East Prussia (german: Ostpreußen, ; pl|Prusy Wschodnie; lt|Rytų Prūsija; la|Borussia orientalis; russian: Восточная Пруссия|Vostóčnaya Prússiya) was a province
of the Kingdom of Prussia
from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire
from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic
's Free State of Prussia
, until 1945. Its capital city was Königsberg
). East Prussia was the main part of the region of Prussia
along the southeastern Baltic Coast
The bulk of the ancestral lands of the Baltic Old Prussians
were enclosed within East Prussia. During the 13th century, the native Prussians were conquered by the crusading Teutonic Knights
. After the conquest
the indigenous Balts were gradually converted to Christianity
. Because of Germanization
and colonisation over the following centuries, Germans
became the dominant ethnic group, while Masurians
formed minorities. From the 13th century, East Prussia was part of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights
. After the Second Peace of Thorn
in 1466 it became a fief of the Kingdom of Poland
. In 1525, with the Prussian Homage
, the province became the Duchy of Prussia
. The Old Prussian language
had become extinct by the 17th or early 18th century.
Because the duchy was outside of the core Holy Roman Empire
, the prince-electors of Brandenburg were able to proclaim themselves King
beginning in 1701. After the annexation of most of western Royal Prussia
in the First Partition
of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
in 1772, eastern (ducal) Prussia was connected by land with the rest of the Prussian state and was reorganized as a province the following year (1773). Between 1829 and 1878, the Province of East Prussia was joined with West Prussia
to form the Province of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia became the leading state of the German Empire
after its creation in 1871. However, the Treaty of Versailles
following World War I
granted West Prussia to Poland and made East Prussia an exclave of Weimar Germany
(the new Polish Corridor
separated East Prussia from the rest of Germany), while the Memel Territory
was detached and annexed by Lithuania
in 1923. Following Nazi Germany
's defeat in World War II in 1945, war-torn East Prussia was divided at Joseph Stalin
's insistence between the Soviet Union
(the Kaliningrad Oblast
became part of the Russian SFSR
, and the constituent counties of the Klaipėda Region
in the Lithuanian SSR
) and the People's Republic of Poland
(the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
). The capital city Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad
in 1946. The German population of the province was largely evacuated
during the war or expelled shortly afterwards in the expulsion of Germans after World War II
. An estimated 300,000 (around one fifth of the population) died either in war time bombing raids, in the battles to defend the province, or through mistreatment by the Red Army.
At the instigation of Duke Konrad I of Masovia
, the Teutonic Knights
took possession of Prussia
in the 13th century and created a monastic state
to administer the conquered Old Prussians
. Local Old-Prussian (north) and Polish (south) toponyms were gradually Germanised. The Knights' expansionist policies, including occupation of Polish Pomerania with Gdańsk/Danzig and western Lithuania, brought them into conflict with the Kingdom of Poland
and embroiled them in several wars, culminating in the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War
, whereby the united armies of Poland and Lithuania
, defeated the Teutonic Order at the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg)
in 1410. Its defeat was formalised in the Second Treaty of Thorn
in 1466 ending the Thirteen Years' War
, and leaving the former Polish region Pomerania/Pomerelia
under Polish control. Together with Warmia
it formed the province of Royal Prussia
. Eastern Prussia remained under the Knights but as a fief
of Poland. 1466 and 1525 arrangements by kings of Poland were not verified by the Holy Roman Empire
, as well as the previous gains of the Teutonic Knights
, were not verified.
The Teutonic Order lost eastern Prussia when Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach
converted to Lutheranism
and secularized the Prussian branch of the Teutonic Order in 1525. Albert established himself as the first duke of the Duchy of Prussia
and a vassal
of the Polish crown by the Prussian Homage
. Walter von Cronberg
, the next Grand Master, was enfeoffed
with the title to Prussia after the Diet of Augsburg
in 1530, but the Order never regained possession of the territory. In 1569 the Hohenzollern prince-elector
s of the Margraviate of Brandenburg
became co-regents with Albert's son, the feeble-minded Albert Frederick
The Administrator of Prussia, the grandmaster of the Teutonic Order Maximilian III
, son of emperor Maximilian II
died in 1618. When Maximilian died, Albert's line died out, and the Duchy of Prussia passed to the Electors of Brandenburg, forming Brandenburg-Prussia
. Taking advantage of the Swedish invasion of Poland in 1655, and instead of fulfilling his vassal's duties towards the Polish Kingdom, by joining forces with the Swedes and subsequent treaties of Wehlau
, and Oliva
, Elector and Duke Frederick William
succeeded in revoking the king of Poland's sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia in 1660. The absolutist
elector also subdued the noble estates of Prussia.
