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Crown Heights is a neighborhood in the central portion of the
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New York City
borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...
of
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the te ...

Brooklyn
. Crown Heights is bounded by Washington Avenue to the west, Atlantic Avenue to the north, Ralph Avenue to the east, and Empire Boulevard/East New York Avenue to the south. It is about wide and long. Neighborhoods bordering Crown Heights include Prospect Heights to the west, Flatbush and
Prospect Lefferts Gardens Prospect Lefferts Gardens is a residential neighborhood in the Flatbush, Brooklyn, Flatbush area of the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Brooklyn. The community is bounded by Empire Boulevard (formerly Malbone Street) to the north ...
to the south, Brownsville to the east, and Bedford-Stuyvesant to the north. The main thoroughfare through this neighborhood is
Eastern Parkway Eastern Parkway is a major road that runs through a portion of the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Brooklyn. Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, it was the world's first parkway, having been built between 1870 ...
, a tree-lined boulevard designed by
Frederick Law Olmsted Frederick Law Olmsted (April 26, 1822August 28, 1903) was an American landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysi ...

Frederick Law Olmsted
extending east–west. Originally, the area was known as Crow Hill. It was a succession of hills running east and west from
Utica Avenue Utica Avenue is a major avenue in Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. It is the most populous Administrative divisions of ...
to Washington Avenue, and south to Empire Boulevard and
East New York Avenue
East New York Avenue
. The name was changed when Crown Street was cut through in 1916. The northern half of Crown Heights is part of Brooklyn Community District 8 and is patrolled by the 77th Precinct of the
New York City Police Department The New York City Police Department (NYPD), officially the City of New York Police Department, is the primary law enforcement 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the ...
(NYPD). The southern half is part of Brooklyn Community District 9 and is patrolled by the 71st Precinct of the NYPD. Crown Heights's primary
ZIP Code#REDIRECT ZIP Code A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service (USPS). Introduced in 1963, the basic format consisted of five digits. In 1983, an extended ZIP+4 code was introduced; it included the five digits of the ZIP ...
s are 11213, 11216, 11225, 11233, and 11238. Politically, it is represented by the
New York City Council The New York City Council is the lawmaking Lawmaking is the process of crafting legislation. In its purest sense, it is the basis of governance. This form of law making is also applied in India. It is a process which works in India on the bas ...

New York City Council
's 35th, 36th, and 41st Districts.


History


Early history

Although no known physical evidence remains in the Crown Heights vicinity, large portions of what is now called
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic ...
including present-day Brooklyn were occupied by the
Lenape The Lenape (, , or Lenape ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes The term ...
. The Lenape lived in communities of bark- or grass-covered
wigwam A wigwam, wickiup, wetu (Wampanoag The Wampanoag , also rendered Wôpanâak, are a Native American people. They were a loose confederation of several tribes in the 17th century, but today Wampanoag people encompass five officially recognize ...

wigwam
s, and in their larger settlements—typically located on high ground adjacent to fresh water, and occupied in the fall, winter, and spring—they fished, harvested shellfish, trapped animals, gathered wild fruits and vegetables, and cultivated corn, tobacco, beans, and other crops. The first recorded contact between the indigenous people of the New York City region and Europeans was with the Italian explorer
Giovanni da Verrazzano Giovanni da Verrazzano ( , , often misspelled Verrazano in English; 1485–1528) was an Italian (Florentine) explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery Discovery may refer to: * Discovery (observation) ...
in 1524 in the service of France when he anchored at the approximate location where the
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge The Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge ( ; also referred to as the Verrazzano Bridge, locally as the Verrazzano, and formerly as the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge or Narrows Bridge) is a suspension bridge A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in whic ...

Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
touches down in
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the te ...

Brooklyn
today. There he was visited by a
canoe A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel and using a single-bladed paddle A paddle is a tool used for pushin ...

canoe
party of
Lenape The Lenape (, , or Lenape ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes The term ...
. The next contact was in 1609 when the explorer
Henry Hudson Henry Hudson ( 1565 – disappeared 23 June 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the pro ...
arrived in what is now
New York Harbor New York Harbor is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay near the East River tidal estuary, and then into the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of the United States. It is one of the largest Harbor#Natural harbors, ...

New York Harbor
aboard a
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
ship, the ''
Halve Maen ''Halve Maen'' (; en, Half Moon) was a Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; VOC; id, Persatuan Perusahaan Hindia Timur), was a megaco ...

Halve Maen
'' ''( Half Moon)'' commissioned by the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
.
European European, or Europeans, may refer to: In general * ''European'', an adjective referring to something of, from, or related to Europe ** Ethnic groups in Europe ** Demographics of Europe ** European cuisine, the cuisines of Europe and other Western ...
habitation in the New York City area began in earnest with the founding of a
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
fur trading The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characte ...
settlement, later called ''"Nieuw Amsterdam"'' (
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam ( nl, Nieuw Amsterdam, or ) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the ...

