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Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
is a country in
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
that has a distinctive
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...

culture
, including its own
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...
, customs,
politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...
, festivals and
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...
. Wales is primarily represented by the symbol of the red
Welsh Dragon The Welsh Dragon ( cy, y Ddraig Goch, meaning 'the red dragon'; ) is a heraldic symbol that appears on the national flag of Wales The Flag of Wales (, meaning 'the red dragon') consists of a red European dragon, dragon attitude (heraldry)#P ...

Welsh Dragon
, but other
national emblem The national emblem means "national crest / shield emblem or logo design", which represents the image and dignity of the country's political power and people. It is one of the symbols of a country's political power.The national emblem is an embl ...
s include the
leek The leek is a vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including t ...

leek
and the
daffodil ''Narcissus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including ...

daffodil
. Although sharing many customs with the other nations of the United Kingdom, Wales has its own distinct traditions and culture, and from the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the
eisteddfod In Welsh culture Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country that is Countries of the United Kingdom, part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bris ...
tradition.


Development of Welsh culture


Historical influences

Wales has been identified as having been inhabited by humans for some 230,000 years, as evidenced by the discovery of a
Neanderthal Neanderthals (, also Neandertals, ''Homo neanderthalensis'' or ''Homo sapiens neanderthalensis'') are an extinct species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an org ...
at the
Bontnewydd Palaeolithic site The Bontnewydd palaeolithic site (), also known in its unmutated form as Pontnewydd (Welsh language Welsh ( or ) is a Brittonic language of the Celtic language family The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages d ...
in north Wales. After the
Roman era In , ancient Rome is civilization from the founding of the Italian city of in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the in the 5th century AD, encompassing the (753 BC–509 BC), (509 BC–27 BC) and (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of ...
of occupation, a number of small kingdoms arose in what is now Wales. These early kingdoms were also influenced by Ireland; but details prior to the 8th century AD are unclear. Kingdoms during that era included
Gwynedd Gwynedd (; ) is a county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of ...
,
Powys Powys (; ) is a county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of hu ...
and
Deheubarth Deheubarth (; lit. "Right-hand Part", thus "the South") was a regional name for the realms A realm is a community or territory over which a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. Th ...

Deheubarth
. While
Rhodri the Great Rhodri ap Merfyn ( 820 – 873/877/878), later known as Rhodri the Great ( cy, Rhodri Mawr), succeeded his father, Merfyn Frych Merfyn Frych ('Merfyn the Freckled'; Old Welsh Old Welsh ( cy, Hen Gymraeg) is the stage of the Welsh language ...
in the 9th century was the first ruler to dominate a large portion of Wales, it was not until 1055 that
Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (  5 August 1063) was the King of Wales and had repeatedly defeated the English forces. He was the son of King Llywelyn ap Seisyll Llywelyn ap Seisyll (died 1023) was an 11th-century King of Gwynedd, Powys and Deheubarth. ...
united the individual Welsh kingdoms and began to annex parts of England. Gruffydd was killed, possibly in
crossfire A crossfire is a military term for the siting of weapons so that their arcs of fire overlap. Crossfire may also refer to: Gaming *Crossfire (board game), ''Crossfire'' (board game), board game created by the Milton Bradley Company in 1971 *C ...

crossfire
by his own men, on 5 August 1063 while
Harold Godwinson Harold Godwinson ( – 14 October 1066), also called Harold II, was the last crowned Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences ...
sought to engage him in battle. This was just over three years before the
Norman invasion of England The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army made up of Normans, Duchy of Brittany, Bretons, County of Flanders, Flemish, and men from other Kingdom of France, French provinces, all ...
, which led to a drastic change of fortune for Wales. By 1070, the Normans had already seen successes in their invasion of Wales, with Gwent fallen and Deheubarth plundered. The invasion was seemingly complete by 1093. However, the Welsh rebelled against their new overlords the following year, and the Welsh kingdoms were re-established and most of the land retaken from the Normans over the following decades. While Gwynedd grew in strength, Powys was broken up after the death of
Llywelyn ap Madog Llywelyn ap Madog was Dean of St AsaphThis is a list of the deans of St Asaph Cathedral, Wales. *-1357 Llywelyn ap Madog *1357–1376 William Spridlington *1403 Richard Courtenay (afterwards Dean of Wells, 1410) *1455-1461David Blodwell *1463 ...
in the 1160s and was never reunited.
Llywelyn the Great Llywelyn the Great ( cy, Llywelyn Fawr, ), full name Llywelyn mab Iorwerth), (c. 117311 April 1240) was a King of Gwynedd Gwynedd (; ) is a county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly di ...
rose in Gwynedd and had reunited the majority of Wales by his death in 1240. After his death, King
Henry III of England Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death in 1272. The son of John, King of England, King John and Isabella o ...

