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The Communist International (Comintern), also known as the Third International, was an
international organization An international organization (also known as an international institution or intergovernmental organization) is a stable set of norms and rules meant to govern the behavior of states and other actors in the international system. Organizations ...
founded in 1919 that advocated
world communism World communism, also known as global communism, is a form of communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was original ...
, headed by the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. The Comintern resolved at its Second Congress to "struggle by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international
bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguisti ...

bourgeoisie
and the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the state". The Comintern was preceded by the 1916 dissolution of the
Second International The Second International (1889–1916) was an organisation of workers' movement, socialist and labour parties, formed on 14 July 1889 at two simultaneous Paris meetings in which delegations from twenty countries participated. The Second Internat ...
. The Comintern held seven World Congresses in Moscow between 1919 and 1935. During that period, it also conducted thirteen Enlarged Plenums of its governing
Executive Committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more fully than w ...
, which had much the same function as the somewhat larger and more grandiose Congresses.
Joseph Stalin ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgians, Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who governed the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death in 1953. He held power both as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952 ...
, leader of the Soviet Union, dissolved the Comintern in 1943 to avoid antagonizing his allies in the later years of World War II, the United States and the United Kingdom. It was succeeded by the 1947
Cominform The Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties (), commonly known as Cominform (), was the official central organization Centralisation or centralization (see American and British English spelling differences#iseize, spelling d ...
.


Organizational history


Failure of the Second International

Differences between the
revolutionary A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates a revolution. Also, when used as an adjective, the term ''revolutionary'' refers to something that has a major, sudden impact on society or on some aspect of human endeavor. D ...
and
reformist Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word in this way emerges in the late 18th century and is believed to ...
wings of the
workers' movement The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings: the trade union movement (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic la ...
had been increasing for decades, but the outbreak of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
was the catalyst for their separation. The Triple Alliance comprised two empires, while the
Triple Entente The Triple Entente (from French ''Entente (type of alliance), entente'' meaning "friendship, understanding, agreement") describes the informal understanding between the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic and the United Kingdom of Great B ...

Triple Entente
was formed by three.
Socialists Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive pr ...
had historically been
anti-war An anti-war movement (also ''antiwar'') is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. The term anti-war can also refer to p ...
and internationalist, fighting against what they perceived as militarist exploitation of the
proletariat The proletariat (; ) is the social class of wage labor, wage-earners, those members of a society whose only possession of significant economic value is their labour power (their capacity to work). A member of such a class is a proletarian. Marx ...

proletariat
for
bourgeois Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguist ...

bourgeois
states. A majority of socialists voted in favor of resolutions for the Second International to call upon the international working class to resist war if it were declared. But after the beginning of World War I, many European socialist parties announced support for the war effort of their respective nations. Exceptions were the
British Labour Party The Labour Party is a centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in Histo ...
and the socialist party of the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rathe ...

Balkans
. To
Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding head of government The head of government is e ...

Vladimir Lenin
's surprise, even the
Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-makin ...
voted in favor of war. After influential anti-war French Socialist
Jean Jaurès Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès (3 September 185931 July 1914), commonly referred to as Jean Jaurès (), was a French Socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encom ...

Jean Jaurès
was assassinated on 31 July 1914, the socialist parties hardened their support in France for their
government of national unity#REDIRECT National unity government {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
. Socialist parties in neutral countries mostly supported neutrality, rather than totally opposing the war. On the other hand, during the 1915
Zimmerwald Conference The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assemb ...
, Lenin, then a Swiss resident refugee, organized an opposition to the "
imperialist Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending the rule over peoples and other countries, for extending political and economic access, power and control, often through employing hard power, especially military force, but also soft power In p ...

imperialist
war" as the
Zimmerwald Left The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assemb ...
, publishing the pamphlet ''Socialism and War'' where he called socialists collaborating with their national governments social chauvinists, i.e. socialists in word, but nationalists in deed. The Second International divided into a revolutionary left-wing, a moderate center-wing, and a more reformist right-wing. Lenin condemned much of the center as "social pacifists" for several reasons, including their vote for war credits despite publicly opposing the war. Lenin's term "social pacifist" aimed in particular at
Ramsay MacDonald James Ramsay MacDonald (; 12 October 18669 November 1937) was the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom who belonged to the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party, leading Minority government, minority Labour governments for First MacDonald mini ...

Ramsay MacDonald
, leader of the
Independent Labour Party The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a British political party of the left, established in 1893, when the Liberal Party (UK), Liberals appeared reluctant to endorse working-class candidates, representing the interests of the majority. A sitt ...
in Britain, who opposed the war on grounds of
pacifism Pacifism is the opposition or resistance to war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
but did not actively fight against it. Discredited by its apathy towards world events, the
Second International The Second International (1889–1916) was an organisation of workers' movement, socialist and labour parties, formed on 14 July 1889 at two simultaneous Paris meetings in which delegations from twenty countries participated. The Second Internat ...
dissolved in 1916. In 1917, after the
February Revolution The February Revolution ( rus, Февра́льская револю́ция, p=fʲɪvˈralʲskəjə rʲɪvɐˈlʲutsɨjə, tr. ), known in Soviet historiography Soviet historiography is the methodology of history History (from Greek , ' ...
overthrew the
Romanov Dynasty The House of Romanov (also transcribed Romanoff; rus, Рома́новы, Románovy, rɐˈmanəvɨ) was the reigning imperial house of Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country s ...
, Lenin published the ''
April Theses The "April Theses" (russian: апрельские тезисы, transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-' ...
'' which openly supported
revolutionary defeatism Revolutionary defeatism is a concept made most prominent by Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served ...
, where the
Bolsheviks The Bolsheviks (Russian language, Russian: Большевики, from большинство ''bolshinstvo'', 'majority'),; derived from ''bol'shinstvo'' (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority". also know ...
hoped that Russia would lose the war so that they could quickly cause a socialist insurrection.


