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The Connecticut River is the longest river in the
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for through four states. It rises at the U.S. border with
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, and discharges at
Long Island Sound Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying predominantly between the U.S. state of Connecticut to the north, and Long Island in New York (state), New York to the south. From west to east, the sound stretches from the East ...

Long Island Sound
. Its watershed encompasses , covering parts of five U.S. states and one Canadian province, via 148 tributaries, 38 of which are major rivers. It produces 70% of Long Island Sound's fresh water, discharging at per second. The Connecticut River Valley is home to some of the northeastern United States' most productive farmland, as well as the Hartford–Springfield Knowledge Corridor, a metropolitan region of approximately two million people surrounding
Springfield, Massachusetts Springfield is a city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, su ...
, and
Hartford, Connecticut Hartford is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as ...
.


History

The word "Connecticut" is a corruption of the
Mohegan The Mohegan are an Algonquian peoples, Algonquian Native American tribe historically based in present-day Connecticut. Today the majority of the people are associated with the Mohegan Indian Tribe, a federally recognized tribe living on a reserv ...
word ''quinetucket'', which means "beside the long, tidal river". The word came into English during the early 1600s to name the river, which was also called simply "The Great River". It was also known as the Fresh River, and the Dutch called it the Verse River. Early spellings of the name by European explorers included "Cannitticutt" in French or in English.


Pre-1614: American Indian populations

Archaeological digs reveal human habitation of the Connecticut River Valley for 6,000 years before present. Numerous tribes lived throughout the fertile Connecticut River valley prior to Dutch exploration beginning in 1614. Information concerning how these tribes lived and interacted stems mostly from English accounts written during the 1630s. The
Pequots The Pequot () are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American people of Connecticut. The modern Pequot are members of the federally recognized Mashantucket Pequot Tribe, four other state-recognized groups in Connecticut including th ...
dominated a territory in the southern region of the Connecticut River valley, stretching roughly from the river's mouth at
Old Saybrook, Connecticut Old Saybrook is a New England town, town in Middlesex County, Connecticut, Middlesex County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 10,242 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. It contains the incorporated borough of Fenwick, Conne ...
north to just below the Big Bend at Middletown. They warred with and attempted to subjugate neighboring agricultural tribes such as the Western Niantics, while maintaining an uneasy stand-off with their rivals the
Mohegans The Mohegan are an Algonquian Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Cana ...
. The
Mattabesset Mattabesset was a region and settlement once occupied by Algonquian languages, Algonquian language-speaking Native Americans in the United States, Native Americans called the Wangunk, along the Connecticut River. The Mattabesset River reaches the Co ...
(Tunxis) tribe takes its name from the place where its
sachem Sachems and sagamores are paramount chiefs A paramount chief is the English-language designation for the highest-level political leader in a regional or local polity or country administered politically with a Chiefdom, chief-based system. Th ...
s ruled at the Connecticut River's Big Bend at Middletown, in a village sandwiched between the territories of the aggressive Pequots to the south and the more peaceable Mohegans to the north. The Mohegans dominated the region due north, where Hartford and its suburbs sit, particularly after allying themselves with the Colonists against the Pequots during the
Pequot War The Pequot War was an armed conflict that took place between 1636 and 1638 in New England between the Pequot The Pequot () are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Co ...
of 1637. Their culture was similar to the Pequots, as they had split off from them and become their rivals some time prior to European exploration of the area. The agricultural
Pocomtuc The central Connecticut River Valley (modern day), the main area of Pocomtuc settlement. The Pocumtuc (v. Pocomtuck) or Deerfield Indians are a prominent Native American tribe originally inhabiting western areas of what is now Massachusetts M ...
tribe lived in unfortified villages alongside the Connecticut River north of the
Enfield Falls Enfield Falls Canal (Windsor Locks Canal) is a canal Canals are waterways Channel (geography), channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. They may also help with irrigation. It can be t ...
on the fertile stretch of hills and meadows surrounding
Springfield, Massachusetts Springfield is a city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, su ...
. The Pocomtuc village of Agawam eventually became Springfield, situated on the Bay Path where the Connecticut River meets the western
Westfield River The Westfield River is a major tributary of the Connecticut River located in the Berkshires and Pioneer Valley regions of western Massachusetts. With four major tributary branches that converge west of the city of Westfield, Massachusetts, Westfiel ...
and eastern
Chicopee River The Chicopee River is an U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map, accessed April 1, 2011 tributary of the Connecticut River The Connecticut River is the longest river in the region of t ...
. The Pocomtuc villagers at Agawam helped
Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of J ...

Puritan
explorers settle this site and remained friendly with them for decades, unlike tribes farther north and south along the Connecticut River. The region stretching from Springfield north to the
New Hampshire New Hampshire ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Gulf of Maine to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the nor ...

New Hampshire
and
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
state borders fostered many agricultural Pocomtuc and
Nipmuc The Nipmuc or Nipmuck people are an Indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of ...
settlements, with its soil enhanced by sedimentary deposits. Occasionally, these villages endured invasions from more aggressive confederated tribes living in
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
, such as the
MohawkMohawk may refer to: Related to Native Americans *Mohawk people, an indigenous people of North America (Canada and New York) *Mohawk language, the language spoken by the Mohawk people *Mohawk hairstyle, from a hairstyle once thought to have been tr ...
,
Mahican The Mohican ( or , alternate spelling: Mahican) are an Eastern Algonquian The Eastern Algonquian languages constitute a subgroup of the Algonquian languages. Prior to European contact, Eastern Algonquian consisted of at least 17 languages, w ...
, and
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous pe ...