Henry III of England
intervened to prevent
Dafydd ap Llywelyn Dafydd ap Llywelyn (''c.'' March 1212 – 25 February 1246) was Prince of Gwynedd Gwynedd (; ) is a county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( ...
from inheriting his father's lands outside Gwynedd, leading to war. The claims of his successor,
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (c. 1223 – 11 December 1282), sometimes written as Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, also known as Llywelyn the Last ( cy, Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf, lit=Llywelyn, Our Last Leader), was Prince of Wales ( la, Princeps Walliae, links= ...
, conflicted with those of King
Edward I of England Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots ( la, Malleus Scotorum), was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of th ...

Edward I of England
; this resulted in the conquest of Wales by English forces. The
Tudors of Penmynydd The Tudors of Penmynydd ( cy, Tuduriaid Penmynydd) were a noble and aristocratic family, connected with the village of Penmynydd Penmynydd (), meaning top of the mountain in Welsh language, Welsh, is a village and Community (Wales), community o ...
grew in power and influence during the 13th to 15th centuries, first owning land in north Wales, but losing it after
Maredudd ap Tudur Maredudd ap Tudur (died c. 1406) was a Welsh soldier and nobleman from the Tudors of Penmynydd, Tudor family of Penmynydd. He was one of five sons of Tudur ap Goronwy, and was the father of Owen Tudor. Maredudd supported the Welsh rebellion of Owa ...
backed the uprising of
Owain Glyndŵr Owain ap Gruffydd, lord of Glyndyfrdwy (c. 1359c. 1415), also known as Owain Glyndŵr or Glyn Dŵr (, en, Owen Glendower), was a Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a ...

Owain Glyndŵr
in 1400. Maredudd's son, Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudur, anglicised his name to become
Owen Tudor Sir Owen Tudor (, 2 February 1461) was a Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, sp ...
, and was the grandfather of Henry Tudor. Henry took the throne of England in 1485, at the end of the
Wars of the Roses The Wars of the Roses were a series of fifteenth-century English civil wars for control of the throne of England, fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, represented by a ...
, when his forces defeated those of
Richard III Richard III (2 October 145222 August 1485) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, who initially ruled Kingdom of Wessex, Wessex, one of the heptarchy, seven Anglo-Saxon ...

Richard III
at the
Battle of Bosworth Field The Battle of Bosworth or Bosworth Field was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses The Wars of the Roses were a series of fifteenth-century English civil wars for control of the throne of England, fought between supporter ...

Battle of Bosworth Field
. Under
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for Wives of Henry VIII, his six marriages, including his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon ...

Henry VIII
, son of Henry Tudor, the
Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542 The Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 ( cy, Y Deddfau Cyfreithiau yng Nghymru 1535 a 1542) were parliamentary measures by which Wales was annexed to the Kingdom of England, the legal system of England was extended to Wales and the norms of Englis ...
were passed. This Act integrated, in the legal sense, Wales with England. In turn, the Welsh language was banned and stripped from official status or role, abolishing the Welsh legal system in turn. This, for the first time, defined the England-Welsh border. The
House of Tudor The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended from the Tudors of Penmynydd. Tudor monarchs ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including their ancestral Wales and the Lordship of Ireland (later the Kingdom of ...

House of Tudor
continued to reign through several successive monarchs until 1603, when
James I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and King of Ireland, Ireland as James I from the Union of the Crowns, union of the Scottish and En ...

James I
(James VI of Scotland) took the throne for the
House of Stuart The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a royal house A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is t ...

House of Stuart
; his great grandmother was
Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (28 November 1489 – 18 October 1541) was Queen consort of Scotland The consorts of the monarchs of Scotland bore titles derived from their marriage. The Kingdom of Scotland was first unified as a Sovereign state, state by K ...

Margaret Tudor
.


Identity and nationalism

Welsh nationalism ( cy, Cenedlaetholdeb Cymreig) emphasises the distinctiveness of
Welsh language Welsh ( or ) is a Brittonic language of the Celtic language family The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European language family. The term "Celtic" ...
, culture, and
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...
, and calls for more
self-determination The right of a people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an ...
for
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
, which might include more
devolved Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government A central government is the government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), st ...
powers for the
Senedd The Senedd (; ), officially known as the Welsh Parliament in English language, English and () in Welsh language, Welsh, is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, unicameral legislature of Wales. A democratically elected body, it makes ...
or full
independence Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or Sovereign state, state in which residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over its territory. The opposite of independe ...
from the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. While a sense of nationhood has existed within Wales for over 1500 years, the idea that Wales should be a modern self-determining state has only been mooted since the mid-18th century. During the 15th century,
Owain Glyndwr Owain () is a name of Welsh origin, variously written in Old Welsh as Ougein, Eugein, Euguen, Iguein, Ou(u)ein, Eug(u)ein, Yuein, and in Middle Welsh as Ewein, Owein, and Ywein. Other variants of the name Owain include Ewein, Iguein, Owein, Ouein, Y ...

