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Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in ...

Ireland
. Situated on a bay on the east coast, at the mouth of the
River Liffey The River Liffey ( Irish: ''An Life'') is a river in Ireland that flows through the centre of Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Situated on a bay on the east coast, at the mouth of t ...
, it lies within the
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

province
of
Leinster Leinster ( ; ga, Laighin or ) is one of the provinces of Ireland A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or sovereign state, state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ''Roman province, provincia'', which ...

Leinster
. It is bordered on the south by the Dublin Mountains, a part of the
Wicklow Mountains The Wicklow Mountains (, Archaism, archaic: ''Cualu'') form the largest continuous upland area in the Republic of Ireland. They occupy the whole centre of County Wicklow and stretch outside its borders into the Local government in the Republic o ...

Wicklow Mountains
range. It has an
urban Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities. Urban may also refer to: General * Urban (name), a list of people ...
area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the
Dublin Region County Dublin ( ga, Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath or ''Contae Átha Cliath'') is one of the Counties of Ireland, thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland. Prior to 1994 it was also an administrative county covering the whole county outside of Dub ...
(traditional
County Dublin County Dublin ( ga, Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath or ''Contae Átha Cliath'') is one of the Counties of Ireland, thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, located on the island's east coast, within the Provinces of Ireland, province of Leinster. ...

County Dublin
) was 1,347,359. The population of the
Greater Dublin Area The Greater Dublin Area (GDA; Irish language, Irish: ''Mórcheantar Bhaile Átha Cliath''), or simply Greater Dublin, is the city of Dublin and its hinterland, with varying definitions as to its extent. The Dublin Transport Authority Act 2008 has ...

Greater Dublin Area
was 1,904,806 per the 2016 census. There is archaeological debate regarding precisely where and when Dublin originated, with a settlement established by the
Gaels The Gaels (; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group native to Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It i ...
during or before the 7th century AD, and a second,
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami languages, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a Subregion#Europe, subregion in Northern Europe ...

Viking
, settlement, following. As the small
Kingdom of Dublin Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr were the seafaring Norse people from southern Scandinavia (present-day Denmark, Norway and Sweden) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * who from the late 8th to late 11th centuries raid (mi ...
, the city grew, and it became Ireland's principal settlement following the
Norman invasion The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and ...
. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century and was briefly the second largest city in the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
after the
Acts of UnionAct of Union may refer to: In Great Britain and Ireland * Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, passed during the reign of King Henry VIII to make Wales a part of the Kingdom of England (These laws are often referred to in the plural as the "Acts of Un ...
in 1800. Following independence in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the
Irish Free State The Irish Free State ( ga, Saorstát Éireann, , ; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of St ...
, later renamed Ireland. Dublin is a contemporary and historical centre for Irish education, arts and culture, administration and industry. the city was listed by the
Globalization and World Cities Research Network The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
(GaWC) as a
global city A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996 ...
, with a ranking of "Alpha minus", which places it as one of the top thirty cities in the world.


Etymology

The name ''Dublin'' derives from the Irish word ''Dubhlinn'', early Classical Irish /, from (, , ) meaning "black, dark", and () "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the
River Poddle The River Poddle ( ga, An Poitéal) is a river in Dublin, Ireland, a pool on which (''dubh linn'', "the black pool" or "dark pool" in Irish language, Irish) gave the city its English language name. Boosted by a channel made by the Abbey of St Th ...
entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of
Dublin Castle Dublin Castle ( ga, Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath) is a major Government of Ireland, Irish government complex, conference centre, and tourist attraction, of significant historical importance. It is located off Dame Street in central Dublin. Un ...

Dublin Castle
. In Modern Irish the name is ''Duibhlinn'', and Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin it was pronounced ''Duílinn'' . The original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventu ...
,
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and t ...
, modern
Icelandic Icelandic refers to anything of, from, or related to Iceland and may refer to: *Icelandic people *Icelandic language *Icelandic alphabet *Icelandic cuisine See also

* Icelander (disambiguation) * Icelandic Airlines, a predecessor of Icelandai ...
and modern
Manx Manx (; formerly sometimes spelled Manks) is an adjective (and derived noun) describing things or people related to the Isle of Man: * Manx people **Manx surnames * Isle of Man It may also refer to: Languages * Manx language, also known as Manx ...
as well as
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
and
Breton Breton most often refers to: *anything associated with Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br, Breizh, or ; Gallo language, Gallo: ''Bertaèyn'' ) is a peninsula and cultural region in the west of France, covering the western part ...
. Other localities in Ireland also bear the name ''Duibhlinn'', variously anglicised as Devlin, Divlin and Difflin. Historically, scribes using the Gaelic script wrote ''bh'' with a dot over the ''b'', rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn. Those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as ''Dublin''. Variations on the name are also found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Tele ...

Scotland
(
Gàidhealtachd The (; English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World l ...
, cognate with Irish
Gaeltacht ( , ; plural ) is an Irish-language word for any primarily Irish-speaking region. In Ireland, the term ''Gaeltacht'' refers individually to any, or collectively to all, of the districts where the government recognises that the Irish language i ...

Gaeltacht
), such as ''An Linne Dhubh'' ("the black pool"), which is part of
Loch Linnhe Loch Linnhe () is a sea loch on the west coast of Scotland. The part upstream of Corran, Lochaber, Corran is known in Scottish Gaelic, Gaelic as (the black pool, originally known as Loch Abar), and downstream as (the salty pool). The name ''Linnh ...

Loch Linnhe
. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as ''Duibhlinn'', from which ''Dyflin'' took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. The Viking settlement of about 841, ''Dyflin'', and a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath ("ford of hurdles") further up river, at the present day
Father Mathew Bridge Father Mathew Bridge () is a road bridge spanning the River Liffey The River Liffey ( Irish: ''An Life'') is a river in Ireland that flows through the centre of Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Irel ...
(also known as Dublin Bridge), at the bottom of Church Street. ', meaning "town of the hurdled
ford Ford commonly refers to: * Ford Motor Company The Ford Motor Company, commonly known as Ford, is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit (strait) , nicknames ...
", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. ' is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. ' was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, currently occupied by
Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church is a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epist ...
. There are other towns of the same name, such as ''Àth Cliath'' in
East Ayrshire East Ayrshire ( sco, Aest Ayrshire; gd, Siorrachd Àir an Ear) is one of thirty-two council areas For Local government in Scotland, local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as "council areas" ( gd, comhairlean ...

East Ayrshire
, Scotland, which is anglicised as
Hurlford Hurlford (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language famil ...
.


History

The area of
Dublin Bay Dublin Bay ( ga, Cuan Bhaile Átha Cliath) is a C-shaped inlet An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound In physics ...
has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, fish traps discovered from excavations during the construction of the
Convention Centre Dublin The Convention Centre Dublin () is a convention centre in the Dublin Docklands, Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great ...
indicate human habitation as far back as 6,000 years ago while further traps were also discovered closer to the old settlement of the city of Dublin on the south quays near St. James's Gate which also indicate
mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

mesolithic
human activity. The writings of
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek ...
(the Greco-Roman astronomer and
cartographer Cartography (; from Greek χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making and using maps. Combining science Science (from the Latin word ''scienti ...

cartographer
) in about AD 140 provide possibly the earliest reference to a settlement in Dublin. He called it ''
Eblana Eblana () is the name of an ancient Irish settlement which appears in the ''Geographia The ''Geography'' ( grc-gre, Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, ''Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis'',  "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its La ...
polis'' ( grc-gre, Ἔβλανα πόλις). Dublin celebrated its 'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would later become the city of Dublin. It is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as ''Duibhlinn'', from which ''Dyflin'' took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which later became the modern Dublin. The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the
River Poddle The River Poddle ( ga, An Poitéal) is a river in Dublin, Ireland, a pool on which (''dubh linn'', "the black pool" or "dark pool" in Irish language, Irish) gave the city its English language name. Boosted by a channel made by the Abbey of St Th ...
, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as
Wood Quay Wood Quay () is a riverside area of Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Situated on a bay on the east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey, it lies within the Provinces of Ireland, provin ...
. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, where ships used to moor. This pool was finally fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the
Chester Beatty Library The Chester Beatty is a museum and library in Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Situated on a bay on the east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey, it lies within the Provinces of Ire ...
within
Dublin Castle Dublin Castle ( ga, Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath) is a major Government of Ireland, Irish government complex, conference centre, and tourist attraction, of significant historical importance. It is located off Dame Street in central Dublin. Un ...