Iroquois
tribes. The
Pennacook 300px, Pennacook territory shown within the larger area occupied by the Western Abenaki The Pennacook, also known by the names Penacook and Pennacock, were a North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisp ...
tribe mediated many early disagreements between colonists and other Indian tribes, with a territory stretching roughly from the
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...

Massachusetts
border with Vermont and New Hampshire, northward to the rise of the
White MountainsWhite Mountains may refer to: Mountain ranges ;Afghanistan and Pakistan *White Mountains (Safed Koh) ;Australia *White Mountains National Park, in Queensland ;Greece *White Mountains (Lefka Ori), on the island of Crete ;United States *White Mountai ...
in New Hampshire. The Western
Abenaki The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, ''Alnôbak'') are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native America ...
(
Sokoki The Missiquoi (or the Missisquoi or the Sokoki) were an historic Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Nati ...
) tribe lived in the
Green Mountains The Green Mountains are a mountain range in the U.S. state of Vermont. The range runs primarily south to north and extends approximately from the border with Massachusetts to the border with Quebec, Canada. The part of the same range that is in ...

Green Mountains
region of Vermont but wintered as far south as the
Northfield, Massachusetts Northfield is a town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares an origin with ...

Northfield, Massachusetts
, area. The (
Sokoki The Missiquoi (or the Missisquoi or the Sokoki) were an historic Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Nati ...
) tribe migrated to Odanak, Quebec following the epidemics and the wars with the settlers but returned to Vermont.


1614–1636: Dutch and Puritan settlement

In 1614,
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
explorer
Adriaen Block Adriaen (Arjan) Block (c. 1567 – buried April 27, 1627) was a Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flem ...
became the first European to chart the Connecticut River, sailing as far north as Enfield Rapids. He called it the "Fresh River" and claimed it for the Netherlands as the northeastern border of the
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonl ...
colony. In 1623, Dutch traders constructed a fortified trading post at the site of
Hartford, Connecticut Hartford is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as ...
called the ''Fort Huys de Hoop'' ("Fort House of Hope"). Four separate
Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of J ...
-led groups also settled the fertile Connecticut River Valley, and they founded the two large cities that continue to dominate the Valley: Hartford (est. 1635) and Springfield (est. 1636). The first group of pioneers left the
Plymouth Colony Plymouth Colony (sometimes Plimouth) was an British America, English colonial venture in America from 1620 to 1691 at a location that had previously been surveyed and named by Captain John Smith (explorer), John Smith. The settlement served as t ...
in 1632 and ultimately founded the village of Matianuck (which became
Windsor, Connecticut Windsor is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and u ...
) several miles north of the Dutch fort. A group left the
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body ...
from
WatertownWatertown may refer to: Places in China In China, a water town (China), water town is a type of ancient scenic town known for its waterways. Places in the United States *Watertown, California *Watertown, Connecticut *Watertown, Florida *Watertown, ...
, seeking a site where they could practice their religion more freely. With this in mind, they founded
Wethersfield, Connecticut Wethersfield is a town located in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. It is located immediately south of Hartford, Connecticut, Hartford along the Connecticut River. Its population was 27,298 in the 2020 United States Census, 2020 cens ...
in 1633, several miles south of the Dutch fort at Hartford. In 1635, Reverend
Thomas Hooker Thomas Hooker (July 5, 1586 – July 7, 1647) was a prominent English colonial leader, who founded the Colony of Connecticut after dissenting with Puritan leaders in Massachusetts. He was known as an outstanding speaker and an advocate of u ...
led settlers from
Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Boston, Boston metropolitan area as a major suburb of Boston. , it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, ...
, where he had feuded with Reverend John Cotton, to the site in Connecticut of the Dutch Fort House of Hope, where he founded Newtowne. Shortly after Hooker's arrival, Newtowne annexed Matianuck based on laws articulated in Connecticut's settlement charter, the Warwick Patent of 1631. The patent, however, had been physically lost, and the annexation was almost certainly illegal. The fourth English settlement along the Connecticut River came out of a 1635 scouting party commissioned by
William Pynchon William Pynchon (October 11, 1590 – October 29, 1662) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early ...

William Pynchon
to find the most advantageous site for commerce and agriculture, hoping to found a city there. His scouts located the Pocumtuc village of Agawam, where the Bay Path trade route crossed the Connecticut River at two of its major tributaries—the Chicopee River to the east and Westfield River to the west—and just north of Enfield Falls, the river's first unnavigable waterfall. Pynchon surmised that traders using any of these routes would have to dock and change ships at his site, thereby granting the settlement a commercial advantage. It was initially named Agawam Plantation and was allied with the settlements to the south that became the state of Connecticut, but it switched allegiances in 1641 and was renamed Springfield in honor of Pynchon's native town in England. Of these settlements, Hartford and Springfield quickly emerged as powers. In 1641, Springfield splintered off from the Hartford-based Connecticut Colony, allying itself with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. For decades, Springfield remained the Massachusetts Bay Colony's westernmost settlement, on the northern border of the Connecticut Colony. By 1654, however, the success of these English settlements rendered the Dutch position untenable on the Connecticut River. A treaty moved the boundary westward between the Connecticut Colony and New Netherland Colony to a point near
Greenwich, Connecticut Greenwich (, ) is a town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and ...
. The treaty allowed the Dutch to maintain their trading post at Fort Huys de Hoop, which they did until the 1664 British takeover of New Netherland.


