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A decoy (derived from the Dutch ''de'' ''kooi'', literally "the cage" or possibly ''ende kooi'', " duck cage") is usually a person,
device
device
, or event which resembles what an individual or a group might be looking for, but not really is. Decoys have been used for centuries most notably in game
hunting Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism ...

hunting
, but also in
war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

war
time and in the committing or resolving of
crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...

crime
s.


Hunting

In hunting wildfowl, the term decoy may refer to two distinct devices. One, the
duck decoy (structure) A duck decoy is a device to capture wild ducks or other species of Anatidae, waterfowl. Formerly the birds were slaughtered and used for food. Decoys had an advantage over hunting ducks with shotguns as the Duck as food, duck meat did not contai ...
, is a long cone-shaped
wickerwork Wicker is a technique for making products woven from any one of a variety of pliable plant materials, a generic name for the materials used in such manufacture, and a term for the items so produced. The word ''wicker'' is believed to be of Scand ...
tunnel installed on a small pond to catch wild
duck Duck is the common name for numerous species of waterfowl Anseriformes is an order (biology), order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the 3 screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anati ...

duck
s. After the ducks settled on the pond, a small, trained dog would herd the birds into the tunnel. The catch was formerly sent to market for food, but now these are used only by
ornithologist Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the "methodological study and consequent knowledge of birds with all that relates to them." Several aspects of ornithology differ from related disciplines, due partly to the high visibility and th ...
s to catch ducks to be
ring Ring most commonly refers either to a hollow circular shape or to a high-pitched sound. It thus may refer to: *Ring (jewellery), a circular, decorative or symbolic ornament worn on fingers, toes, arm or neck Ring may also refer to: Sounds * Ri ...
ed and released. The word ''decoy'', also originally found in English as "coy", derives from the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
''de Kooi'' (the cage) and dates back to the early 17th century, when this type of duck trap was introduced to England from the Netherlands. As "decoy" came more commonly to signify a person or a device than a pond with a cage-trap, the latter acquired the
retronym A retronym is a newer name for an existing thing that helps differentiate the original form/version from a more recent one. It is thus a word or phrase created to avoid confusion between older and newer types, whereas previously (before there were ...
"decoy pool". The other form, a
duck decoy (model) A duck decoy (or decoy duck) is a man-made object resembling a real duck. Duck decoys are sometimes used in waterfowl hunting to attract real ducks. Duck decoys were historically Wood carving, carved from wood, often Atlantic white cedar woo ...
, otherwise known as a 'decoy duck', 'hunting decoy' or 'wildfowl decoy', is a life-size model of the creature. The hunter places a number about the hunting area as they will encourage wild birds to land nearby, hopefully within the range of the concealed hunter. Originally carved from wood, they are now typically made from plastic. Wildfowl decoys (primarily ducks, geese, shorebirds, and crows, but including some other species) are considered a form of
folk art Traditional styles of faience pottery from Székely Land, Romania, on sale in Budapest in 2014. A conventional idea of folk art, though no doubt made in quasi-industrial conditions. Folk art covers all forms of visual art made in the context ...

folk art
. Collecting decoys has become a significant hobby both for folk art collectors and hunters. The world record was set in September 2007 when a pintail drake and Canada goose, both by A. Elmer Crowell, sold for 1.13 million dollars apiece.


Military decoy

The decoy in war is a low-cost device intended to represent a real item of military equipment. They may be deployed in amongst their real counterparts, to fool enemy forces into attacking them and so protect the real items of equipment by diverting fire away from them. Alternatively, large numbers of military decoys, or dummys, may be deployed as an aspect of
military deception Military deception (MILDEC) is an attempt by a military unit to gain an advantage during warfare War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a mo ...
. Their purpose is to fool the enemy into believing forces in a particular area are much stronger than they really are. One notable example are
Quaker Gun Quaker gun near Centreville, Virginia, in March 1862, after the Confederate withdrawal; a man with a stick is pretending to "fire" it with a linstock A Quaker gun is a Military deception, deception tactic that was commonly used in warfare during ...
s. For a
defense Defense or defence may refer to: Tactical, martial, and political acts or groups * Defense (military) A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is ...
system, decoys and
chaff Chaff (; ) is the dry, scaly protective casing of the seeds of cereal grain A cereal is any grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. It includes ...
for
ICBM An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a missile In military terminology, a missile is a guided airborne ranged weapon . English longbowmen figure prominently in the foreground at right where they drive away the French crossbow ...
s would mainly work in mid-course: during the boost phase they would be inside the
rocket A rocket (from it, rocchetto, , bobbin/spool) is a spacecraft A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. A type of artificial satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ...