History as a province
Kingdom of Prussia
Although Brandenburg was a part of the Holy Roman Empire
, the Prussian lands were not within the Holy Roman Empire
and were with the administration by the Teutonic Order
grandmasters under jurisdiction of the Emperor. In return for supporting Emperor Leopold I
in the War of the Spanish Succession
, Elector Frederick III
was allowed to crown himself "King in Prussia
" in 1701. The new kingdom ruled by the Hohenzollern dynasty became known as the Kingdom of Prussia
. The designation "Kingdom of Prussia
" was gradually applied to the various lands of Brandenburg-Prussia. To differentiate it from the larger entity, the former Duchy of Prussia became known as ''Altpreußen'' ("Old Prussia"), the province of Prussia, or "East Prussia".
Approximately one-third of East Prussia's population died in
of 1709–1711, including the last speakers of Old Prussian. The plague, probably brought by foreign troops during the Great Northern War
, killed 250,000 East Prussians, especially in the province's eastern regions. Crown Prince Frederick William I
led the rebuilding of East Prussia, founding numerous towns. Thousands of Protestants expelled from the Archbishopric of Salzburg
were allowed to settle in depleted East Prussia. The province was overrun by Imperial Russian
troops during the Seven Years' War
In the 1772 First Partition of Poland
, the Prussian king Frederick the Great
annexed neighboring Royal Prussia
, i.e., the Polish voivodeships of Pomerania
and the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia
, thereby connecting his Prussian and Farther Pomeranian
lands and cutting the rest of Poland from the Baltic
coast. The territory of Warmia
was incorporated into the lands of former Ducal Prussia, which, by administrative deed of 31 January 1773 were named ''East Prussia''. The former Polish Pomerelian lands beyond the Vistula
River together with Malbork and Chełmno Land
formed the Province of West Prussia
with its capital at Marienwerder
(Kwidzyn). The Polish Partition Sejm
ratified the cession on 30 September 1773, whereafter Frederick officially went on to call himself a King "of" Prussia.
The former Ducal Prussian districts
(Iława), Marienwerder, Riesenburg
(Prabuty) and Schönberg
(Szymbark) passed to West Prussia. Until the Prussian reforms
of 1808, the administration in East Prussia was transferred to the General War
and Finance Directorate in Berlin
, represented by two local chamber departments:
* German chamber department at Königsberg with the districts of:
chamber department at Gumbinnen
(Gusev) with the districts of:
On 31 January 1773, King Frederick II
announced that the newly annexed lands were to be known as the Province of West Prussia
, while the former Duchy of Prussia and Warmia became the Province of East Prussia
After the disastrous defeat of the Prussian Army
at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt
in 1806, Napoleon
occupied Berlin and had the officials of the Prussian General Directorate swear an oath of allegiance
to him, while King Frederick William III
and his consort Louise
fled via Königsberg and the Curonian Spit
to Memel. The French
troops immediately took up pursuit but were delayed in the Battle of Eylau
on 9 February 1807 by an East Prussian contingent under General Anton Wilhelm von L'Estocq
. Napoleon had to stay at the Finckenstein Palace
, but in May, after a siege of 75 days, his troops led by Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre
were able to capture the city of Danzig
, which had been tenaciously defended by General Count Friedrich Adolf von Kalkreuth
. On 14 June, Napoleon ended the War of the Fourth Coalition
with his victory at the Battle of Friedland
. Frederick William and Queen Louise met with Napoleon for peace negotiations, and on 9 July the Prussian king signed the Treaty of Tilsit
The succeeding Prussian reforms instigated by Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom und zum Stein
and Karl August von Hardenberg
included the implementation of an ''Oberlandesgericht
'' appellation court at Königsberg, a municipal corporation
, economic freedom
as well as emancipation
of the serfs
. In the course of the Prussian restoration by the 1815 Congress of Vienna
, the East Prussian territories were re-arranged in the ''Regierungsbezirk
e'' of Gumbinnen
. From 1905, the southern districts of East Prussia formed the separate ''Regierungsbezirk'' of Allenstein
. East and West Prussia were first united in personal union
in 1824 and then merged in a real union
in 1829 to form the Province of Prussia
. The united province was again split into separate East and West Prussian provinces in 1878.
