic and Orthodox churches.
Greek Church under Ottoman ruleThe Byzantine Empire never fully recovered from the sack of Constantinople in 1204. Over the next two centuries, it entered a precipitous decline in both territory and influence. In 1453, a much-diminished Byzantine Empire fell to the Ottoman Empire, ending what was once the most powerful state in the Orthodox Christian world, if not in all Christendom. By this time Egypt, another major center of Eastern Christianity, had been under Muslims, Muslim control for some seven centuries; most Eastern Orthodox communities Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, across southeastern Europe gradually came under Ottoman rule by the 16th century. Under the Ottomans, the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, Greek Orthodox Church acquired substantial power as an autonomous ''Millet (Ottoman Empire), millet''. The ecumenical patriarch was the religious and administrative ruler of the ''Rûm'', an Ottoman administrative unit meaning "Roman", which encompassed all Rum Millet, Orthodox subjects of the Empire regardless of ethnicity. While legally subordinate to Muslims and Dhimmi, subject to various restrictions, the Orthodox community was generally tolerated and left to govern its own internal affairs, both religiously and legally. Until the empire's dissolution in the early 20th century, Orthodox Christians would remain the largest non-Muslim minority, and at times among the wealthiest and most politically influential.
Russian Orthodox Church in the Russian EmpireBy the time most Orthodox communities came under Muslim rule in the mid 15th century, Orthodoxy was very strong in Russia, which had maintained close cultural and political ties with the Byzantine Empire; roughly two decades after the fall of Constantinople, Ivan III of Russia married Sophia Palaiologina, a niece of the last Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos, Constantine XI, and styled himself Tsar ("Caesar") or ''imperator''. In 1547, his grandson Ivan the Terrible, Ivan IV, a devout Orthodox Christian, cemented the title as "Tsar of All Rus", establishing Russia's first centralised state with divinely appointed rulers. In 1589, the Patriarchate of Constantinople granted autocephalous status to Moscow, the capital of what was now the largest Orthodox Christian polity; the city thereafter referred to itself as the Third RomeThird Rome#Russian claims, —
Eastern Orthodox churches under Communist ruleAfter the October revolution of 1917, part of the clergy of the Russian Orthodox Church fled abroad to escape Bolshevik persecutions, founding an Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, independent church in exile, which reunified with its Russian counterpart in 2007. Some actions against Orthodox priests and believers along with execution included torture, being sent to Gulag, prison camps, sharashka, labour camps or Psikhushka, mental hospitals. In the first five years after the Bolshevik revolution, 28 bishops and 1,200 priests were executed.Ostling, Richard
Post-communism to 21st centurySince the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, collapse of the Soviet Union, and the subsequent fall of communist governments across the Orthodox World, Orthodox world, there has been marked growth in Christian Orthodoxy, particularly in Russia. According to the Pew Research Religion & Public Life Project, between 1991 and 2008, the share of Russian adults identifying as Orthodox Christian rose from 31 percent to 72 percent, based on analysis of three waves of data (1991, 1998 and 2008) from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP), a collaborative effort involving social scientists in about 50 countries. Pew research conducted in 2017 found a doubling in the global Orthodox population since the early 20th century, with the greatest resurgence in Russia. In the former Soviet Union—where the largest Orthodox communities live—self-identified Orthodox Christians generally report low levels of observance and piety: In Russia, only 6% of Orthodox Christian adults reported attending church at least weekly, 15% say religion is "very important" in their lives, and 18% say they pray daily; other former Soviet republics display similarly low levels of religious observance.
1996 and 2018 Moscow–Constantinople schisms
Organisation and leadershipThe Eastern Orthodox Church is a fellowship of (Greek for self-headed) churches, with the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople recognised as having the '' '' status. The patriarch of Constantinople has the honor of primacy, but his title is only first among equals and has no real authority over churches other than the Constantinopolitan and set out prerogatives interpreted by the ecumenical patriarch, though at times the office of the ecumenical patriarch has been accused of Constantinopolitan or Eastern papism. The Eastern Orthodox Church considers Jesus, Jesus Christ to be the head of the church and the church to be his body. It is believed that authority and the Divine grace, grace of God is directly passed down to Orthodox bishops and clergy through the laying on of hands—a practice started by the Apostles in Christianity, apostles, and that this unbroken historical and physical link is an essential element of the true Church (Acts 8:17, 1 Tim 4:14, Heb 6:2). The Eastern Orthodox assert that apostolic succession requires apostolic faith, and bishops without apostolic faith, who are in heresy, forfeit their claim to apostolic succession. The Eastern Orthodox communion is organised into several regional churches, which are either autocephalous ("self-headed") or lower-ranking Autonomy#Religion, autonomous (the Greek term for "self-governing") church bodies unified in theology and worship. These include the fourteen autocephalous churches of Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Constantinople, Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Alexandria, Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, Antioch, Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Georgian Orthodox Church, Georgia, Church of Cyprus, Cyprus, Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Bulgaria, Serbian Orthodox Church, Serbia, Russian Orthodox Church, Russia, Church of Greece, Greece, Polish Orthodox Church, Poland, Romanian Orthodox Church, Romania, Albanian Orthodox Church, Albania, and the Czech and Slovak Orthodox Church, Czech Republic and Slovakia, which were officially invited to the Pan-Orthodox Council of 2016, the Orthodox Church in America formed in 1970, the autocephalous Orthodox Church of Ukraine created in 2019, as well as a number of autonomous churches. Each church has a ruling bishop and a Holy Synod, holy synod to administer its jurisdiction and to lead the Eastern Orthodox Church in the preservation and teaching of the apostolic and wikt:patristic, patristic traditions and church practices. Each bishop has a territory (episcopal see, see) over which he governs. His main duty is to make sure the traditions and practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church are preserved. Bishops are equal in authority and cannot interfere in the jurisdiction of another bishop. Administratively, these bishops and their territories are organised into various autocephaly, autocephalous groups or synods of bishops who gather together at least twice a year to discuss the state of affairs within their respective sees. While bishops and their autocephalous synods have the ability to administer guidance in individual cases, their actions do not usually set precedents that affect the entire Eastern Orthodox Church. Bishops are almost always chosen from the monastic ranks and must remain unmarried.