New Amsterdam
), on the southern tip of
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
in 1614. By 1630, Dutch and English colonists started moving into the western end of
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic ...
. In 1637, Joris Jansen de Rapalje purchased about around
Wallabout Bay Wallabout Bay is a small body of water in Upper New York Bay Bay in red. It is connected to Lower New York Bay on the south by the Narrows. Ellis Island (north) and Liberty Island (south) are shown in the northwest corner of the bay. Upper N ...
and over the following two years, director Kieft of the
Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company ( nl, Geoctrooieerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWC; ; en, Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company A chartered company is an association with investors or shareholder A shareholder (also known as ...
purchased title to nearly all the land in what is now and from the indigenous inhabitants. Finally, the areas around present-day Crown Heights saw its first
European European, or Europeans, may refer to: In general * ''European'', an adjective referring to something of, from, or related to Europe ** Ethnic groups in Europe ** Demographics of Europe ** European cuisine, the cuisines of Europe and other Western ...
settlements starting in about 1661/1662 when several men each received, from Governor Peter Stuyvesant and the directors of the
Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company ( nl, Geoctrooieerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWC; ; en, Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company A chartered company is an association with investors or shareholder A shareholder (also known as ...
what was described as “a parcel of free (unoccupied) woodland there” on the condition that they situate their houses “within one of the other concentration, which would suit them best, but not to make a hamlet.”


Early and mid-20th century

Crown Heights had begun as a fashionable residential neighborhood, a place for secondary homes in which Manhattan's growing
bourgeois Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguist ...

bourgeois
class could reside. The area benefited by having its rapid transit in a subway configuration, the
IRT Eastern Parkway Line The Eastern Parkway Line is one of the lines of the IRT division of the New York City Subway The New York City Subway is a rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn ...
(), in contrast to many other Brooklyn neighborhoods, which had elevated lines. Conversion to a
commuter town A commuter town is a populated area that is primarily residential, rather than commercial or industrial. Routine travel from home to work and then from work to home is called commuting Commuting is periodically recurring travel betwe ...
also included tearing down the 19th century Kings County Penitentiary at Carroll Street and Nostrand Avenue. Beginning in the early 1900s, many upper-class residences, including characteristic
brownstone , just south of 125th Street (2004) Brownstone is a brown Triassic The Triassic ( ) is a geologic period and system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unifi ...
buildings, were erected along Eastern Parkway. Away from the parkway were a mixture of lower middle-class residences. This development peaked in the 1920s. Before
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
Crown Heights was among New York City's premier neighborhoods, with tree-lined streets, an array of cultural institutions and parks, and numerous fraternal, social and community organizations. From the early 1920s through the 1960s, Crown Heights was an overwhelmingly white neighborhood and predominantly Jewish. In 1950, the neighborhood was 89 percent white, with some 50 to 60 percent of the white population, or about 75,000 people, being Jewish, but new arrivals from the West Indies and the American South created a growing Black presence. By 1957, there were about 25,000 Blacks in Crown Heights, making up about one-fourth of the population. Around the same time, suburbanization began to rapidly affect Crown Heights and Brooklyn. Robert Moses expanded the borough's access to Long Island through expressway construction, and by way of the G.I. Bill, many families moved east. Most of these opportunities were limited to whites. Levittown in Long Island, for example, forbid applications from Black families. As the Jewish, Irish and Italian populations of Crown Heights moved out of the neighborhood, black people from the south and immigrants from the Caribbean continued to move there. The 1957 departure of the Brooklyn Dodgers and the destruction of Ebbets Field for public housing for its Black population symbolically served as the end of the old white ethnic Crown Heights and in the 1960s the neighborhood experienced mass white flight. The demographic change was astounding; in 1960 the neighborhood was 70% white, by 1970 it was 70% Black. The one exception to this pattern was the Lubavitch Hasidic Jews. There were thirty-four large synagogues in the neighborhood, including the Bobov, Chovevei Torah, and
770 Eastern Parkway 770 Eastern Parkway ( yi, 770 איסטערן פארקוויי), also known as "770", is the street address of the World Headquarters of the Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidic Judaism, Hasidic movement, located on Eastern Parkway (Brooklyn), Eastern Parkw ...

770 Eastern Parkway
, home of the worldwide
Lubavitch Chabad, also known as Lubavitch, Habad and Chabad-Lubavitch (), is an Orthodox Jewish Hasidic dynasty Hasidism, sometimes spelled Chassidism, and also known as Hasidic Judaism ( he, חסידות, Ḥăsīdut, ; originally, "piety"), is a sub ...
movement. There were also three prominent
Yeshiva A yeshiva (; he, ישיבה, , sitting; pl. , or ) is a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards de ...
elementary schools in the neighborhood, Crown Heights Yeshiva on Crown Street, the Yeshiva of Eastern Parkway, and the Reines Talmud Torah.