Historical ethnic and religious structure
In year 1824, shortly before its merger
with West Prussia
, the population of East Prussia was 1,080,000 people. Of that number, according to Karl Andree
, Germans were slightly more than half, while 280,000 (~26%) were ethnically Polish
and 200,000 (~19%) were ethnically Lithuanian
As of year 1819 there were also 20,000 strong ethnic Curonian
minorities as well as 2,400 Jews
, according to Georg Hassel. Similar numbers are given by August von Haxthausen
in his 1839 book, with a breakdown by county.
However, the majority of East Prussian Polish and Lithuanian inhabitants were Lutherans
, not Roman Catholics
like their ethnic kinsmen across the border in the Russian Empire
. Only in Southern Warmia
(German: Ermland) Catholic Poles
- so called Warmiak
s (not to be confused with predominantly Protestant Masurians
) - comprised the majority of population, numbering 26,067 people (~81%) in county Allenstein
) in 1837.
Another minority in 19th century East Prussia, were ethnically Russian
Old Believers, also known as Philipponnen
- their main town was Eckersdorf (Wojnowo
In year 1817, East Prussia had 796,204 Evangelical Christians
, 120,123 Roman Catholics
, 864 Mennonites
and 2,389 Jews
From 1824 to 1878, East Prussia was combined with West Prussia to form the Province of Prussia
, after which they were reestablished as separate provinces. Along with the rest of the Kingdom of Prussia, East Prussia became part of the German Empire
during the unification of Germany
From 1885 to 1890 Berlin
's population grew by 20%, Brandenburg
and the Rhineland
gained 8.5%, Westphalia
10%, while East Prussia lost 0.07% and West Prussia 0.86%. This stagnancy in population despite a high birth surplus in eastern Germany was because many people from the East Prussian countryside moved westward to seek work in the expanding industrial centres of the Ruhr Area
and Berlin (see ''Ostflucht
The population of the province in 1900 was 1,996,626 people, with a religious makeup of 1,698,465 Protestants
, 269,196 Roman Catholics
, and 13,877 Jew
s. The Low Prussian
dialect predominated in East Prussia, although High Prussian
was spoken in Warmia
. The numbers of Masurians
and Prussian Lithuanians
decreased over time due to the process of Germanization
. The Polish-speaking population concentrated in the south of the province (Masuria
and Warmia) and all German geographic atlases at the start of 20th century showed the southern part of East Prussia as Polish with the number of Polish-speakers estimated at the time to be 300,000. Kursenieki
inhabited the areas around the Curonian lagoon, while Lithuanian-speaking Prussians concentrated in the northeast in (Lithuania Minor
). The Old Prussian ethnic group
became completely Germanized over time and the Old Prussian language
died out in the 18th century.
World War I
At the beginning of World War I, East Prussia became a theatre of war
when the Russian Empire
invaded the country. The Russian Army
encountered at first little resistance because the bulk of the German Army
had been directed towards the Western Front
according to the Schlieffen Plan
. Despite early success and the capture of the towns of Rastenburg
, in the Battle of Tannenberg
in 1914 and the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes
in 1915, the Russians were decisively defeated and forced to retreat. The Russians were followed by the German Army advancing into Russian territory.
After the Russian army's first invasion the majority of the civilian population fled westwards, while several thousand remaining civilians were deported to Russia. Treatment of civilians by both armies was mostly disciplined, although 74 civilians were killed by Russian troops in the Abschwangen massacre
. The region had to be rebuilt because of damage caused by the war.
Division after 1918
With the forced abdication of Emperor Wilhelm II
in 1918, Germany became a republic
. Most of West Prussia and the former Prussian Province of Posen
, territories annexed by Prussia in the 18th century Partitions of Poland
, were ceded to the Second Polish Republic
according to the Treaty of Versailles
. East Prussia became an exclave
, being separated from mainland Germany. The Memelland
was also separated from the province. Because most of West Prussia became part of the Second Polish Republic
as the Polish Corridor
, the formerly West Prussian Marienwerder region
became part of East Prussia (as ''Regierungsbezirk Westpreußen''). Also, Soldau
district in Allenstein region was part of Second Polish Republic. The Seedienst Ostpreußen
was established to provide an independent transport service to East Prussia.