Dublin Castle
. '' Táin Bó Cuailgne'' ("The Cattle Raid of Cooley") refers to ''Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath'', meaning "Dublin, which is called Ath Cliath".


Middle Ages

Dublin was established as a
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami languages, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a Subregion#Europe, subregion in Northern Europe ...

Viking
settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained largely under Viking control until the
Norman invasion of Ireland The Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland took place during the late 12th century, when Anglo-Normans gradually conquered and acquired large swathes of land from the Irish, which the Kingdom of England then claimed sovereignty over. At the time, Gaeli ...
was launched from Wales in 1169. It was upon the death of
Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn Muircheartach Mac Lochlainn (old spelling: Muirchertach mac Lochlainn) was king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the titl ...
in early 1166 that
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair Ruaidrí mac Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair ( Modern Irish: Ruairí Ó Conchúir; anglicized Rory or Roderic O'Conor) ( – 2 December 1198) was King of Connacht from 1156 to 1186, and High King of Ireland 250px, High kings were traditionally ...
,
King of Connacht The Kings of Connacht were rulers of the ''cóiced'' (variously translated as portion, fifth, province) of Connacht, which lies west of the River Shannon The River Shannon ( ga, Abha na Sionainne, ', ') is the longest river A river is a n ...
, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated ''King of Ireland'' without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 9th and 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men, women and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice. The victims came from
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign ...

Wales
, England, Normandy and beyond. The King of Leinster,
Diarmait Mac Murchada Diarmait Mac Murchada ( Modern Irish: Diarmaid Mac Murchadha), anglicised as Dermot MacMurrough, Dermod MacMurrough, or Dermot MacMorrogh (c. 1110c. 1 May 1171), was a King of Leinster in Ireland. In 1167, he was List of deposed politicians ...
, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King
Henry II of England Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (french: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of ...

Henry II of England
affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mounting a larger invasion in 1171 and pronounced himself Lord of Ireland. Around this time, the ''county of the City of Dublin'' was established along with certain liberties adjacent to the city proper. This continued down to 1840 when the
baronyBarony may refer to: * Barony, the peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles (and sometimes Life peer, non-hereditary titles) in a number of countries, and composed of assorted noble ranks. Peerages incl ...
of Dublin City was separated from the
barony of Dublin Dublin ( ga, Barúntacht Bhaile Átha Cliath
Placenames Database of Ireland.
) is one of the ...
. Since 2001, both baronies have been redesignated as the ''City of Dublin''.
Dublin Castle Dublin Castle ( ga, Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath) is a major Government of Ireland, Irish government complex, conference centre, and tourist attraction, of significant historical importance. It is located off Dame Street in central Dublin. Un ...

Dublin Castle
, which became the centre of Anglo-Norman power in Ireland, was founded in 1204 as a major defensive work on the orders of King
John of England John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216) was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. He lost the Duchy of Normandy The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West ...

John of England
. Following the appointment of the first
Lord Mayor of Dublin The Lord Mayor of Dublin ( ga, Ardmhéara Bhaile Átha Cliath) is the honorary title of the chairman ( ga, Cathaoirleach, links=no ) of Dublin City Council which is the local government body for the city of Dublin, the capital of Ireland. The inc ...
in 1229, the city expanded and had a population of 8,000 by the end of the 13th century. Dublin prospered as a trade centre, despite an attempt by King
Robert I of Scotland Robert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scots The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. According to tradition, the first King of Scots was Kenneth I ...
to capture the city in 1317. It remained a relatively small walled medieval town during the 14th century and was under constant threat from the surrounding native clans. In 1348, the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague pandemic occurring in Afro-Eurasia from 1346 to 1353. It is the List of epidemics, most fatal pandemic recorded in human history, causing th ...

Black Death
, a lethal plague which had ravaged Europe, took hold in Dublin and killed thousands over the following decade. Dublin was the heart of the area known as
the Pale The Pale (''An Pháil'' in Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the Uni ...
, a narrow strip of English settlement along the eastern coast, under the control of the
English Crown This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged from various History of Anglo-Saxon England, Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, unti ...
. The
Tudor conquest of Ireland The Tudor conquest (or reconquest) of Ireland took place under the Tudor dynasty, which held the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged from vario ...
in the 16th century spelt a new era for Dublin, with the city enjoying a renewed prominence as the centre of administrative rule in an Ireland where English control and settlement had become much more extensive. Determined to make Dublin a Protestant city, Queen
Elizabeth I of England Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_a ...

Elizabeth I of England
established
Trinity CollegeTrinity College may refer to: Australia * Trinity Anglican College, an Anglican Church of Australia, Anglican coeducational primary and secondary school in , New South Wales * Trinity Catholic College, Auburn, a coeducational school in the inner-we ...

Trinity College
in 1592 as a solely Protestant university and ordered that the Catholic and
Christ Church Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yeshua, Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jews, Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figu ...

Christ Church
cathedrals be converted to the Protestant church. The city had a population of 21,000 in 1640 before a plague in 1649–51 wiped out almost half of the inhabitants. However, the city prospered again soon after as a result of the wool and linen trade with England, and reached a population of over 50,000 in 1700.


Early modern

As the city continued to prosper during the 18th century,
Georgian Dublin 240px, 18th century view of the Royal Exchange one of "Malton's views of Dublin" ''Georgian Dublin'' is a phrase used in terms of the history of Dublin The City of Dublin can trace its origin back more than 1,000 years, and for much of this ti ...
became, for a short period, the second largest city of the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
and the fifth largest city in Europe, with the population exceeding 130,000. While some medieval streets and layouts (including the areas around , Aungier Street, Capel Street and Thomas Street) were less affected by the wave of Georgian reconstruction, much of Dublin's architecture and layout dates from this period. Dublin grew even more dramatically during the 18th century, with the construction of many new districts and buildings, such as
Merrion Square Merrion Square () is a Georgian architecture, Georgian garden square on the Southside Dublin, southside of Dublin city centre. History The square was laid out in 1752 by the estate of Viscount FitzWilliam and was largely complete by the beginni ...
, Parliament House and the
Royal ExchangeRoyal Exchange may refer to: *North East Quarter, Belfast, a planned city centre development formerly known as Royal Exchange. *Royal Exchange, Dublin, now City Hall, Dublin *Royal Exchange, Edinburgh, now the Edinburgh City Chambers *Royal Exchange ...
. The
Wide Streets Commission The Wide Streets Commission (officially the Commissioners for making Wide and Convenient Ways, Streets and Passages) was established by an Act of Parliament in 1758, at the request of Dublin Corporation, as a body to govern standards on the layout ...
was established in 1757 at the request of
Dublin Corporation Dublin Corporation (), known by generations of Dubliners simply as ''The Corpo'', is the former name of the city government and its administrative organisation in Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland ...
to govern architectural standards on the layout of streets, bridges and buildings. In 1759, the
Guinness brewery St. James's Gate Brewery is a brewery founded in 1759 in Dublin, Ireland, by Arthur Guinness. The company is now a part of Diageo, a company formed from the merger of Guinness and Grand Metropolitan in 1997. The main product of the brewery is Gu ...

Guinness brewery
was founded; and would eventually grow to become the largest brewery in the world and the largest employer in Dublin.


Late modern and contemporary

Dublin suffered a period of political and economic decline during the 19th century following the
Acts of Union 1800 The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in May 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by ...
, under which the seat of government was transferred to the
Westminster Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' an ...
in London. The city played no major role in the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, but remained the centre of administration and a transport hub for most of the island. Ireland had no significant sources of coal, the fuel of the time, and Dublin was not a centre of ship manufacturing, the other main driver of industrial development in Britain and Ireland.
Belfast Belfast ( ; , ) is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland, standing on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast. It is the 12th-largest city in the United Kingdom and the second-largest on the island of Ireland. It had a popul ...

Belfast
developed faster than Dublin during this period on a mixture of international trade, factory-based linen cloth production and shipbuilding. The
Easter Rising The Easter Rising ( ga, Éirí Amach na Cásca), also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed Rebellion, insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week in April 1916. The Rising was launched by Irish republicanism, Irish republicans against Br ...
of 1916, the
Irish War of Independence The Irish War of Independence ( ga, Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought in Ireland from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is a name used by various paramilitary or ...
, and the subsequent
Irish Civil War The Irish Civil War ( ga, Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland I ...
resulted in a significant amount of physical destruction in central Dublin. The Government of the Irish Free State rebuilt the city centre and located the new parliament, the
Oireachtas The Oireachtas ( , ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country ...
, in
Leinster House Leinster House ( ga, Teach Laighean) is the seat of the Oireachtas The Oireachtas ( , ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of ...
. Since the beginning of
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from ...