Late 20th century

The 1960s and 1970s were a time of turbulent race relations in the area: With increasing poverty in the city, racial conflict plagued some of its neighborhoods, including Crown Heights, with its racially and culturally mixed populations. The neighborhood's relatively large population of Lubavitch Hasidim, at the request of their leader, the Lubavitcher Rebbe
Menachem Mendel Schneerson Menachem Mendel Schneerson ( he, מנחם מענדל שניאורסון; yi, מנחם מענדל שניאורסאהן; April 5, 1902 OS – June 12, 1994; AM 11 Nissan 5662 – 3 Tammuz 5754), known to many as the Lubavitcher Rebbe or ...

Menachem Mendel Schneerson
stayed in the community after other whites left. In 1964 the Labor Day Carnival celebrating Caribbean culture was moved to the neighborhood when its license to run in Harlem was revoked. It now attracts between one and three million people and is held on the first Monday in September. During the
Lyndon B. Johnson Lyndon Baines Johnson (; August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was the 36th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the ...

Lyndon B. Johnson
administration, Crown Heights was declared a primary poverty area due to a high unemployment rate, high juvenile and adult crime rate, poor nutrition due to lack of family income, relative absence of job skills and readiness, and a relatively high concentration of elderly residents. Violence broke out several times in the neighborhood during the late 20th century, including during the
New York City blackout of 1977 The New York City blackout of 1977 was an electricity blackout that affected most of New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United Sta ...
: More than 75 area stores were robbed, and thieves used cars to pull up roll-down curtains in front of stores. In 1991, there was a three-day outbreak known as the
Crown Heights Riot The Crown Heights riot was a race riot that took place from August 19 to August 21, 1991, in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S ...
, which started between the neighborhood's
West Indian A West Indian is a native Native may refer to: People * Jus soli, citizenship by right of birth * Indigenous peoples, peoples with a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory ** Native Americans (disambigu ...
/
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...

African American
and Jewish communities. The riots began on August 19, 1991, after Gavin Cato, the son of two Guyanese immigrants, was struck and killed by a car in the motorcade of prominent
Hasidic Hasidism, sometimes spelled Chassidism, and also known as Hasidic Judaism ( he, חסידות, Ḥăsīdut, ; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an e ...
rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneerson Menachem Mendel Schneerson ( he, מנחם מענדל שניאורסון; yi, מנחם מענדל שניאורסאהן; April 5, 1902 OS – June 12, 1994; AM 11 Nissan 5662 – 3 Tammuz 5754), known to many as the Lubavitcher Rebbe or ...

Menachem Mendel Schneerson
. A mob began to attack a Jewish volunteer ambulance, which withdrew. Rumors circulated that the ambulance refused to treat Gavin Cato's injuries while removing members of Schneerson's motorcade instead. Yankel Rosenbaum, a visiting rabbinical student from Australia, was killed in the riot, while Jews and Blacks were assaulted, and there was property damage amid rock throwing in the ensuing riots. The riot unveiled long-simmering tensions between the neighborhood's Black and Jewish communities, which impacted the 1993 mayoral race and ultimately led to a successful outreach program between Black and Jewish leaders that somewhat helped improve race relations in the city. Through the 1990s, crime, racial conflict, and violence decreased in the city and urban renewal and
gentrification Gentrification is the process of changing the character of a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard ...

gentrification
began to take effect including in Crown Heights.


Early 21st century

In the 2010s, Crown Heights experienced rapid gentrification. In some areas the increasing rents have caused the displacement of long-time residents. Not only did rents for each apartment increase drastically but building management firms such as BCB Realty, affiliated with companies that buy up buildings in the neighborhood, aimed to remove long-term residents by buying them out or pressuring them to move by "failing to adequately maintain apartments", according to a housing activist, with the aim of forcing out the rent-stabilized. Other tactics include relocating residents from their apartments claiming renovation and locking them out, as employed by another realtor in the neighborhood, ZT Realty. In 2017, real estate developer
Isaac Hager Isaac Hager is an American real estate developer who founded the New York City-based Cornell Realty Management. Biography Isaac "Itzy" Hager was born in the 1970s and belongs to the Vizhnitz (Hasidic dynasty), Vizhnitz Hasidic Jewish community ba ...
faced opposition from activists when he proposed building a 565-unit apartment complex in Crown Heights; in April 2019, a judge issued a restraining order against the project. In the wake of the 2010 opening of Basil Pizza & Wine Bar, a series of upscale, kosher,
foodie A foodie is a person who has an ardent or refined interest in food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential n ...
restaurants opened in Crown Heights, which ''
The Jewish Week ''The Jewish Week'' is a weekly independent community newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entert ...
'' described as "an eating destination." In November 2013, a series of attacks on Jewish residents were suspected to be part of " knockout games". Media attention to knockout attacks increased following the incidents in Crown Heights. In response to the violence, the Jewish community hosted an event for African-American teens, designed to promote greater understanding of Jews and their beliefs. The event, hosted by the
Jewish Children's Museum The Jewish Children's Museum is the largest Jewish-themed children's museum in the United States. It aims for children of all faiths and backgrounds to gain a positive perspective and awareness of the Jewish heritage, fostering tolerance and under ...
, was coordinated by local Jewish organizations, public schools, and by the NYPD's 71st and 77th precincts.