On 11 July 1920, amidst the backdrop of the Polish-Soviet War
, the East Prussian plebiscite
in eastern West Prussia and southern East Prussia was held under Allied supervision to determine if the areas should join the Second Polish Republic
or remain in Weimar Germany
Province of East Prussia. 96.7% of the people voted to remain within Germany (97.89% in the East Prussian plebiscite district).
The Klaipėda Territory
, a League of Nations mandate
since 1920, was occupied by Lithuania
n troops in 1923 and was annexed without giving the inhabitants a choice by ballot.
headed the East Prussian Nazi party from 1928. He led the district from 1932. This period was characterized by efforts to collectivize
the local agriculture and ruthlessness in dealing with his critics inside and outside the Party.
[Robert S. Wistrich, ''Who's who in Nazi Germany'', 2002, pp. 142-143.]
He also had long-term plans for mass-scale industrialization of the largely agricultural province. These actions made him unpopular among the local peasants.
In 1932 the local paramilitary SA
had already started to terrorise their political opponents. On the night of 31 July 1932 there was a bomb attack on the headquarters of the Social Democrats
in Königsberg, the Otto-Braun-House
. The Communist politician Gustav Sauf
was killed; the executive editor of the Social Democratic newspaper ''"Königsberger Volkszeitung"'', Otto Wyrgatsch
; and the German People's Party
politician Max von Bahrfeldt
were all severely injured. Members of the Reichsbanner
were assaulted while the local Reichsbanner Chairman of Lötzen
, Kurt Kotzan
, was murdered on 6 August 1932.
Through publicly funded emergency relief programs concentrating on agricultural land-improvement projects and road construction, the "Erich Koch Plan" for East Prussia allegedly made the province free of unemployment
: on 16 August 1933 Koch reported to Hitler
that unemployment had been banished entirely from the province, a feat that gained admiration throughout the Reich
. Koch's industrialization plans provoked conflict with R. Walther Darré
, who held the office of the Reich Peasant Leader (''Reichsbauernführer'') and Minister of Agriculture. Darré, a neopaganist
rural romantic, wanted to enforce his vision of an agricultural East Prussia. When his "Land" representatives challenged Koch's plans, Koch arrested them.
[Richard Steigmann-Gall, ''The Holy Reich - Nazi Conceptions of Christianity 1919-1945'', 2004, p. 102.]
After the Nazis took power in Germany, opposition politicians were persecuted and newspapers banned. The Otto-Braun-House was requisitioned to become the headquarters of the SA, which used the house to imprison and torture its opponents. Walter Schütz
, a communist member of the Reichstag
, was murdered here. In 1938 the Nazis
altered about one-third of the toponyms
of the area, eliminating, Germanizing, or simplifying a number of Old Prussian
, as well as those Polish or Lithuanian names originating from colonists
to Prussia during and after the Protestant Reformation
. More than 1,500 places were ordered to be renamed by 16 July 1938 following a decree issued by Gauleiter
and Oberpräsident Erich Koch
and initiated by Adolf Hitler
. Many who would not cooperate with the rulers of Nazi Germany
were sent to concentration camps
and held prisoner there until their death or liberation.
World War II
After the 1939 invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany opening World War II, the borders of East Prussia were revised. Regierungsbezirk Westpreußen became part of Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia, while Regierungsbezirk Zichenau was added to East Prussia. Originally part of the Zichenau region, the Sudauen district in Sudovia was later transferred to the Gumbinnen region.
In 1939 East Prussia had 2.49 million inhabitants, 85% of them ethnic Germans, the others Poles
in the south who, according to Polish estimates numbered in the interwar period around 300,000-350,000, the Latvian speaking Kursenieki
, and Lietuvininkai
who spoke Lithuanian
in the northeast. Most German East Prussians, Masurians, Kursieniki, and Lietuvininkai were Lutheran, while the population of Ermland
was mainly Roman Catholic due to the history of its bishopric. The East Prussian Jewish Congregation declined from about 9,000 in 1933 to 3,000 in 1939, as most fled from Nazi rule. Those who remained were later deported and killed in the Holocaust
In 1939 the Regierungsbezirk Zichenau
was annexed by Germany
and incorporated into East Prussia. Parts of it were transferred to other regions, e.g. Suwałki
to Regierungsbezirk Gumbinnen
to Regierungsbezirk Allenstein
. Despite Nazi propaganda
presenting all of the regions annexed as possessing significant German populations that wanted reunification with Germany, the Reich's statistics of late 1939 show that only 31,000 out of 994,092 people in this territory were ethnic Germans.