rocket
, because separate rockets for each of many decoys would not be practical, while at
atmospheric reentry An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other solid, material body, that is held ...
light decoys and chaff considerably slow down and/or are destroyed in the
atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in ...

atmosphere
.


Bomb decoy

In
irregular warfare Irregular warfare (IW) is defined in United States joint doctrine as "a violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations." Concepts associated with irregular warfare are older than the te ...
,
improvised explosive device An improvised explosive device (IED) is a bomb A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the Exothermic process, exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy. Detonations inflict ...
s are commonly used as roadside bombs to target military patrols. Some
guerillas Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare Irregular warfare (IW) is defined in United States joint doctrine as "a violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations." Concepts a ...
also use imitation IEDs to intimidate civilians, to waste
bomb disposal Bomb disposal is an explosives engineeringExplosives engineering is the field of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), ...

bomb disposal
resources, or to set up an ambush. Some terrorist groups use fake bombs during a
hostage A hostage is a person seized by an abductor in order to compel another party such as a relative Relative may refer to: General use *Kinship and family, the principle binding the most basic social units society. If two people are connected by c ...
siege, in order to limit hostage rescue efforts.


Sonar decoy

A sonar decoy is a device designed to create a misleading reading on
sonar Sonar (sound navigation and ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigation, navigate, measure distances (ranging), communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface o ...

sonar
, such as the appearance of a false target.


In biochemistry

In biochemistry, there are decoy
receptors Receptor may refer to: *Sensory receptor Sensory neurons, also known as afferent neurons, are neuron A neuron or nerve cell is an electrically excitable cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life ...

receptors
, decoy substrates and decoy
RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a Chemical substance, substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or macromolecules, composed of many Re ...
. In addition, digital decoys are used in
protein folding Protein folding is the physical process Physical changes are changes affecting the form of a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass ...

protein folding
simulations.


Decoy receptor

Decoy receptors A decoy receptor is a receptor (biochemistry), receptor that is able to recognize and bind specific growth factors or cytokines efficiently, but is not structurally able to signal or activate the intended receptor complex. It acts as an inhibitor, b ...
, or sink receptors, are receptors that bind a
ligand In coordination chemistry A coordination complex consists of a central atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havi ...
, inhibiting it from binding to its normal receptor. For instance, the receptor
VEGFR-1 Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ''FLT1'' gene. Function Oncogene FLT belongs to the src gene family and is related to oncogene ROS (MIM 165020). Like other members of this family, it ...
can prevent
vascular endothelial growth factor Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a signal protein produced by many cells that stimulates the formation of blood vessels. To be specific, VEGF is a sub-family of growth factors, t ...
(VEGF) from binding to the VEGFR-2 The
TNF inhibitor A TNF inhibitor is a pharmaceutical drug A medication (also called medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug Uncoated tablets, consisting of about 90% acetylsalicylic acid, along with a minor a ...
etanercept Etanercept, sold under the brand name Enbrel among others, is a biologic medical product A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug A medication (also called medicament, med ...

etanercept
exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by being a decoy receptor that binds to TNF.