Church councilsThe ecumenical councils followed a democratic form, with each bishop having one vote. Though present and allowed to speak before the council, members of the Roman Empire, Imperial Roman/Byzantine Empire, Byzantine court, abbots, priests, deacons, monks and laymen were not allowed to vote. The primary goal of these great synods was to verify and confirm the fundamental beliefs of the Great Church, Great Christian Church as truth, and to remove as heresy any false teachings that would threaten the Christian Church. The Pope, pope of Rome at that time held the position of '' '' ("first among equals") and, while he was not present at any of the councils, he continued to hold this title until the of 1054. Other councils have helped to define the Eastern Orthodox position, specifically the , the Synods of Constantinople, Fourth Council of Constantinople (Eastern Orthodox), 879–880, Fifth Council of Constantinople, 1341, 1347, 1351, 1583, 1819, and Phyletism, 1872, the Synod of Iași, 1642, and the Pan-Orthodox Synod of Jerusalem (1672), Synod of Jerusalem, 1672; the Pan-Orthodox Council, held in Greece in 2016, was the only such Eastern Orthodox council in modern times. According to Eastern Orthodox teaching the position of "first among equals" gives no additional power or authority to the bishop that holds it, but rather that this person sits as organisational head of a council of equals (like a president). One of the decisions made by the First Council of Constantinople (the second ecumenical council, meeting in 381) and supported by later such councils was that the Patriarch of Constantinople should be given equal honor to the Pope of Rome since Constantinople was considered to be the "New Rome". According to the third Canon (canon law), canon of the second ecumenical council: "Because [Constantinople] is new Rome, the bishop of Constantinople is to enjoy the privileges of honor after the bishop of Rome." The 28th canon of the fourth ecumenical council clarified this point by stating: "For the Fathers rightly granted privileges to the throne of Old Rome because it was the royal city. And the One Hundred and Fifty most religious Bishops (i.e. the second ecumenical council in 381) actuated by the same consideration, gave equal privileges to the most holy throne of New Rome, justly judging that the city which is honoured with the Sovereignty and the Senate, and enjoys equal privileges with the old imperial Rome, should in ecclesiastical matters also be magnified as she is." Because of the schism, the Eastern Orthodox no longer recognise the primacy of the pope of Rome. The patriarch of Constantinople therefore, like the Pope before him, now enjoys the title of "first among equals".
AdherentsThe most reliable estimates currently available number Eastern Orthodox adherents at around 220 million worldwide, making Eastern Orthodoxy the second largest Christian According to the 2015 Yearbook of International Religious Demography, as of 2010, the Eastern Orthodox population was 4% of the global population, declining from 7.1% in 1910. The study also found a decrease in proportional terms, with Eastern Orthodox Christians making up 12.2% of the world's total Christian population in 2015 compared to 20.4% a century earlier. A 2017 report by the Pew Research Center reached similar figures, noting that Eastern Orthodoxy has seen slower growth and less geographic spread than Catholicism and Protestantism, which were driven by colonialism and activity across the world. Over two-thirds of all Eastern Orthodox members are concentrated in Southern Europe, and Asian Russia, Russia, with significant minorities in Central Asia and the Levant. However, Eastern Orthodoxy has become more globalized over the last century, seeing greater growth in Western Europe, New World, the Americas, and parts of Africa; churches are present in the major cities of most countries. Adherents constitute the largest single religious faith, community in Russia Based on a survey of 56,900 people interviewed in 2012, responding 41% yes to the statement: "I am Orthodox, and belong to the Russian Orthodox Church."—which is home to roughly half the world's Eastern Orthodox Christians—and are the majority in Ukraine, Romania, Belarus, Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Moldova, , North Macedonia, , and Montenegro; communities also dominate the disputed territories of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria. Significant Eastern Orthodox minorities exist in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Latvia, Estonia, Kazakhstan,Table 28, 2013 Census Data – QuickStats About Culture and Identity – Tables
TrinityOrthodox Christians believe in the Trinity, three distinct, divine persons (''hypostasis (philosophy), hypostases''), without overlap or Sabellianism, modality among them, who each have one divine essence (''ousia'', Greek: οὐσία)—uncreated, immaterial, and God and eternity, eternal. These three persons are typically distinguished by their relation to each other. The God the Father, Father is eternal and not begotten and does not proceed from any, the God the Son, Son is eternal and begotten of the Father, and the Holy Spirit (Christianity), Holy Spirit is eternal and proceeds from the Father. Orthodox doctrine regarding the Trinity is summarised in the Nicene Creed#Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed, Nicene Creed. Orthodox Christians believe in a Monotheism, monotheistic God in Christianity, conception of God (God is only one), which is both Transcendence (religion), transcendent (wholly independent of, and removed from, the material universe) and Immanence, immanent (involved in the material universe). In discussing God's relationship to his creation, Orthodox theology Essence–Energies distinction, distinguishes between God's eternal essence, which is totally transcendent, and his ''uncreated energies'', which is how he reaches humanity. The God who is transcendent and the God who touches mankind are one and the same. That is, these energies are not something that proceed from God or that God produces, but rather they are God himself: distinct, yet inseparable from God's inner being. This view is often called Palamism. In understanding the Trinity as "one God in three persons", "three persons" is not to be emphasised more than "one God", and vice versa. While the three persons are distinct, they are united in one divine essence, and their oneness is expressed in community and action so completely that they cannot be considered separately. For example, their salvation of mankind is an activity engaged in common: "Christ became man by the good will of the Father and by the cooperation of the Holy Spirit. Christ sends the Holy Spirit who proceeds from the Father, and the Holy Spirit forms Christ in our hearts, and thus God the Father is glorified." Their "communion of essence" is "indivisible". Trinitarian terminology—essence, hypostasis, etc.—are used "philosophically", "to answer the ideas of the heretics", and "to place the terms where they separate error and truth." The words do what they can do, but the nature of the Trinity in its fullness is believed to remain beyond man's comprehension and expression, a holy mystery that can only be experienced.