Owain Glyndwr
campaigned with initial success for Wales to be reestablished as a country independent of English control.


Symbols

National symbols of Wales include the
dragon A dragon is a large, serpent Serpent or The Serpent may refer to: * Snake Snakes are elongated, limbless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes . Like all other squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote Amniotes (fro ...

dragon
, the
daffodil ''Narcissus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including ...
and the
leek The leek is a vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including t ...

leek
. Legend states that the leek dates back to the 7th century, when King
Cadwaladr Cadwaladr ap Cadwallon (also spelled Cadwalader or Cadwallader in English) was king King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the que ...
of
Gwynedd Gwynedd (; ) is a county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of ...
had his soldiers wear the vegetable during battle against
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic langua ...

Saxons
to make it easier to identify them. Though this same story is recounted in the 17th century, but now attributed to
Saint David Saint David ( cy, Dewi Sant; la, Davidus; ) was a Welsh bishop of Mynyw (now St Davids St Davids or St David's ( cy, Tyddewi, ,  "Saint David, David's Welsh toponymy, house”) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and a comm ...
. The earliest certain reference of the leek as a Welsh emblem was when
Princess Mary
Princess Mary
, daughter of
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for Wives of Henry VIII, his six marriages, including his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon ...
, was presented with a leek by the yeoman of the guard on
Saint David's Day Saint David's Day ( cy, Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant or ; ), or the Feast of Saint David, is the feast day of Saint David Saint David ( cy, Dewi Sant; la, Davidus; ) was a Welsh bishop of Mynyw (now St Davids) during the 6th century. He is the p ...
in
1537 __NOTOC__ Year 1537 ( MDXXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a ...
. The colours of the leek were used for the uniforms of soldiers under
Edward I of England Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots ( la, Malleus Scotorum), was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of th ...

Edward I of England
. Cadwaladr is also said to have introduced the Red Dragon
standard Standard may refer to: Symbols * Colours, standards and guidons, kinds of military signs * Heraldic flag, Standard (emblem), a type of a large symbol or emblem used for identification Norms, conventions or requirements * Standard (metrology ...
, although this symbol was most likely introduced to the British Isles by Roman troops who in turn had acquired it from the
Dacia Dacia (, ; ) was the land inhabited by the Dacians The Dacians (; la, Daci ; grc-gre, Δάκοι, Δάοι, Δάκαι) were a Thracians, Thracian people who were the ancient inhabitants of the cultural region of Dacia, located in the ar ...

Dacia
ns. It may also have been a reference to the 6th century Welsh word ''draig'', which meant "leader". The standard was appropriated by the Normans during the 11th century, and used for the
Royal Standard of Scotland The Royal Banner of the Royal Arms of Scotland, also known as the Royal Banner of Scotland, or more commonly the Lion Rampant of Scotland, and historically as the Royal Standard of Scotland, ( gd, Bratach rìoghail na h-Alba, sco, Ryal banner ...

Royal Standard of Scotland
.
Richard I of England Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the from abo ...

Richard I of England
took a red dragon standard with him on the
Third Crusade The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by three European monarchs of Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monothei ...
. Both symbols were popular with
Tudor Tudor most commonly refers to: * House of Tudor, English royal house of Welsh origins ** Tudor period, a historical era in England coinciding with the rule of the Tudor dynasty Tudor may also refer to: Architecture * Tudor architecture, the fi ...

Tudor
kings, with
Henry VII of England Henry VII ( cy, Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of ...
(Henry Tudor) adding the white and green background to the red dragon standard. It was largely forgotten by the
House of Stuart The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a royal house A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is t ...

House of Stuart
, who favoured a
unicorn The unicorn is a legendary creature A legendary creature (also known as a ''mythological'', ''mythic'' or ''fabulous'' creature) is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to t ...

unicorn
instead. By the 17th and 18th centuries, it became common practice in Great Britain for the gentry to wear leeks on St. David's Day. In 1807, a "a red dragon passant standing on a mound" was made the King's badge for Wales. Following an increase in nationalism in 1953, it was proposed to add the motto ''Y ddraig goch ddyry cychwyn'' ("the red dragon takes the lead") to the flag. This was poorly received, and six years later Queen
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A constitutional mo ...

Elizabeth II
intervened to put the current flag in place. It has been proposed that the
flag of the United Kingdom The national flag of the United Kingdom is the Union Jack The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the de facto national flag of the United Kingdom. Though no law has been passed officially making the Union Jack the national flag of the United ...

flag of the United Kingdom
be redesigned to include a symbol representing Wales, as it is the only nation in the United Kingdom not represented in the flag. The daffodil is a more recent development, becoming popular during the 19th century. It may have been linked to the leek; the Welsh for daffodil (''cenhinen Bedr'') translates as "St Peter's leek". During the 20th century, the daffodil rose to rival the prominence of the leek as a symbol of Wales. Prime Minister
David Lloyd George David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman and Liberal Party The Liberal Party is any of many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinat ...

