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The East China Sea is an arm of the
Western Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. T ...
, located directly offshore from
East China East China () is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interacti ...

East China
(hence the name), covering an area of roughly . Its northern extension between
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

mainland China
and the
Korean Peninsula Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korean Peninsula
is the
Yellow Sea The Yellow Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% o ...

Yellow Sea
, separated by an
imaginary line In general, an imaginary line is usually any sort of geometric line that has only an abstract definition and does not physically exist. In fact, they used to properly identify places on a map. Some outside geography do exist, such as the Me ...
between the eastern tip of Qidong at the
Yangtze River The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime envir ...

estuary
and the southwestern tip of
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
's
Jeju Island Jeju Island (; ) is the largest island in South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Z ...

Jeju Island
. The East China Sea is bounded in the east and southeast by the middle portion of the
first island chain The first island chain refers to the first chain of major archipelagos out from the East Asian continental mainland coast. It is principally composed of the Kuril Islands, the Japanese Archipelago, the Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan (Formosa), the northe ...
off the eastern
Eurasian Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, it spans from the British Isles and the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Japa ...

Eurasian
continental mainland, including the
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
ese island of
Kyushu is the third largest island of 's and the most southerly of the four largest islands (excluding ). In the past, it has been known as , and . The historical regional name referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands. In the 8th-century re ...

Kyushu
and the
Ryukyu Islands The , also known as the or the , are a chain of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Ryukyu Islands
, and in the south by the
island of Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The m ...
. It connects with the
Sea of Japan The Sea of Japan is the marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% ...

Sea of Japan
in the northeast through the
Korea Strait The Korea Strait is a sea passage in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern ...

Korea Strait
, the
South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97 ...

South China Sea
in the southwest via the
Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait is a -wide strait separating the Taiwan (island), island of Taiwan and mainland, continental Asia. The strait is part of the South China Sea and connects to the East China Sea to the north. The narrowest part is wide. Names ...

Taiwan Strait
, and the
Philippine Sea The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean east of the Philippine archipelago (hence the name), occupying an estimated surface area of . The Philippine Sea Plate forms the floor of the sea. Its western border is the firs ...
in the southeast via gaps between the various Ryukyu Islands (e.g. Tokara Strait and
Miyako StraitImage:Location of the Ryukyu Islands.JPG, The strait is located between Miyako and Okinawa The , also known as the Kerama Gap, is a waterway which lies between Miyako Island and Okinawa Island consisting of an approx. 250km wide passageway with inter ...
). Most of the East China Sea is shallow, with almost three-fourths of it being less than deep, its average depth being , while the maximum depth, reached in the
Okinawa Trough The (also called , literally China-Ryukyu Border Trough ) is a seabed feature of the East China Sea The East China Sea is an arm of the Western Pacific Ocean, located directly offshore from East China (hence the name), covering an area of r ...
, is . The East China Sea is shared among the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
,
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
and
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
.


Geography

The East China Sea is an arm of the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific Ocean
and covers an area of roughly . It is bounded on the east by
Kyūshū is the third largest island of Japan's Japanese archipelago, five main islands and the most southerly of the four largest islands (excluding Okinawa_Island, Okinawa). In the past, it has been known as , and . The historical regional name refer ...
and the
Ryukyu Islands The , also known as the or the , are a chain of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Ryukyu Islands
of
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
, on the south by the
South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97 ...

South China Sea
, and on the west by the
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
n continent. It connects with the
Sea of Japan The Sea of Japan is the marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% ...

Sea of Japan
through the
Korea Strait The Korea Strait is a sea passage in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern ...

Korea Strait
; it opens in the north to the
Yellow Sea The Yellow Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% o ...

Yellow Sea
. Countries with borders on the sea (clockwise from north) include:
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
,
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
and the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
.