Sin, salvation, and the incarnationWhen Eastern Orthodox Christians refer to fallen nature they are not saying that human nature has become evil in itself. Human nature is still formed in the image of God; humans are still God's creation, and God has never created anything evil, but fallen nature remains open to evil intents and actions. It is sometimes said among Orthodox that humans are "inclined to sin"; that is, people find some sinful things attractive. It is the nature of temptation to make sinful things seem the more attractive, and it is the fallen nature of humans that seeks or succumbs to the attraction. Orthodox Christians reject the Augustinianism, Augustinian position that the descendants of Adam and Eve are actually guilty of the original sin of their ancestors. Since the fall of man, then, it has been mankind's dilemma that no human can restore his nature to union with God's grace; it was necessary for God to effect another change in human nature. Orthodox Christians believe that Christ Jesus was both God and Man absolutely and completely, having two natures indivisibly: eternally begotten of the Father in his divinity, he was born in his humanity of a woman, Mary, by her consent, through descent of the Holy Spirit. He lived on earth, in time and history, as a man. As a man he also died, and went to the place of the dead, which is Christian views on Hades, Hades. But being God, neither death nor Hades could contain him, and he rose to life again, in his humanity, by the power of the Holy Spirit, thus destroying the power of Hades and of death itself. Through Christ's destruction of Hades' power to hold humanity hostage, he made the path to salvation effective for all the righteous who had died from the beginning of time—saving many, including Adam and Eve, who are remembered in the Church as saints.
Resurrection of ChristThe Eastern Orthodox Church understands the death and resurrection of Jesus to be real historical events, as described in the gospels of the .
Christian lifeChurch teaching is that Orthodox Christians, through baptism, enter a new life of salvation through repentance whose purpose is to share in the life of God through the work of the Holy Spirit. The Eastern Orthodox Christian life is a spiritual pilgrimage in which each person, through the imitation of Christ and ''hesychasm'', cultivates the practice of unceasing prayer. Each life occurs within the life of the church as a member of the body of Christ. It is then through the fire of God's love in the action of the Holy Spirit that each member becomes more holy, more wholly unified with Christ, starting in this life and continuing in the next. The church teaches that everyone, being born in God's image, is called to Theosis (Eastern Christian theology), theosis, fulfillment of the image in likeness to God. God the creator, having divinity by nature, offers each person participation in divinity by cooperatively accepting His gift of grace. The Eastern Orthodox Church, in understanding itself to be the Body of Christ, and similarly in understanding the Christian life to lead to the unification in Christ of all members of his body, views the church as embracing all Christ's members, those now living on earth, and also all those through the ages who have passed on to the heavenly life. The church includes the Christian saints from all times, and also judges, prophets and righteous Jews of the first covenant, Adam and Eve, even the angels and heavenly hosts. In Orthodox services, the earthly members together with the heavenly members worship God as one community in Christ, in a union that transcends time and space and joins heaven to earth. This unity of the Church is sometimes called the ''communion of the saints''.
Virgin Mary and other saintsThe Eastern Orthodox Church believes death and the separation of body and soul to be unnatural—a result of the Fall of Man. They also hold that the congregation of the church comprises both the living and the dead. All persons currently in heaven are considered to be saints, whether their names are known or not. There are, however, those saints of distinction whom God has revealed as particularly good examples. When a saint is revealed and ultimately recognised by a large portion of the church a service of official recognition (Glorification (theology), glorification) is celebrated. This does not "make" the person a saint; it merely recognises the fact and announces it to the rest of the church. A day is prescribed for the saint's celebration, hymns composed and icons created. Numerous saints are celebrated on each day of the year. They are venerated (shown great respect and love) but not worshipped, for worship is due God alone (this view is also held by the Oriental Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodox and Catholic Churches). In showing the saints this love and requesting their prayers, the Eastern Orthodox manifest their belief that the saints thus assist in the process of salvation for others. Pre-eminent among the saints is the Blessed Virgin Mary, Virgin Mary (commonly referred to as ''Theotokos'' or ''Bogoroditsa'': "Mother of God"). In Eastern Orthodox theology, E. Orthodox theology, the Mother of God is the fulfillment of the Old Testament archetypes revealed in the Ark of the Covenant (because she carried the New Covenant in the person of Christ) and the burning bush that appeared before Moses (symbolizing the Mother of God's carrying of God without being consumed). The Eastern Orthodox believe that Christ, from the moment of his conception, was both fully God and fully human. Mary is thus called the ''Theotokos'' or ''Bogoroditsa'' as an affirmation of the divinity of the one to whom she gave birth. It is also believed that her virginity was not compromised in conceiving God-incarnate, that she was not harmed and that she remained forever a virgin. Scriptural references to "brothers" of Christ are interpreted as kin, given that the word "brother" was used in multiple ways, as was the term "father". Due to her unique place in salvation history, Mary is honoured above all other saints and especially venerated for the great work that God accomplished through her. The Eastern Orthodox Church regards the bodies of all saints as holy, made such by participation in the holy mysteries, especially the communion of Christ's holy body and blood, and by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit within the church. Indeed, that persons and physical things can be made holy is a cornerstone of the doctrine of the Incarnation (Christianity), Incarnation, made manifest also directly by God in Old Testament times through his dwelling in the Ark of the Covenant. Thus, physical items connected with saints are also regarded as holy, through their participation in the earthly works of those saints. According to church teaching and tradition, God himself bears witness to this holiness of saints' relics through the many miracles connected with them that have been reported throughout history since biblical times, often including healing from disease and injury.