Border disputes

The Connecticut River Valley's central location, fertile soil, and abundant natural resources made it the target of centuries of border disputes, beginning with Springfield's defection from the Connecticut Colony in 1641, which brought the Massachusetts Bay Colony to the river. In 1640, Massachusetts Bay Colony asserted a claim to jurisdiction over lands surrounding the river; however, Springfield remained politically independent until tensions with the Connecticut Colony were exacerbated by a final confrontation later that year. Hartford kept a fort at the mouth of the Connecticut River at
Old Saybrook Old Saybrook is a New England town, town in Middlesex County, Connecticut, Middlesex County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 10,242 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. It contains the incorporated borough of Fenwick, Conne ...
for protection against the Pequots, Wampanoags, Mohegans, and the New Netherland Colony. After Springfield broke ties with the Colony, the remaining Connecticut settlements demanded that Springfield's ships pay tolls when passing the mouth of the river. The ships refused to pay this tax without representation at Connecticut's fort, but Hartford refused to grant it. In response, the Massachusetts Bay Colony solidified its friendship with Springfield by levying a toll on Connecticut Colony ships entering
Boston Harbor Boston Harbor is a natural harbor and estuary of Massachusetts Bay, and is located adjacent to the city of Boston, Massachusetts. It is home to the Port of Boston, a major shipping facility in the northeastern United States. History Since it ...
. Connecticut was largely dependent on sea trade with Boston and therefore permanently dropped its tax on Springfield, but Springfield allied with Boston nonetheless, drawing the first state border across the Connecticut River. The
Fort at Number 4 The Fort at Number 4 was a mid-18th century stockade fortification protecting Plantation Number 4, the northernmost United Kingdom, British settlement along the Connecticut River in the Province of New Hampshire until after the French and Indian Wa ...
in
Charlestown, New Hampshire Charlestown is a New England town, town in Sullivan County, New Hampshire, Sullivan County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 5,114 at the 2010 census. The town is home to Hubbard State Forest and the headquarters of the Student Cons ...
was the northernmost English settlement on the Connecticut River until the end of the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
in 1763. Abenaki Indians resisted British attempts at colonization, but Colonists began settling north of
Brattleboro, Vermont Brattleboro (), originally Brattleborough, is a New England town, town in Windham County, Vermont, United States. The most populous municipality abutting Vermont's eastern border with New Hampshire, which is the Connecticut River, Brattleboro is ...

Brattleboro, Vermont
following the war. Settlement of the Upper Connecticut River Valley increased quickly, with population assessments of 36,000 by 1790. Vermont was claimed by both New Hampshire and
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
, and was settled primarily through the issuance of land grants by New Hampshire Governor
Benning Wentworth Benning Wentworth (24 July 1696 – 14 October 1770) was the colonial governor of New Hampshire New Hampshire ( ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published b ...
beginning in the 1740s. New York protested these grants, and King
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on th ...
decided in 1764 that the border between the provinces should be the western bank of the Connecticut River. Ethan Allen, the
Green Mountain Boys The Green Mountain Boys were a militia organization first established in 1770 in the territory between the British provinces of New York and New Hampshire New Hampshire () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United St ...
, and other residents of the disputed area resisted attempts by New York to exercise authority there, which resulted in the establishment of the independent
Vermont Republic The Vermont Republic (French: ''République du Vermont''), officially known at the time as the State of Vermont (French: ''État du Vermont''), was an independent state in New England New England is a region comprising six states in the ...
in 1777 and its eventual accession to the United States in 1791 as the fourteenth state. Boundary disputes between Vermont and New Hampshire lasted for nearly 150 years and were finally settled in 1933, when the U.S. Supreme Court reaffirmed King George's boundary as the ordinary low-water mark on the Vermont shore. In some places, the state line is now inundated by the impoundments of dams built after this time.


The Treaty of Paris and the 19th century

The
Treaty of Paris (1783) The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of m ...
that ended the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
created a new international border between New Hampshire and the
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, ...
at "northwesternmost headwaters of the Connecticut". Several streams fit this description, and thus a boundary dispute led to the short-lived
Indian Stream Republic The Republic of Indian Stream or Indian Stream Republic was an List of historical unrecognized states#Americas, unrecognized constitutional republic in North America, along the section of the Canada–United States border, border that divides the c ...
, which existed from 1832 to 1835. The broad, fertile Connecticut River Valley attracted agricultural settlers and colonial traders to Hartford, Springfield, and the surrounding region. The high volume and numerous falls of the river led to the rise of industry along its banks during the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
. The cities of Springfield and Hartford in particular became centers of innovation and "intense and concentrated prosperity." The Enfield Falls Canal was opened in 1829 to circumvent shallows around Enfield Falls, and the locks built for this canal gave their name to the town of
Windsor Locks, Connecticut Windsor Locks is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin ...
. The Connecticut River Valley functioned as America's hub of technical innovation into the 20th century, particularly the cities of Springfield and Hartford, and thus attracted numerous railroad lines. The proliferation of the railroads in Springfield and Hartford greatly decreased the economic importance of the Connecticut River. From the late 1800s until today, it has functioned largely as a center of wildlife and recreation.