Norman
rule in the 12th century, the city has functioned as the capital in varying geopolitical entities:
Lordship of Ireland The Lordship of Ireland ( ga, Tiarnas na hÉireann), sometimes referred to retroactively as Norman Ireland, was the part of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title= ...

Lordship of Ireland
(1171–1541),
Kingdom of Ireland The Kingdom of Ireland ( ga, label= Classical Irish, an Ríoghacht Éireann; ga, label=Modern Irish Irish ( in ), sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a of the branch of the , which is a part of the . Irish is to the and was the po ...

Kingdom of Ireland
(1541–1800), as part of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state that existed between 1801 and 1922. It was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland into a unified state ...

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
(1801–1922), and the
Irish Republic The Irish Republic ( ga, Poblacht na hÉireann or ) was an unrecognised revolutionary state that declared its independence from the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the Unite ...

Irish Republic
(1919–1922). Following the
partition of Ireland The partition of Ireland ( ga, críochdheighilt na hÉireann) was the process by which the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state that existed be ...
in 1922, it became the capital of the
Irish Free State The Irish Free State ( ga, Saorstát Éireann, , ; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of St ...
(1922–1937) and now is the capital of Ireland. One of the memorials to commemorate that time is the Garden of Remembrance. Dublin was also a victim of the Northern Irish
Troubles The Troubles ( ga, Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist period of conflict in Northern Ireland that lasted about 30 years from the late 1960s to the late 1990s. Also known internationally as the Northern Ireland conflict, it is sometimes de ...
, although during this 30-year conflict, violence mainly occurred within Northern Ireland. A Loyalist paramilitary group, the
Ulster Volunteer Force The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) is an Ulster loyalist Ulster loyalism is a strand of Ulster unionism associated with working class Ulster Protestants in Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; Ulster Scots d ...
, bombed the city during this time – notably in an atrocity known as the
Dublin and Monaghan bombings #REDIRECT Dublin and Monaghan bombings #REDIRECT Dublin and Monaghan bombings#REDIRECT Dublin and Monaghan bombings The Dublin and Monaghan bombings of 17 May 1974 were a series of co-ordinated bombings in counties Dublin Dublin (, ; ) ...
in which 34 people died, mainly in central Dublin. Large parts of Georgian Dublin were demolished or substantially redeveloped in the mid-20th century during a boom in office building. After this boom, the recessions of the 1970s and 1980s slowed down the pace of building. Cumulatively, this led to a large decline in the number of people living in the centre of the city, and by 1985 the city had approximately 150 acres of derelict land which had been earmarked for development and of office space. Since 1997, the landscape of Dublin has changed. The city was at the forefront of Ireland's economic expansion during the
Celtic Tiger The "Celtic Tiger" ( ga, An Tíogar Ceilteach) is a term referring to the economy of the Republic of Ireland from the mid-1990s to the late 2000s, a period of rapid real economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment. The boom was dampened ...
period, with private sector and state development of housing, transport and business. Following an economic decline during the Great Recession, Dublin has rebounded and has close to full employment, but has a significant problem with housing supply in both the city and surrounds.


Government


Local

Dublin City Council Dublin City Council ( ga, Comhairle Cathrach Bhaile Átha Cliath) is the authority responsible for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementati ...
is a
unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliament'' or ''unicameral legislature'' is a legislature which co ...
assembly of 63 members elected every five years from
local electoral area A local electoral area (LEA; ga, Toghlimistéir Áitiúil) is an electoral area for elections to local authorities in Ireland. All elections An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individua ...
s. It is presided over by the
Lord Mayor Lord mayor is a title of a mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization or ...
, who is elected for a yearly term and resides in Dublin's Mansion House. Council meetings occur at Dublin City Hall, while most of its administrative activities are based in the Civic Offices on
Wood Quay Wood Quay () is a riverside area of Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Situated on a bay on the east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey, it lies within the Provinces of Ireland, provin ...
. The party or coalition of parties with the majority of seats assigns committee members, introduces policies, and proposes the Lord Mayor. The Council passes an annual budget for spending on areas such as housing, traffic management, refuse, drainage, and planning. The Dublin City Manager is responsible for implementing City Council decisions but also has considerable executive power.


National

As the capital city, Dublin is the seat of the national parliament of Ireland, the
Oireachtas The Oireachtas ( , ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country ...
. It is composed of the President of Ireland, Dáil Éireann as the house of representatives, and Seanad Éireann as the upper house. The President resides in Áras an Uachtaráin in Phoenix Park, while both houses of the Oireachtas meet in
Leinster House Leinster House ( ga, Teach Laighean) is the seat of the Oireachtas The Oireachtas ( , ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of ...
, a former ducal residence on Kildare Street. It has been the home of the Irish parliament since the foundation of the
Irish Free State The Irish Free State ( ga, Saorstát Éireann, , ; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of St ...
in 1922. The old Irish Houses of Parliament of the
Kingdom of Ireland The Kingdom of Ireland ( ga, label= Classical Irish, an Ríoghacht Éireann; ga, label=Modern Irish Irish ( in ), sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a of the branch of the , which is a part of the . Irish is to the and was the po ...

Kingdom of Ireland
, which dissolved in 1801, are located in College Green, Dublin, College Green. Government Buildings house the Department of the Taoiseach, the Council Chamber, the Department of Finance and the Attorney General of Ireland, Office of the Attorney General. It consists of a main building (completed 1911) with two wings (completed 1921). It was designed by Thomas Manley Dean and Sir Aston Webb as the Royal College of Science (Ireland), Royal College of Science. The First Dáil originally met in the Mansion House in 1919. The Irish Free State government took over the two wings of the building to serve as a temporary home for some ministries, while the central building became the College of Technology until 1989. Although both it and Leinster House were intended to be temporary locations, they became the permanent homes of parliament from then on. For elections to Dáil Éireann, there are five constituencies that are wholly or predominantly in the Dublin City area: Dublin Central (Dáil constituency), Dublin Central (4 seats), Dublin Bay North (Dáil constituency), Dublin Bay North (5 seats), Dublin North-West (Dáil constituency), Dublin North-West (3 seats), Dublin South-Central (Dáil constituency), Dublin South-Central (4 seats) and Dublin Bay South (Dáil constituency), Dublin Bay South (4 seats). Twenty TDs are elected in total. The constituency of Dublin West (Dáil constituency), Dublin West (4 seats) is partially in Dublin City, but predominantly in Fingal. At the 2020 Irish general election, 2020 general election, the Dublin city area elected 5 Sinn Féin, 3 Fine Gael, 3 Fianna Fáil, 3 Green Party (Ireland), Green Party, 3 Social Democrats (Ireland), Social Democrats, 1 Right to Change, 1 Solidarity–People Before Profit and 1 Labour Party (Ireland), Labour TDs.


Geography


City boundaries

From 1842, the boundaries of the city were comprehended by the Barony (Ireland), baronies of Dublin City and the Barony of Dublin. In 1930, the boundaries were extended by the Local Government (Dublin) Act. In 1953, the boundaries were extended by the Local Government Provisional Order Confirmation Act. In 1985, land was transferred between the city and the county.


Landscape

Dublin is situated at the mouth of the
River Liffey The River Liffey ( Irish: ''An Life'') is a river in Ireland that flows through the centre of Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Situated on a bay on the east coast, at the mouth of t ...
and encompasses a land area of approximately in east-central Ireland. It is bordered by the Dublin Mountains, a low mountain range and sub range of the
Wicklow Mountains The Wicklow Mountains (, Archaism, archaic: ''Cualu'') form the largest continuous upland area in the Republic of Ireland. They occupy the whole centre of County Wicklow and stretch outside its borders into the Local government in the Republic o ...

Wicklow Mountains
, to the south and surrounded by flat farmland to the north and west.