David Lloyd George
ensured that the daffodil had a place in the investiture of Edward, Prince of Wales. The
traditional Welsh costume The Welsh traditional costume ( cy, Gwisg Gymreig draddodiadol) was worn by rural women in Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales ...
and
Welsh hat The Welsh hat ( cy, Het Gymreig) worn by women as part of Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the B ...
were well known during the 19th and early 20th centuries. (later Queen Victoria) had a hat made for her when she visited Wales in 1832. The hat was popularised by
Sydney Curnow Vosper Sydney Curnow Vosper Royal Watercolour Society, RWS, Royal West of England Academy, RWA (29 October 1866 – 10 July 1942) was an English painter and etcher of landscapes and figure subjects. His later work has a close association with Wales an ...
's 1908 painting '' Salem'', but by then its use had declined.


Language

The two main languages of Wales are
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication use ...

English
and
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
. Throughout the centuries, the Welsh language has been a central factor in the concept of Wales as a nation. Undoubtedly the strongest of the Celtic languages, figures released by the Office of National Statistics taken from the
2011 census2011 censuses were conducted in the following countries: * Australia: Census in Australia * Austria: Demographics of Austria * Bangladesh: 2011 Bangladesh Census * Bulgaria: Demographics of Bulgaria * Canada: Canada 2011 Census * Croatia: 2011 Censu ...
, show that Welsh is spoken by 19% of the population.


Religion

Before the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
occupation, the dominant religion in Wales was a
pagan Paganism (from classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, includ ...
one, led by the
druids A druid was a member of the high-ranking class in ancient Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Grea ...
. Little is known about the traditions and ceremonies, but
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature Classi ...

Tacitus
, whose claims were sometimes exaggerated, stated that they performed
human sacrifice #REDIRECT Human sacrifice Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans as part of a ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set ...
: he says that in AD 61, an altar on
Anglesey Anglesey (; cy, Ynys Môn ), an island off the north-west coast of Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individua ...
was found to be "drenched with the blood of their prisoners".
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
was introduced to Wales through the Romans, and after they abandoned the British Isles, it survived in South East Wales at
Hentland Hentland is a hamlet and Civil parishes in England, civil parish about north-west of Ross-on-Wye in Herefordshire, England The small hamlet settlement of Hentland at the east of the parish contains the Church of England parish church, parish c ...
. In the 6th century, this was home to
Dubricius Dubricius or Dubric ( cy, Dyfrig; Norman-French: ''Devereux''; c. 465 – c. 550) was a 6th-century Britons (historical), British ecclesiastic venerated as a saint. He was the evangelist of Ergyng ( cy, Erging) (later Archenfield) and ...
, the first Celtic saint. The largest religion in modern Wales is Christianity, with almost 58% of the population describing themselves as
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...

Christian
in the 2011 census. The
Presbyterian Church of Wales The Presbyterian Church of Wales ( cy, Eglwys Bresbyteraidd Cymru), also known as Calvinistic Methodist Church (), is a denomination Denomination may refer to: * Religious denomination, such as a: ** Christian denomination ** Jewish denomination ...
was for many years the largest denomination; it was born out of the
Welsh Methodist revival The Welsh Methodist revival was an evangelical Evangelicalism (), also called evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestant Christianity Protestantism is a form of ...
in the 18th century and seceded from the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
in 1811; The
Church in Wales The Church in Wales ( cy, Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru) is the Anglican church Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a ...
had an average Sunday attendance of 32,171 in 2012. It forms part of the
Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion or Lord's Supper), the Christian rite involving the eating of bread and drinking of wine, re ...
, and was also part of the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
, but was disestablished by the British Government in 1920 under the
Welsh Church Act 1914 The Welsh Church Act 1914 is an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or council). In most countrie ...
. Non-Christian religions have relatively few followers in Wales, with
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
making up 1.5% of the population while
Hindus Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...
and
Buddhists Buddhism (, ) is the Major religious groups#Largest religions, world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and ...

Buddhists
represent 0.3% each in the 2011 census. Over 32% of the population in Wales did not note a religion. Research in 2007 by the
Tearfund Tearfund is an international Christianity, Christian relief and development agency based in Teddington, UK. It currently works in around 50 countries, with a primary focus on supporting those in poverty and providing disaster relief for disadvanta ...
organisation showed that Wales had the lowest average church attendance in the UK, with 12% of the population routinely attending.