EschatologyOrthodox Christians believe that when a person dies the soul is temporarily separated from the body. Though it may linger for a short period on Earth, it is ultimately escorted either to paradise (Abraham's bosom) or the darkness of Christian views on Hades, Hades, following the Particular judgment, Temporary Judgment. Orthodox do not accept the doctrine of Purgatory, which is held by Catholicism. The soul's experience of either of these states is only a "foretaste"—being experienced only by the soul—until the Last Judgment, Final Judgment, when the soul and body will be reunited.Rose, Father Seraphim, ''The Soul After Death'', St. Herman Press, Platina, CA, c. 1980 The Eastern Orthodox believe that the state of the soul in Hades can be affected by the love and prayers of the righteous up until the Last Judgment. For this reason the Church offers a special prayer for the dead on the third day, ninth day, fortieth day, and the one-year anniversary after the death of an Orthodox Christian. There are also several days throughout the year that are set aside for general commemoration of the departed, sometimes including nonbelievers. These days usually fall on a Saturday, since it was on a Saturday that Christ lay in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Tomb. The Eastern Orthodox believe that after the Final Judgment: * All souls will be reunited with their Resurrection of the Dead, resurrected bodies. * All souls will fully experience their spiritual state. * Having been perfected, the saints will forever progress towards a deeper and fuller love of God, which equates with eternal happiness.
BibleThe official Bible of the Eastern Orthodox Church contains the Septuagint text of the Old Testament, with the Book of Daniel given in the translation by Theodotion. The Patriarchal Text is used for the . Orthodox Christians hold that the Bible is a verbal icon of Christ, as proclaimed by the Second Council of Nicaea, 7th ecumenical council. They refer to the Bible as holy scripture, meaning writings containing the foundational truths of the Christian faith as revealed by Christ and the Holy Spirit to its divinely inspired human authors. Holy scripture forms the primary and authoritative written witness of and is essential as the basis for all Orthodox teaching and belief. Once established as holy scripture, there has never been any question that the Eastern Orthodox Church holds the full list of books to be venerable and beneficial for reading and study, even though it informally holds some books in higher esteem than others, the four gospels highest of all. Of the subgroups significant enough to be named, the "Anagignoskomena" (ἀναγιγνωσκόμενα, "things that are read") comprises ten of the Old Testament books rejected in the Protestant canon, but deemed by the Eastern Orthodox worthy to be read in worship services, even though they carry a lesser esteem than the 39 books of the Hebrew Bible, Hebrew canon. The lowest tier contains the remaining books not accepted by either Protestants or Catholics, among them, Psalm 151. Though it is a psalm, and is in the book of psalms, it is not classified as being within the Psalter (the first 150 psalms). In a very strict sense, it is not entirely orthodox to call the holy scripture the "Word of God". That is a title the Eastern Orthodox Church reserves for Christ, as supported in the scriptures themselves, most explicitly in the first chapter of the gospel of John. God's Word is not hollow, like human words. "God said, 'let there be light'; and there was light." The Eastern Orthodox Church does not subscribe to the Protestant doctrine of ''sola scriptura''. The church has defined what Scripture is; it also interprets what its meaning is. Christ promised: "When He, the Spirit of truth, has come, He will guide you into all truth". Scriptures are understood to contain historical fact, poetry, idiom, metaphor, simile, moral fable, parable, prophecy and wisdom literature, and each bears its own consideration in its interpretation. While divinely inspired, the text still consists of words in human languages, arranged in humanly recognisable forms. The Eastern Orthodox Church does not oppose honest critical and historical study of the Bible.
Holy tradition and the patristic consensus"That faith which has been believed everywhere, always, and by all", the faith taught by Jesus to the apostles, given life by the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, and passed down to future generations without additions and without subtractions, is known as . Holy tradition does not change in the Eastern Orthodox Church because it encompasses those things that do not change: the nature of the one God in Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, the history of God's interactions with his peoples, the Law as given to the Israelites, all Christ's teaching as given to the disciples and Jews and recorded in scripture, including the parables, the prophecies, the miracles, and his own example to humanity in his extreme humility. It encompasses also the worship of the church, which grew out of the worship of the synagogue and temple and was extended by Christ at the last supper, and the relationship between God and his people which that worship expresses, which is also evidenced between Christ and his disciples. It includes the authority that Christ bestowed on his disciples when he made them apostles. Holy tradition is firm, even unyielding, but not rigid or legalistic; instead, it lives and breathes within the church. For example, the New Testament was entirely written by the early church (mostly the apostles). The whole Bible was accepted as scripture by means of holy tradition practised within the early church. The writing and acceptance took five centuries, by which time the holy scriptures themselves had become in their entirety a part of holy tradition. But holy tradition did not change, because "that faith which has been believed everywhere, always, and by all" remained consistent, without additions, and without subtractions. The historical development of the Divine Liturgy and other worship services and devotional practices of the church provide a similar example of extension and growth "without change". Besides these, holy tradition includes the doctrinal definitions and statements of faith of the seven ecumenical councils, including the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, and some later local councils, patristic writings, Canon law of the Eastern Orthodox Church, canon law, and icons. Not all portions of holy tradition are held to be equally strong. Some—the holy scriptures foremost, certain aspects of worship, especially in the Divine Liturgy, the doctrines of the ecumenical councils, the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed—possess a verified authority that endures forever, irrevocably. However, with local councils and patristic writings, the church applies a selective judgement. Some councils and writers have occasionally fallen into error, and some contradict each other. In other cases, opinions differ, no consensus is forthcoming, and all are free to choose. With agreement among the Church Fathers, though, the authority of interpretation grows, and full patristic consensus is very strong. With canon law (which tends to be highly rigorous and very strict, especially with clergy) an unalterable validity also does not apply, since canons deal with living on earth, where conditions are always changing and each case is subject to almost infinite variation from the next. By tradition, the Eastern Orthodox Church, when faced with issues that are larger than a single bishop can resolve, holds a local council. The bishops and such others as may attend convene (as St. Paul called the Corinthians to do) to seek the ''mind of the church''. A council's declarations or edicts then reflect its consensus (if one can be found). An ecumencial council is only called for issues of such import or difficulty or pervasiveness that smaller councils are insufficient to address them. Ecumenical councils' declarations and canons carry binding weight by virtue of their representation across the whole church, by which the mind of the church can be readily seen. However, not all issues are so difficult as to require an ecumenical council to resolve. Some doctrines or decisions, not defined in a formal statement or proclaimed officially, nevertheless are held by the church unshakably and unanimously without internal disturbance, and these, also reflecting the mind of the church, are just as firmly irrevocable as a formal declaration of an ecumenical council. Lack of formality does not imply lack of authority within holy tradition.