Watercourses

The River Liffey divides the city in two, between the Northside and the Southside. The Liffey bends at Leixlip from a northeasterly route to a predominantly eastward direction, and this point also marks the transition to urban development from more agricultural land usage. The city itself was founded where the
River Poddle The River Poddle ( ga, An Poitéal) is a river in Dublin, Ireland, a pool on which (''dubh linn'', "the black pool" or "dark pool" in Irish language, Irish) gave the city its English language name. Boosted by a channel made by the Abbey of St Th ...
met the Liffey, and the early Viking settlement was also facilitated by the small Stein or Steyne River, the larger Camac and the Bradogue, in particular. Two secondary rivers further divide the city: the River Tolka, running southeast into Dublin Bay, and the River Dodder running northeast to near the mouth of the Liffey, and these and the Liffey have multiple tributaries. A number of lesser rivers and streams also flow to the sea within the suburban parts of the city. Two canals – the Grand Canal of Ireland, Grand Canal on the southside and the Royal Canal of Ireland, Royal Canal on the northside – ring the inner city on their way from the west and the River Shannon.


Cultural divide

A north–south division once, to some extent, traditionally existed, with the River Liffey as the divider. The southside was, in recent times, generally seen as being more affluent and genteel than the northside. There have also been some social divisions evident between the coastal suburbs in the east of the city, and the newer developments further to the west. In some tourism and real-estate marketing contexts, inner Dublin is sometimes divided into a number of quarters or districts. These include, the Medieval Quarter (in the area of
Dublin Castle Dublin Castle ( ga, Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath) is a major Government of Ireland, Irish government complex, conference centre, and tourist attraction, of significant historical importance. It is located off Dame Street in central Dublin. Un ...

Dublin Castle
, Christ Church, Dublin, Christ Church and St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, St Patrick's Cathedral and the old city walls), the Georgian Quarter (including the area around St Stephen's Green, Trinity College, and
Merrion Square Merrion Square () is a Georgian architecture, Georgian garden square on the Southside Dublin, southside of Dublin city centre. History The square was laid out in 1752 by the estate of Viscount FitzWilliam and was largely complete by the beginni ...
), the Docklands Quarter (around the Dublin Docklands and Silicon Docks), the Cultural Quarter (around ), and Creative Quarter (between South William Street and George's Street).


Climate

Similar to much of the rest of northwestern Europe, Dublin experiences a maritime climate (Köppen climate classification, ''Cfb'') with mild-warm summers, cool winters, and a lack of temperature extremes. The average maximum January temperature is , while the average maximum July temperature is . On average, the sunniest months are May and June, while the wettest month is October with of rain, and the driest month is February with . Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year. Dublin's sheltered location on the east coast makes it the driest place in Ireland, receiving only about half the rainfall of the west coast. Ringsend in the south of the city records the lowest rainfall in the country, with an average annual precipitation of , with the average annual precipitation in the city centre being . The main precipitation in winter is rain; however snow showers do occur between November and March. Hail is more common than snow. The city experiences long summer days and short winter days. Strong Atlantic winds are most common in autumn. These winds can affect Dublin, but due to its easterly location, it is least affected compared to other parts of the country. However, in winter, easterly winds render the city colder and more prone to snow showers. In the 20th century, smog and air-pollution were an issue in the city, precipitating a ban on bituminous fuels across Dublin. The ban was implemented in 1990 to address black smoke concentrations, that had been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory deaths in residents. Since the ban, non-trauma death rates, respiratory death rates and cardiovascular death rates have declined – by an estimated 350 deaths annually.


Places of interest


Landmarks

Dublin has many landmarks and monuments dating back hundreds of years. One of the oldest is
Dublin Castle Dublin Castle ( ga, Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath) is a major Government of Ireland, Irish government complex, conference centre, and tourist attraction, of significant historical importance. It is located off Dame Street in central Dublin. Un ...

Dublin Castle
, which was first founded as a major defensive work on the orders of England's John, King of England, King John in 1204, shortly after the
Norman invasion of Ireland The Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland took place during the late 12th century, when Anglo-Normans gradually conquered and acquired large swathes of land from the Irish, which the Kingdom of England then claimed sovereignty over. At the time, Gaeli ...
in 1169, when it was commanded that a castle be built with strong walls and good ditches for the defence of the city, the administration of justice, and the protection of the King's treasure. Largely complete by 1230, the castle was of typical Norman courtyard design, with a central square without a keep, bounded on all sides by tall defensive walls and protected at each corner by a circular tower. Sited to the south-east of Norman Dublin, the castle formed one corner of the outer perimeter of the city, using the
River Poddle The River Poddle ( ga, An Poitéal) is a river in Dublin, Ireland, a pool on which (''dubh linn'', "the black pool" or "dark pool" in Irish language, Irish) gave the city its English language name. Boosted by a channel made by the Abbey of St Th ...
as a natural means of defence. One of Dublin's newest monuments is the Spire of Dublin, officially entitled the "Monument of Light." It is a conical spire made of stainless steel, located on O'Connell Street where it meets Henry Street and North Earl Street. It replaces Nelson's Pillar and is intended to mark Dublin's place in the 21st century. The spire was designed by Ian Ritchie Architects, who sought an "Elegant and dynamic simplicity bridging art and technology". The base of the monument is lit and the top is illuminated to provide a beacon in the night sky across the city. The Old Library of Trinity College, Dublin, holding the Book of Kells, is one of the city's most visited sites. The Book of Kells is an illustrated manuscript created by Irish monks circa 800 AD. The Ha'penny Bridge, an iron footbridge over the River Liffey, is one of the most photographed sights in Dublin and is considered to be one of Dublin's most iconic landmarks. Other landmarks and monuments include Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, Christ Church Cathedral and St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, St Patrick's Cathedral, the Mansion House, the Molly Malone statue, the complex of buildings around Leinster House, including part of the National Museum of Ireland and the National Library of Ireland, The Custom House and Áras an Uachtaráin. Other sights include the Anna Livia (monument), Anna Livia monument. The Poolbeg Generating Station, Poolbeg Towers are also landmark features of Dublin, and visible from various spots around the city.


Parks

There are many green-spaces around the city, and Dublin City Council manages over of parks. Public parks include the Phoenix Park, Herbert Park, St Stephen's Green, Saint Anne's Park and Bull Island. The Phoenix Park is about west of the city centre, north of the
River Liffey The River Liffey ( Irish: ''An Life'') is a river in Ireland that flows through the centre of Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Situated on a bay on the east coast, at the mouth of t ...
. Its perimeter wall encloses , making it one of the largest walled city parks in Europe. It includes large areas of grassland and tree-lined avenues, and since the 17th century has been home to a herd of wild fallow deer. The residence of the President of Ireland (Áras an Uachtaráin), which was built in 1751, is located in the park. The park is also home to Dublin Zoo, Ashtown Castle, and the official residence of the United States Ambassador to Ireland, United States Ambassador. Music concerts are also sometimes held in the park. St Stephen's Green is adjacent to one of Dublin's main shopping streets, Grafton Street, Dublin, Grafton Street, and to Stephen's Green Shopping Centre, a shopping centre named after it, while on its surrounding streets are the offices of a number of public bodies. Saint Anne's Park is a public park and recreational facility, shared between Raheny and Clontarf, Dublin, Clontarf, both suburbs on the Northside. The park, the second largest municipal park in Dublin, is part of a former estate assembled by members of the Guinness family, beginning with Benjamin Lee Guinness in 1835 (the largest municipal park is nearby (North) Bull Island, also shared between Clontarf and Raheny), featuring a 5 km beach.


Economy

The Dublin region is the economic centre of Ireland, and was at the forefront of the country's economic expansion during the
Celtic Tiger The "Celtic Tiger" ( ga, An Tíogar Ceilteach) is a term referring to the economy of the Republic of Ireland from the mid-1990s to the late 2000s, a period of rapid real economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment. The boom was dampened ...
period. In 2009, Dublin was listed as the fourth richest city in the world by purchasing power and 10th richest by personal income. According to ''Mercer's 2011 Worldwide Cost of Living Survey'', Dublin is the 13th most expensive city in the European Union (down from 10th in 2010) and the 58th most expensive place to live in the world (down from 42nd in 2010). , approximately 874,400 people were employed in the Greater Dublin Area. Around 60% of people who are employed in Ireland's financial, ICT, and professional sectors are located in this area. A number of Dublin's traditional industries, such as food processing, textile manufacturing, brewing, and distilling have gradually declined, although Guinness has been brewed at the St. James's Gate Brewery since 1759. Economic improvements in the 1990s attracted a number of global pharmaceutical, information and communications technology companies to the city and
Greater Dublin Area The Greater Dublin Area (GDA; Irish language, Irish: ''Mórcheantar Bhaile Átha Cliath''), or simply Greater Dublin, is the city of Dublin and its hinterland, with varying definitions as to its extent. The Dublin Transport Authority Act 2008 has ...