Decoy substrate

A ''decoy substrate'' or ''pseudosubstrate'' is a protein that has similar structure to the
substrate Substrate may refer to: Physical layers *Substrate (biology), the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the surface or medium on which an organism grows or is attached **Substrate (locomotion), the surface over which an organism loco ...
of an
enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrate (chemistry), substrates, and the enzyme converts the substrates in ...

enzyme
, in order to make the enzyme bind to the pseudosubstrate rather than to the real substrate, thus blocking the activity of the enzyme. These proteins are therefore
enzyme inhibitor 400px, An enzyme binding site that would normally bind substrate can alternatively bind a competitive inhibitor, preventing substrate access. Dihydrofolate reductase is inhibited by methotrexate which prevents binding of its substrate, folic ac ...
s. Examples include K3L produced by
vaccinia virus ''Vaccinia virus'' (VACV or VV) is a large, complex, Viral envelope, enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family. It has a linear, double-stranded DNA genome approximately 190 base pair, kbp in length, which encodes approximately 250 genes. ...
, which prevents the
immune system The immune system is a network of biological processes that protects an organism from diseases. It detects and responds to a wide variety of pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, as well as Tumor immunology, cancer cells and objects such ...
from phosphorylating the substrate
eIF-2 Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 (eIF2) is a eukaryotic initiation factor Eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) are proteins Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its ...
by having a similar structure to eIF-2. Thus, the vaccinia virus avoids the immune system.


Digital decoys

In protein folding simulations, a decoy is a computer-generated protein structure which is designed so to ''compete'' with the real structure of the protein. Decoys are used to test the validity of a protein model; the model is considered correct only if it is able to identify the native state configuration of the protein among the decoys. Decoys are generally used to overcome a main problem in protein folding simulations: the size of the conformational space. For very detailed protein models, it can be practically impossible to explore all the possible configurations to find the native state. To deal with this problem, one can make use of decoys. The idea behind this is that it is unnecessary to search blindly through all possible conformations for the native conformation; the search can be limited to a relevant sub-set of structures. To start with, all non-compact configurations can be excluded. A typical decoy set will include globular conformations of various shapes, some having no secondary structures, some having helices and sheets in different proportions. The computer model being tested will be used to calculate the free energy of the protein in the decoy configurations. The minimum requirement for the model to be correct is that it identifies the native state as the minimum free energy state (see
Anfinsen's dogma Anfinsen's dogma, also known as the thermodynamic hypothesis, is a postulate in molecular biology Molecular biology is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy ...
).


Decoys as folk art

Ever since
Joel Barber Joel David Barber (1876–1952) was an early 20th-century architect from New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media ...
, the first known decoy collector, started in 1918, decoys have become increasingly viewed as an important form of North American folk art. Barber's book
Wild Fowl Decoys ''Wild Fowl Decoys'' is an art reference book A reference work is a work, such as a book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, st ...
, was the first book on decoys as collectible objects. It was followed in 1965 by folk art dealer Adele Earnest's "The Art of the Decoy" and "American Bird Decoys" by collector Wm. J. Mackey. William J. Mackey made many trips to Chincoteague Island for the great flounder fishing as well as hunting for Chincoteague decoys. On his trips to the island he called Snug Harbor Marina home. He would send out locals to search for great finds of Chincoteague history. Cigar Daisey was one of the local Chincoteaguers that would help Mackey find all the best decoys that made his collection world-famous. Cigar has told many stories of the many truck loads of decoys he rounded up for his good friend. By that time a milestone in collecting had already occurred with the publication of "Decoy Collectors Guide", a small magazine created by hobbyists Hal & Barbara Sorenson of Burlington, Iowa. The 'Guide' helped foster a sense of community and provided a forum for collectors to share their research. By the 1970s decoys were becoming big business, at least by previous standards. The death of Wm. F. Mackey brought his decoys to market in a series of auctions in 1973 and 1974, with the star of his collection, a Long-billed Curlew by Wm. 'Bill' Bowman selling for a record US$10,500. Since the 1960s numerous collectors organizations have been created, specialist books and magazines published, with specialist dealers, and special interest shows around the US and Canada. The largest collectors organization is the Midwest Decoy Collectors Association which despite its name is an international group. It is a non-profit,
01(c)(3) One or 1 is the first natural number. 1, one, or ONE may also refer to: * AD 1 __NOTOC__ AD 1 (I), 1 AD or 1 CE is the epoch year for the Anno Domini The terms (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Jul ...
organization which sponsors the biggest show of the year. There are numerous state and regional groups as well. The current world record was set when two decoys (Canada goose and a preening pintail drake) by A. Elmer Crowell of East Harwich, MA were sold for $1.13 million each on September 19, 2007 by Stephen O'Brien Jr. Fine Arts, in what O'Brien describes as "the largest private sale of decoys ever." The decoys were part of a private sale of 31 decoys for $7.5 million. Joe Engers, Editor of Decoy Magazine, noted that O'Brien is one of the top dealers of decoys in the country. Among other admired makers were
the Ward brothers The Ward Brothers were a British pop-rock band, who scored a top 40 hit in the UK with their 1986 single "Cross That Bridge (song), Cross That Bridge". History The Ward Brothers formed in Barnsley, England in 1986, with vocalist and drummer D ...
, Lemuel (1896–1984) and Steven, of Crisfield,
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware ...