Log drives and the early 20th century

Starting about 1865, the river was used for massive logging drives from
Third Connecticut Lake The Connecticut Lakes are a group of lakes in Coos County, New Hampshire, Coos County, northern New Hampshire, United States, situated along the headwaters of the Connecticut River. They are accessed via the northernmost segment of U.S. Route 3, be ...
to initially
water power Hydropower (from el, ὕδωρ, "water"), also known as water power, is the use of falling or fast-running water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and th ...
ed
sawmill A sawmill (saw mill, saw-mill) or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In bota ...

sawmill
s near Enfield Falls. Trees cut adjacent to tributary streams including
Perry Stream Perry Stream is an river in northern New Hampshire in the United States. It is a tributary of the Connecticut River, which flows south to Long Island Sound, an arm of the Atlantic Ocean. Perry Stream rises in the highlands forming the Canada–Uni ...
and
Indian Stream Indian Stream is a tributary of the Connecticut River The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or Amer ...
in
Pittsburg, New Hampshire Pittsburg is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and ...
,
Halls Stream Halls Stream or Rivière Hall is a tributary of the Connecticut River in eastern North America. For most of its length, it forms the Canada–United States border, with the province of Quebec (Canada) to its west and the state of New Hampshire (Un ...
on the
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
–New Hampshire border, Simms Stream, the
Mohawk River The Mohawk River is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map accessed October 3, 2011 river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an oce ...
, and the
Nulhegan River The Nulhegan River is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data accessed April 7, 2016 tributary of the Connecticut River in Essex County, Vermont, Essex County, Vermont. Course The main stem of the riv ...
basin in
Essex County, Vermont Essex County is a County (United States), county located in the Northeast Kingdom, northeastern part of the U.S. state of Vermont. As of the 2020 United States Census, 2020 census, the population was 5,920, making it the least-populous county i ...
, would be flushed into the main river by the release of water impounded behind
splash dam A splash dam was a temporary wooden dam used to raise the water level in streams to float logging, logs downstream to sawmills. By impounding water and allowing it to be released on the log drive's schedule, these dams allowed many more logs to be ...
s. Several log drivers died trying to move logs through Perry Falls in Pittsburg. Teams of men would wait at
Canaan, Vermont Canaan is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and ...
, to protect the bridges from log jams. Men guided logs through a drop along the length of Fifteen-Mile Falls (now submerged under Moore and Comerford reservoirs), and through Logan's Rips at Fitzdale, Mulligan's Lower Pitch, and Seven Islands. The White River from Vermont and
Ammonoosuc River The Ammonoosuc River is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course wit ...
from New Hampshire brought more logs into the Connecticut. A
log boom Timber marks on a log building in Sweden where they are called flottningsmärke A log boom is a barrier placed in a river, designed to collect and or contain floating logs timber Lumber, also known as timber, is a type of wood Wood i ...
was built between
Wells River, Vermont Wells River is a village in the town of Newbury (town), Vermont, Newbury in Orange County, Vermont, Orange County, Vermont, United States. The population was 399 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. The village center is located at the ju ...

Wells River, Vermont
, and
Woodsville, New Hampshire Woodsville is a census-designated place (CDP) and the largest village in the town of Haverhill, New Hampshire, Haverhill in Grafton County, New Hampshire, Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States, U.S., along the Connecticut River at the mouth o ...
, to hold the logs briefly and release them gradually to avoid jams in the Ox Bow. Men detailed to this work utilized Woodsville's saloons and
red-light district A red-light district or pleasure district is a part of an urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization ...
. Some of the logs were destined for mills in Wilder and
Bellows Falls, Vermont Bellows Falls is an incorporated Incorporated may refer to: * Incorporated community * Incorporated (Grip Inc. album), ''Incorporated'' (Grip Inc. album), 2004, by Grip Inc. * Incorporated (Legion of Doom album), ''Incorporated'' (Legion of Doom a ...
, while others were sluiced over the Bellows Falls dam.
North Walpole, New Hampshire North Walpole is a census-designated place A census-designated place (CDP) is a Place (United States Census Bureau), concentration of population defined by the United States Census Bureau for statistical purposes only. CDPs have been used in each d ...
, contained twelve to eighteen saloons, patronized by the log drivers. Mount Tom was the landmark the log drivers used to gauge the distance to the final mills near
Holyoke, Massachusetts Holyoke is a city in Hampden County, Massachusetts, Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States, that lies between the western bank of the Connecticut River and the Mount Tom Range. As of the 2020 United States Census, 2020 census, the city ha ...
. These spring drives were stopped after 1915, when pleasure boat owners complained about the hazards to navigation. The final drive included 500 workers controlling 65 million feet of logs. A final pulp drive consisted of 100,000 cords of four-foot logs in 1918. This was to take advantage of the wartime demand.


The flood of 1936

In March 1936, due to a winter with heavy snowfall, an early spring thaw and torrential rains, the Connecticut River flooded, overflowing its banks, destroying numerous bridges and isolating hundreds of people who had to be rescued by boat. The dam at
Vernon, Vermont Vernon is a town in Windham County, Vermont, Windham County, Vermont, in the United States. The population was 2,206 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. Vernon is the site of the now-defunct Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yan ...