Festivals

The
patron saint A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Catholic Church, Catholicism, Anglicanism, or Eastern Orthodoxy is regarded as the heavenly advocacy, advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, c ...
of Wales is
Saint David Saint David ( cy, Dewi Sant; la, Davidus; ) was a Welsh bishop of Mynyw (now St Davids St Davids or St David's ( cy, Tyddewi, ,  "Saint David, David's Welsh toponymy, house”) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and a comm ...
, ''Dewi Sant'' in Welsh. St. David's Day is celebrated on 1 March, which some people argue should be designated a public holiday in Wales. Other days which have been proposed for national public commemorations are 16 September (the day on which
Owain Glyndŵr Owain ap Gruffydd, lord of Glyndyfrdwy (c. 1359c. 1415), also known as Owain Glyndŵr or Glyn Dŵr (, en, Owen Glendower), was a Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a ...

Owain Glyndŵr
's rebellion began) and 11 December (the death of
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (c. 1223 – 11 December 1282), sometimes written as Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, also known as Llywelyn the Last ( cy, Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf, lit=Llywelyn, Our Last Leader), was Prince of Wales ( la, Princeps Walliae, links= ...
). The traditional seasonal festivals in Wales are: *
Calan Gaeaf ''Calan Gaeaf'' is the name of the first day of winter in Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish ...
(a
Hallowe'en Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of "All Hallows' evening"), less commonly known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints' Eve, is a celebration observed in many countries on 31 October, the eve of the Western Christian ...

Hallowe'en
or
Samhain Samhain (, , ; gv, Sauin ) is a Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken i ...
-type festival on the first day of winter) *
Gŵyl Fair y Canhwyllau (English language, English, "Mary's Festival of the Candles") is a Wales, Welsh name of Candlemas, celebrated on 2 February. It was derived from the pre-Protestant Reformation, Reformation ceremony of blessing the candles and distributing them t ...
(literally Mary's Festival of the Candles, i.e. Candlemas; also coinciding with Imbolc) * Calan Mai (May Day, and similar to Beltane) * Calan Awst (1 August, equivalent to Lammas and Lughnasa) * Gŵyl Mabsant celebrated by each parish in commemoration of its native saint, often marked by a fair * Dydd Santes Dwynwen, a Welsh equivalent to St Valentine's Day * Calennig is a Welsh New Year celebration


Arts


Visual arts

Many works of Celtic art have been found in Wales. In the Early Medieval period, the Celtic Christianity of Wales participated in the Insular art of the British Isles and a number of illuminated manuscripts :Illuminated manuscripts of Welsh origin, possibly of Welsh origin survive, of which the 8th century Hereford Gospels and Lichfield Gospels are the most notable. The 11th century Ricemarch Psalter (now in Dublin) is certainly Welsh, made in St David's, and shows a late Insular style with unusual Viking influence. The best of the few Welsh artists of the 16th–18th centuries tended to move elsewhere to work, but in the 18th century the dominance of landscape art in English art motivated them to stay at home, and brought an influx of artists from outside to paint Welsh scenery. The Welsh painter Richard Wilson (painter), Richard Wilson (1714–1782) is arguably the first major British landscapist, but rather more notable for Italian scenes than Welsh ones, although he did paint several on visits from London. It remained difficult for artists relying on the Welsh market to support themselves until well into the 20th century. An Act of Parliament in 1854 provided for the establishment of a number of art schools throughout the United Kingdom, and the University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, Cardiff School of Art opened in 1865. Graduates still very often had to leave Wales to work, but Betws-y-Coed became a popular centre for artists, and its artists' colony helped form the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art in 1881. The sculptor Sir William Goscombe John made many works for Welsh commissions, although he had settled in London. Christopher Williams (Welsh artist), Christopher Williams, whose subjects were mostly resolutely Welsh, was also based in London. Thomas E. Stephens and Andrew Vicari had very successful careers as portraitists, based respectively in the United States and France. Sir Frank Brangwyn was Welsh by origin, but spent little time in Wales. Perhaps the most famous Welsh painters, Augustus John and his sister Gwen John, mostly lived in London and Paris; however the landscapists Sir Kyffin Williams and Peter Prendergast (artist), Peter Prendergast remained living in Wales for most of their lives, though well in touch with the wider art world. Ceri Richards was very engaged in the Welsh art scene as a teacher in Cardiff, and even after moving to London; he was a figurative painter in international styles including Surrealism. Various artists have moved to Wales, including Eric Gill, the London-born Welshman David Jones (poet), David Jones, and the sculptor Jonah Jones (sculptor), Jonah Jones. The Kardomah Gang was an intellectual circle centred on the poet Dylan Thomas and poet and artist Vernon Watkins in Swansea, which also included the painter Alfred Janes.