Maryland
. Their career output is estimated at between 27,000 and 40,000 birds, working and decorative. One of the most famous decoy makers in recent times is Delbert "Cigar" Daisey from Chincoteague Va. Cigar decoys are in high demand all over the country. The best decoy he ever made was a pintail that he made for his wife in 1973. This decoy was featured in National Geographic in June 1980 on page 826. This decoy is estimated to be worth between $100,000 - $150,000.
Fish decoy A fish decoy is an object in the shape of a fish or some other animal that is used as a decoy to attract fish. It is often used during ice fishing. Unlike a fishing lure, a fish decoy doesn't have a Fish hook, hook. Fish were a common type of A ...
collecting is also quite popular. Especially ice fishing decoys. See also
fishing lures A fishing lure is a type of artificial fishing bait Fishing bait is any substance used to attract and catch fish Fish are aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, t ...
.


See also

* Boarstall Duck Decoy * Decoy effect *
Hale Duck Decoy Hale Duck Decoy is a duck decoy and nature reserve A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area), is a protecte ...
* Honeypots – decoy resources for computer
network security Network security consists of the policies, processes and practices adopted to prevent, detect and monitor unauthorized Authorization is the function of specifying access rights/privileges to resources, which is related to general information ...
* Maskirovka * Military dummies *
Mobile submarine simulator The mobile submarine simulator (MOSS) MK70 is a sonar decoy used by submarines of the United States Navy. It was a 10-inch vehicle, without an explosive warhead, but able to generate both an active sonar echo and a passive sound signature recorded ...
*
Penetration aid A penetration aid (or "penaid") is a device or tactic used to increase an intercontinental ballistic missile An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a missile In military terminology, a missile is a guided airborne ranged weapon ...
*
Quaker gun Quaker gun near Centreville, Virginia, in March 1862, after the Confederate withdrawal; a man with a stick is pretending to "fire" it with a linstock A Quaker gun is a Military deception, deception tactic that was commonly used in warfare during ...
*
Red herring A red herring is something that misleads or distracts from a relevant or important question.''Oxford English Dictionary''. red herring, n. Third edition, September 2009; online version December 2011. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/160314 ; access ...

Red herring
*
Sting operation In law enforcement, a sting operation is a deceptive Deception or falsehood is an act or statement which misleads, hides the truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionarytruth ...
* Ward Museum of Wildfowl Art *
XGAM-71 Buck Duck The Convair XGAM-71 Buck Duck was an air-launched decoy missile Dummies and decoys are fake military equipment that are intended to deception, deceive the enemy. Dummies and decoys are only one aspect of military deception. Examples During ...


References


External links


Decoy Magazine, Joe Engers
- The ultimate publication for decoy lovers and collectors
The Midwest Decoy Collectors Association
– The de facto international collectors association

Sir Ralph Payne-Gallwey, 1886 (full text)
British Duck Decoys of To-Day, 1918
– Joseph Whitaker (full text) {{Authority control Hunting equipment