East Prussia was only slightly affected by the war until January 1945, when it was devastated during the East Prussian Offensive
. Most of its inhabitants became refugees in bitterly cold weather during the Evacuation of East Prussia
Evacuation of East Prussia
In 1944 the medieval city of Königsberg
, which had never been severely damaged by warfare in its 700 years of existence, was almost completely destroyed
by two RAF Bomber Command
raids – the first on the night of 26/27 August 1944, with the second one three nights later, overnight on 29/30 August 1944. Winston Churchill
(''The Second World War'', Book XII) had erroneously believed it to be "a modernized heavily defended fortress
" and ordered its destruction.
Gauleiter Erich Koch
delayed the evacuation of the German civilian population until the Eastern Front
approached the East Prussian border in 1944. The population had been systematically misinformed by ''Endsieg
'' Nazi propaganda about the real state of military affairs. As a result, many civilians fleeing westward were overtaken by retreating Wehrmacht
units and the rapidly advancing Red Army
Reports of Soviet atrocities in the Nemmersdorf massacre
of October 1944 and organized rape
spread fear and desperation among the civilians. Thousands lost their lives during the sinkings (by Soviet submarine) of the evacuation ships ''Wilhelm Gustloff
'', the ''Goya
'', and the ''General von Steuben
''. Königsberg surrendered on 9 April 1945, following the desperate four-day Battle of Königsberg
. The number of civilians killed is estimated to be at least 300,000.
However, most of the German inhabitants, which then consisted primarily of women, children and old men, did manage to escape the Red Army as part of the largest exodus of people in human history: "A population which had stood at 2.2 million in 1940 was reduced to 193,000 at the end of May 1945."
[Beevor, Antony, ''Berlin: The Downfall 1945'', chapters 1-8, Penguin Books (2002). ]
History after partition and annexation
Following Nazi Germany
's defeat in World War II
in 1945, East Prussia was partitioned between Poland and the Soviet Union
according to the Potsdam Conference
, pending a final peace conference with Germany. Since a peace conference never took place, the region was effectively ceded by Germany. Southern East Prussia was placed under Polish administration, while northern East Prussia was divided between the Soviet republics of Russia
(the Kaliningrad Oblast
) and Lithuania
(the constituent counties of the Klaipėda Region
). The city of Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad
in 1946. Most of the German population of the province had left during the evacuation at the end of the war, but several hundreds of thousands died during the years 1944–46 and the remainder were subsequently expelled
Expulsion of Germans from East Prussia after World War II
Shortly after the end of the war in May 1945, Germans who had fled in early 1945 tried to return to their homes in East Prussia. An estimated number of 800,000 Germans were living in East Prussia during the summer of 1945. Many more were prevented from returning, and the German population of East Prussia was almost completely expelled
by the communist regimes. During the war and for some time thereafter 45 camps were established for about 200,000-250,000 forced labourers, the vast majority of whom were deported to the Soviet Union, including the Gulag
The largest camp with about 48,000 inmates was established at Deutsch Eylau
[ Orphaned children who were left behind in the zone occupied by the Soviet Union were referred to as Wolf children.
File:Karte viertepolnischeteilung.png|An illustration of the changing borders in Eastern Europe before, during, and after World War II (Map is written in German)
File:German territorial losses 1919 and 1945.svg|Changes in Germany's borders as a result of both World Wars, with the partition of East Prussia.
Southern East Prussia to Poland
Representatives of the Polish government officially took over the civilian administration of the southern part of East Prussia on 23 May 1945.
[ Subsequently, Polish expatriates from Polish lands annexed by the Soviet Union as well as Ukrainians and Lemkos from southern Poland, expelled in Operation Vistula in 1947, were settled in the area, now called Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. In 1950 the Olsztyn Voivodeship counted 689,000 inhabitants, 22.6% of them coming from areas annexed by the Soviet Union, 10% Ukrainians, and 18.5% of them pre-war inhabitants. The remaining pre-war population was treated as Germanized Poles and a policy of re-Polonization was pursued throughout the country Most of these "Autochthons" chose to emigrate to West Germany from the 1950s through 1980s (between 1970 and 1988 55,227 persons from Warmia and Masuria moved to Western Germany). Local toponyms were Polonised by the Polish Commission for the Determination of Place Names.