Territorial expansion and doctrinal integrityAs the church increased in size through the centuries, the logistic dynamics of operating such large entities shifted: patriarchs, metropolitans, archimandrites, abbots and abbesses, all rose up to cover certain points of administration.
Church calendarLesser cycles also run in tandem with the annual ones. A weekly cycle of days prescribes a specific focus for each day in addition to others that may be observed.
Music and chantingThe church has developed eight modes or tones (see Octoechos) within which a chant may be set, depending on the time of year, feast day, or other considerations of the Typikon. There are numerous versions and styles that are traditional and acceptable and these vary a great deal between cultures.
MonasticismThe Eastern Orthodox Church places emphasis and awards a high level of prestige to traditions of monasticism and asceticism with roots in Early Christianity in the and Byzantine Anatolia. The most important centres of Christian Orthodox monasticism are Saint Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) and Mount Athos in Northern Greece.
Icons and symbols
IconsAspects of the iconography borrow from the pre-Christian Roman art, Roman and Hellenistic art. Henry Chadwick (theologian), Henry Chadwick wrote, "In this instinct there was a measure of truth. The representations of Christ as the Almighty Lord on his judgment throne owed something to pictures of Zeus. Portraits of the Mother of God were not wholly independent of a pagan past of venerated mother-goddesses. In the popular mind the saints had come to fill a role that had been played by heroes and deities." Icons can be found adorning the walls of churches and often cover the inside structure completely. Most E. Orthodox homes have an area set aside for family prayer, usually an eastern facing wall, where are hung many icons. Icons have been part of Orthodox Christianity since the beginning of the church.
IconostasisAn ''iconostasis'', also called the ''templon'', is a wall of icons and religious paintings, separating the nave from the sanctuary in a church (building), church. ''Iconostasis'' also refers to a portable icon stand that can be placed anywhere within a church. The modern iconostasis evolved from the Byzantine architecture, Byzantine templon in the 11th century. The evolution of the iconostasis probably owes a great deal to 14th-century Hesychasm, Hesychast mysticism and the wood-carving genius of the Russian Orthodox Church. The first ceiling-high, five-leveled Russian iconostasis was designed by Andrey Rublyov in the cathedral of the Dormition in Vladimir, Russia, Vladimir in 1408.
CrossThe small top crossbar represents the sign that Pontius Pilate nailed above Christ's head. It often is inscribed with an acronym, "INRI", Latin for "INRI, Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" or "INBI", Greek Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος ὁ βασιλεύς τῶν Ἰουδαίων for "INBI, Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews"; however, it is often replaced or amplified by the phrase "The King of Glory" in order to answer Pilate's statement with Christ's affirmation, "My Kingdom is not of this world". Other crosses associated with the Eastern Orthodox Church are the more traditional single-bar crosses, budded designs, the Greek cross, the Latin cross, the Jerusalem cross (cross pattée), Celtic crosses, and others. A common symbolism of the slanted foot stool is The foot-rest points up, toward Heaven, on Christ's right hand-side, and downward, to Hades, on Christ's left. "Between two thieves Thy Cross did prove to be a balance of righteousness: wherefore one of them was dragged down to Hades by the weight of his blasphemy ''[the balance points downward]'', whereas the other was lightened of his transgressions unto the comprehension of theology ''[the balance points upward]''. O Christ God, glory to Thee." Another E. Orthodox cross which is worn in gold is an outer budded cross with an inner Three Bar Cross. The inscription Jesus Christ in Greek: IC (Iesous) on the left side bar and XC (Xhristos) on the right side bar, with a sun on the top of the cross. There is also typically an inscription on the back in Church Slavonic: "спаси и сохрани", "''Spasi i Sokhrani''", "''Save and Protect''". This cross is known as the Saint Olga Cross.
Art and architectureThe Archdiocesan Cathedral of the Holy Trinity on New York City's Upper East Side is the largest Orthodox Christian church in the Western Hemisphere.
Local customsLocality is also expressed in regional terms of churchly jurisdiction, which is often also drawn along national lines. Many Orthodox churches adopt a national title (e.g. Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania, Albanian Orthodox, Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Bulgarian Orthodox, Antiochian Orthodox Church, Antiochian Orthodox, Georgian Orthodox Church, Georgian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox Church, Greek Orthodox, Romanian Orthodox Church, Romanian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox, etc.) and this title can identify which language is used in services, which bishops preside, and which of the typica is followed by specific wikt:congregation, congregations. In the Middle East, Orthodox Christians are usually referred to as ''Rum'' ("Roman") Orthodox, because of their historical connection with the Byzantine Empire, Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
Holy mysteries (sacraments)Those things which in the West are often termed sacraments or sacramentals are known among the Eastern Orthodox as the "sacred mysteries". While the Roman Catholic Church numbers seven sacraments, and many Protestant groups list two (baptism and the Eucharist) or even none, the Eastern Orthodox do not limit the number. However, for the sake of convenience, s will often speak of the seven great mysteries. Among these are Holy Communion (the most direct connection), baptism, Chrismation, Confession (religion), confession, unction, matrimony, and ordination. But the term also properly applies to other sacred actions such as monastic tonsure or the blessing of Holy water in Eastern Christianity, holy water, and involves fasting, almsgiving, or an act as simple as lighting a candle, burning incense, praying or asking God's blessing on food.