Impact of the Russian Revolution

The victory of the Russian Communist Party in the
Bolshevik Revolution The October Revolution,. officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. under the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in ...
of November 1917 was felt throughout the world and an alternative path to power to parliamentary politics was demonstrated. With much of Europe on the verge of economic and political collapse in the aftermath of the carnage of World War I, revolutionary sentiments were widespread. The Russian Bolsheviks headed by Lenin believed that unless socialist revolution swept Europe, they would be crushed by the military might of world capitalism just as the
Paris Commune The Paris Commune (french: Commune de Paris, ) was a revolutionary government that seized power in Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871. During the , Paris had been defended by the , where radicalism grew among soldiers. In March 1871, after th ...
had been crushed by force of arms in 1871. The Bolsheviks believed that this required a new international to foment revolution in Europe and around the world.


First Period of the Comintern

During this early period (1919-1924), known as the First Period in Comintern history, with the Bolshevik Revolution under attack in the
Russian Civil War , date = October Revolution, 7 November 1917 – Yakut revolt, 16 June 1923{{Efn, The main phase ended on 25 October 1922. Revolt against the Bolsheviks continued Basmachi movement, in Central Asia and Tungus Republic, the Far East th ...
and a wave of revolutions across Europe, the Comintern's priority was exporting the October Revolution. Some communist parties had secret military wings. One example is the M-Apparat of the
Communist Party of Germany The Communist Party of Germany (german: Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, ; german: KPD, ) was a major political party in the Weimar Republic between 1918 and 1933, an underground resistance movement A resistance movement is an organized eff ...

Communist Party of Germany
. Its purpose was to prepare for the civil war the Communists believed was impending in Germany and to liquidate opponents and informers who might have infiltrated the party. There was also a paramilitary organization called the Rotfrontkämpferbund. The Comintern was involved in the revolutions across Europe in this period, starting with the
Hungarian Soviet Republic The Socialist Federative Republic of Councils in Hungary ( hu, Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság), mostly known as the Hungarian Soviet Republic ( hu, Magyar Szovjet-köztársaság), literally the Republic of Council ...
in 1919. Several hundred agitators and financial aid were sent from the Soviet Union and Lenin was in regular contact with its leader Béla Kun. Soon, an official Terror Group of the Revolutionary Council of the Government was formed, unofficially known as
Lenin Boys (left), a commander of the Lenin Boys __NOTOC__ The Lenin Boys ( hu, Lenin-fiúk) were a small communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-Europe ...
. The next attempt was the
March Action The March Action ( German "März Aktion" or "Märzkämpfe in Mitteldeutschland" ("The March battles in Central Germany") was a 1921 failed Communist uprising, led by the Communist Party of Germany (KPD), the Communist Workers' Party of Germany (K ...
in Germany in 1921, including an attempt to dynamite the express train from Halle to Leipzig. After this failed, the Communist Party of Germany expelled its former chairman
Paul Levi Paul Levi (11 March 1883 – 9 February 1930) was a German Communist and Social Democratic political leader. He was the head of the Communist Party of Germany following the assassination of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht in 1919. After being ...
from the party for publicly criticising the March Action in a pamphlet, which was ratified by the
Executive Committee of the Communist International The Executive Committee of the Communist International, commonly known by its acronym, ECCI (Russian acronym ИККИ), was the governing authority of the Comintern The Communist International (Comintern), also known as the Third Internationa ...
prior to the Third Congress. A new attempt was made at the time of the Ruhr crisis in spring and then again in selected parts of Germany in the autumn of 1923. The
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
was mobilized, ready to come to the aid of the planned insurrection. Resolute action by the German government cancelled the plans, except due to miscommunication in Hamburg, where 200–300 Communists attacked police stations, but were quickly defeated. In 1924, there was a failed coup in Estonia by the
Estonian Communist Party The Communist Party of Estonia ( et, Eestimaa Kommunistlik Partei, EKP; russian: Коммунистическая партия Эстонии) was a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete ...
.


Founding Congress

The Comintern was founded at a Congress held in
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
on 2–6 March 1919. It opened with a tribute to
Karl Liebknecht Karl Paul August Friedrich Liebknecht (; 13 August 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a German socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of Economic systems, ...

Karl Liebknecht
and
Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (; pl, Róża Luksemburg; also ''Rozalia Luksenburg''; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxism, Marxist, Philosophy, philosopher, economist, Anti-war movement, anti-war activist and Revolutionary socialism, revolut ...

Rosa Luxemburg
, recently murdered by the
Freikorps (, usually translated to "Free Corps Corps (; plural ''corps'' ; from French , from the Latin "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organization. A military innovation by Napoleon, the formation was first named as such ...
during the Spartakus Uprising, against the backdrop of the
Russian Civil War , date = October Revolution, 7 November 1917 – Yakut revolt, 16 June 1923{{Efn, The main phase ended on 25 October 1922. Revolt against the Bolsheviks continued Basmachi movement, in Central Asia and Tungus Republic, the Far East th ...
. There were 52 delegates present from 34 parties. They decided to form an
Executive Committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more fully than w ...
with representatives of the most important sections and that other parties joining the International would have their own representatives. The Congress decided that the Executive Committee would elect a five-member bureau to run the daily affairs of the International. However, such a bureau was not formed and Lenin,
Leon Trotsky Lev Davidovich Bronstein. ( – 21 August 1940), better known as Leon Trotsky; uk, link= no, Лев Давидович Троцький; also transliterated ''Lyev'', ''Trotski'', ''Trotskij'', ''Trockij'' and ''Trotzky''. (), was a Ukrainian ...

Leon Trotsky
and
Christian Rakovsky Christian Georgievich Rakovsky (russian: Христиа́н Гео́ргиевич Рако́вский; bg, Христия́н Георги́ев Рако́вски; – September 11, 1941) was a Bulgarian-born socialist Professional revolutio ...
later delegated the task of managing the International to
Grigory Zinoviev Grigory Yevseyevich Zinoviev. Transliterated ''Grigorii Evseevich Zinov'ev'' according to the Library of Congress system. (born Hirsch Apfelbaum, – 25 August 1936), known also under the name Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky, was a Russian re ...
as the Chairman of the Executive. Zinoviev was assisted by
Angelica Balabanoff , birth_name = Anzhelika Isaakovna Balabanova , birth_date = August 4, 1878 , birth_place = Chernihiv, Ukraine , death_date = , death_place = Rome, Italy , nationality = , other_names = An ...
, acting as the secretary of the International,
Victor L. Kibaltchitch
Victor L. Kibaltchitch
and Vladmir Ossipovich Mazin. Lenin, Trotsky and
Alexandra Kollontai Alexandra Mikhailovna Kollontai (russian: Алекса́ндра Миха́йловна Коллонта́й, née Domontovich, Домонто́вич;  – 9 March 1952) was a Russian revolutionary, politician, diplomat and Marxist theo ...