Greater Dublin Area
. Companies such as Microsoft, Google, Amazon.com, Amazon, eBay, PayPal, Yahoo!, Facebook, Twitter, Accenture, TikTok and Pfizer now have European headquarters and/or operational bases in the city, with several located in enterprise clusters like the The Digital Hub, Digital Hub and Silicon Docks. The presence of these companies has driven economic expansion in the city and led to Dublin sometimes being referred to as the "Tech Capital of Europe". Financial services have also become important to the city since the establishment of Dublin's International Financial Services Centre in 1987. More than 500 operations are approved to trade under the IFSC programme. The centre is host to half of the world's top 50 banks and to half of the top 20 insurance companies. Many international firms have established major headquarters in the city, such as Citibank. The Irish Stock Exchange (ISEQ), Internet Neutral Exchange (INEX) and Irish Enterprise Exchange (IEX) are also located in Dublin. Dublin has been positioned as one of the main cities vying to host Financial Services companies hoping to retain access to the Eurozone after Brexit. The Celtic Tiger also led to a temporary boom in construction, with large redevelopment projects in the Dublin Docklands and Spencer Dock. Completed projects include the Convention Centre Dublin, Convention Centre, the 3Arena, and the Bord Gáis Energy Theatre. In the second quarter of 2018, Dublin touched its lowest unemployment rate in a decade, when it fell down to 5.7% as reported by the Dublin Economic Monitor.


Transport


Road

The road network in Ireland is primarily focused on Dublin. The M50 motorway (Ireland), M50 motorway, a semi-ring road which runs around the south, west and north of the city, connects important national primary routes to the rest of the country. In 2008, the West-Link toll bridge was replaced by the eFlow barrier-free tolling system, with a three-tiered charge system based on electronic tags and car pre-registration. The first phase of a proposed eastern bypass for the city is the Dublin Port Tunnel, which officially opened in 2006 to mainly cater for heavy vehicles. The tunnel connects Dublin Port and the M1 motorway (Republic of Ireland), M1 motorway close to Dublin Airport. The city is also surrounded by an inner and outer orbital route. The inner orbital route runs approximately around the heart of the Georgian city and the outer orbital route runs primarily along the natural circle formed by Dublin's two canals, the Grand Canal of Ireland, Grand Canal and the Royal Canal of Ireland, Royal Canal, as well as the North and South Circular Roads. The 2016 TomTom Traffic Index ranked Dublin the 15th most congested city in the world and the 7th most congested in Europe.


Bus

Dublin is served by a network of nearly 200 bus routes which cover the city and suburbs. The majority of these are provided by Dublin Bus, with a modest number having been transferred to Go Ahead Ireland in 2018. A number of smaller companies also operate. Fares are generally calculated on a stage system based on distance travelled. There are several different levels of fares, which apply on most services. A "Real Time Passenger Information" system was introduced at Dublin Bus bus stops in 2012 in which signs relay display the projected time of the next buses' arrival based on its GPS position. The National Transport Authority (Ireland), National Transport Authority is responsible for integration of bus and rail services in Dublin and has been involved in introducing a pre-paid smart card, called a Leap card, which can be used on all of Dublin's public transport services.


Cycling

The 2011 Census showed that 5.9 percent of commuters in Dublin cycled. A 2013 report by Dublin City Council on traffic flows crossing the canals in and out of the city found that just under 10% of all traffic was made up of cyclists, representing an increase of 14.1% over 2012 and an 87.2% increase over 2006 levels and is attributed to measures, such as, the Dublinbikes bike rental scheme, the provision of cycle lanes, public awareness campaigns to promote cycling and the introduction of the 30 km/h city centre speed limit. Dublin City Council began installing cycle lanes and tracks throughout the city in the 1990s, and the city had over of specific on- and off-road tracks for cyclists. In 2011, the city was ranked 9th of major world cities on the ''Copenhagenize Index of Bicycle-Friendly Cities''. The same index showed a fall to 15th in 2015, and Dublin was outside the top 20 in 2017. Dublinbikes is a Bicycle sharing system, self-service bicycle rental scheme which has been in operation in Dublin since 2009. Sponsored by JCDecaux and Just Eat, the scheme consists of hundreds of unisex bicycles stationed at 44 terminals throughout the city centre. Users must make a subscription for either an annual Long Term Hire Card or purchase a three-day ticket. , Dublinbikes had over 66,000 long-term subscribers making over 2 million journeys per year.


Rail

Dublin Heuston railway station, Heuston and Dublin Connolly railway station, Connolly stations are the two main railway termini in Dublin. Operated by Iarnród Éireann, the Dublin Suburban Rail network consists of five railway lines serving the Greater Dublin Area and commuter towns such as Drogheda and Dundalk in County Louth, Gorey in County Wexford, and extending as far as Portlaoise and once a day, Newry. One of the five lines is the electrified Dublin Area Rapid Transit (DART) line, which runs primarily along the coast of Dublin, comprising 31 stations, from Malahide and Howth southwards as far as Greystones in County Wicklow. Commuter (Irish Rail), Commuter rail operates on the other four lines using Irish Rail diesel multiple units. In 2013, passengers for DART and Dublin Suburban lines were 16 million and 11.7 million, respectively (around 75% of all Irish Rail passengers). Dublin once had an extensive system of Dublin tramways, trams but this was largely phased out by 1949. A new light rail system, often described as a tram system, the Luas, was launched in 2004, and is run by Transdev Ireland (under contract from Transport Infrastructure Ireland), carrying over 34 million passengers annually. The network consists of two interconnecting lines; the Red Line (Luas), Red Line links the Dublin Docklands, Docklands and city centre with the south-western suburbs of Tallaght and Saggart, while the Green Line (Luas), Green Line connects northern inner city suburbs and the main city centre with suburbs to the south of the city including Sandyford and Brides Glen. Together these lines comprise a total 67 stations and of track. Construction of a 6 km extension to the Green Line, bringing it into the north of the city, commenced in June 2013 and was opened for passenger travel on 9 December 2017. A Rapid transit, metro service is proposed under the name of MetroLink (Dublin), Metrolink, and planned to run from Dublin's Northside, Dublin, northside to Sandyford via Dublin Airport and St. Stephen's Green.


Rail and ferry

Dublin Connolly is connected by bus to Dublin Port and ferries run by Irish Ferries and Stena Line to Holyhead railway station, Holyhead for connecting trains on the North Wales Coast Line to Chester railway station, Chester, Crewe railway station, Crewe and Euston railway station, London Euston. Dublin Connolly to Dublin Port can be reached via Amiens Street, Dublin into Store Street or by Luas via Busáras where Dublin Bus operates services to the Ferry Terminal.


Air


Dublin Airport

Dublin Airport (owned and operated by DAA (Irish company), DAA) is located north of Dublin city, near Swords, Dublin, Swords in the administrative county of Fingal. The headquarters of Ireland's flag carrier Aer Lingus and regional airline CityJet are located there, and those of low-cost carrier Ryanair nearby. The airport offers a short and medium-haul network, domestic services to regional airports in Ireland, and long-haul services to the United States, Canada, the Middle East and Hong Kong. Dublin Airport is the 11th busiest in the European Union, and by far the busiest airport on the island of Ireland. In 2014, Dublin Airport was the 18th busiest airport in Europe, serving over 21 million passengers. By 2016 this increased to 27.9 million passengers passing through the airport, establishing an all-time record supported by growth in both short- and long-haul networks. In 2015 and 2016, transatlantic traffic grew, with 158 summer flights a week to North America, making it the sixth largest European hub for that route over the year. Transatlantic traffic was also the fastest-growing segment of the market for the airport in 2016, in which a 16% increase from 2015 brought the yearly number of passengers travelling between Dublin and North America to 2.9 million. From 2010 to 2016, Dublin Airport saw an increase of nearly 9.5 million passengers in its annual traffic, as the number of commercial aircraft movements has similarly followed a growth trend from 163,703 in 2013 to 191,233 in 2015.


Other air transport

Dublin is also served by Weston Airport and other small facilities, by a range of helicopter operators, and the military and some State services use Casement Aerodrome nearby.