Ceramics

Historically, there were three main areas of pottery production in Wales: south-west Wales, northern Monmouthshire and the Vale of Glamorgan. Several further sites can be identified through their place names, for example Pwllcrochan (a hamlet near Milford Haven estuary in Pembrokeshire), which translates to Crock Pool, and archaeology has also revealed former kiln sites across the country. These were often located near clay beds, for ease of resource gathering. Buckley, Flintshire, Buckley and Ewenny Pottery, Ewenny became leading areas of pottery production in Wales during the 17th and 18th centuries; these are applied as generic terms to different potters within those areas during this period. South Wales had several notable pottery, potteries during that same period, an early exponent being the Cambrian Pottery (1764–1870, also known as "Swansea pottery"). The works from Cambrian attempted to imitate those of Wedgwood. Nantgarw Pottery, near Cardiff, was in operation from 1813 to 1823 making fine porcelain. Llanelli, Llanelly Pottery was the last surviving major pottery works in South Wales when it closed in 1922.


Literature


Theatre

Theatrical performances are thought to have begun after the Roman invasion of Britain. There are remains of a Roman amphitheatre at Caerleon, which would have served the nearby fortress of Isca Augusta. Between Roman and modern times, theatre in Wales was limited to performances of travelling players, sometimes in temporary structures. Welsh theatrical groups also performed in England, as did English groups in Wales. The rise of the Puritans in the 17th century and then Methodism during the 18th century caused declines in Welsh theatre as performances were seen as immoral. Despite this, performances continued on showgrounds, and with a handful of travelling groups of actors. The Savoy Theatre, Monmouth, the oldest theatre still in operation in Wales, was built during the 19th century and originally operated as the Assembly Rooms. Other theatres opened over the following decades, with Cardiff's Theatre Royal opening in 1827. After a fire, a replacement Prince of Wales Theatre, Cardiff, Theatre Royal opened in 1878. Competition for theatres led to further buildings being constructed, such as the New Theatre, Cardiff, which opened on 10 December 1906.


Television

Television in the United Kingdom started in 1936 as a public service which was free of advertising, but did not arrive in Wales until the opening of the Wenvoe transmitting station, Wenvoe transmitter in August 1952. Initially all programmes were in the English language, although under the leadership of Welsh director and controller Alun Oldfield-Davies, occasional Welsh language programmes were broadcast during closed periods, replacing the test card. In 1958, responsibility for programming in Wales fell to Television Wales and the West, although Welsh language broadcasting was mainly served by the Manchester-based ITV Granada, Granada company, producing about an hour a week. On the 1 November 1982, S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru) was launched bringing together the BBC Cymru Wales, BBC, ITV Wales & West, HTV and other independent producers to provide an initial service of 22 hours of Welsh-language television. With the completion of the Digital switchover dates in the United Kingdom#Wales, digital switchover in Wales on 31 March 2010—which made English-language Channel 4 available across Wales—S4C's bilingual analogue channel closed, and what had been S4C Digidol became the default S4C channel, available on Freeview (UK), Freeview and pay television, and broadcasting entirely in Welsh. The decision by Julie Gardner, Head of Drama for BBC Wales, to film and produce the 2005 revived version of Doctor Who in Wales is widely seen as a bellwether moment for the industry for the nation. This in turn was followed by the opening of the Roath Lock production studios in Cardiff. Recent English language programmes that have been filmed in Wales include Sherlock (TV series), Sherlock and His Dark Materials (TV series), His Dark Materials, while other popular series, such as Hinterland (TV series), Hinterland (''Y Gwyll'') and Keeping Faith (TV series), Keeping Faith (''Un Bore Mercher'') have been filmed in both Welsh and English.


Film

The Cinema of Wales comprises the art of film and creative movies made in Wales or by Welsh filmmakers either locally or abroad. Welsh cinema began in the late-19th century, led by Welsh-based director William Haggar. Wales continued to produce film of varying quality throughout the 20th century, in both the Welsh and English languages, though indigenous production was curtailed through a lack of infrastructure and finance, which prevented the growth of the industry nationally. Despite this, Wales has been represented in all fields of the film making process, producing actors and directors of note.