Alexandra Kollontai
presented material. The main topic of discussion was the difference between
bourgeois democracy Liberal democracy, also referred to as Western democracy, is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is tru ...
and the
dictatorship of the proletariat In Marxist philosophy Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's Historical materialism, materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists. Marxist philosophy may be broadly ...
. The following parties and movements were invited to the Founding Congress: * Russian Communist Party (
Bolsheviks The Bolsheviks (Russian language, Russian: Большевики, from большинство ''bolshinstvo'', 'majority'),; derived from ''bol'shinstvo'' (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority". also know ...
) *
Spartacus League The Spartacus League (german: Spartakusbund) was a Marxism, Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during World War I. The League was named after Spartacus, leader of the Third Servile War, largest slave rebellion of the Roman Republ ...
(later became the
Communist Party of Germany The Communist Party of Germany (german: Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, ; german: KPD, ) was a major political party in the Weimar Republic between 1918 and 1933, an underground resistance movement A resistance movement is an organized eff ...

Communist Party of Germany
) * Communist Party of German Austria * Hungarian Communist Workers' Party (in power during Béla Kun's
Hungarian Soviet Republic The Socialist Federative Republic of Councils in Hungary ( hu, Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság), mostly known as the Hungarian Soviet Republic ( hu, Magyar Szovjet-köztársaság), literally the Republic of Council ...
) *
Communist Party of Finland The Communist Party of Finland ( fi, Suomen Kommunistinen Puolue; sv, Finlands Kommunistiska Parti; abbreviated SKP) was a communist political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a countr ...
* Polish Communist Workers’ Party *
Communist Party of Estonia The Communist Party of Estonia ( et, Eestimaa Kommunistlik Partei, EKP; russian: Коммунистическая партия Эстонии) was a political party in Estonia. The EKP was formed November 5, 1920, when the Central Committee of th ...
*
Communist Party of Latvia The Communist Party of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Komunistiskā partija, LKP) was a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political pa ...
*
Communist Party of Lithuania 166px, Former Central Committee office of the Lithuanian Communist Party The Communist Party of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos komunistų partija, russian: Коммунистическая партия Литвы) was a communist party in Lithuania, e ...
* Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Byelorussia *
Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine The Communist Party of Ukraine ( uk, Комуністична Партія України ''Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny'', КПУ, ''KPU''; russian: Коммунистическая партия Украины), was the founding and ruling ...
(Ukrainian section of Russian Communist Party) * The revolutionary elements of the
Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party The Czech Social Democratic Party ( cs, Česká strana sociálně demokratická, ČSSD) is a social-democratic List of political parties in the Czech Republic, political party in the Czech Republic. It holds 15 seats in the Chamber of Deputies of ...
(who founded the
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Czech language, Czech and Slovak language, Slovak: ''Komunistická strana Československa'', KSČ) was a Communist and Marxism–Leninism, Marxist–Leninist political party in Czechoslovakia that existed be ...

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
) * Social Democratic and Labour Party of Bulgaria (''Tesnyatsi'') * Left-wing of the
Socialist Party of Romania The Socialist Party of Romania ( ro, Partidul Socialist din România, commonly known as ''Partidul Socialist'', PS) was a Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, ...
(who would create the
Romanian Communist Party The Romanian Communist Party ( ro, Partidul Comunist Român, , PCR) was a communist party in Romania. Successor to the pro-Bolsheviks, Bolshevik wing of the Socialist Party of Romania, it gave ideological endorsement to a communist revolution t ...
) * Left-wing of the Serbian Social Democratic Party (later formed the
League of Communists of Yugoslavia The League of Communists of Yugoslavia, sl, Zveza komunistov Jugoslavije mk, Сојуз на комунистите на Југославија, Sojuz na komunistite na Jugoslavija known until 1952 as the Communist Party of Yugoslavia,, sh-La ...
) * Social Democratic Left Party of Sweden *
Norwegian Labour Party The Labour Party ( nb, Arbeiderpartiet; nn, Arbeidarpartiet; A/Ap; se, Bargiidbellodat), formerly The Norwegian Labour Party ( no, Det norske Arbeiderparti, DNA), is a social-democratic political party in Norway. It is positioned on the centr ...
* For
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
, the Klassekampen group *
Communist Party of the Netherlands The Communist Party of the Netherlands ( nl, Communistische Partij Nederland, , CPN) was a Dutch communist party. The party was founded in 1909 as the Social-Democratic Party (SDP) and merged with the Pacifist Socialist Party, the Political Party ...
* Revolutionary elements of the
Belgian Labour Party The Belgian Labour Party or Belgian Workers' Party ( nl, Belgische Werkliedenpartij, BWP; french: Parti Ouvrier Belge, POB) was the first major Socialism, socialist party in Belgium. Founded in 1885, the party was officially disbanded in 1940 and s ...
(who would create the
Communist Party of Belgium french: Parti Communiste de Belgique , abbreviation = KPB-PCB , colorcode = , leader1_title = Historical leaders , leader1_name = Joseph JacquemotteJulien LahautLouis Van Geyt , founder = Julien Lahaut , founded = , dissolved = , merger ...
in 1921) * Groups and organisations within the French socialist and
syndicalist Syndicalism is a current in the labor movement to establish local, worker-based organizations and advance the demands and rights of workers through strikes. Most active in the early 20th century, syndicalism was predominant in the revolutionary ...