Demographics

Crown Heights is divided into two neighborhood tabulation areas, Crown Heights North and Crown Heights South, which collectively comprise the population of Crown Heights. Crown Heights has a majority
West Indian A West Indian is a native Native may refer to: People * Jus soli, citizenship by right of birth * Indigenous peoples, peoples with a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory ** Native Americans (disambigu ...
and
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...

African American
population according to the 2010 census. Reflecting the most varied population of Caribbean immigrants outside the West Indies, Crown Heights is known for its annual West Indian Carnival. The vivid ostentation goes along
Eastern Parkway Eastern Parkway is a major road that runs through a portion of the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Brooklyn. Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, it was the world's first parkway, having been built between 1870 ...
, from Utica Avenue to
Grand Army Plaza Grand Army Plaza, originally known as Prospect Park Plaza, is a public plaza that comprises the northern corner and the main entrance of Prospect Park in the New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List o ...

Grand Army Plaza
. According to the West Indian-American Day Carnival Association, over 3.5 million people participate in the parade each year. Crown Heights also contains a significant number of
Hasidic Jews Hasidism, sometimes spelled Chassidism, and also known as Hasidic Judaism ( he, חסידות, Ḥăsīdut, ; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an e ...
. It is the location of the Worldwide Headquarters of the
Chabad-Lubavitch Chabad, also known as Lubavitch, Habad and Chabad-Lubavitch (), is an Orthodox Jewish Orthodox Judaism is the collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism. Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Tor ...
Hasidic Hasidism, sometimes spelled Chassidism, and also known as Hasidic Judaism ( he, חסידות, Ḥăsīdut, ; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an e ...
Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jew
ish movement, at
770 Eastern Parkway 770 Eastern Parkway ( yi, 770 איסטערן פארקוויי), also known as "770", is the street address of the World Headquarters of the Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidic Judaism, Hasidic movement, located on Eastern Parkway (Brooklyn), Eastern Parkw ...

770 Eastern Parkway
. An
Orthodox Jewish Orthodox Judaism is the collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism. Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range o ...
community which established itself in Crown Heights in the 1940s has continued to thrive around that location.


Crown Heights North

Based on data from the
2010 United States Census The United States Census of 2010 was the twenty-third United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in ...
, the population of Crown Heights North was 103,169, a change of -293 (-0.3%) from the 103,462 counted in
2000 2000 was designated as the International Year for the Culture of Peace and the World Mathematics, Mathematical Year. Popular culture holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millennium due to a tendency of group ...
. Covering an area of , the neighborhood had a population density of .Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010
Population Division -
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 31%
White White is the lightest color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the Unite ...
, 49%
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...
, 0.2%
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
, 3%
Asian Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asi ...
, 0%
Pacific Islander Pacific Islanders, Pacificer, Pasifika, or Pasefika, are the peoples of the Pacific Islands This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of island An island (or isle) ...
, 0.4% from
other races Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), a 1971 horror novel by Tom Tryon * The Other (short story ...
, and 1.9% from two or more races.
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and ...
or
Latino Latino or Latinos most often refers to: * Latino (demonym), a term used in the United States for people with cultural ties to Latin America * Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States * The people or cultures of Latin America; ** Latin Am ...
of any race were 14% of the population.Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010
Population Division -
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
The entirety of Community District 8, which covers Crown Heights North, had 97,130 inhabitants as of
NYC Health The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene is the department of the government of New York City responsible for public health along with issuing birth certificates, dog licenses, and conducting restaurant inspection and enforceme ...
's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 79.2 years. This is lower than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are middle-aged adults and youth: 20% are between the ages of 0–17, 37% between 25 and 44, and 22% between 45 and 64. The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 9% and 12% respectively. As of 2016, the median
household income Household income is a measure of the combined incomes of all people sharing a particular household A household consists of one or several persons who live in the same dwelling In law, a dwelling (also residence, abode) is a self-contained ...
in Community District 8 was $60,107. In 2018, an estimated 21% of Crown Heights North residents lived in poverty, compared to 21% in all of Brooklyn and 20% in all of New York City. One in eleven residents (9%) were unemployed, compared to 9% in the rest of both Brooklyn and New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 50% in Crown Heights North, lower than the citywide and boroughwide rates of 52% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, , Crown Heights North is considered to be
gentrifying Gentrification is a process of changing the character of a neighborhood through the influx of more Wealth, affluent residents and businesses. It is a common and controversial topic in politics and in urban planning. Gentrification often increas ...

gentrifying
. According to the 2020 census data from
New York City Department of City Planning The Department of City Planning (DCP) is the department of the government of New York City A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, a ...
, there is still an overwhelming Black population majority of 40,000 or more residents, but there is a diverse cultural population with each the White and Hispanic populations at between 10,000 and 19,999 residents.