BaptismBaptism is the mystery which transforms the old and sinful person into a new and pure one; the old life, the sins, any mistakes made are gone and a clean slate is given. Through baptism a person is united to the Body of Christ by becoming a member of the Eastern Orthodox Church. During the service, Holy water in Eastern Christianity, water is blessed. The catechumen is fully immersed in the water three times in the name of the Trinity. This is considered to be a death of the "old man" by participation in the crucifixion and burial of Christ, and a rebirth into new life in Christ by participation in his resurrection. Properly, the mystery of baptism is administered by bishops and priests; however, Emergency baptism, in emergencies any E. Orthodox Christian can baptise.
ChrismationChrismation (sometimes called confirmation) is the mystery by which a baptised person is granted the gift of the Holy Spirit through anointing with Holy Chrism. It is normally given immediately after baptism as part of the same service, but is also used to receive lapsed members of the E. Orthodox Church. As baptism is a person's participation in the death and resurrection of Christ, so Chrismation is a person's participation in the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. A baptised and chrismated E. Orthodox Christian is a full member of the church and may receive the Eucharist regardless of age. The creation of Chrism may be accomplished by any bishop at any time, but usually is done only once a year, often when a synod of bishops convenes for its annual meeting. Some autocephalous churches get their chrism from others. Anointing with it substitutes for the laying-on of hands described in the
Holy Communion (Eucharist)Eucharist, Communion is given only to baptised and chrismated E. Orthodox Christians who have prepared by fasting, prayer and confession. The priest will administer the gifts with a spoon, called a "cochlear", directly into the recipient's mouth from the chalice. From baptism young infants and children are carried to the chalice to receive holy communion.
MarriageFrom the Orthodox perspective, marriage is one of the holy mysteries or sacraments. As well as in many other Christian traditions, for example in Catholicism, it serves to unite a woman and a man in eternal union and love before God, with the purpose of following Christ and his Gospel and raising up a faithful, holy family through their holy union. The church understands marriage to be the union of one man and one woman, and certain Orthodox leaders have spoken out strongly in opposition to the civil institution of same-sex marriage. Jesus said that "when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven" (Mk 12:25). For the Orthodox Christian this passage should not be understood to imply that Christian marriage will not remain a reality in the Kingdom, but points to the fact that relations will not be "fleshy", but "spiritual". Love between wife and husband, as an icon of relationship between Christ and Church, is eternal. The church does recognise that there are rare occasions when it is better that couples do separate, but there is no official recognition of civil divorces. For the E. Orthodox, to say that marriage is indissoluble means that it should not be broken, the violation of such a union, perceived as holy, being an offense resulting from either adultery or the prolonged absence of one of the partners. Thus, permitting remarriage is an act of compassion of the church towards sinful man.
Holy ordersWidowed priests and deacons may not remarry and it is common for such members of the clergy to retire to a monastery (see clerical celibacy). This is also true of widowed wives of clergy, who do not remarry and become nuns when their children are grown. Only men are allowed to receive holy orders, although deaconesses had both liturgical and pastoral functions within the church. In 2016, the Patriarchate of Alexandria decided to reintroduce the order of deaconess. In February 2017, Patriarch Theodore II of Alexandria, Patriarch Theodoros II consecrated five women to be deacons within the .
Relations with other ChristiansIn 1920, the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, published an encyclical "addressed 'To all the Churches of Christ, wherever they may be', urging closer co-operation among separated Christians, and suggesting a 'League of Churches', parallel to the newly founded League of Nations". "From the beginning of the twentieth century the Ecumenical Patriarchate has shown a special concern for Christian reconciliation. At his accession in 1902, Patriarch Joachim III sent an encyclical letter to all the autocephalous Orthodox Churches, asking in particular for their opinion on relations with other Christian bodies. In January 1920 the Ecumenical Patriarchate followed this up with a bold and prophetic letter addressed 'To all the Churches of Christ, wherever they may be', urging closer co-operation among separated Christians, and suggesting a 'League of Churches', parallel to the newly founded League of Nations. Many of the ideas in this letter anticipate subsequent developments in the WCC. Constantinople, along with several of the other Orthodox Churches, was represented at the Faith and Order Conferences at Lausanne in 1927 and at Edinburgh in 1937. The Ecumenical Patriarchate also participated in the first Assembly of the WCC at Amsterdam in 1948, and has been a consistent supporter of the work of the WCC ever since." This gesture was instrumental in the foundation of the World Council of Churches (WCC); as such, almost all Eastern Orthodox churches are members of the WCC and "Orthodox ecclesiastics and theologians serve on its committees". Kallistos Ware, a British metropolitan bishop of the Orthodox Church, has stated that ecumenism "is important for Orthodoxy: it has helped to force the various Orthodox churches out of their comparative isolation, making them meet one another and enter into a living contact with non-Orthodox Christians." Hilarion Alfeyev, Metropolitan of Volokolamsk and head of external relations for the Moscow Patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church, stated that Orthodox and Evangelicalism, Evangelical Protestant Christians share the same positions on "such issues as pro-life, abortion, the Family values#Conservative definitions, family, and Christian views on marriage, marriage" and desire "vigorous grassroots engagement" between the two Communion (Christian), Christian communions on such issues. In that regard, the differences between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox communions have not been improved in any relevant way. Dogmatic and liturgical polarities have been significant, even and especially in recent times. A pertinent point of contention between the monarchically papal, administratively centralised Catholic Church and the decentralised confederation of Orthodox churches is the theological significance of the Virgin Mary. During his visit to in October 2016, Pope Francis was snubbed by most Orthodox Christians as he led mass before a practically empty Mikheil Meskhi Stadium in Tbilisi. The Oriental Orthodox churches are not in with the Eastern Orthodox Church, despite their similar names. Slow dialogue towards restoring communion between the two churches began in the mid-20th century, and, notably, in the 19th century, when the Greek Patriarch in Egypt had to absent himself from the country for a long period of time; he left his church under the guidance of the Coptic Pope Cyril IV of Alexandria. In 2019, the Primate of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, OCU Metropolitan of Kyiv and all Ukraine, Metropolitan of Kyiv and All Ukraine Epiphanius I of Ukraine, Epiphanius stated that "theoretically" the Orthodox Church of Ukraine and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church could in the future unite into a united church around the Kyiv throne. In 2019, the Primate of the UGCC, Lists of leaders of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, Major Archbishop of Kyiv-Galicia Sviatoslav Shevchuk, Sviatoslav, stated that every effort should be made to restore the original unity of the Kyivan Church in its Orthodox and Catholic branches, saying that the restoration of Eucharistic communion between Catholic Church, Rome and Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Constantinople is not a utopia. Notwithstanding certain overtures by both Catholic and Orthodox leaders, the majority of Orthodox Christians, as well as Catholics, are not in favor of communion between their churches, with only a median of 35 percent and 38 percent, respectively, claiming support.