Origin of the post-war population
During the Polish post-war census of December 1950, data about the pre-war places of residence of the inhabitants as of August 1939 was collected. In case of children born between September 1939 and December 1950, their origin was reported based on the pre-war places of residence of their mothers. Thanks to this data it is possible to reconstruct the pre-war geographical origin of the post-war population. The same area corresponding to pre-war southern parts of East Prussia (which became Polish in 1945) was inhabited in December 1950 by (this data includes the whole of Olsztyn Voivodeship as well as some counties of pre-1939 East Prussia which were incorporated to Białystok Voivodeship and to Gdańsk Voivodeship after World War II):
Over 80% of the 1950 inhabitants were new in the region, less than 20% had resided in the province already back in 1939 (so called autochthons, who had German citizenship before World War II and were granted Polish citizenship after 1945). Over 20% of all inhabitants were Poles expelled from areas of Eastern Poland annexed by the USSR. The rest were mostly people from neighbouring areas located right next to East Prussia (almost 44% came from Masovia, Sudovia, Podlachia and pre-war Polish Pomerania) and southern Poland (~16%).
Northern part to the Soviet Union
In April 1946, northern East Prussia became an official province of the Russian SFSR as the "''Kyonigsbergskaya Oblast''", with the Memel Territory becoming part of the Lithuanian SSR. In June 1946 114,070 German and 41,029 Soviet citizens were registered in the Oblast, with an unknown number of disregarded unregistered persons. In July of that year, the historic city of Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad to honour Mikhail Kalinin and the area named the Kaliningrad Oblast. Between 24 August and 26 October 1948 21 transports with in total 42,094 Germans left the Oblast to the Soviet Occupation Zone (which became East Germany). The last remaining Germans left in November 1949 (1,401 persons) and January 1950 (7 persons).
The Prussian Lithuanians also experienced the same fate.
A similar fate befell the Curonians who lived in the area around the Curonian Lagoon. While many fled from the Red Army during the evacuation of East Prussia, Curonians that remained behind were subsequently expelled by the Soviet Union. Only 219 lived along the Curonian Spit in 1955. Many had German names such as Fritz or Hans, a cause for anti-German discrimination. The Soviet authorities considered the Curonians fascists. Because of this discrimination, many immigrated to West Germany in 1958, where the majority of Curonians now live.
After the expulsion of the German population ethnic Russians, Belarusians, and Ukrainians were settled in the northern part. In the Soviet part of the region, a policy of eliminating all remnants of German history was pursued. All German place names were replaced by new Russian names. The exclave was a military zone, which was closed to foreigners; Soviet citizens could only enter with special permission. In 1967 the remnants of Königsberg Castle were demolished on the orders of Leonid Brezhnev to make way for a new "House of the Soviets".
Since the fall of Communism in 1991, some German groups have tried to help settle the Volga Germans from eastern parts of European Russia in the Kaliningrad Oblast. This effort was only a small success, however, as most impoverished Volga Germans preferred to emigrate to the richer Federal Republic of Germany, where they could become German citizens through the right of return.
Although the 1945–1949 expulsion of Germans from the northern part of former East Prussia was often conducted in a violent and aggressive way by Soviet officials, the present Russian inhabitants of the Kaliningrad Oblast have much less animosity towards Germans. German names have been revived in commercial Russian trade and there is sometimes talk of reverting Kaliningrad's name to its historic name of Königsberg. The city centre of Kaliningrad was completely rebuilt, as British bombs in 1944 and the Soviet siege in 1945 had left it in nothing but ruins.
The borders of the present-day Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland correspond closely to those of southern East Prussia.
The Prussian central government appointed for every province an ''Oberpräsident'' ("Upper President") carrying out central prerogatives on the provincial level and supervising the implementation of central policy on the lower levels of administration.
Since 1875, with the strengthening of self-rule, the urban and rural districts (''Kreise'') within each province (sometimes within each governorate) formed a corporation with common tasks and assets (schools, traffic installations, hospitals, cultural institutions, jails etc.) called the Provinzialverband (provincial association). Initially the assemblies of the urban and rural districts elected representatives for the provincial diets (''Provinziallandtage''), which were thus indirectly elected. As of 1919 the provincial diets (or as to governorate diets, the so-called Kommunallandtage) were directly elected by the citizens of the provinces (or governorates, respectively). These parliaments legislated within the competences transferred to the provincial associations. The provincial diet of East Prussia elected a provincial executive body (government), the provincial committee (''Provinzialausschuss''), and a head of province, the ''Landeshauptmann'' ("Land Captain"; till the 1880s titled Landdirektor, land director).