syndicalist
movements * Left-wing within the
Social Democratic Party of Switzerland The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz, SP; rm, Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra), also rendered as the Swiss Socialist Party (french: Parti socialiste suisse, PS; it, Partito Socialista Sv ...
(later formed the
Communist Party of SwitzerlandCommunist Party of Switzerland (German: ''Kommunistische Partei der Schweiz''), known as the "Old Communists" (''Altkommunisten''), was a historical Communist party, section of the Communist International. The Party originated from a group of dissid ...
) *
Italian Socialist Party The Italian Socialist Party (, PSI) was a Socialism, socialist and later Social democracy, social-democratic List of political parties in Italy, political party in Italy, whose history stretched for longer than a century, making it one of the lon ...
* Revolutionary elements of the
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party ( es, Partido Socialista Obrero Español ; PSOE ) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources: * * * * political party A political party is an organi ...
(formed the
Spanish Communist Party The Spanish Communist Party (in es, Partido Comunista Español), was the first communist party in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de Españ ...
and the Spanish Communist Workers' Party) * Revolutionary elements of the
Portuguese Socialist Party The Portuguese Socialist Party ( pt, Partido Socialista Português) was a political party in Portugal. The party was founded in 1875. During its initial phase the party was heavily influenced by Proudhonism, and rejected revolutionary Marxism. Th ...
(formed the
Portuguese Maximalist Federation The Portuguese Maximalist Federation ( or ) was a revolutionary movement founded on April 27, 1919 in Lisbon. The organization was inspired by the most radical factions involved in the Russian revolution of 1917, and was mostly composed by anarchis ...
) * British socialist parties (particularly the current represented by John Maclean) * Socialist Labour Party (United Kingdom) * Revolutionary elements of the workers' organisations of Ireland * Revolutionary elements among the Shop stewards (United Kingdom) *
Socialist Labor Party The Socialist Labor Party (SLP)"The name of this organization shall be Socialist Labor Party". Art. I, Sec. 1 of thadopted at the Eleventh National Convention (New York, July 1904; amended at the National Conventions 1908, 1912, 1916, 1920, 1924 ...
(United States) * Left elements of the
Socialist Party of America The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (so ...
(the tendency represented by the
Socialist Propaganda League of America The Socialist Propaganda League of America (SPLA) was established in 1915, apparently by C.W. Fitzgerald of Beverly, Massachusetts. The group was a membership organization established within the ranks of the Socialist Party of America and is best re ...
, later formed the
Communist Party USA The Communist Party USA, officially the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA), is a communist party in the United States established in 1919 after a split in the Socialist Party of America following the Russian Revolution. Th ...
) *
Industrial Workers of the World The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), members of which are commonly termed "Wobblies", is an international labor union that was founded in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption ...

Industrial Workers of the World
(international trade union based in the United States) *
Workers' International Industrial Union The Workers' International Industrial Union (WIIU) was a Revolutionary Industrial Union headquartered in Detroit (strait) , nicknames = The Motor City, Motown, Renaissance City, City of the Straits, The D, D-Town, Hocke ...
(United States) * The Socialist groups of Tokyo and
Yokohama is the second-largest city in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the south. Ja ...

Yokohama
(Japan, represented by
Sen Katayama Sen Katayama (片山 潜 ''Katayama Sen'', December 26, 1859 – November 5, 1933), born Yabuki Sugataro (藪木 菅太郎 ''Yabuki Sugatarō''), was an early Japanese Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materiali ...

Sen Katayama
) * Socialist Youth International (represented by
Willi Münzenberg Wilhelm "Willi" Münzenberg (14 August 1889, Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany. It is located in the southern part of the Thuringian Basin, within the wide valley of the Gera ri ...
) Of these, the following attended (see list of delegates of the 1st Comintern congress): the
communist parties A communist party is a left-wing Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within political philosophy that builds from the concept of social equal ...
of Russia, Germany, German Austria, Hungary, Poland, Finland, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, Byelorussia, Estonia, Armenia, the Volga German region; the Swedish Social Democratic Left Party (the opposition), Balkan Revolutionary People's of Russia; Zimmerwald Left Wing of France; the Czech, Bulgarian, Yugoslav, British, French and Swiss Communist Groups; the Dutch Social-Democratic Group; Socialist Propaganda League and the Socialist Labor Party of America; Socialist Workers' Party of China; Korean Workers' Union, Turkestan, Turkish, Georgian, Azerbaijanian and Persian Sections of the Central Bureau of the Eastern People's and the Zimmerwald Commission. Zinoviev served as the first Chairman of the Comintern's Executive Committee from 1919 to 1926, but its dominant figure until his death in January 1924 was Lenin, whose strategy for revolution had been laid out in ''
What Is to Be Done? ''What Is to Be Done? Burning Questions of Our Movement'' (russian: Что дѣлать? Наболѣвшіе вопросы нашего движенія, Chto delat'? Nabolevshiye voprosy nashevo dvizheniya) is a political pamphlet written by ...
'' (1902). The central policy of the Comintern under Lenin's leadership was that communist parties should be established across the world to aid the international
proletarian revolution A proletarian revolution is a social revolution Social revolutions are sudden changes in the Social structure, structure and nature of society. These revolutions are usually recognized as having transformed society, economy, culture, philo ...
. The parties also shared his principle of
democratic centralism Democratic centralism is a practice in which political decisions reached by voting processes are binding upon all members of the political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's electi ...
(freedom of discussion, unity of action), namely that parties would make decisions democratically, but uphold in a disciplined fashion whatever decision was made.Lenin, V. (1906)
''Report on the Unity Congress of the R.S.D.L.P.''
/ref> In this period, the Comintern was promoted as the
general staff A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and ...
of the
world revolution World revolution is the Marxism, Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the class consciousness, conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class. For theorists, these revolutions will not necessarily ...
.