Vernon, Vermont
, was topped by . Sandbagging by the National Guard and local volunteers helped prevent the dam's powerhouse from being overwhelmed, despite blocks of ice breaking through the upstream walls. In
Northampton, Massachusetts The city of Northampton is the county seat of Hampshire County, Massachusetts, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States. As of the 2020 United States Census, 2020 census, the population of Northampton (including its outer villages, Florenc ...
, looting during the flood became a problem, causing the mayor of the city to deputize citizen patrols to protect flooded areas. Over 3,000 refugees from the area were housed in
Amherst College Amherst College ( ) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
and the Massachusetts State Agricultural College (now
UMass Amherst The University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass Amherst, UMass) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such grouping ...

UMass Amherst
). Unprecedented accumulated ice jams compounded the problems created by the flood, diverting water into unusual channels and damming the river, raising water levels even further. When the jam at
Hadley, Massachusetts Hadley (, ) is a New England town, town in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 5,325 at the 2020 census. It is part of the Springfield, Massachusetts Springfield metropolitan area, Ma ...
, gave way, the water crest overflowed the dam at
Holyoke Holyoke is a city in Hampden County, Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to ...

Holyoke
, overwhelming the sandbagging there. The village of South Hadley Falls was essentially destroyed, and the southern parts of Holyoke were severely damaged, with 500 refugees. In Springfield, Massachusetts, , and of streets, were flooded, and 20,000 people lost their homes. The city lost power, and nighttime looting caused the police to issue a "shoot on sight" edict; 800 National Guard troops were brought in to help maintain order. Rescue efforts using a flotilla of boats saved people trapped in upper stories of buildings, bringing them to local fraternal lodges, schools, churches and monasteries for lodging, medical care, and food. The American Red Cross and local, state and Federal agencies, including the Works Progress Administration, WPA and the Civilian Conservation Corps, CCC, contributed aid and manpower to the effort. Flooding of roads isolated the city for a time. When the water receded, it left behind silt-caused mud which in places was thick; the recovery effort in Springfield, at the height of the American Great Depression, took approximately a decade. Overall, the flood caused 171 deaths and US$500 million (US$ with inflation) in damages. Across the northeast, over 430,000 people were made homeless or destitute by flooding that year. The Connecticut River Flood Control interstate compact, Compact between the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont was established in 1953 to help prevent serious flooding.


1936–present: Water supply

The creation of the Quabbin Reservoir in the 1930s diverted the Quabbin Valley, Swift River, which feeds the Chicopee River, a tributary of the Connecticut. This resulted in an unsuccessful lawsuit by the state of Connecticut against the diversion of its riparian waters. Demand for drinking water in eastern Massachusetts passed the sustainable supply from the existing system in 1969. Diverting water from the Connecticut River was considered several times, but in 1986 the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority instead undertook a campaign of water conservation. Demand was reduced to sustainable levels by 1989, reaching approximately a 25% margin of safety by 2009.


Course

The Connecticut River is the largest river ecosystem in New England. Its watershed spans Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, small portions of Maine, and the Canadian province of Quebec.


The Upper Connecticut River: New Hampshire and Vermont

image:ConnLakes.jpg, 150px, left, alt=the Connecticut Lakes, The Connecticut Lakes, the source of the Connecticut River, near the border of New Hampshire and Quebec The Connecticut River rises from Fourth Connecticut Lake, a small pond south of the Canada–United States border in the town of
Pittsburg, New Hampshire Pittsburg is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and ...
, at an elevation of above sea level. It flows through the remaining Connecticut Lakes and Lake Francis (Murphy Dam), Lake Francis for , all within the town of Pittsburg, and then widens as it delineates of the border between New Hampshire and Vermont. The river drops more than in elevation as it winds south to the border of Massachusetts where it sits above sea level. The region along the river upstream and downstream from Lebanon, New Hampshire, and White River Junction, Vermont, is known as the "Upper Valley". The exact definition of the region varies, but it generally is considered to extend south to Windsor, Vermont and Cornish, New Hampshire, and north to Bradford, Vermont and Piermont, New Hampshire. In 2001, The Trust for Public Land purchased of land in New Hampshire from International Paper, allowing the Connecticut Lakes Headwaters Partnership Task Force to plan the future protection of the land. The property spans the towns of Pittsburg, New Hampshire, Pittsburg, Clarksville, New Hampshire, Clarksville, and Stewartstown, New Hampshire, nearly 3 percent of the land in the state of New Hampshire. The Trust for Public Land worked in partnership with the Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests, The Nature Conservancy of New Hampshire, and others to raise around $42 million. A conservation easement over of the property prohibits development of the land while allowing public access. The forest is managed by the Lyme Timber Company, and the conservation easement over the land ensures sustainable forest management of the property.


The Middle Connecticut River: Massachusetts through central Connecticut

Following the most recent ice age, the Middle Connecticut River Valley sat at the bottom of Lake Hitchcock. Its lush greenery and rich, almost rockless soil comes from the ancient lake's sedimentary deposits. In the Middle Connecticut region, the river reaches its maximum depth – – at Gill, Massachusetts, around the French King Bridge, and its maximum width – – at Longmeadow, Massachusetts, Longmeadow, directly across from the Six Flags New England amusement park. The Connecticut's largest falls – South Hadley Falls – features a vertical drop of . Lush green forests and agricultural hamlets dot this middle portion of the Connecticut River; however, the region is best known for its numerous college towns, such as Northampton, South Hadley, Massachusetts, South Hadley, and Amherst, Massachusetts, Amherst, as well as the river's most populous city, Springfield. The city sits atop bluffs beside the Connecticut's confluence with two major tributaries, the Chicopee River to the east and Westfield River to the west. The region around the Connecticut River is known locally as the Pioneer Valley, and the name adorns many local civic organizations and local businesses. While the southern part of the valley in Massachusetts is heavily urbanized, the northern section is largely rural and the local agriculture is well known for Connecticut shade tobacco. The Connecticut River is influenced by the tides as far north as Enfield Rapids in
Windsor Locks, Connecticut Windsor Locks is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin ...
, approximately north of the river's mouth. Two million residents live in the densely populated Hartford-Springfield region, which stretches roughly between the college towns of Amherst, Massachusetts, and Middletown, Connecticut. Hartford, the Connecticut River's second-largest city and only state capital, is at the southern end of this region on an ancient floodplain that stretches to Middletown.