Extent

The
International Hydrographic Organization The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental organisation representing hydrography. As of December 2021 the IHO comprised 96 Member States. A principal aim of the IHO is to ensure that the world's seas, oceans and ...
defines the limits of the "Eastern China Sea (Tung Hai)" as follows: ::''On the South.'' :::The Northern limit of the
South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97 ...

South China Sea
rom_Fuki_Kaku_the_North_point_of_Formosa.html" ;"title="Fuki_Kaku.html" ;"title="rom Fuki Kaku">rom Fuki Kaku the North point of Formosa">Fuki_Kaku.html" ;"title="rom Fuki Kaku">rom Fuki Kaku the North point of Formosa to Kiushan Tao (Turnabout Island) on to the South point of Pingtan Island, Haitan Tao (25°25' N) and thence Westward on the parallel of 25°24' North to the coast of Fujian, Fukien], thence from
Santyo
Santyo
the Northeastern point of Formosa to the West point of
Yonakuni Island
Yonakuni Island
and thence to Haderuma Sima (24°03′ N, 123°47′ E). ::''On the East.'' :::From Haderuma Sima a line including the Miyako Retto to the East point of Miyako Sima and thence to Okinan Kaku, the Southern extremity of
Okinawa Sima
Okinawa Sima
through this island to Ada-Ko Sima (Sidmouth Island) on to the East point of Kikai Sima (28°20' N) through
Tanegra Sima
Tanegra Sima
(30°30' N) to the North point thereof and on to Hi-Saki (31°17' N) in
Kyusyu is the third largest island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the south. Japa ...
. ::''On the North.'' :::From Nomo Saki (32°35' N) in Kyusyu to the South point of Hukae Sima ( Goto Retto) and on through this island to Ose Saki (Cape Goto) and to Hunan Kan, the South point of Saisyu To (Quelpart), through this island to its Western extreme and thence along the parallel of 33°17' North to the mainland. ::''On the West.'' :::The mainland of
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
.


Rivers

The
Yangtze River The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
(Chang Jiang) is the largest river flowing into the East China Sea.


Islands and reefs

*
Senkaku Islands (Senkaku Islands)(Tiaoyutai Islands / Diaoyutai Islands)(Diaoyu Dao and its affiliated islands)Pinnacle Islands , location = Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends fr ...
(Japanese) or Diaoyu Islands (Chinese). Disputed. * Tong Island There is a cluster of submerged
reef A reef is a ridge or shoal A tidal sandbar connecting the islands of Waya and Wayasewa of the Yasawa Islands, Fiji ">Fiji.html" ;"title="Yasawa Islands, Fiji">Yasawa Islands, Fiji In oceanography, geomorphology, and earth sciences, a s ...

reef
s in the northern East China Sea. These include: *
Socotra Rock Socotra Rock (China:苏岩礁;) is a reef, submerged rock below sea level (at low tide) located in the Yellow Sea. Admiralty law, International maritime law stipulates that a submerged rock outside of a nation's territorial sea (generally ...

Socotra Rock
, also called Suyan Rock or Ieodo, a subject of an EEZ dispute between the People's Republic of China and South Korea. *Hupijiao Rock () *Yajiao Rock ()


Nomenclature

The sea is called the East Sea in Chinese (; ''Dōng Hǎi''), and is one of the
Four Seas The Four Seas () were four bodies of water ( Lysefjord) in Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, Vuodna; sma, Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe whose mainl ...
of
Chinese literature The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archive An archive is an accumulation of historical records – in any media – or the physical facility in which they are located. A ...
. There are three other seas, one for each of the four cardinal directions. Until
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the sea was referred to as (''Higashi Shina Kai''; "East Shina Sea") in Japanese. In 2004, official documents of the
Japanese Foreign Ministry The is a Cabinet of Japan, cabinet-level ministry of the Government of Japan, Japanese government responsible for the country's Foreign relations of Japan, foreign relations. The ministry was established by the second term of the third article of ...
and other departments switched to the name (pronounced the same), which has become the standard usage in Japan. Common usage in Indonesia refers to the sea as ''Laut Cina Timur'' (East China Sea). This name was used officially by the
Indonesian government The term Government of Indonesia ( id, Pemerintah Indonesia) can have a number of different meanings. At its widest, it can refer collectively to the three traditional branches of government – the executive branch, legislative branch and jud ...
until 2014, when Indonesia switched usage from the word Cina to
Tiongkok
Tiongkok
instead; since then, the name ''Laut Tiongkok Timur'' become standard usage in Indonesia. Despite this, many Indonesian media outlets and publications continue to use the former sea name.