Education

Dublin is the largest centre of education in Ireland, and is home to four universities and a number of other higher education institutions. It was the European Capital of Science in 2012. The University of Dublin is the oldest university in Ireland, dating from the 16th century, and is located in the city centre. Its sole constituent college,
Trinity CollegeTrinity College may refer to: Australia * Trinity Anglican College, an Anglican Church of Australia, Anglican coeducational primary and secondary school in , New South Wales * Trinity Catholic College, Auburn, a coeducational school in the inner-we ...

Trinity College
(TCD), was established by Royal Charter in 1592 under Elizabeth I of England, Elizabeth I. It was closed to Roman Catholics until 1793, and the Catholic Church hierarchy, Catholic hierarchy then banned Roman Catholics from attending until 1970. It is situated in the city centre, on College Green, and has over 18,000 students. The National University of Ireland (NUI) has its seat in Dublin, which is also the location of the associated ''constituent university'' of University College Dublin (UCD), which has over 30,000 students. Founded in 1854, it is now the largest university in Ireland. UCD's main campus is at Belfield, about from the city centre, in the southeastern suburbs. As of 2019, Dublin's principal, and Ireland's largest, institution for technological education and research, Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT), with origins in 1887, has merged with two major suburban third level institutions, Institute of Technology, Tallaght and Institute of Technology, Blanchardstown, to form Technological University Dublin, Ireland's second largest university by student population. The new university offers a wide range of courses in areas include engineering, architecture, the sciences, health, journalism, digital media, hospitality, business, art and design, music and the humanities programmes, and has three long-term campuses, at Grangegorman, Tallaght and Blanchardstown. Dublin City University (DCU), formerly the National Institute for Higher Education (NIHE) Dublin, offers courses in business, engineering, science, communication courses, languages and primary education. It has around 16,000 students, and its main campus is located about from the city centre, in the northern suburbs. Aside from the main Glasnevin Campus, the Drumcondra campuses includes the former St. Patrick's College of Education, Drumcondra now also hosting students from the nearby Mater Dei Institute of Education and students from the Church of Ireland College of Education at the DCU Campus at All Hallows College. The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) conducts a medical school which is both a university (since 2019) and a recognised college of the NUI, and is situated at St. Stephen's Green in the city centre; there are also large medical schools within UCD and Trinity College. The National College of Art and Design (NCAD) provides education and research in art, design and media. The National College of Ireland (NCI) is also based in Dublin, as well as the Economic and Social Research Institute, a social science research institute, on Sir John Rogerson's Quay, and the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. The Institute of International and European Affairs is also in Dublin. Dublin Business School (DBS) is Ireland's largest private third level institution with over 9,000 students located on Aungier Street, and Griffith College Dublin has its main facility in Portobello. There are also smaller specialised colleges, including The Gaiety School of Acting. The Irish public administration and management training centre has its base in Dublin, the Institute of Public Administration provides a range of undergraduate and post graduate awards via the National University of Ireland and in some instances, Queen's University Belfast. Dublin is also home to the Royal Irish Academy, membership of which is considered Ireland's highest academic honour. The suburban town of Dún Laoghaire is home to the Dún Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology (IADT), which supports training and research in art, design, business, psychology and media technology.


Demographics

The City of Dublin is the area administered by
Dublin City Council Dublin City Council ( ga, Comhairle Cathrach Bhaile Átha Cliath) is the authority responsible for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementati ...
, but the term "Dublin" is also used to refer to the contiguous urban area which includes parts of the adjacent local authority areas of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin. Together, the four areas form the traditional
County Dublin County Dublin ( ga, Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath or ''Contae Átha Cliath'') is one of the Counties of Ireland, thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, located on the island's east coast, within the Provinces of Ireland, province of Leinster. ...

County Dublin
. This area is sometimes known as the
Dublin Region County Dublin ( ga, Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath or ''Contae Átha Cliath'') is one of the Counties of Ireland, thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland. Prior to 1994 it was also an administrative county covering the whole county outside of Dub ...
. The population of the administrative area controlled by the City Council was 554,554 in the 2016 census, while the population of the urban area was 1,173,179. The County Dublin population was 1,273,069 and that of the
Greater Dublin Area The Greater Dublin Area (GDA; Irish language, Irish: ''Mórcheantar Bhaile Átha Cliath''), or simply Greater Dublin, is the city of Dublin and its hinterland, with varying definitions as to its extent. The Dublin Transport Authority Act 2008 has ...

Greater Dublin Area
1,904,806. The area's population is expanding rapidly, and it is estimated by the Central Statistics Office (Ireland), Central Statistics Office that it will reach 2.1 million by 2020. After World War Two, Italians were by far the largest immigrant group in both Dublin and Ireland and became synonymous with the catering and restaurant landscape. Since the late 1990s, Dublin has experienced a significant level of net immigration, with the greatest numbers coming from the European Union, especially the United Kingdom, Poland and Lithuania. There is also immigration from outside Europe, including from Brazil, India, the Philippines, China and Nigeria. Dublin is home to a greater proportion of newer arrivals than any other part of the country. Sixty percent of Ireland's Asian population lives in Dublin. Over 15% of Dublin's population was foreign-born in 2006. The capital attracts the largest proportion of non-Catholic migrants from other countries. Increased secularisation in Ireland has prompted a drop in regular Catholic church attendance in Dublin from over 90 percent in the mid-1970s down to 14 percent according to a 2011 survey and less than 2% in some areas According to the 2016 census, the population of Dublin was 86.2% white (including 862,381 white Irish [86.2%], 132,846 other white [13.2%] and 5,092 [0.5%] white Irish traveller), 2% black (23,892), and 4.6% Asian (46,626). Additionally, 2.7% (27,412) are from other ethnic or cultural background, while 4.9% (49,092) did not state their ethnicity. In terms of religion, 68.2% identified as Catholic, 12.7% as other stated religions, with 19.1% having no religion or no religion stated. , there were 1,367 families within the Dublin region living in homeless accommodation or other emergency housing.


Culture


The arts

Dublin has a significant literary history, and produced many literary figures, including Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel laureates William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw and Samuel Beckett. Other influential writers and playwrights include Oscar Wilde, Jonathan Swift and the creator of Dracula, Bram Stoker. It is also the location of key and notable works of James Joyce, including ''Ulysses (novel), Ulysses'', which is set in Dublin and includes much topical detail. ''Dubliners'' is a collection of short stories by Joyce about incidents and typical characters of the city during the early 20th century. Other renowned writers include J. M. Synge, Seán O'Casey, Brendan Behan, Maeve Binchy, John Banville and Roddy Doyle. Ireland's biggest libraries and literary museums are found in Dublin, including the National Print Museum of Ireland and National Library of Ireland. In July 2010, Dublin was named as a UNESCO City of Literature, joining Edinburgh, Melbourne and Iowa City with the permanent title. Handel's oratorio Messiah (Handel), Messiah was first performed at Neal's Music Hall, in Fishamble Street, on 13 April 1742 in Ireland, 1742. There are several theatres within the city centre, and various well-known actors have emerged from the Dublin theatrical scene, including Noel Purcell (actor), Noel Purcell, Michael Gambon, Brendan Gleeson, Stephen Rea, Colin Farrell, Colm Meaney and Gabriel Byrne. The best known theatres include the Gaiety Theatre, Dublin, Gaiety, Abbey Theatre, Abbey, Olympia Theatre, Dublin, Olympia, Gate Theatre, Gate, and Grand Canal Theatre, Grand Canal. The Gaiety specialises in musical and operatic productions, and also opens its doors after the evening theatre production to host a variety of live music, dancing, and films. The Abbey was founded in 1904 by a group that included William Butler Yeats, Yeats with the aim of promoting indigenous literary talent. It went on to provide a breakthrough for some of the city's most famous writers, such as J. M. Synge, Synge, Yeats himself and George Bernard Shaw. The Gate was founded in 1928 to promote European and American Avant Garde works. The Grand Canal Theatre is a newer 2,111 capacity theatre which opened in 2010 in the Grand Canal Dock area. Apart from being the focus of the country's literature and theatre, Dublin is also the focal point for much of Irish art and the Irish artistic scene. The Book of Kells, a world-famous manuscript produced by Celtic monks in AD 800 and an example of Insular art, is on display in Trinity College Dublin, Trinity College. The
Chester Beatty Library The Chester Beatty is a museum and library in Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Situated on a bay on the east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey, it lies within the Provinces of Ire ...
houses a collection of manuscripts, miniature paintings, prints, drawings, rare books and decorative arts assembled by American mining millionaire (and honorary Irish citizen) Sir Alfred Chester Beatty (1875–1968). The collections date from 2700 BC onwards and are drawn from Asia, the Middle East, North Africa and Europe. In addition public Art gallery, art galleries are found across the city and are free to visit, including the Irish Museum of Modern Art, the National Gallery of Ireland, National Gallery, the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery, the Douglas Hyde Gallery, the Project Arts Centre and the exhibition space of the Royal Hibernian Academy. Private galleries in Dublin include Green on Red Gallery, Kerlin Gallery, Kevin Kavanagh Gallery and Mother's Tankstation. Three branches of the National Museum of Ireland are located in Dublin: National Museum of Ireland – Archaeology, Archaeology in Kildare Street, National Museum of Ireland – Decorative Arts and History, Decorative Arts and History in Collins Barracks and Natural History Museum (Ireland), Natural History in Merrion Street. The same area is also home to a number of smaller museums such as Number 29 on Fitzwilliam Street and the Little Museum of Dublin on St. Stephen's Green. Dublin is home to the National College of Art and Design, which dates from 1746, and Dublin Institute of Design, founded in 1991. Dublinia is a living history attraction showcasing the Viking and Medieval history of the city. Dublin has long had an 'underground' arts scene, with Temple Bar hosting artists in the 1980s, and spaces such as the Project Arts Centre acting as a hub for collectives and new exhibitions. ''The Guardian'' noted that Dublin's independent and underground arts flourished during the economic recession of c.2010. Dublin also has many dramatic, musical and operatic companies, including Festival Productions, Lyric Opera Productions, the Pioneers' Musical & Dramatic Society, Rathmines and Rathgar Musical Society, the Glasnevin Musical Society, Third Day Chorale, Second Age Theatre Company, Opera Theatre Company and Opera Ireland. Dublin was shortlisted to be World Design Capital 2014. Taoiseach Enda Kenny was quoted to say that Dublin "would be an ideal candidate to host the World Design Capital in 2014". In October 2021, Dublin was shortlisted for the European Commission's 2022 European Capital of Smart Tourism award along with Bordeaux, Copenhagen, Florence, Ljubljana, Palma de Mallorca and Valencia.