Second World Congress

Ahead of the Second Congress of the Communist International, held in July through August 1920, Lenin sent out a number of documents, including his Twenty-one Conditions to all socialist parties. The Congress adopted the 21 conditions as prerequisites for any group wanting to become affiliated to the International. The 21 Conditions called for the demarcation between communist parties and other socialist groups and instructed the Comintern sections not to trust the legality of the bourgeois states. They also called for the build-up of party organisations along democratic centralist lines in which the party press and parliamentary factions would be under the direct control of the party leadership. Regarding the political situation in the colonized world, the Second Congress of the Communist International stipulated that a united front should be formed between the proletariat, peasantry and national bourgeoisie in the colonial countries. Amongst the twenty-one conditions drafted by Lenin ahead of the congress was the 11th thesis which stipulated that all communist parties must support the bourgeois-democratic liberation movements in the colonies. Notably, some of the delegates opposed the idea of alliance with the bourgeoisie and preferred giving support to communist movements in these countries instead. Their criticism was shared by the Indian revolutionary
M. N. Roy Manabendra Nath Roy (22 March 1887 – 25 January 1954), born Narendra Nath Bhattacharya, was an Indian people, Indian revolutionary, radical politics, radical activist and political philosopher, political theorist, as well as a noted philosophe ...
, who attended as a delegate of the
Mexican Communist Party The Mexican Communist Party ( es, Partido Comunista Mexicano, PCM) was a communist party A communist party is a left-wing political party that seeks to realize the social and economic goals of communism. The term ''communist party'' was popul ...
. The Congress removed the term bourgeois-democratic in what became the 8th condition. Many European socialist parties divided because of the adhesion issue. The
French Section of the Workers International The French Section of the Workers' International (french: Section française de l'Internationale ouvrière, SFIO) was a list of political parties in France, political party in France that was founded in 1905 and succeeded in 1969 by the modern-day ...
(SFIO) thus broke away with the 1920 Tours Congress, leading to the creation of the new French Communist Party (initially called French Section of the Communist International – SFIC). The Communist Party of Spain (main), Communist Party of Spain was created in 1920, the Communist Party of Italy was created in 1921, the Belgian Communist Party in September 1921 and so on.


Third World Congress

The Third Congress of the Communist International was held between 22 June–12 July 1921 in Moscow.


Fourth World Congress

The Fourth Congress, held in November 1922, at which Trotsky played a prominent role, continued in this vein. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Party, Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party joined Comintern. At first, in China both the Communist Party of China and the Kuomintang were supported. After the definite break with Chiang Kai-shek in 1927,
Joseph Stalin ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgians, Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who governed the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death in 1953. He held power both as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952 ...
sent personal emissaries to help organize revolts which at this time failed. The Fourth World Congress was coincidentally held within days of the March on Rome by Benito Mussolini and his National Fascist Party, PNF in Kingdom of Italy, Italy. Karl Radek lamented the proceedings in Italy as the "largest defeat suffered by socialism and communism since the beginning of the period of world revolution", and Zinoviev programmatically announced the similarities between fascism and social democracy, laying the groundwork for the later ''social fascism'' theory.


Fifth to Seventh World Congresses: 1925–1935


Second Period

Death and state funeral of Vladimir Lenin, Lenin died in 1924 and the next year saw a shift in the organization's focus from the immediate activity of world revolution towards a defence of the Soviet state. In that year, Joseph Stalin took power in Moscow and upheld the thesis of socialism in one country, detailed by Nikolai Bukharin in his brochure ''Can We Build Socialism in One Country in the Absence of the Victory of the West-European Proletariat?'' (April 1925). The position was finalized as the state policy after Stalin's January 1926 article ''On the Issues of Leninism''. Stalin made the party line clear: "An internationalist is one who is ready to defend the USSR without reservation, without wavering, unconditionally; for the USSR it is the base of the world revolutionary movement, and this revolutionary movement cannot be defended and promoted without defending the USSR". The dream of a
world revolution World revolution is the Marxism, Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the class consciousness, conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class. For theorists, these revolutions will not necessarily ...
was abandoned after the failures of the Spartacist uprising in Germany and of the Hungarian Soviet Republic and the failure of all revolutionary movements in Europe such as in Italy, where the Italian fascism, fascist ''squadristi'' broke the strikes and quickly assumed power following the 1922 March on Rome. This period up to 1928 was known as the Second Period, mirroring the shift in the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
from war communism to the New Economic Policy. At the Fifth World Congress of the Comintern in July 1924, Zinoviev condemned both Marxist philosopher Georg Lukács's ''History and Class Consciousness'', published in 1923 after his involvement in Béla Kun's
Hungarian Soviet Republic The Socialist Federative Republic of Councils in Hungary ( hu, Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság), mostly known as the Hungarian Soviet Republic ( hu, Magyar Szovjet-köztársaság), literally the Republic of Council ...
, and Karl Korsch's
Marxism and Philosophy
'. Zinoviev himself was dismissed in 1926 after falling out of favor with Stalin. Bukharin then led the Comintern for two years until 1928, when he too fell out with Stalin. Bulgarian Communist leader Georgi Dimitrov headed the Comintern in 1934 and presided until its dissolution. Geoff Eley summed up the change in attitude at this time as follows:
By the Fifth Comintern Congress in July 1924 [...] the collapse of Communist support in Europe tightened the pressure for conformity. A new policy of "Bolshevization" was adopted, which dragooned the CPs toward stricter bureaucratic centralism. This flattened out the earlier diversity of radicalisms, welding them into a single approved model of Communist organization. Only then did the new parties retreat from broader Left arenas into their own belligerent world, even if many local cultures of broader cooperation persisted. Respect for Bolshevik achievements and defense of the Russian Revolution now transmuted into dependency on Moscow and belief in Soviet infallibility. Depressing cycles of "internal rectification" began, disgracing and expelling successive leaderships, so that by the later 1920s many founding Communists had gone. This process of coordination, in a hard-faced drive for uniformity, was finalized at the next Congress of the Third International in 1928.
The Comintern was a relatively small organization, but it devised novel ways of controlling communist parties around the world. In many places, there was a communist subculture, founded upon indigenous left-wing traditions which had never been controlled by Moscow. The Comintern attempted to establish control over party leaderships by sending agents who bolstered certain factions, by judicious use of secret funding, by expelling independent-minded activists and even by closing down entire national parties (such as the Communist Party of Poland in 1938). Above all, the Comintern exploited Soviet prestige in sharp contrast to the weaknesses of local parties that rarely had political power.David Priestland, ''The Read Flag: A History of Communism'' (2009) p. 124–125


Communist front organizations

Communist front organizations were set up to attract non-members who agreed with the party on certain specific points. Opposition to fascism was a common theme in the popular front era of the mid 1930s. The well-known names and prestige of artists, intellectuals and other fellow travelers were used to advance party positions. They often came to the Soviet Union for propaganda tours praising the future. Under the leadership of Zinoviev, the Comintern established fronts in many countries in the 1920s and after. To coordinate their activities, the Comintern set up international umbrella organizations linking groups across national borders, such as the Young Communist International (youth), Profintern (trade unions), Krestintern (peasants), International Red Aid (humanitarian aid), Sportintern (organized sports) and more. Front organizations were especially influential in France, which in 1933 became the base for communist front organizer
Willi Münzenberg Wilhelm "Willi" Münzenberg (14 August 1889, Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany. It is located in the southern part of the Thuringian Basin, within the wide valley of the Gera ri ...
. These organizations were dissolved in the late 1930s or early 1940s.