Music

file:CardiffArmsParkMaleChoir.JPG, left, The Cardiff Arms Park male voice choir Wales is often referred to as "the land of song", and is notable for its harpists, male choirs, and solo artists. The principal Welsh festival of music and poetry is the annual ''National Eisteddfod''. The ''Llangollen International Eisteddfod'' echoes the National Eisteddfod but provides an opportunity for the singers and musicians of the world to perform. Traditional music and dance in Wales is supported by many societies. The Welsh Folk Song Society has published a number of collections of songs and tunes. Male choirs (sometimes called male voice choirs), which emerged in the 19th century, have remained a lasting tradition in Wales. Originally these choirs were formed as the tenor and bass sections of chapel choirs, and embraced the popular secular hymn (genre), secular hymns of the day. Many of the historic Welsh choirs survive, singing a mixture of traditional and popular songs. Traditional instruments of Wales include ''telyn deires'' (triple harp), fiddle, crwth, ''pibgorn'' (hornpipe) and other instruments. The Cerdd Dant Society promotes its specific singing art primarily through an annual one-day festival. The BBC National Orchestra of Wales performs in Wales and internationally. The Welsh National Opera is based at the Wales Millennium Centre in Cardiff Bay, while the National Youth Orchestra of Wales was the first of its type in the world. Wales has had a number of successful singers. In the 1960s, these included bands such as Amen Corner (band), Amen Corner and The Iveys/Badfinger and singers including Tom Jones (singer), Sir Tom Jones, Shirley Bassey, Dame Shirley Bassey and Mary Hopkin. By the 1980s, indie pop and alternative rock bands such as The Alarm, The Pooh Sticks and The Darling Buds were popular in their genres. But the wider view at the time was that the wider Welsh music scene was stagnant, as the more popular musicians from Wales were from earlier eras. In the 1990s, in England, the Britpop scene was emerging, while in Wales, bands such as Y Cyrff and Ffa Coffi Pawb began to sing in English, starting a culture that would lead to the creation of Catatonia (band), Catatonia and the Super Furry Animals. The influence of the 80s bands and the emergence of a Welsh language and dual language music scene locally in Wales led to a dramatic shift in opinion across the United Kingdom as the "Cool Cymru" bands of the period emerged. The leading Welsh band during this period was the Manic Street Preachers, whose 1996 album ''Everything Must Go (Manic Street Preachers album), Everything Must Go'' has been listed among the greatest albums of all time. Some of those bands have had ongoing success, while the general popularity of Welsh music during this period led to a resurgence of singers such as Tom Jones with his album ''Reload (Tom Jones album), Reload''. It was his first non-compilation number one album since 1968's ''Delilah (Tom Jones album), Delilah''. Meanwhile, Shirley Bassey reached the top 20 once more in the UK Charts with her collaboration with the Propellerheads on the single "History Repeating (song), History Repeating". They also introduced new acts, such as Catatonia's Owen Powell working with Duffy (singer), Duffy during her early period. Moving into the 21st century, Bullet For My Valentine were named the Best British Band at the Kerrang! Awards for three years running. Other successful bands from this period include Funeral For A Friend, and Lostprophets.


Media


Sport

file:Michael Owen takes a lineout.jpg, upRugby Union action from Wales vs. England in 2006 Over fifty Governing bodies of sports in Wales, national governing bodies regulate and organise their sports in Wales. Most of those involved in competitive sports select, organise and manage individuals or teams to represent their country at international events or fixtures against other countries. Wales is represented at major world sporting events such as the FIFA World Cup, the Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games. At the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete alongside those of Scotland, England and Northern Ireland as part of a Great Britain at the Olympics, Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. Wales national rugby union team, The Welsh national rugby union team takes part in the annual Six Nations Championship and has also competed in every Rugby World Cup, with Wales hosting the 1999 Rugby World Cup, 1999 tournament. The five professional sides that replaced the traditional club sides in major competitions in 2003 were in turn replaced in 2004 by the four regions: Scarlets; Cardiff Blues; Dragons (rugby union), Newport Gwent Dragons; and the Ospreys (rugby union), Ospreys. The Welsh regional teams play in the Pro14 league, the Anglo-Welsh Cup (LV Cup), the Heineken Cup, European Heineken Cup and the European Challenge Cup, European (Amlin) Challenge Cup. Wales has had its own League of Wales, association football league since 1992. For historical and other reasons, two Welsh clubs (Cardiff City F.C., Cardiff City and Swansea City A.F.C., Swansea City) play in the The Football League, English Football League. Another three Welsh clubs play in English football's feeder leagues: Wrexham A.F.C., Wrexham, Newport County A.F.C, Newport County and Merthyr Town F.C., Merthyr Town. This also qualifies those teams to compete for England's domestic trophies. On 23 April 1927, Cardiff City became the only team outside England to win the FA Cup. In European football competitions, only teams playing in the Welsh leagues are eligible to play for Wales. The five teams in the English leagues are eligible to represent England only, and they are not allowed to compete for domestic Welsh trophies. file:Tanni Grey-Thompson.jpg, left, Welsh athlete Tanni Grey-Thompson won 11 Paralympic gold medals In international cricket, Wales and England field a single representative team, administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB), called the England cricket team, or simply "England". Occasionally, a separate Wales national cricket team plays in limited-overs competitions, mainly against English county teams. Glamorgan County Cricket Club, Glamorgan is the only Welsh participant in the England and Wales County Championship. Plaid Cymru have argued that
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
should have its own international team and withdraw from the existing arrangement under which Welsh players play for England. The proposal has aroused opposition from Cricket Wales and Glamorgan County Cricket Club, who argue such a move would be financially disastrous. The debate focused on a report produced by the National Assembly for Wales, Welsh National Assembly's petitions committee, which reflected the arguments on both sides. Bethan Jenkins, Plaid Cymru's spokesperson on heritage, culture, sport and broadcasting, and a member of the petitions committee, said: "Cricket Wales and Glamorgan CCC say the idea of a Welsh national cricket team is ‘an emotive subject’. Of course having a national team is emotive. You only have to look at the stands during any national game to see that. To suggest this as anything other than natural is a bit of a misleading argument." In their strategic plan, Cricket Wales state they are "committed to continuing to play a major role within the ECB" Wales has produced several world-class participants in individual sports, including snooker players Ray Reardon, Terry Griffiths, Mark Williams (snooker player), Mark Williams and Matthew Stevens. Successful track athletes include miler Jim Alford who was a world record holder in the 4 x 1500 metres relay, the 110-metre hurdler Colin Jackson who is a former world record holder and the winner of numerous Olympic, World and European medals, and Tanni Grey-Thompson who has won 11 Paralympic gold medals. Wales has also produced a number of world-class boxers. Joe Calzaghe was WBO World Super-Middleweight Champion and then won the WBA, WBC and Ring Magazine super-middleweight and Ring Magazine Light-Heavyweight titles. Other former boxing world champions include Enzo Maccarinelli, Freddie Welsh, Howard Winstone, Percy Jones (boxer), Percy Jones, Jimmy Wilde, Steve Robinson (boxer), Steve Robinson and Robbie Regan.