Entertainment

Dublin has a vibrant nightlife and is reputedly one of Europe's most youthful cities, with an estimate of 50% of citizens being younger than 25. There are many pubs across the city centre, with the area around St. Stephen's Green and Grafton Street, especially Harcourt Street, Camden Street, Wexford Street and Leeson Street, the location of many nightclubs and pubs. The best known area for nightlife is , south of the River Liffey. The area has become popular among tourists, including Bachelor Party, stag and Bachelorette Party, hen parties from the UK. It was developed as Dublin's cultural quarter and does retain this spirit as a centre for small arts productions, photographic and artists' studios, and in the form of street performers and small music venues; however, it has been criticised as overpriced, false and dirty by Lonely Planet. The areas around Leeson Street, Harcourt Street, South William Street and Camden/George's Street are popular nightlife spots for locals.


Music

Live music is played on streets and at venues throughout Dublin, and the city has produced several musicians and groups of international success, including The Dubliners, Thin Lizzy, The Boomtown Rats, U2, The Script, Sinéad O'Connor, Boyzone, Kodaline, Fontaines D.C. and Westlife. Dublin has several mid-range venues that host live music throughout the week, including Whelan's (music venue), Whelans and Vicar Street. The 3Arena venue in the Dublin Docklands plays host to visiting global performers.


Shopping

Dublin city centre is a popular shopping destination for both locals and tourists. The city has numerous shopping districts, particularly around Grafton Street (Dublin), Grafton Street and Henry Street (Dublin), Henry Street. The city centre is also the location of large department stores, including Arnotts (Ireland), Arnotts, Brown Thomas and (prior to its 2015 closure) Clerys. While the city has seen the loss of some traditional market sites, Moore Street remains one of the city's oldest trading districts. There has also been some growth in local farmers' markets and other markets. In 2007, Dublin Food Co-op relocated to a warehouse in The Liberties area, where it is home to market and community events. Suburban Dublin has several modern retail centres, including Dundrum Town Centre, Blanchardstown Centre, The Square Shopping Centre, the Square in Tallaght, Liffey Valley Shopping Centre in Clondalkin, Omni Shopping Centre in Santry, Nutgrove Shopping Centre in Rathfarnham, and Swords Pavilions in Swords, Dublin, Swords.


Media

Dublin is the centre of both media and communications in Ireland, with many newspapers, radio stations, television stations and telephone companies based there. Raidió Teilifís Éireann, RTÉ is Ireland's national state broadcaster, and is based in Donnybrook, Dublin, Donnybrook. Fair City is RTÉ's soap opera, located in the fictional Dublin suburb of ''Carraigstown''. Virgin Media Television (Ireland), Virgin Media Television, eir Sport, MTV Ireland and Sky News are also based in the city. The headquarters of An Post and telecommunications companies such as Eir (telecommunications), Eir, as well as mobile operators Vodafone Ireland, Vodafone and Three Ireland, 3 are all located there. Dublin is also the headquarters of national newspapers such as ''The Irish Times'' and ''Irish Independent'', as well as local newspapers such as ''Evening Herald, The Evening Herald''. As well as being home to RTÉ Radio, Dublin also hosts the national radio networks Today FM and Newstalk, and local stations. Commercial radio stations based in the city include Classic Hits 4FM, 4fm (94.9 Hertz, MHz), Dublin's 98FM (98.1 MHz), Radio Nova 100FM (Ireland), Radio Nova 100FM (100.3 MHz), Dublin's Q102, Q102 (102.2 MHz), SPIN 1038 (103.8 MHz), FM104 (104.4 MHz), Sunshine 106.8 (106.8 MHz). There are also numerous community and special interest stations, including Dublin City FM (103.2 MHz), Dublin South FM (93.9 MHz), Liffey Sound FM (96.4 MHz), Near fm 90.3, Near FM (90.3 MHz), and Raidió Na Life (106.4 MHz).


Sport


GAA

Croke Park is the largest sport stadium in Ireland. The headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association, it has a capacity of 82,300. It is the third-largest stadium in Europe after Nou Camp in Barcelona and Wembley Stadium in London. It hosts the premier Gaelic football and hurling games, international rules football and irregularly other sporting and non-sporting events including concerts. Muhammad Ali fought there in 1972 and it played host to the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2003 Special Olympics. It also has conference and banqueting facilities. There is a GAA Museum there and tours of the stadium are offered, including a rooftop walk of the stadium. During the redevelopment of Lansdowne Road, Croke Park played host to the Ireland national rugby union team, Irish Rugby Union Team and Republic of Ireland national football team as well as hosting the Heineken Cup rugby 2008–09 Heineken Cup#Semi-finals, 2008–09 semi-final between Munster and Leinster which set a world record attendance for a club rugby match. The Dublin GAA team plays most of their home league hurling games at Parnell Park.


Rugby Union

Lansdowne Road, IRFU Stadium Lansdowne Road was laid out in 1874. This was the venue for home games of both the Irish Rugby Union Team and the Republic of Ireland national football team. A joint venture between the Irish Rugby Football Union, the Football Association of Ireland, FAI and the Government, saw it redeveloped into a new state-of-the-art 50,000 seat Aviva Stadium, which opened in May 2010. Aviva Stadium hosted the 2011 UEFA Europa League Final. Rugby union team Leinster Rugby play their competitive home games in the RDS Arena & the Aviva Stadium while Donnybrook Stadium hosts their friendlies and A games, Ireland A and Women, Leinster Schools and Youths and the home club games of AIB League, All Ireland League clubs Old Wesley and Bective Rangers.
County Dublin County Dublin ( ga, Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath or ''Contae Átha Cliath'') is one of the Counties of Ireland, thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, located on the island's east coast, within the Provinces of Ireland, province of Leinster. ...

County Dublin
is home for 13 of the senior rugby union clubs in Ireland including 5 of the 10 sides in the top division 1A.