Crown Heights South

Based on data from the
2010 United States Census The United States Census of 2010 was the twenty-third United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in ...
, the population of Crown Heights South was 39,670, a change of -2,700 (-6.8%) from the 42,370 counted in
2000 2000 was designated as the International Year for the Culture of Peace and the World Mathematics, Mathematical Year. Popular culture holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millennium due to a tendency of group ...
. Covering an area of , the neighborhood had a population density of . The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 25.8% (10,221)
White White is the lightest color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the Unite ...
, 62.8% (24,921)
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...
, 0.2% (81)
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
, 0.7% (285)
Asian Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asi ...
, 0% (12)
Pacific Islander Pacific Islanders, Pacificer, Pasifika, or Pasefika, are the peoples of the Pacific Islands This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of island An island (or isle) ...
, 0.3% (127) from
other races Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), a 1971 horror novel by Tom Tryon * The Other (short story ...
, and 1.5% (601) from two or more races.
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and ...
or
Latino Latino or Latinos most often refers to: * Latino (demonym), a term used in the United States for people with cultural ties to Latin America * Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States * The people or cultures of Latin America; ** Latin Am ...
of any race were 8.6% (3,422) of the population. The entirety of Community District 9, which covers Crown Heights South, had 98,650 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 81.2 years. This is equal to the median life expectancy of all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are middle-aged adults and youth: 22% are between the ages of 0–17, 30% between 25 and 44, and 25% between 45 and 64. The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 9% and 14% respectively. As of 2016, the median household income in Community District 9 was $51,072. In 2018, an estimated 22% of Crown Heights South residents lived in poverty, compared to 21% in all of Brooklyn and 20% in all of New York City. One in nine residents (11%) were unemployed, compared to 9% in the rest of both Brooklyn and New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 55% in Crown Heights South, higher than the citywide and boroughwide rates of 52% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, , Crown Heights South is considered to be gentrifying. As of the 2020 census according to
New York City Department of City Planning The Department of City Planning (DCP) is the department of the government of New York City A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, a ...
, there were between 20,000 and 29,999 Black residents and 10,000 to 19,999 White residents. The concentration of Black residents in South Crown Heights is slightly lower than North Crown Heights.


Politics

The neighborhood is part of
New York's 9th congressional district New York's 9th congressional district is a congressional district for the United States House of Representatives in New York City, represented by Yvette Clarke. The district is located entirely within Brooklyn. It includes the neighborhoods of ...
, represented by Democrat
Yvette Clarke Yvette Diane Clarke (born November 21, 1964) is an American politician serving as the United States House of Representatives, U.S. representative for New York's 9th congressional district since 2013. A member of the Democratic Party (United State ...
since 2013. It is also part of the 19th and 20th
State Senate A state legislature in the United States is the Legislature, legislative body of any of the 50 U.S. states. The formal name varies from state to state. In 27 states the legislature is simply called the ''Legislature'' or the ''State Legislature ...

State Senate
districts, represented by Democrats and , and the 43rd and 57th districts, represented respectively by Democrats Diana Richardson and Walter T. Mosley. Crown Heights is located in New York's 35th and 36th New York City Council, City Council districts, represented respectively by Democrats Laurie Cumbo and Robert Cornegy. Crown Heights is served by Brooklyn Community Board 8 north of Eastern Parkway and Brooklyn Community Board 9 south of Eastern Parkway.


Police and crime

Crown Heights is patrolled by two precincts of the New York City Police Department, NYPD. Crown Heights North is covered by the 77th Precinct, located at 127 Utica Avenue, while Crown Heights South is patrolled by the 71st Precinct, located at 421 Empire Boulevard. The 77th Precinct ranked 42nd safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010, while the 71st Precinct ranked 46th safest. , with a non-fatal assault rate of 85 per 100,000 people in Crown Heights North and 73 per 100,000 people in Crown Heights South, both areas' rates of violent crimes per capita are greater than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rates of 872 per 100,000 people in Crown Heights North and 598 per 100,000 people in Crown Heights South are both greater than that of the city as a whole. The 77th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 85.7% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct reported 2 murders, 32 rapes, 180 robberies, 297 felony assaults, 158 burglaries, 397 grand larcenies, and 72 grand larcenies auto in 2018. The 71st Precinct also has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 82.7% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct reported 8 murders, 26 rapes, 166 robberies, 349 felony assaults, 143 burglaries, 464 grand larcenies, and 68 grand larcenies auto in 2018.