The Lower Connecticut River: Southern Connecticut to Long Island Sound

south of Hartford, at Middletown, the Lower Connecticut River section begins with a narrowing of the river, and then a sharp turn southeast. Throughout southern Connecticut, the Connecticut passes through a thinly populated, hilly, wooded region before again widening and discharging into
Long Island Sound Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying predominantly between the U.S. state of Connecticut to the north, and Long Island in New York (state), New York to the south. From west to east, the sound stretches from the East ...

Long Island Sound
between Old Saybrook and Old Lyme, Connecticut, Old Lyme. Due to the presence of large, shifting sandbars at its mouth, the Connecticut is the only major river in the Northeastern United States without a port at its mouth.


Mouth and tidelands

The Connecticut River carries a heavy amount of silt from as far north as Quebec, especially during the spring snow melt. This results in a large sandbar near the river's mouth which is a formidable obstacle to navigation. The Connecticut is one of the few major rivers in the United States without a major city at its mouth because of this obstacle. Major cities on the Connecticut River are Hartford and Springfield, which lie upriver respectively. The Nature Conservancy named the Connecticut River's tidelands one of the Western Hemisphere's "40 Last Great Places", while the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands listed its estuary and tidal wetlands as one of 1,759 wetlands of international importance. In 1997, the Connecticut River was designated one of only 14 American Heritage Rivers, which recognized its "distinctive natural, economic, agricultural, scenic, historic, cultural, and recreational qualities." In May 2012, the Connecticut River was designated America's first National Blueway in recognition of the restoration and preservation efforts on the river.


Dams

The Connecticut River's flow is slowed by main stem dams, which create a series of slow-flowing basins from Lake Francis Dam in Pittsburg, New Hampshire, to the Holyoke Dam at South Hadley Falls in Massachusetts. Among the most extensively dammed rivers in the United States, the Connecticut may soon flow at a more natural pace, according to scientists at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, who have devised a computer that – "in an effort to balance human and natural needs" – coordinates the holding and releasing of water between the river's 54 largest dams. The Cabot and Turners Falls hydroelectric stations generate up to 68 MW.


Tributaries

The Connecticut River watershed encompasses , connecting 148 tributaries, including 38 major rivers and numerous lakes and ponds. Major tributaries include (from north to south) the Passumpsic River, Passumpsic, Ammonoosuc River, Ammonoosuc, White River (Vermont), White, Black River (Connecticut River), Black, West River (Vermont), West, Ashuelot River, Ashuelot, Millers River, Millers, Deerfield River, Deerfield, Chicopee River, Chicopee, Westfield River, Westfield, and Farmington River, Farmington rivers. The Swift River (Ware River), Swift River, a tributary of the Chicopee, has been dammed and largely replaced by the Quabbin Reservoir which water supply network, provides water to the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority district in eastern Massachusetts, including Boston and its Boston metropolitan area, metropolitan area.


Fish

There are several species of anadromous and catadromous fish, including brook trout, winter flounder, blueback herring, alewife (fish), alewife, rainbow trout, large brown trout, American shad (''Alosa sapidissima''), hickory shad, smallmouth bass, Atlantic sturgeon, striped bass (''Morone saxatilis''), American eel, sea lamprey, and endangered shortnose sturgeon and dwarf wedgemussels. Additionally, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service has repopulated the river with another species of migratory fish, the Atlantic salmon, which for more than 200 years had been extinct from the river due to damming. Several fish ladders and fish elevators have been built to allow fish to resume their natural migration upriver each spring. Fresh and brackish water residents of the main branch and tributaries include common carp, White bullhead, white catfish, brown bullhead, fallfish, yellow perch, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, northern pike, chain pickerel, bluegill, pumpkinseed sunfish, golden shiner, and rock bass. Much of the beginning of the river's course in the town of Pittsburg is occupied by the Connecticut Lakes, which contain lake trout and landlocked salmon. Landlocked salmon make their way into the river during spring spawning runs of bait fish and during their fall spawn. The river has fly-fishing-only regulations on of river. Most of the river from Lake Francis south is open to lure and bait as well. Two tail-water dams provide cold river water for miles downstream, making for bountiful summer fishing on the Connecticut. After the first major dam was built near Turners Falls, Massachusetts, thirteen additional dams have ended the Connecticut River's great anadromous fish runs. Fish ladders constructed since the first fish passage in 1980 at Turners Falls, have enabled migrating fish to return to some of their former spawning grounds. In addition to dams, warm water discharges between 1978 and 1992 from Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant in Vernon, Vermont released water up to degrees and the thermal plume reached downstream to Holyoke. This thermal pollution appears to be associated with an 80% decline in American shad fish numbers from 1992 to 2005 at Holyoke dam. This decline may have been exacerbated by over-fishing in the mid-Atlantic and predation from resurging striped bass populations. The nuclear plant was closed at the end of 2014, and the shad population increased.