History


Whaling

American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...

American
whaleship File:Charles W Morgan.jpg, 200px, was a whaleship built in 1841 A whaler or whaling ship is a specialized vessel, designed or adapted for whaling: the catching or processing of whales. Terminology The term ''whaler'' is mostly historic. A hand ...
s cruised for
right whales Right whales or black whales are three species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the ...
in the sea between 1849 and 1892.


EEZ disputes

There are disputes between the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
(PRC),
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
,
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
, and
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
over the extent of their respective exclusive economic zones (EEZ). The dispute between the PRC and Japan concerns the different application of the 1982
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea Treaty, is an international agreement A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in intern ...

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
(UNCLOS), which both nations have ratified. China and Japan both claim 200 nautical miles EEZ rights, but the East China Sea width is only 360 nautical miles. China proposed the application of UNCLOS, considering the natural prolongation of its continental shelf, advocating that the EEZ extends as far as the
Okinawa Trough The (also called , literally China-Ryukyu Border Trough ) is a seabed feature of the East China Sea The East China Sea is an arm of the Western Pacific Ocean, located directly offshore from East China (hence the name), covering an area of r ...
. Its
Ministry of Foreign Affairs In many countries, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the government department responsible for the state's diplomacy Diplomacy is the practice of influencing the decisions and conduct of foreign governments or organizations through dialogue, neg ...
has stated that "the natural prolongation of the continental shelf of China in the East China Sea extends to the Okinawa Trough and beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea of China is measured," which is applicable to the relevant UNCLOS provisions that support China's right to the natural shelf. In 2012, China presented a submission under the UNCLOS concerning the outer limits of the continental shelf to the UN. However, Japan claims about 40,000 square kilometers part of this territory as its own EEZ because it is within 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its coast, and thus proposed the Median line division of the EEZ. In 1995, the People's Republic of China (PRC) discovered an undersea
natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane and commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxid ...

natural gas
field in the East China Sea, namely the , which lies within the Chinese EEZ while Japan believes it is connected to other possible reserves beyond the median line. Japan has objected to PRC development of natural gas resources in the East China Sea near the area where the two countries Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) claims overlap. The specific development in dispute is the PRC's drilling in the , which is located in undisputed areas on China's side, three or four miles (6 km) west of the median line proposed by Japan. Japan maintains that although the Chunxiao gas field rigs are on the PRC side of a median line that Tokyo regards as the two sides' sea boundary, they may tap into a field that stretches underground into the disputed area. Japan therefore seeks a share in the natural gas resources. The gas fields in the Xihu Sag area in the East China Sea ( Canxue, Baoyunting, Chunxiao, Duanqiao, Wuyunting, and Tianwaitian) are estimated to hold proven reserves of 364 BCF of
natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane and commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxid ...

natural gas
. Commercial operations began 2006. In June 2008, both sides agreed to jointly develop the Chunxiao gas fields, but they have never been able to agree on how to execute the plan. Rounds of disputes about island ownership in the East China Sea have triggered both official and civilian protests between China and Japan. The dispute between PRC and South Korea concerns
Socotra Rock Socotra Rock (China:苏岩礁;) is a reef, submerged rock below sea level (at low tide) located in the Yellow Sea. Admiralty law, International maritime law stipulates that a submerged rock outside of a nation's territorial sea (generally ...