Upper Presidents of East Prussia and Prussia
: 1765–1791: Johann Friedrich von Domhardt, president of the ''Gumbinnen and Königsberg War and Demesnes Chambers''
: 1791–1808: Friedrich Leopold von Schrötter, president of the ''Gumbinnen and Königsberg War and Demesnes Chambers'', as of 1795 Minister for East and New East Prussia
: 1808–1814: vacancy?
: 1814–1824: Hans Jakob von Auerswald, upper president of East Prussia
: 1824–1842: Heinrich Theodor von Schön, upper president of Prussia, merged from East and West Prussia, since 1816 already upper president of West Prussia
: 1842–1848: Carl Wilhelm von Bötticher, upper president of Prussia
: 1848–1849: Rudolf von Auerswald, upper president of Prussia
: 1849–1850: Eduard Heinrich von Flottwell (1786–1865), upper president of Prussia
: 1850–1868: Franz August Eichmann, upper president of Prussia
: 1868–1869: vacancy
: 1869–1882: Carl Wilhelm Heinrich Georg von Horn, upper president of Prussia, after 1878 of East Prussia
: 1882–1891: Albrecht Heinrich von Schlieckmann, upper president of East Prussia
: 1891–1895: Count Udo zu Stolberg-Wernigerode, upper president of East Prussia
: 1895–1901: Count Wilhelm von Bismarck-Schönhausen, upper president of East Prussia
: 1901–1903: Hugo Samuel von Richthofen, upper president of East Prussia
: 1903–1907: Count Friedrich von Moltke, upper president of East Prussia
: 1907–1914: Ludwig von Windheim, upper president of East Prussia
: 1914–1916: Adolf Tortilowicz von Batocki-Friebe, upper president of East Prussia
: 1916–1918: Friedrich von Berg, upper president of East Prussia
: 1918–1919: Adolf Tortilowicz von Batocki-Friebe, upper president of East Prussia
: 1919–1920: August Winnig (SPD), upper president of East Prussia
: 1920–1932: Ernst Siehr (DDP), upper president of East Prussia
: 1932–1933: Wilhelm Kutscher (DNVP), upper president of East Prussia
: 1933–1945: Erich Koch (NSDAP), upper president of East Prussia
Elections to the provincial diets
Summary of the East Prussian Provincial Diet direct election results
|rowspan="2"| +0.7 (-)
|rowspan="2"| +2 (-4)
[In 1933 the DNVP ran under the list KFSWR, also including ''Der Stahlhelm'' and the LB.]
[In 1921 the Landliste (LL, Rural List) gained two seats, in 1926 the LL formed a united list with the WP and the East Prussian Farmers' Federation (OBB), in 1929 they all ran as part of the WP.]
Land Directors and Land Captains of East Prussia
: 1876–1878: Heinrich Edwin Rickert (NLP, later DFP), titled land director
: 1878–1884: Kurt von Saucken-Tarputschen (Fortschritt, later DFP), titled land director
: 1884–1888: Alfred von Gramatzki (DKP), titled land director
: 1888–1896: Klemens von Stockhausen, titled land director
: 1896–1909: Rudolf von Brandt, titled land captain
: 1909–1916: Friedrich von Berg, titled land captain
: 1916–1928: Manfred Graf von Brünneck-Bellschwitz, titled land captain
: 1928–1936: Paul Blunk, titled land captain
: 1936–1941: Helmuth von Wedelstädt (NSDAP), titled land captain
: 1941–1945: vacancy
:: 1941–1945: Reinhard Bezzenberger, first land councillor, per pro
Cities and towns
*Drang nach Osten
*East Prussian Regional Museum
;Publications in English
* Baedeker, Karl, ''Northern Germany'', 14th revised edition, London, 1904.
* (on the years 1944/45)
* Alfred-Maurice de Zayas, " Nemesis at Potsdam". London, 1977. .
*Alfred-Maurice de Zayas, ''A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans, 1944-1950'', 1994,
* Carsten, F. L. "East Prussia" ''History'' 33#119 (1948), pp. 241–24
historiography of medieval and early modern period.