Fire safety

The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) operates four fire stations in Crown Heights: * Engine Company 234/Ladder Company 123/Battalion 38 – 1352 St Johns Place * Rescue 2 – 1472 Bergen Street * Engine Company 280/Ladder Company 132 – 489 St Johns Place * Engine Company 227 – 423 Ralph Avenue


Health

, preterm births in Crown Heights and births to teenage mothers in Crown Heights North are more common than in other places citywide, though births to teenage mothers in Crown Heights South are less common than in other places citywide. There were 92 preterm births per 1,000 live births in Crown Heights North and 91 preterm births per 1,000 live births in Crown Heights South (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide). Additionally, there were 24.6 births to teenage mothers per 1,000 live births in Crown Heights North and 14.8 births to teenage mothers per 1,000 live births in Crown Heights South (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide). Both neighborhoods have a relatively high population of residents who are Health insurance coverage in the United States, uninsured, or who receive healthcare through Medicaid.New York City Health Provider Partnership Brooklyn Community Needs Assessment: Final Report
New York Academy of Medicine (October 3, 2014).
In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 12% in Crown Heights North and 16% in Crown Heights South, compared to the citywide rate of 12%. The concentration of particulates, fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollution, air pollutant, is in Crown Heights North and in Crown Heights South, slightly higher than the citywide and boroughwide averages. Eighteen percent of Crown Heights North residents and eight percent of Crown Heights South residents are Smoking, smokers, compared to the city average of 14% of residents being smokers. In Crown Heights North, 26% of residents are Obesity, obese, 13% are Diabetes mellitus, diabetic, and 33% have hypertension, high blood pressure—compared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively. By comparison, in Crown Heights South, 32% of residents are obese, 15% are diabetic, and 37% have high blood pressure. In addition, 19% of children are obese in both Crown Heights North and South, compared to the citywide average of 20%. Eighty-four percent of Crown Heights North and eighty-one percent of Crown Heights South residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is slightly lower than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 78% of Crown Heights North and 84% of Crown Heights South residents described their health as "good", "very good", or "excellent", compared to than the city's average of 78%. For every supermarket, there are 25 convenience store, bodegas in Crown Heights North and 21 bodegas in Crown Heights South.


Post offices and ZIP Codes

Crown Heights North is covered by
ZIP Code#REDIRECT ZIP Code A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service (USPS). Introduced in 1963, the basic format consisted of five digits. In 1983, an extended ZIP+4 code was introduced; it included the five digits of the ZIP ...
s 11238, 11216, 11213, and 11233 from west to east, while Crown Heights South is covered by ZIP Codes 11225 and 11213 from west to east. The United States Postal Service operates two post offices nearby: the Saint Johns Place Station at 1234 St Johns Place, and the James E Davis Station at 315 Empire Boulevard.


Education

Crown Heights generally has a similar ratio of college-educated residents to the rest of the city . In Crown Heights North, 44% of residents age 25 and older have a college education or higher, while 16% have less than a high school education and 40% are high school graduates or have some college education. In Crown Heights South, 35% of residents age 25 and older have a college education or higher, while 16% have less than a high school education and 48% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 40% of Brooklynites and 38% of city residents have a college education or higher. The percentage of Crown Heights North students excelling in reading and math has been increasing, with reading achievement rising from 31 percent in 2000 to 37 percent in 2011, and math achievement rising from 22 percent to 47 percent within the same time period. In Crown Heights South, reading achievement rose from 31 percent in 2000 to 37 percent in 2011, and math achievement rose from 21 percent to 47 percent within the same time period. Crown Heights' rates of elementary school student absenteeism are higher than the rest of New York City. The proportions of elementary school students who missed twenty or more days per school year were 28% in Crown Heights North and 22% in Crown Heights South, compared to the citywide average of 20% of students. Additionally, 71% of high school students in Crown Heights North and 77% of high school students in Crown Heights South graduate on time, compared to the citywide average of 75% of students.


Schools

Among the public schools are the International Arts Business School, The League School, The School for Human Rights, The School for Democracy and Leadership and the High School for Public Service: Heroes of Tomorrow, all on the campus of the now-closed George W. Wingate High School, and Success Academy Crown Heights, part of Success Academy Charter Schools. M.S. 587, New Heights Middle School, Achievement First Crown Heights Elementary School, and Achievement First Crown Heights Middle School are all located in Crown Heights, housed in the Mahalia Jackson School building. Explore Empower Charter School is also located in Crown Heights. Medgar Evers College is an institution of higher education in the neighborhood. The orthodox Jewish community is serviced by sex segregation#Education and socialization, gender-segregated schools. Among the girls schools are Beth Rivkah Academy, founded in 1941 by the sixth Lubavitcher Rebbe, Yosef Yitzchak Schneerson, as the oldest Chasidic school for girls; the school now hosts preschool through higher learning institutions. Newer schools include Bnos Menachem, Bais Chaya Mushka, Bnos Chomesh and Chabad Girls Academy. The boys are educated at Oholei Torah, Yeshiva Tomchei Temimim Lubavitch, Cheder Ohr Menachem, Gan Academy, Darchei Menachem and various other smaller schools.


Libraries

The Brooklyn Public Library (BPL) has three branches in Crown Heights: * The Crown Heights branch, on the border with Flatbush/Prospect Lefferts Gardens, is located at 560 New York Avenue near Maple Street. The branch was built in 1958 as part of a plan by mayor Abraham Beame. * The Brower Park branch is located at 725 St. Marks Avenue between New York and Nostrand Avenues. The branch was built in 1963 under the Beame plan. When it opened, it was northern Brooklyn's first new library in four decades. * The Eastern Parkway branch and Eastern Parkway Learning Center is located at 1044 Eastern Parkway at Schenectady Avenue. It is a two-story, limestone-clad List of Carnegie libraries in New York City, Carnegie library branch with of floor space. The branch was renovated at least four times, most recently in 2016.