Cuisine

file:White Welsh Mountain sheep.jpg, A white Welsh Mountain Sheep Wales is not considered to have a strong food identity; some people consider that there is "no such thing as Welsh food". Welsh cookery is said to be similar to English cuisine in style. However, there are regional variations in the food seen across Wales, which can be traced historically to the availability of certain crops and produce in specific areas of the country. The cuisine of Gower is particularly different to the rest of Wales. It was strongly influenced by Somerset and Devon, and developed dishes such as whitepot while ingredients such as pumpkin were used, which are unusual in the rest of Wales. Cattle farming produces the majority of Wales' agricultural output. Welsh beef is protected under Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union, European Union law, meaning that it must be produced and slaughtered in Wales. Welsh pigs are raised, providing good cuts of meat. The mountainous areas of Wales are suited to Sheep farming in Wales, sheep farming and this has led to an association of their meat with the country. The mutton of Wales has been popular in the rest of the United Kingdom since the 16th century, and by the end of the 20th century there were more than 11 million sheep in Wales. Several List of Welsh dishes, Welsh dishes are thought of as Welsh because their ingredients are associated with Wales, whereas others have been developed there. Cawl is regarded as the Welsh national dish; it is a slow-cooked meat and vegetable broth. Traditionally it was a vegetable-heavy dish, but now it is more likely to contain beef or lamb. Welsh rarebit is thought to date from the 18th century, although the original term "Welsh rabbit" may have been intended as a slur against the Welsh. Another use of cheese in a traditional Welsh dish is seen in Glamorgan sausage, which is a skinless sausage made of cheese and either leek or spring onion, which is then rolled into a sausage shape before frying. Laverbread is made using a purée of seaweed, and is traditionally served in a Welsh breakfast. Welsh cakes are made on a bakestone, and are small round spiced cakes containing raisins, sultana (dried grape), sultanas and occasionally Currant (grape), currants. Bara brith contains similar ingredients to Welsh cakes, but is similar to a tea bread. The Welsh have their own versions of pancakes: crempogau (sing. ''crempog'') (sometimes called ''ffroes'', sing. ''ffroesen'') are traditionally layered on top of each other to form a large cake. Some are very much like American pancakes; others may be made with yeast (called ''crempogau burum'', sing. ''crempog furum'') or oatmeal (although this is also true of American pancakes) and some are like Scotch pancakes. Beer is the Beer in Wales, national drink of Wales, despite the influence of the link to Temperance movement in the United Kingdom, temperance movement in Wales. The Wrexham Lager, Wrexham Lager Beer Company was the first successful lager producer in Britain when it opened in 1882, and the Felinfoel Brewery was the first brewery in Europe to put beer in cans. Whisky production in Wales was historically a niche industry, and completely shut down in 1910 when the last distillery was bought out by a Scottish firm. However, the Penderyn (whisky), Penderyn distillery produced the first Wales-created whisky in a century to go on sale when it was launched in 2004. There are 20 Welsh vineyards producing 100,000 bottles of wine a year in total.


See also

* Architecture of Wales * Cool Cymru * Culture of Gwynedd during the High Middle Ages * Cultural relationship between the Welsh and the English * Welsh mythology * List of Welsh people


Notes


References

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Traditions & History of Wales
via VisitWales.com {{DEFAULTSORT:Culture Of Wales Welsh culture, pt:País de Gales#Cultura