Third Period

In 1928, the Ninth Plenum of the Executive Committee began the so-called Third Period, which was to last until 1935. The Comintern proclaimed that the capitalist system was entering the period of final collapse and therefore all communist parties were to adopt an aggressive and militant ultra-left line. In particular, the Comintern labelled all moderate left-wing parties social fascists and urged the communists to destroy the moderate left. With the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany after the 1930 German federal election, 1930 federal election, this stance became controversial. The Sixth World Congress also revised the policy of united front in the colonial world. In 1927 in Republic of China (1912–1949), China, the Kuomintang had turned on the Chinese Communist Party, which led to a review of the policy on forming alliances with the national bourgeoisie in the colonial countries. The Congress did make a differentiation between the character of the Chinese Kuomintang on one hand and the Indian Swaraj Party and the Egyptian Wafd Party on the other, considering the latter as an unreliable ally yet not a direct enemy. The Congress called on the Communist Party of India, Indian Communists to utilize the contradictions between the national bourgeoisie and the British Empire, British imperialists.


Seventh World Congress and the Popular Front

The Seventh and last Congress of the Comintern was held between 25 July and 20 August 1935. It was attended by representatives of 65 communist parties. The main report was delivered by Dimitrov, other reports were delivered by Palmiro Togliatti, Wilhelm Pieck and Dmitry Manuilsky. The Congress officially endorsed the popular front against fascism. This policy argued that communist parties should seek to form a popular front with all parties that opposed fascism and not limit themselves to forming a united front with those parties based in the working class. There was no significant opposition to this policy within any of the national sections of the Comintern. In French Third Republic, France and Second Spanish Republic, Spain, it would have momentous consequences with Léon Blum's 1936 election which led to the Popular Front (France), Popular Front government. Stalin's purges of the 1930s affected Comintern activists living in both the Soviet Union and overseas. At Stalin's direction, the Comintern was thoroughly infused with Soviet secret police and foreign intelligence operatives and informers working under Comintern guise. One of its leaders, Mikhail Trilisser, using the pseudonym Mikhail Aleksandrovich Moskvin, was in fact chief of the foreign department of the Soviet OGPU (later the NKVD). At Stalin's orders, 133 out of 492 Comintern staff members became victims of the Great Purge. Several hundred German communists and antifascists who had either fled from Nazi Germany or were convinced to relocate in the Soviet Union were liquidated and more than a thousand were handed over to Germany. Fritz Platten died in a labor camp and the leaders of the Indian (Virendranath Chattopadhyaya or Chatto), Korean, Mexican, Iranian and Turkish communist parties were executed. Out of 11 Mongolian Communist Party leaders, only Khorloogiin Choibalsan survived. Leopold Trepper recalled these days: "In house, where the party activists of all the countries were living, no-one slept until 3 o'clock in the morning. [...] Exactly 3 o'clock the car lights began to be seen [...] we stayed near the window and waited [to find out], where the car stopped".


Dissolution

At the start of World War II, the Comintern supported a policy of non-intervention, arguing that the war was an imperialist war between various national ruling classes, much like
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
had been, but when the Soviet Union itself Operation Barbarossa, was invaded on 22 June 1941, the Comintern changed its position to one of active support for the Allies of World War II, Allies. On 15 May 1943, a declaration of the Executive Committee was sent out to all sections of the International, calling for the dissolution of the Comintern. The declaration read:
The historical role of the Communist International, organized in 1919 as a result of the political collapse of the overwhelming majority of the old pre-war workers' parties, consisted in that it preserved the teachings of Marxism from vulgarisation and distortion by opportunist elements of the labor movement. But long before the war it became increasingly clear that, to the extent that the internal as well as the international situation of individual countries became more complicated, the solution of the problems of the labor movement of each individual country through the medium of some international centre would meet with insuperable obstacles.
Concretely, the declaration asked the member sections to approve:
To dissolve the Communist International as a guiding centre of the international labor movement, releasing sections of the Communist International from the obligations ensuing from the constitution and decisions of the Congresses of the Communist International.
After endorsements of the declaration were received from the member sections, the International was dissolved. The dissolution was interpreted as Stalin wishing to calm his Allies of World War II, World War II allies (particularly Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill) and to keep them from suspecting the Soviet Union of pursuing a policy of trying to foment revolution in other countries.


Successor organizations

The Research Institutes 100 and 205 worked for the International and later were moved to the International Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, founded at roughly the same time that the Comintern was abolished in 1943, although its specific duties during the first several years of its existence are unknown. Following the June 1947 Paris Conference on Marshall Aid, Stalin gathered a grouping of key European communist parties in September and set up the
Cominform The Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties (), commonly known as Cominform (), was the official central organization Centralisation or centralization (see American and British English spelling differences#iseize, spelling d ...
, or Communist Information Bureau, often seen as a substitute to the Comintern. It was a network made up of the communist parties of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia (led by Josip Broz Tito and expelled in June 1948). The Cominform was dissolved in 1956 following Death and state funeral of Joseph Stalin, Stalin's 1953 death and the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. While the communist parties of the world no longer had a formal international organization, they continued to maintain close relations with each other through a series of international forums. In the period directly after the Comintern's dissolution, periodical meetings of communist parties were held in Moscow. Moreover, ''World Marxist Review'', a joint periodical of the communist parties, played an important role in coordinating the communist movement up to the break-up of the Eastern Bloc in 1989–1991. British historian Jonathan Haslam reports that even after in Moscow archives: :all references to the Communist International and later the international department of the central committee, which drove the revolutionary side of foreign policy, were removed from published diplomatic documents, in order to fit in with the prevailing dogma established by Vladimir Lenin that the Soviet Government had nothing to do with Comintern. I gave up co-editing a series of documents on Russia–United States relations, Russo-American relations because my Russian colleague could not or would not get over that hurdle....Even today [2020], when the Russians are more liberal in their censorship of documentary publications, one has to verify where possible through other sources independent of Moscow. And although Comintern’s archives are available on the web, most of it them are still closed to the reader, even though officially declassified, and much of it is in German only. One always has to ask, what has been cut out deliberately?Jonathan Haslam, "The Road Taken: International Relations as History" (H-DIPLO, 2020
online
/ref>