Transportation

Crown Heights is served by the New York City Subway's
IRT Eastern Parkway Line The Eastern Parkway Line is one of the lines of the IRT division of the New York City Subway The New York City Subway is a rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn ...
, with stations at Franklin Avenue (IRT Eastern Parkway Line), Franklin Avenue (), Nostrand Avenue (IRT Eastern Parkway Line), Nostrand Avenue (), Kingston Avenue (IRT Eastern Parkway Line), Kingston Avenue (), and Utica Avenue (IRT Eastern Parkway Line), Utica Avenue (). It is also served by the IRT Nostrand Avenue Line at President Street (IRT Nostrand Avenue Line), President and Sterling Street (IRT Nostrand Avenue Line), Sterling Streets (). The subway's BMT Franklin Avenue Line, served by the contains stations at Botanic Garden (BMT Franklin Avenue Line), Botanic Garden and Park Place (BMT Franklin Avenue Line), Park Place. The IND Fulton Street line runs on its namesake street, 2 blocks north of the border between Crown Heights and Bedford-Stuyvesant, stopping in the Crown Heights area from Clinton-Washington Avenues to Ralph Avenue and Broadway Junction. Just east of the Utica Avenue station, on the border with Brownsville, there is a park called Lincoln Terrace (also known as Arthur S. Somers Park), which slopes gently down toward the southern Brooklyn coastline; the IRT New Lots Line transitions from a tunnel to an elevated structure within this park. Several bus lines serve the area, including the .


Recreation

Crown Heights has one botanical garden: * Brooklyn Botanic Garden There are also four museums in Crown Heights: * Brooklyn Museum * Brooklyn Children's Museum *
Jewish Children's Museum The Jewish Children's Museum is the largest Jewish-themed children's museum in the United States. It aims for children of all faiths and backgrounds to gain a positive perspective and awareness of the Jewish heritage, fostering tolerance and under ...
* Weeksville Heritage Center Crown Heights has several parks: * Prospect Park (Brooklyn), Prospect Park and Mount Prospect Park runs along Crown Heights' western edge. * Brower Park
St. John's Park and Recreation Center
* Hamilton Metz Field * Wingate Park * Parkside Playground


Landmarks

* 23rd Regiment Armory *
770 Eastern Parkway 770 Eastern Parkway ( yi, 770 איסטערן פארקוויי), also known as "770", is the street address of the World Headquarters of the Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidic Judaism, Hasidic movement, located on Eastern Parkway (Brooklyn), Eastern Parkw ...

770 Eastern Parkway
(central headquarters of the
Chabad-Lubavitch Chabad, also known as Lubavitch, Habad and Chabad-Lubavitch (), is an Orthodox Jewish Orthodox Judaism is the collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism. Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Tor ...
Hasidic Judaism, Hasidic movement) * Crown Heights North Historic District * Ebbets Field, Ebbets Field Apartments * George W. Wingate High School * Weeksville Heritage Center, Hunterfly Road Historic District * Kol Israel Synagogue * Medgar Evers College * former Nassau Brewing Company * Park Place Historic District (Brooklyn), Park Place Historic District * St. Bartholomew's Protestant Episcopal Church and Rectory