Relations with IslamDhimma, Christians under Islamic rule were Rum Millet, denied equality of rights and forced to pay the Jizya poll tax. In 2007, Metropolitan Hilarion Alfeyev, Alfeyev expressed the possibility of peaceful coexistence between Islam and Christianity in Russia, as the two religions have never had religious wars in Russia.
PresentThe various and autonomous synods of the E. Orthodox Church are distinct in terms of administration and local culture, but for the most part exist in full communion with one another. In addition, some schismatic churches not in any communion, with all three groups identifying as Eastern Orthodox. Another groups are referred True Orthodoxy or Old Calendarists; they are those who, without authority from their parent churches, have continued to use the old Julian calendar, and split from their parent church. The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR) has Act of Canonical Communion with the Moscow Patriarchate, united in 2007 with the Moscow Patriarchate; these two churches had separated from each other in the 1920s due to the subjection of the latter to the hostile Soviet Union, Soviet regime. Another group called the Old Believers, Raskol, separated in 1666 from the official Russian Orthodox Church as a protest against church rite reforms introduced by Patriarch Nikon of Moscow.
Main communionThe Eastern Orthodox Church is a Full communion, communion of 14 —that is, administratively completely independent—regional churches, plus the Orthodox Church in America and the Orthodox Church of Ukraine. The Orthodox Church in America is recognised as autocephalous only by the Russian, Bulgarian, Georgian, Polish and Czech-Slovak churches. In December 2018, representatives of two unrecognized Ukrainian Orthodox churches, along with two Metropolitan bishop, metropolitans of the recognized, but not autocephalous Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate, Unification council of the Eastern Orthodox churches of Ukraine, proclaimed the formation of the unified Orthodox Church of Ukraine. On 5 January 2019, the Orthodox Church of Ukraine received its ''Tomos (Eastern Orthodox Church), tomos'' of autocephaly (decree which defines the conditions of a church's independence) from the Ecumenical Patriarchate and thus received a place in the Diptych#Ecclesiastical, diptych. Each church has defined geographical boundaries of its jurisdiction and is ruled by its council of bishops or synod presided by a senior bishop–its primate (or first hierarch). The primate may carry the honorary title of patriarch, metropolitan (in the Slavic tradition) or archbishop (in the Greek tradition). Each regional church consists of constituent eparchies (or dioceses) ruled by a bishop. Some churches have given an eparchy or group of eparchies varying degrees of autonomy (self-government). Such autonomous churches maintain varying levels of dependence on their mother church, usually defined in a tomos or other document of autonomy. Below is a list of the 14 autocephalous Orthodox churches forming the main body of Orthodox Christianity, all of which are titled equal to each other, but the Ecumenical Patriarchate is titled the ''first among equals''. Based on the definitions, the list is in the order of precedence and alphabetical order where necessary, with some of their constituent autonomous churches and exarchates listed as well. The liturgical title of the primate is in italics. * Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (''Archbishop of Constantinople-New Rome and First Among Equals Patriarch'') ** Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy (''Orthodox Archbishop of Italy and Malta'') ** Autonomous Finnish Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of Finland (''Archbishop of Helsinki and All Finland'', formerly ''Archbishop of Karelia and All Finland'') ** Self-governing Orthodox Church of Crete (''Archbishop of Crete'') ** Self-governing Monastic Community of Monastic Republic of Mount Athos, Mount Athos ** Self-governing Korean Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of Korea (''Metropolitan of Seoul and All Korea'') ** Eparchy of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada ** Eparchy of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the USA ** Eparchy of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America ** Eparchy of the Exarchate of the Philippines ** Eparchy of the American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese * Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and all Africa, Patriarchate of Alexandria (''the Pope and Patriarch of the Great City of Alexandria, Libya, Pentapolis (North Africa), Pentapolis, Ethiopia, all the land of Egypt, and all '') * (''Patriarch of Antioch and all the East'') ** Self-governing Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America (''Archbishop of New York and Metropolitan of All North America'') ** Self-governing Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand, and All Oceania (''Metropolitan Archbishop of Australia, New Zealand and the Philippines'') * (''Patriarch of the Holy City of Jerusalem and all Holy Land, Syria, Arabia, beyond the Jordan River, Cana of Galilee, and Sacred Zion'') ** Autonomous Church of Sinai, Church of Mount Sinai (''Archbishop of Choreb, Sinai, and Raitha'') * Russian Orthodox Church (''Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia'') ** Autonomous Japanese Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church in Japan (''Archbishop of Tokyo and Metropolitan of All Japan'') ** Exarchate of Belarusian Orthodox Church, Belarus (''Metropolitan of Minsk and Slutsk, Patriarchal Exarch of All Belarus'') ** Self-governing Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (''Metropolitan of Eastern America and New York, First Hierarch of the Russian church abroad'') ** Self-governing Latvian Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of Latvia (''Metropolitan of Riga and all Latvia'') * Serbian Orthodox Church (''Archbishop of