Comintern-sponsored international organizations

Several international organizations were sponsored by the Comintern in this period: * Communist Youth International (1919–1943) * Red International of Labour Unions (Profintern, formed in 1920) * Communist Women's International (formed in 1920) * International Red Aid (MOPR, formed in 1922) * Red Peasant International (Krestintern, formed in 1923) * Red Sports International (Sportintern) * International of the Proletarian Freethinkers (1925–1933) * League against Imperialism (formed in 1927) * Workers International Relief


International Liaison Department

The OMS (russian: Отдел международной связи, ''otdel mezhdunarodnoy svyazi'', ), also known in English as the International Liaison Department (Comintern), International Liaison Department (1921–1939), was the most secret department of the Comintern. It has also been translated as the Illegal Liaison Section and Foreign Liaison Department. One historian has described:
The OMS was the Comintern's department for the coordination of subversive and conspiratorial activities. Some of its functions overlapped with those of the main Soviet intelligence agencies, the OGPU and the GRU, whose agents sometimes were assigned to the Comintern. But the OMS maintained its own set of operations and had its own representative on the central committees of each Communist party abroad.
In 2012, historian David McKnight stated:
The most intense practical application of the conspiratorial work of the Comintern was carried out by its international liaison service, the OMS. This body undertook clandenstine courier activities and work which supported underground political activities. These included the transport of money and letters, the manufacture of passports and other false documents and technical support to underground parties, such as managing "safe houses" and establishing businesses overseas as cover activities.


World congresses and plenums of Comintern


Congresses


Plenums of ECCI


Related meetings


See also

* Anti-Comintern Pact * Bolshevization * ''Communist International (magazine), Communist International'', Its magazine * Communist University of the National Minorities of the West * Communist University of the Toilers of the East * Communist Workers' International *
Executive Committee of the Communist International The Executive Committee of the Communist International, commonly known by its acronym, ECCI (Russian acronym ИККИ), was the governing authority of the Comintern The Communist International (Comintern), also known as the Third Internationa ...
* Soviet Union#Foreign affairs, Foreign affairs of the Soviet Union' * Foreign relations of the Soviet Union * International Communist Opposition * International Entente Against the Third International * International Lenin School * International relations (1919–1939) * International Revolutionary Marxist Centre * International Working Union of Socialist Parties (2 1⁄2 International founded by Austromarxism, Austro-Marxists) * Moscow Sun Yat-sen University * Spanish Civil War * Stalinism ; Lists * List of communist parties * List of delegates of the 1st Comintern congress, List of delegates of the 1st Comintern Congress * List of delegates of the 2nd Comintern congress, List of delegates of the 2nd Comintern Congress * List of left-wing internationals * List of members of the Comintern ; Internationals * First International *
Second International The Second International (1889–1916) was an organisation of workers' movement, socialist and labour parties, formed on 14 July 1889 at two simultaneous Paris meetings in which delegations from twenty countries participated. The Second Internat ...
* Fourth International * Fifth International