* Dickie, Reverend J.F., with E.Compton, ''Germany'', A & C Black, London, 1912.
* Douglas, R.M.: Orderly and Humane. The Expulsion of the Germans after the Second World War. Yale University Press, 2012. .
* von Treitschke, Heinrich, ''History of Germany'' - vol.1: ''The Wars of Emancipation'', (translated by E & C Paul), Allen & Unwin, London, 1915.
* Powell, E. Alexander, ''Embattled Borders'', London, 1928.
* Prausser, Steffen and Rees, Arfon: The Expulsion of the "German" Communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second World War. Florence, Italy, European University Institute, 2004.
* Naimark, Norman: Fires of Hatred. Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2001.
* Steed, Henry Wickham, ''Vital Peace - A Study of Risks'', Constable & Co., London, 1936.
* Newman, Bernard, ''Danger Spots of Europe'', London, 1938.
* Wieck, Michael: ''A Childhood Under Hitler and Stalin: Memoirs of a "Certified Jew,"'' University of Wisconsin Press, 2003, .
* Woodward, E.L., Butler, Rohan; Medlicott, W.N., Dakin, Douglas, & Lambert, M.E., et al. (editors), ''Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919-1939'', Three Series, Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO), London, numerous volumes published over 25 years. Cover the Versailles Treaty including all secret meetings; plebiscites and all other problems in Europe; includes all diplomatic correspondence from all states.
* Previté-Orton, C.W., Professor, ''The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History'', Cambridge University Press, 1952 (2 volumes).
* Balfour, Michael, and John Mair, ''Four-Power Control in Germany and Austria 1945-1946'', Oxford University Press, 1956.
* Kopelev, Lev, ''To Be Preserved Forever'', ("Хранить вечно"), 1976.
* Koch, H.W., Professor, ''A History of Prussia'', Longman, London, 1978/1984, (P/B),
* Koch, H.W., Professor, ''A Constitutional History of Germany in the 19th and 20th Centuries'', Longman, London, 1984, (P/B),
* MacDonogh, Giles, ''Prussia'', Sinclair-Stevenson, London, 1994,
* Nitsch, Gunter, ''Weeds Like Us'', AuthorHouse, 2006,
;Publications in German
* B. Schumacher: ''Geschichte Ost- und Westpreussens'', Würzburg 1959
* Boockmann, Hartmut: ''Ostpreußen und Westpreußen'' (= Deutsche Geschichte im Osten Europas). Siedler, Berlin 1992,
* Buxa, Werner and Hans-Ulrich Stamm: ''Bilder aus Ostpreußen''
* Dönhoff, Marion Gräfin v. :''Namen die keiner mehr nennt - Ostpreußen, Menschen und Geschichte''
* Dönhoff, Marion Gräfin v.: ''Kindheit in Ostpreussen''
* Falk, Lucy: ''Ich Blieb in Königsberg. Tagebuchblätter aus dunklen Nachkriegsjahren''
* Kibelka, Ruth: ''Ostpreußens Schicksaljahre, 1945-1948''
* Nitsch, Gunter: "Eine lange Flucht aus Ostpreußen", Ellert & Richter Verlag, 2011,
* Wieck, Michael: ''Zeugnis vom Untergang Königsbergs: Ein "Geltungsjude" berichtet,'' Heidelberger Verlaganstalt, 1990, 1993, .
;Publications in French
* Pierre Benoît, ''Axelle''
* Georges Blond, ''L'Agonie de l'Allemagne''
* Michel Tournier, ''Le Roi des aulnes''
;Publications in Polish
Pictures Of East Prussia
Brandenburg Prince-Electors co-inheritors 1568, co-regent 1577
Extensive East & West Prussian Historical Materials
Ostpreußen Info - East Prussia Information
East- and West Prussia in Photos
''Spuren der Vergangenheit / Следы Пρошлого'' (Traces of the past)
This site by W.A. Milowskij, a Kaliningrad resident, contains hundreds of interesting photos, often with text explanations, of architectural and infrastructural artifacts of the territory's long German past.
Britannica 2007 article
An oral history project, documenting the German history of East Prussia with memories and reports by contemporary witnesses
East & West Prussia Map Collection
Historical borders of East Prussia
Category:Provinces of Prussia
Category:1773 establishments in Prussia
Category:Kingdom of Prussia
Category:Regions of Europe
Category:1945 disestablishments in Germany
Category:Former eastern territories of Germany