Socotra Rock
, a submerged
reef A reef is a ridge or shoal A tidal sandbar connecting the islands of Waya and Wayasewa of the Yasawa Islands, Fiji ">Fiji.html" ;"title="Yasawa Islands, Fiji">Yasawa Islands, Fiji In oceanography, geomorphology, and earth sciences, a s ...

reef
on which South Korea has constructed the Ieodo Ocean Research Station. While neither country claims the rock as territory, the PRC has objected to Korean activities there as a breach of its EEZ rights.


Navy of the People's Republic of China (PRC)

In their sphere of naval operations along their littoral (in the East and South China Seas), China today possesses more naval vessels than those of the US Navy. US Presidents
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
and
Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective reci ...

Donald Trump
have given priority to US naval operations, under the US Indo-Pacific Command, to expand its sphere of influence in the Pacific Ocean, to counter China's growing strength, and to be ready for any unforeseen challenges in the future.


East China Sea in astronomy

Possibly, East China Sea (''Donghai'' in
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
) is represented with the star
Eta Serpentis Eta Serpentis, Romanization of Greek, Latinized from η Serpentis, is a star in the constellation Serpens. In particular, it lies in Serpens Cauda, the snake's tail. The star has an apparent visual magnitude of 3.260, making it visible to ...
in asterism ''Left Wall'',
Heavenly Market enclosure The Heavenly Market Enclosure (天市垣, ''Tian Shi Yuan''), is one of the ''San Yuan'' or Three enclosures. Stars and constellations of this group are visible during late summer and early autumn in the Northern Hemisphere (late winter and early ...
(see
Chinese constellation Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populati ...
).


See also

*
Geography of China China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approxi ...
** Xihu Trough *
Geography of Japan Japan is an island country comprising a stratovolcano, stratovolcanic archipelago over along East Asia's Pacific coast. It consists of 6,852 islands. The 5 main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku and Okinawa Island, Okinawa. There are ...
**
Senkaku Islands (Senkaku Islands)(Tiaoyutai Islands / Diaoyutai Islands)(Diaoyu Dao and its affiliated islands)Pinnacle Islands , location = Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends fr ...
(Diaoyu Islands in Mandarin Chinese) *
Philippine Sea The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean east of the Philippine archipelago (hence the name), occupying an estimated surface area of . The Philippine Sea Plate forms the floor of the sea. Its western border is the firs ...
*
Sea of Japan The Sea of Japan is the marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% ...

Sea of Japan
*
South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97 ...

South China Sea


References


Further reading

* * * * Medcalf, Rory. (2020) ''Indo-Pacific Empire: China, America and the contest for the world's pivotal region'' (2020
excerpt
* * * the United States. Congress. (2014)
Maritime Sovereignty in the East and South China Seas: Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces of the Committee on Armed Services Meeting Jointly with the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific of the Committee on Foreign Affairs (Serial No. 113-137), House of Representatives, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, Second Session, Hearing held January 14, 2014
* *


External links

* ''Rising Powers Quarterly'' Volume 3, Issue 2, Aug. 2018
special issue on "The "Indo-Pacific" - Regional Dynamics in the 21st Century's New Geopolitical Center of Gravity"
* Kosuke Takahashi
Gas and oil rivalry in the East China Sea
''Asia Times Online''. 27 July 2004.
Oil and gas in troubled waters
''The Economist''. 6 October 2005. * J Sean Curtin

''Asia Times Online''. 19 October 2005.
Chinese Suyan Rock community

Alexander M. Peterson's 2009 Note in the Cornell International Law Journal detailing the dispute, clarifying the legal impact of the 2008 Sino-Japanese arrangement to cooperate in the East China Sea, and proposing increased Sino-Japanese cooperation.


by Amrita Jash, ''IPP Review (Singapore).'' 29 August 2017. {{Authority control Seas of China Seas of South Korea Seas of Taiwan Seas of Japan Marginal seas of the Pacific Ocean Temperate Northern Pacific China Seas