Notes


References


Further reading

* Barrett, James R. "What Went Wrong? The Communist Party, the US, and the Comintern." ''American Communist History'' 17.2 (2018): 176-184. * Belogurova, Anna. "Networks, Parties, and the" Oppressed Nations": The Comintern and Chinese Communists Overseas, 1926–1935." ''Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review'' 6.2 (2017): 558-582
online
* Belogurova, Anna. ''The Nanyang Revolution: The Comintern and Chinese Networks in Southeast Asia, 1890–1957'' (Cambridge UP, 2019). focus on Malaya * Caballero, Manuel. ''Latin America and the Comintern, 1919-1943'' (Cambridge University Press, 2002) * Carr, E.H. '' Twilight of the Comintern, 1930–1935.'' New York: Pantheon Books, 1982
online free to borrow
* Chase, William J. ''Enemies within the Gates? The Comintern and the Stalinist Repression, 1934–1939.'' (Yale UP, 2001). * Dobronravin, Nikolay. "The Comintern, 'Negro Self-Determination' and Black Revolutions in the Caribbean." ''Interfaces Brasil/Canadá'' 20 (2020): 1-18
online
* Drachkovitch, M. M. ed. ''The Revolutionary Internationals'' (Stanford UP, 1966). * Drachewych, Oleksa. "The Comintern and the Communist Parties of South Africa, Canada, and Australia on Questions of Imperialism, Nationality and Race, 1919-1943" (PhD dissertation, McMaster University, 2017
online
* Dullin, Sabine, and Brigitte Studer. "Communism+ transnational: the rediscovered equation of internationalism in the Comintern years." ''Twentieth Century Communism'' 14.14 (2018): 66–95. * Gankin, Olga Hess and Harold Henry Fisher. ''The Bolsheviks and the World War: The Origin of the Third International.'' (Stanford UP, 1940
online
* Gupta, Sobhanlal Datta. ''Comintern and the Destiny of Communism in India: 1919-1943'' (2006
online
* Haithcox, John Patrick. ''Communism and nationalism in India: MN Roy and Comintern policy, 1920–1939'' (1971)
online
* Hallas, Duncan. ''The Comintern: The History of the Third International.'' London: Bookmarks, 1985. * Hopkirk, Peter. ''Setting the East Ablaze: Lenin's Dream of a Empire in Asia 1984'' (1984). * Ikeda, Yoshiro. "Time and the Comintern: Rethinking the Cultural Impact of the Russian Revolution on Japanese Intellectuals." in ''Culture and Legacy of the Russian Revolution: Rhetoric and Performance–Religious Semantics–Impact on Asia'' (2020): 227+. * C. L. R. James, James, C.L.R., ''World Revolution (book), World Revolution 1917–1936: The Rise and Fall of the Communist International.'' (1937)
online
* Jeifets, Víctor, and Lazar Jeifets. "The Encounter between the Cuban Left and the Russian Revolution: The Communist Party and the Comintern." ''Historia Crítica'' 64 (2017): 81-100. * Kennan, George F. ''Russia and the West Under Lenin and Stalin'' (1961) pp. 151–93
online
* Lazitch, Branko and Milorad M. Drachkovitch. ''Biographical dictionary of the Comintern'' (2nd ed. 1986). * McDermott, Kevin. "Stalin and the Comintern during the 'Third Period', 1928-33." ''European history quarterly'' 25.3 (1995): 409-429. * McDermott, Kevin. "The History of the Comintern in Light of New Documents," in Tim Rees and Andrew Thorpe (eds.), ''International Communism and the Communist International, 1919–43.'' Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1998. * McDermott, Kevin, and J. Agnew. ''The Comintern: a History of International Communism from Lenin to Stalin.'' Basingstoke, 1996. * Melograni, Piero. ''Lenin and the Myth of World Revolution: Ideology and Reasons of State 1917–1920'', Humanities Press, 1990. * Priestland, David. ''The Red Flag: A History of Communism.'' 2010. * Riddell, John. "The Comintern in 1922: The Periphery Pushes Back." ''Historical Materialism'' 22.3–4 (2014): 52–103.
online
* Smith, S. A. (ed.) ''The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism'' (2014), ch 10:
The Comintern
. * Taber, Mike (ed.), ''The Communist Movement at a Crossroads: Plenums of the Communist International's Executive Committee, 1922–1923.'' John Riddell, trans. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2019. * Ulam, Adam B. ''Expansion and Coexistence: Soviet Foreign Policy, 1917–1973.'' (2nd ed. Praeger Publishers, 1974)
online
* Valeva, Yelena. ''The CPSU, the Comintern, and the Bulgarians'' (Routledge, 2018). * Worley, Matthew et al. (eds.) ''Bolshevism, Stalinism and the Comintern: Perspectives on Stalinization, 1917–53.'' (2008). * ''The Comintern and its Critics'' (Special issue of ''Revolutionary History'' Volume 8, no 1, Summer 2001).


Historiography

* Drachewych, Oleksa. "The Communist Transnational? Transnational studies and the history of the Comintern." ''History Compass'' 17.2 (2019): e12521. * McDermott, Kevin. "Rethinking the Comintern: Soviet Historiography, 1987–1991," ''Labour History Review,'' 57#3 (1992), pp. 37–58. * McIlroy, John, and Alan Campbell. "Bolshevism, Stalinism and the Comintern: A historical controversy revisited." ''Labor History'' 60.3 (2019): 165-192
online
* Redfern, Neil. "The Comintern and Imperialism: A Balance Sheet." ''Journal of Labor and Society'' 20.1 (2017): 43-60.


Primary sources

* Banac, I. ed. ''The Diary of Georgi Dimitrov 1933-1949'' (Yale UP, 2003). * Davidson, Apollon, et al. (eds.) ''South Africa and the Communist International: A Documentary History.'' 2 vol. 2003. * Degras, Jane T. ''The Communist International, 1919–43'' (3 Vols. 1956); documents
online vol 1 1919–22vol 2 1923–28vol 3 1929-43
(PDF). * Firsov, Fridrikh I., Harvey Klehr, and John Earl Haynes, eds. ''Secret Cables of the Comintern, 1933–1943.'' New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014
online review
* Gruber, Helmut. ''International Communism in the Era of Lenin: A Documentary History'' (Cornell University Press, 1967) * Kheng, Cheah Boon, ed. ''From PKI to the Comintern, 1924–1941'' (Cornell University Press, 2018). on China * Riddell, John (ed.): ''The Communist International in Lenin's Time, Vol. 1: Lenin's Struggle for a Revolutionary International: Documents: 1907–1916: The Preparatory Years.'' New York: Monad Press, 1984. ** Riddell, John (ed.): ''The Communist International in Lenin's Time, Vol. 2: The German Revolution and the Debate on Soviet Power: Documents: 1918–1919: Preparing the Founding Congress.'' New York: Pathfinder Press, 1986. ** Riddell, John (ed.) ''The Communist International in Lenin's Time, Vol. 3: Founding the Communist International: Proceedings and Documents of the First Congress: March 1919.'' New York: Pathfinder Press, 1987. ** Riddell, John (ed.) ''The Communist International in Lenin's Time: Workers of the World and Oppressed Peoples Unite! Proceedings and Documents of the Second Congress, 1920.'' In Two Volumes. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1991. ** Riddell, John (ed.) ''The Communist International in Lenin's Time: To See the Dawn: Baku, 1920: First Congress of the Peoples of the East.'' New York: Pathfinder Press, 1993. ** Riddell, John (ed.) ''Toward the United Front: Proceedings of the Fourth Congress of the Communist International, 1922.'' Lieden, NL: Brill, 2012.


External links



Marxists Internet Archive * Lenin's speech: The Third, Communist International ()
Site Comintern Archives
*
Site Comintern Archives
*
Program of the Communist International. Together With Its Constitution
' (adopted at 6th World Congress in 1928)

Journal of the Comintern, Marxists Internet Archive
''Outline History of the Communist International''

''The Internationale''
by Rajani Palme Dutt, R. Palme Dutt, 1964
Report from Moscow, 3rd International congress, 1920
by Otto Rühle
Article on the Third International from the Encyclopædia Britannica
{{Authority control Comintern, Communist organizations History of socialism Left-wing internationals Far-left politics Foreign relations of the Soviet Union Political internationals Stalinist organizations Stalinism Defunct international non-governmental organizations History of the Soviet Union 1919 establishments in Russia 1943 disestablishments in the Soviet Union Organizations established in 1919 Organizations disestablished in 1943 International Socialist Organisations