Notable people

* Bob Arum (born 1931), founder and CEO of Top Rank, a professional boxing promotion company. * Robert S. Bennett (born 1939), attorney who represented President Bill Clinton during the Lewinsky scandalRobert S. Bennett, Bennett, Robert S.]
''In the Ring: The Trials of a Washington Lawyer''
p. 4. Crown Publishers, 2008. . Accessed November 2, 2017. "I was the first child of Nancy Walsh Bennett and F. Robert Bennett. Mother was a housewife and Dad worked for a bank. We lived at 698 St. Marks Avenue in what is now known as the Bedford-Stuyvesant section." Note that Bennett inaccurately describes the 698 St. Marks Avenue address as being in Bedford-Stuyvesant (not Crown Heights).
* William Bennett (born 1943), Secretary of Education under President Ronald Reagan * Oni Blackstock, primary care and HIV physician, researcher, and founder of Health Justice, a racial and health equity consulting practice.Cohen, Joyce
"After a Life Together, Living Apart"
''The New York Times'', February 12, 2006. Accessed August 24, 2021. "As identical twins, Uché and Oni Blackstock were always together. They lived together, studied together, earned their M.D. degrees together.... The twins, whose parents gave them Nigerian names, grew up in a four-story brownstone on St. Marks Avenue in Crown Heights, Brooklyn."
* Uché Blackstock, physician. * James Bouknight (born 2000), professional basketball player * Buckshot (rapper), Buckshot (born 1974), rapper. * Shirley Chisholm (1924-2005), educator and politician * Iris Cantor (born 1931), philanthropist. * Clive Davis (born 1932), music industry executive * Phara Souffrant Forrest (born 1989), member of the New York State Assembly from the 57th district. * James E. Davis (New York politician), James E. Davis (1962-2003), police officer, corrections officer, councilmember, minister and community activist. * Israel Englander (born 1948), billionaire hedge fund manager. * Joseph Esposito (born 1950), NYC Emergency Management commissioner, started as a beat cop in Crown Heights * Avraham Fried (born 1959), Hasidic singer * Yitzchak Ginsburgh (born 1944), American-born Israeli rabbi. * Allen Grubman, entertainment lawyer. * Maggie Haberman, journalist * Jamie Hector (born 1975), actor, portrays Marlo Stanfield on the HBO series ''The Wire'' * Sidney Hertzberg, Sidney "Sonny" Hertzberg (1922–2005), professional basketball player * Regina Herzlinger, professor at Harvard Business School * Gavriel Holtzberg (1979–2008), murdered Orthodox rabbi and Chabad emissary to Mumbai, India * Simon Jacobson (born 1956), rabbi, author and journalist. * Yosef Yitzchak Jacobson (born 1972), rabbi and orator. * Harold S. Koplewicz (born 1953), child and adolescent psychiatrist * Carol Laderman (1932–2010), medical anthropologist. * Nas (born 1973), famous hip-hop artist, songwriter, record producer and actor * Norman Mailer (1923–2007), novelist, journalist and author * Marty Markowitz (born 1945), former Brooklyn borough president * Matisyahu, Matisyahu Miller (born 1979), reggae artist * Stephanie Mills (born 1957), singer * Mark Naison (born 1946), professor of history and former political activist * Lemrick Nelson (born 1975), convicted of violating Yankel Rosenbaum's civil rights in his murder during the 1991 Crown Heights riot * Linda Nochlin (1931-2017), art historian best known for her pioneering 1971 article "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?". * Mendy Pellin, Hasidic comedian * Noel Pointer (1954–1994), jazz violinist * Aaron Raskin, religious leader, Chabad Lubavitch rabbi and author * Kendall Schmidt (born 1990), television actor (''Big Time Rush'') and singer *
Menachem Mendel Schneerson Menachem Mendel Schneerson ( he, מנחם מענדל שניאורסון; yi, מנחם מענדל שניאורסאהן; April 5, 1902 OS – June 12, 1994; AM 11 Nissan 5662 – 3 Tammuz 5754), known to many as the Lubavitcher Rebbe or ...

Menachem Mendel Schneerson
(1902–94), the Rebbe of Chabad-Lubavitch * Meyer Seewald (born 1988) community activist, founder of the Jewish Community Watch, an organization whose mission is the prevention of child sex abuses in the Orthodox community * Allie Sherman (1923-2015), National Football League player and head coach * Sholom Shuchat (born 1984), Chabad-Lubavitch rabbi, dayan, and posek * Carl Sigman (1909–2000), songwriter * Beverly Sills (1929–2007), opera singer and administrator * Mighty Sparrow (born 1935), Calypso musician from Trinidad/West Indies * Susan McKinney Steward (1847–1918), first African American woman to earn medical degree in New York * Aaron Swartz (1986–2013), computer programmer, writer, archivist, political organizer, and internet activist * William L. Taylor (1931–2010), attorney and civil rights advocate * Simcha Weinstein (born 1975), author and rabbi * Mendy Werdyger (born 1959), Hasidic Jewish singer, songwriter, and record store owner * Yoni Z (born Yoni Zigelboum in 1991), Jewish recording artist, songwriter and entertainer


In popular culture


Film

* ''Project 2x1'', a 2013 documentary shot with Google Glass, features scenes shot by the Caribbean and Hasidic residents.Sharp, Sonja. Crown Heights Documentary Claims to be First Ever Shot With Google Glass. ''DNAInfo.com''. Oct 7, 2013.
Brooklyn Film & Arts Festival Screening: "Brooklyn Realities – Documented". ''Columbia.edu''.
/ref> * ''Crown Heights'' (2004), a television film by Jeremy Kagan for Showtime (TV network), Showtime. * Crown Heights (film), ''Crown Heights'' (2017) * ''Brooklyn Babylon''


Television

* Location for 4th season of High Maintenance, ''High Maintenance'' (2016-2020)


Literature


Music

* The 2004 song "King Without a Crown" by ''Matisyahu'' * The song ‘Act Like U Want It’ by Black Moon (group), ''Black Moon'' references Franklin Avenue * The video “Moshpit” by Baby Keem


References


Further reading


Race and Religion among the Chosen Peoples of Crown Heights, by Henry Goldschmidt (Rutgers University Press, 2006)
*
Strolls Upon Old Lines: Crow Hill and Some of Its Suggestions
from the ''Brooklyn Eagle'' December 9, 1888 * {{Authority control Crown Heights, Brooklyn, Chabad communities Jewish communities in the United States Neighborhoods in Brooklyn Orthodox Judaism in New York City