Association football

County Dublin is home to six League of Ireland association football (soccer) clubs; Bohemians F.C., Shamrock Rovers F.C., Shamrock Rovers, St Patrick's Athletic F.C., St Patrick's Athletic, University College Dublin A.F.C., University College Dublin, Shelbourne F.C., Shelbourne and Cabinteely F.C., Cabinteely. The first Irish side to reach the group stages of a European competition (2011–12 UEFA Europa League group stage) are Shamrock Rovers F.C., Shamrock Rovers, who play at Tallaght Stadium in South Dublin. Bohemian F.C., Bohemian F.C play at Dalymount Park, the oldest football stadium in the country, and home ground for the Republic of Ireland national football team, Ireland football team from 1904 to the 1970s. St Patrick's Athletic F.C., St Patrick's Athletic play at Richmond Park (football ground), Richmond Park; University College Dublin A.F.C., University College Dublin at the UCD Bowl in Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown; and Shelbourne F.C., Shelbourne at Tolka Park. Tolka Park, Dalymount Park, UCD Bowl and Tallaght Stadium, along with the Carlisle Grounds in Bray, County Wicklow, Bray, hosted all Group 3 games in the intermediary round of the 2011 UEFA Regions' Cup.


Cricket

Dublin has two List of One Day International cricket grounds, ODI cricket grounds in Castle Avenue, Dublin, Castle Avenue (Clontarf Cricket Club) and Malahide Cricket Club Ground. The Castle Avenue hosted its first One Day International match on 21 May 1999 as part of the 1999 Cricket World Cup when Bangladesh national cricket team, Bangladesh played against the West Indies cricket team, West Indies. College Park, Dublin, College Park has Test status and played host to Ireland's first Test cricket match, a women's match against Pakistan in 2000. The men's Irish cricket team also played their first Test cricket, Test match against Pakistan national cricket team, Pakistan at Malahide Cricket Club Ground during 2018. Leinster Lightning play their home Cricket in Ireland#Inter-Provincial Series, inter-provincial matches in Dublin at College Park.


Other

The Dublin Marathon has been run since 1980 at the end of October. The Dublin Women's Mini Marathon, Women's Mini Marathon has been run since 1983 on the first Monday in June, which is also a bank holiday in Ireland. It is said to be the largest all female event of its kind in the world. The Great Ireland Run takes place in Dublin's Phoenix Park in mid-April. The Dublin area hosts greyhound racing at Shelbourne Park and horse racing at Leopardstown Racecourse, Leopardstown. The Dublin Horse Show takes place at the Royal Dublin Society, RDS, which hosted the Show Jumping World Championships in 1982. The national boxing arena is located in National Stadium (Ireland), The National Stadium on the South Circular Road (Dublin), South Circular Road. The National Basketball Arena is located in Tallaght, is the home of the Ireland national basketball team, Irish basketball team, the venue for the basketball league finals, and has also hosted boxing and wrestling events. The National Aquatic Centre in Blanchardstown is Ireland's largest indoor water leisure facility. There are also Gaelic Handball, hockey and athletics stadia, most notably Morton Stadium in Santry, which held the athletics events of the 2003 Special Olympics World Summer Games, 2003 Special Olympics.


Cuisine

As of the 2018 Michelin Guide, five Dublin restaurants shared six Michelin stars – including Restaurant Patrick Guilbaud with two. Irish-born Kevin Thornton (chef), Kevin Thornton was awarded two Michelin stars in 2001 – though his restaurant, Thornton's Restaurant, Thornton's, closed in 2016. The Dublin Institute of Technology commenced a bachelor's degree in culinary skills in 1999. Historically, Irish coffee houses and cafes were associated with those working in media. Since the beginning of the 21st century, with the growth of apartment living in the city, Dublin's cafés attracted younger patrons looking for an informal gathering place and an ad hoc office. Cafés became more popular in the city, and Irish-owned coffee chains like Java Republic, Insomnia, and O'Brien's Sandwich Bars now compete internationally. In 2008, Irish barista Stephen Morrissey won the title of World Barista Champion.


Irish language

Dublin was traditionally a city of two languages, English and Irish language, Irish, a situation found also in the area around it, The Pale. The Irish of County Dublin represented the easternmost extension of a broad central dialect area which stretched between Leinster and Connacht, but had its own local characteristics. It may also have been influenced by the east Ulster dialect of County Meath and County Louth to the north. In the words of a 16th-century English administrator, William Gerard (1518–1581): "All Englishe, and the most part with delight, even in Dublin, speak Irishe". The Normans in Ireland, Old English historian Richard Stanihurst (1547–1618) wrote as follows: "When their posteritie became not altogither so warie in keeping, as their ancestors were valiant in conquering, the Irish language was free dennized in the English Pale: this canker tooke such deep root, as the bodie that before was whole and sound, was by little and little festered, and in manner wholly putrified". English authorities of the Cromwellian period accepted the fact that Irish was widely spoken in the city and its surrounds. In 1655 several local dignitaries were ordered to oversee a lecture in Irish to be given in Dublin. In March 1656 a converted Catholic priest, Séamas Corcy, was appointed to preach in Irish at Bride's parish every Sunday, and was also ordered to preach at Drogheda and Athy. In 1657 the English colonists in Dublin presented a petition to the Municipal Council complaining that in Dublin itself "there is Irish commonly and usually spoken". In early 18th century Dublin, Irish was the language of a group of poets and scribes led by Seán and Tadhg Ó Neachtain. Scribal activity in Irish persisted in Dublin right through the 18th century. There were still native Irish speakers in County Dublin at the time of the 1851 census. Though the number of Irish speakers declined throughout Ireland in the 19th century, the end of the century saw a Gaelic revival, centred in Dublin and accompanied by renewed literary activity. This was the harbinger of a steady renewal of urban Irish, though with new characteristics of its own. Dublin now has many thousands of habitual Irish speakers, with the 2016 census showing that daily speakers (outside the education system) numbered 14,903. They form part of an urban Irish-speaking cohort which is generally better-educated than monoglot English speakers. The Dublin Irish-speaking cohort is supported by a number of Irish-medium schools. There are 12,950 students in the Dublin region attending 34 gaelscoileanna (Irish-language primary schools) and 10 Gaelcholáiste, gaelcholáistí (Irish-language secondary schools). Two Irish language radio stations, Raidió Na Life and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, have studios in the city, and the online station Raidió Rí-Rá broadcasts from studios in the city. A number of Irish language agencies are also located in the capital. Conradh na Gaeilge offers language classes, has a book shop and is a meeting place for different groups. The closest Gaeltacht to Dublin is the County Meath
Gaeltacht ( , ; plural ) is an Irish-language word for any primarily Irish-speaking region. In Ireland, the term ''Gaeltacht'' refers individually to any, or collectively to all, of the districts where the government recognises that the Irish language i ...

Gaeltacht
of Ráth Cairn and Baile Ghib which is away.


International relations

Dublin city council has an International Relations Unit, established in 2007. It works on hosting of international delegations, staff exchanges, international promotion of the city, twinning and partnerships, work with multi-city organisations such as Eurocities, economic partnerships and advice to other Council units.


Twin and partner cities

Dublin is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with four places: The city also has "friendship" or "co-operation agreements" with a number of other cities: Moscow (2009−) and St Petersburg (2010−) in Russia and Guadalajara in Mexico (2013−), and has previously proposed an agreement with Rio de Janeiro also. Previous agreements have included those with Mexico City (2014−2018), Tbilisi in Georgia (2014−2017) and Wuhan in China (2016−2019).


See also

*Dublin English *List of people from Dublin *List of subdivisions of County Dublin


References


Further reading

* John Flynn and Jerry Kelleher, ''Dublin Journeys in America'' (High Table Publishing, 2003) * Hanne Hem, ''Dubliners, An Anthropologist's Account'', Oslo, 1994 * Pat Liddy, ''Dublin A Celebration: From the 1st to the 21st century'' (Dublin City Council, 2000) * Maurice Craig (historian), Maurice Craig, ''The Architecture of Ireland from the Earliest Times to 1880'' (Batsford, Paperback edition 1989) * Frank McDonald (journalist), Frank McDonald, ''Saving the City: How to Halt the Destruction of Dublin'' (Tomar Publishing, 1989) * Edward McParland, ''Public Architecture in Ireland 1680–1760'' (Yale University Press, 2001)


External links


Dublin City Council
nbsp;– Official website of the local authority for Dublin
Dublin Tourist Board
nbsp;– Official tourism site

Hidden-Dublin Guide
Dublin UNESCO City of Literature official site
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