Peć, Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovci, and Serbian Patriarch'') ** Autonomous Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric (''Archbishop of Ohrid and Metropolitan of Skopje'') * Bulgarian Orthodox Church (''Metropolitan of Sofia and Patriarch of All Bulgaria'') * Romanian Orthodox Church (''Archbishop of Bucharest, Metropolitan of Muntenia and Dobrudja, Locum Tenens of the Throne of Caesarea of Cappadocia, and Patriarch of Romania'') ** Autonomous Romanian Orthodox Metropolis of the Americas (''Romanian Orthodox Archbishop of the United States of America and Romanian Orthodox Metropolitan of the Americas'') * Georgian Orthodox Church (''Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia, the Archbishop of Mtskheta-Tbilisi and Metropolitan bishop of Abkhazia and Pitsunda'') * Church of Cyprus (''Archbishop of New Justiniana and all Cyprus'') * Church of Greece (''Archbishop of Athens and all Greece'') * Orthodox Church of Albania (''Archbishop of Tirana, Durres and all Albania'') * Polish Orthodox Church (''Metropolitan of Warsaw and all Poland'' or ''Archbishop of Warsaw and Metropolitan of All Poland)'' * Orthodox Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia (''Archbishop of Prague, the Metropolitan of Czech lands and Slovakia or the Archbishop of Presov, the Metropolitan of Czech lands and Slovakia'') Within the main body of Eastern Orthodoxy there are unresolved internal issues as to the autonomous or autocephalous status or legitimacy of the following Orthodox churches, particularly between those stemming from the Russian Orthodox or Constantinopolitan churches: * Orthodox Church in America (''Archbishop of Washington, Metropolitan of All America and Canada'') – Not recognised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate. * Self-governing Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church (''Metropolitan of Tallinn and all Estonia'') – Recognised only by the Ecumenical Patriarchate, opposed only by the Russian Orthodox Church. * Self-governing Estonian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (''Metropolitan of Tallinn and all Estonia'') – Not recognised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate. * Autonomous Metropolis of Bessarabia, Bessarabian Orthodox Church in Moldova (''Archbishop of Chișinău, Metropolitan of Bessarabia and Exarch of the Territories'') of the Romanian Orthodox Church – Territory claimed by the Russian Orthodox Church. * Autonomous Metropolis of Chișinău and All Moldova, Moldovan Orthodox Church (''Metropolitan of Chișinău and all Moldova'') of the Russian Orthodox Church – Jurisdiction disputed by the Romanian Orthodox Church. * Self-governing Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) (''Metropolitan of Kyiv and all Ukraine'') – Not recognised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate, Church of Greece, Church of Cyprus, and Patriarchate of Alexandria, as of October 2020. * Orthodox Church of Ukraine (''Metropolitan of Kyiv and All Ukraine'') – Recognised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate, Church of Greece, Church of Cyprus, and Patriarchate of Alexandria as of October 2020, opposed by the Russian, Antiochian, Czech and Slovak, Serbian and Polish Orthodox Churches, and the Orthodox Church in America.
True OrthodoxTrue Orthodoxy has been separated from the mainstream communion over issues of ecumenism and calendar reform since the 1920s. The movement rejects the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, the Moscow Patriarchate, and all churches which are in communion with them, accusing them of heresy and placing themselves under bishops who do the same thing. They adhere to the use of the Julian calendar, claiming that the Revised Julian calendar, calendar reform in the 1920s is in contradiction with the ecumenical councils. There is no official communion of True Orthodox. They often are local groups and are limited to a specific bishop or locality.
Old BelieversOld Believers are groups which do not accept the liturgical reforms which were carried out within the Russian Orthodox Church by Patriarch Nikon of Moscow in the 17th century. Although all of the groups of Old Believers emerged as a result of opposition to the Nikonian reforms, they do not constitute a single monolithic body. Despite their emphasis on invariable adherence to the pre-Nikonian traditions, the Old Believers feature a great diversity of groups which profess different interpretations of church tradition and they are often not in communion with each other (some groups even practise re-baptism before admitting a member of another group into their midst).
Churches not in communion with other churchesChurches with irregular or unresolved canonical status are entities that have carried out Episcopi vagantes, episcopal consecrations outside of the norms of canon law or whose bishops have been excommunicated by one of the 14 autocephalous churches. These include nationalist and other schismatic bodies such as the Abkhazian Orthodox Church.
See also* Byzantine art * Byzantine literature * Byzantine dress * Byzantine music * Chalcedonian Christianity * Christianization of Bulgaria * Ecclesiastical differences between the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church * Theological differences between the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church * Emanation (Eastern Orthodox Christianity), Emanation (Eastern Orthodoxy) * Greek Orthodox Christianity in Lebanon * History of Christianity * History of Christian theology * History of Eastern Orthodox Christian theology * Interparliamentary Assembly on Orthodoxy * 2018 Moscow–Constantinople schism, Moscow–Constantinople schism (2018) * Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece (33–717)
Sources* (Introduction by C. S. Lewis) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Tertiary reference works* * * * * * * * * *
Further reading* * * * * * * * * Krindatch, Alexei D. ed., ''Atlas of American Orthodox Christian Churches'' (Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2011