Ecology

Along its southern reaches, the Connecticut River has carved a wide, fertile floodplain valley (known in Massachusetts as the Pioneer Valley), depositing rich silt and loam soils known internationally for their agricultural merit. Abundant riparian hardwood species include sycamores, cottonwood, basswood, willows, sassafras, box elder, black elder, osier dogwood and more. The river itself and its many tributaries are home to many typical New England freshwater species. These include dace, crawfish, dobsonfly, hellgramites, freshwater mussels, typical frog species, snapping turtles, brook trout, freshwater sturgeon, catfish, walleye, chain pickerel and carp. Introduced species include stocked rainbow trout. The river is an important conduit of many anadromous fish, such as American shad, lamprey, and Atlantic salmon. American eels are also present, as are predators of these migratory fish including striped bass. Shad run as far north as Holyoke, Massachusetts where they are lifted over the Holyoke Dam by a fish elevator. This station publishes annual statistics of the run, and has recorded an occasional salmon. They pass an additional elevator in Turners Falls, Massachusetts and make it at least as far as
Bellows Falls, Vermont Bellows Falls is an incorporated Incorporated may refer to: * Incorporated community * Incorporated (Grip Inc. album), ''Incorporated'' (Grip Inc. album), 2004, by Grip Inc. * Incorporated (Legion of Doom album), ''Incorporated'' (Legion of Doom a ...
. Harbor seals have been recorded traveling upriver as far north as Holyoke in pursuit of migratory fish; it is possible that they ranged farther upstream before the dam was built. There are 12 species of freshwater mussels. Eleven of them occur in the mainstem of the Connecticut; the brook floater is found only in small streams and rivers. Species diversity is higher in the southern part of the watershed (Connecticut and Massachusetts) than in the northern part (Vermont and New Hampshire), largely due to differences in stream gradient and substrate. Eight of the 12 species in the watershed are listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern in one or more of the states in the watershed. A number of colony (biology), colonial animal species make their home in the waters of the Connecticut. Deeper areas are habitat for a diversity of colonial organisms including bryozoa. Fresh water sponges the size of dinner plates have been found by scuba divers at depths of more than , thought to be the deepest in the river. Mussels, eels, and northern pike were also observed there.


Economy


Boating

The mouth of the river up to Essex, Connecticut, Essex is thought to be one of the busiest stretches of waterway in Connecticut. Some local police departments and the state Environmental Conservation Police patrol the area a few times a week. Some towns keep boats available if needed. In Massachusetts, the most active stretch of the Connecticut River is centered on The Oxbow (Connecticut River), the Oxbow, north of Springfield in the college town of Northampton. Camping is available along much of the river, for non-motorized boats, via the Connecticut River Paddlers' Trail. The Paddlers' Trail currently includes campsites on over of the river.


Pollution and cleanup

The Water Quality Act of 1965 had a major impact on controlling water pollution in the Connecticut River and its tributaries. Since then, the river has been restored from Class D to Class B (fishable and swimmable). Many towns along the Lower Connecticut River have enacted a cap on further land development, development along the banks, so that no buildings may be constructed except on existing foundations. Currently, a website provides water quality reports twice a week, indicating whether various portions of the river are safe for swimming, boating and fishing.


Lists


Populated places


Tributaries

Listed from south to north by location of mouth: *Black Hall River (Old Lyme, CT) *Falls River (Connecticut), Falls River (Essex, CT) *Eightmile River (Hamburg, Connecticut, Hamburg, CT) *Deep River (Connecticut), Deep River (Deep River, CT) *Salmon River (Connecticut), Salmon River (Moodus, Connecticut, Moodus, CT) *Mattabesset River (Middletown, CT) *Hockanum River (East Hartford, Connecticut, East Hartford and Hartford, CT) *Park River (Connecticut), Park River (Hartford, CT) *Farmington River (Windsor, CT) *Scantic River (South Windsor, CT) *
Westfield River The Westfield River is a major tributary of the Connecticut River located in the Berkshires and Pioneer Valley regions of western Massachusetts. With four major tributary branches that converge west of the city of Westfield, Massachusetts, Westfiel ...
(West Springfield, Massachusetts, West Springfield and Springfield, MA) *Mill River (Springfield, Massachusetts), Mill River (Springfield, MA) *
Chicopee River The Chicopee River is an U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map, accessed April 1, 2011 tributary of the Connecticut River The Connecticut River is the longest river in the region of t ...
(Chicopee, Massachusetts, Chicopee and Springfield, MA) *Manhan River (The Oxbow of Northampton, MA) *Mill River (Northampton, Massachusetts), Mill River (Northampton, MA) *Fort River (Hadley, MA) *Mill River (Hatfield, Massachusetts), Mill River (Hatfield, MA) *Mill River (Hadley, Massachusetts), Mill River (Amherst, MA) *Sawmill River (Montague, MA) *Deerfield River (Deerfield, Massachusetts, Deerfield and Greenfield, MA) *Fall River (Massachusetts), Fall River (Greenfield, Massachusetts, Greenfield and Gill, MA) *Millers River (Millers Falls, MA) *Ashuelot River (Hinsdale, NH) *Whetstone Brook (Brattleboro, VT) *West River (Vermont), West River (Brattleboro, VT) *Partridge Brook (Westmoreland, NH) *Cold River (Connecticut River), Cold River (Walpole, NH) *Saxtons River (Westminster, VT) *Williams River (Vermont), Williams River (Rockingham, VT) *Black River (Connecticut River), Black River (Springfield, VT) *Little Sugar River (New Hampshire), Little Sugar River (Charlestown, NH) *Sugar River (New Hampshire), Sugar River (Claremont, NH) *Blow-me-down Brook (Cornish, NH) *Ottauquechee River (Hartland, VT) *Mascoma River (West Lebanon, NH) * White River (White River Junction, VT) *Mink Brook (Hanover, NH) *Ompompanoosuc River (Norwich, VT) *Waits River (Bradford, VT) *Oliverian Brook (Haverhill, NH) *Wells River (Vermont), Wells River (Wells River, VT) *
Ammonoosuc River The Ammonoosuc River is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course wit ...
(Woodsville, NH) *Stevens River (Barnet, VT) *Passumpsic River (Barnet, VT) *Johns River (New Hampshire), Johns River (Dalton, NH) *Israel River (Lancaster, NH) *Upper Ammonoosuc River (Northumberland, NH) *Paul Stream (Brunswick, VT) *
Nulhegan River The Nulhegan River is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data accessed April 7, 2016 tributary of the Connecticut River in Essex County, Vermont, Essex County, Vermont. Course The main stem of the riv ...
(Bloomfield, VT) * Simms Stream (Columbia, NH) *
Mohawk River The Mohawk River is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map accessed October 3, 2011 river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an oce ...
(Colebrook, NH) *
Halls Stream Halls Stream or Rivière Hall is a tributary of the Connecticut River in eastern North America. For most of its length, it forms the Canada–United States border, with the province of Quebec (Canada) to its west and the state of New Hampshire (Un ...
(Beecher Falls, Vermont, Beecher Falls, VT) *
Indian Stream Indian Stream is a tributary of the Connecticut River The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or Amer ...
(Pittsburg, NH) *
Perry Stream Perry Stream is an river in northern New Hampshire in the United States. It is a tributary of the Connecticut River, which flows south to Long Island Sound, an arm of the Atlantic Ocean. Perry Stream rises in the highlands forming the Canada–Uni ...
(Pittsburg, NH) Image:TrophyStretchConnecticuttRiver.jpg, Near First Connecticut Lake Image:ConnecticuttRiverNearColebrook.jpg, Near Colebrook, New Hampshire Image:IMG_3758_view_north_from_French_King_Bridge.jpg, Looking north from the French King Bridge at the Erving, Massachusetts, Erving-Gill, Massachusetts, Gill town line in western Massachusetts Image:Morning mist on the Connecticut River from the Bissell Bridge by Elias Friedman (elipongo).JPG, Mist upstream of the Bissell Bridge (Connecticut), Bissell Bridge between Windsor, Connecticut, Windsor and South Windsor, CT Image:Connecticut River bridge.jpg, Founders Bridge in Hartford, Connecticut, Hartford, with a view of the Bulkeley Bridge upstream Image:Connecticut River near its mouth.JPG, The river near its mouth


Crossings

The Connecticut River is a barrier to travel between western and eastern New England. Several major transportation corridors cross the river including Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, Interstate 95 in Connecticut, Interstate 95 (Connecticut Turnpike), Interstate 90 (Massachusetts Turnpike), Interstate 89, Interstate 93, and Interstate 84 (east), Interstate 84. In addition, Interstate 91, whose route largely follows the river, crosses it twice – once in Connecticut and once in Massachusetts.


See also

* Equivalent Lands * Essex, Connecticut#The Great Attack, The Great Attack, the burning of American ships on the Connecticut River at Essex in 1814 * History of Connecticut * Lake Connecticut, post-glacial predecessor to Lake Hitchcock * Lake Hitchcock, post-glacial predecessor to the Connecticut River * List of rivers of Connecticut * List of rivers of Massachusetts * List of rivers of New Hampshire * List of rivers of Vermont


References


Further reading

* * * * * * Vogel, Eve, and Alexandra Lacey. "The New Deal versus Yankee independence: the failure of comprehensive development on the Connecticut River, and its long-term consequences." ''Northeastern Geographer'' 4.2 (2012): 65-94
online
*


External links

*
Connecticut River Watershed Council

Connecticut River Valley Flood Control Commission

Connecticut River Museum

Connecticut Riverfest

Upper Valley Trails Alliance

Connecticut River Joint Commissions

Tri-state Connecticut River Watershed Initiative
* {{authority control Connecticut River, American Heritage Rivers Rivers of Connecticut Rivers of Massachusetts Rivers of New Hampshire Rivers of Vermont Geography of New England Long Island Sound Borders of New Hampshire Borders of Vermont Estuaries of Connecticut Ramsar sites in the United States Rivers of Windsor County, Vermont Rivers of Orange County, Vermont Rivers of Grafton County, New Hampshire Rivers of Coös County, New Hampshire Rivers of Franklin County, Massachusetts Rivers of Hampden County, Massachusetts Rivers of Hampshire County, Massachusetts Rivers of Hartford County, Connecticut Rivers of Middlesex County, Connecticut Rivers of New London County, Connecticut Northern Forest Canoe Trail Water law in the United States