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Campo de' Fiori (, literally "field of flowers") is a rectangular square south of
Piazza Navona Piazza Navona () is a public open space A public open space is defined as an open piece of land both green space or hard space to which there is public access. Public open space is often referred to by urban planners and landscape architects by ...

Piazza Navona
in
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
, Italy, at the border between
rione A (; plural: ) is a neighbourhood in several Italian cities. A is a territorial subdivision. The larger administrative subdivisions in Rome are the , with the being used only in the historic centre. The word derives from the Latin , the 14 sub ...

rione
Parione Parione is the 6th ''rione A (; plural: ) is a neighbourhood in several Italian cities. A is a territorial subdivision. The larger administrative subdivisions in Rome are the , with the being used only in the historic centre. The word d ...
and rione Regola. It is diagonally southeast of the
Palazzo della Cancelleria The Palazzo della Cancelleria (Palace of the Chancellery, referring to the former Apostolic Chancery of the Pope) is a Renaissance palace in Rome, Italy, situated between the present Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, Rome, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and ...

Palazzo della Cancelleria
and one block northeast of the
Palazzo Farnese Palazzo Farnese () or Farnese Palace is one of the most important High Renaissance List of palaces in Italy#Rome, palaces in Rome. Owned by the Italian Republic, it was given to the French government in 1936 for a period of 99 years, and cur ...

Palazzo Farnese
. ''Campo de' Fiori'', translated literally from
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
, means "field of
flowers A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plan ...

flowers
". The name dates to the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
when the area was a
meadow A meadow (, ; ) is an open habitat Ibex in an alpine habitat In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including h ...
.


History

In
Ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who stud ...
, the area was unused space between Pompey's Theatre and the flood-prone
Tiber The Tiber (; la, Tiberis; it, Tevere ) is the third-longest river in Italy and the longest in Central Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (; grc-gre, links=no, Ἀπέννινα ὄρη or Ἀπ ...

Tiber
. Though the
OrsiniOrsini is a surname of Italian origin, ultimately derived from Latin ''ursinus'' ("bearlike") and originating as an epithet or sobriquet describing the name-bearer's purported strength. Notable people with the surname include the following: * Gia ...
established themselves on the south flank of the space in the 13th century, until the 15th century, the square remained undeveloped. The first church in the immediate vicinity was built during the pontificate of
Boniface IX Pope Boniface IX ( la, Bonifatius IX; c. 1350 – 1 October 1404, born Pietro Tomacelli) was the Roman claimant to the headship of the Catholic Church from 2 November 1389 to his death. He was the second Roman pope of the Western Schism.Richard P. M ...

Boniface IX
(1389-1404),
Santa Brigida
Santa Brigida
a Campo de' Fiori; with the building-up of the ''rione'', the church has now come to face that part of the former square that is now
Piazza Farnese Piazza Farnese is the main square of the Regola district of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of ...
. In 1456, under
Pope Callixtus III Pope Callixtus III (31 December 1378 – 6 August 1458), born Alfonso de Borgia ( va, Alfons de Borja), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 April 1455 to his death. Borgia spent his early career as a professor of ...

Pope Callixtus III
, Ludovico Cardinal Trevisani paved the area as part of a large project to improve rione Parione. This renewal was both the result and cause of several important buildings being built in the surroundings; in particular, the
OrsiniOrsini is a surname of Italian origin, ultimately derived from Latin ''ursinus'' ("bearlike") and originating as an epithet or sobriquet describing the name-bearer's purported strength. Notable people with the surname include the following: * Gia ...
palace on Campo de' Fiori was rebuilt. The Renaissance
Palazzo della Cancelleria The Palazzo della Cancelleria (Palace of the Chancellery, referring to the former Apostolic Chancery of the Pope) is a Renaissance palace in Rome, Italy, situated between the present Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, Rome, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and ...

Palazzo della Cancelleria
can be seen in Vasi's etching, rising majestically beyond the far right corner of the square. ''Campo de' Fiori'' has never been architecturally formalized. The square has always remained a focus for commercial and street culture: the surrounding streets are named for trades—''Via dei Balestrari'' (
crossbow A crossbow is a ranged weapon using an Elasticity (physics), elastic launching device consisting of a bow (archery), bow-like assembly called a ''prod'', mounted horizontally on a main frame called a ''tiller'', which is hand-held in a similar ...

crossbow
-makers), ''Via dei Baullari'' (coffer-makers), ''Via dei Cappellari'' (hat-makers), ''Via dei Chiavari'' (key-makers) and ''Via dei Giubbonari'' (tailors). With new access streets installed by
Sixtus IV Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion ...

Sixtus IV
— ''Via Florea'' and ''Via Pellegrino''— the square became a part of the ''Via papale'' ("Pope's road"), the street linking Basilica of St. John Lateran and the
Vatican Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Ci ...

Vatican
and traversed by the Pope after his election during the so-called "Cavalcata del possesso", when he reached the Lateran from the Vatican to take possession of the city. This urban development brought wealth to the area: A flourishing horse market took place twice a week (Monday and Saturday) and many inns, hotels and shops came to be situated in Campo de' Fiori. The most famous of them, the ''Taverna della Vacca'' ("cow's Inn") still stands at the southwest corner of the square, at the begin of Via de' Cappellari. It belonged to
Vannozza dei Cattanei Giovanna dei Cattanei (13 July 1442 – 24 November 1518), commonly known as Vannozza dei Cattanei, was an Italian woman who was the chief mistress of Cardinal Rodrigo de Borgia, later to become Pope Alexander VI. Early life Born in 1442, mos ...
, the most famous lover of
Alexander VI Pope Alexander VI (born Rodrigo de Borja; ca-valencia, Roderic Llançol i de Borja ; es, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja, lang ; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as th ...

Alexander VI
Borgia, whose family seal is still on display on the house facade. Executions used to be held publicly in Campo de' Fiori. Here, on 17 February 1600, the philosopher
Giordano Bruno Giordano Bruno (; ; la, Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; born Filippo Bruno, January or February 1548 – 17 February 1600) was an Italian Dominican Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic The ...

Giordano Bruno
was burnt alive for heresy, and all of his works were placed on the ''
Index of Forbidden Books The ''Index Librorum Prohibitorum'' ("List of Prohibited Books") was a list of publications deemed heretical Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beli ...
'' by the
Holy Office , type = Congregation , seal = Coat of arms Holy See.svg , seal_size = 100px , seal_caption = Coat of arms of the Holy See , logo = , picture = Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.jpg , picture_caption = Palazzo del Sant’Uffizio ...
. In 1889,
Ettore Ferrari Ettore Ferrari (Rome, 25 March 1845 – Rome, 19 August 1929) was an Italian sculptor. Biography Image:Monument to Victor Emmanuel II (Venice).jpg, Monument to Victor Emmanuel II Venice Born in Rome to an artistic family (his father was also a ...

Ettore Ferrari
dedicated a monument to him on the exact spot of his death: He stands defiantly facing the Vatican and was regarded in the first days of a
reunited Italy
reunited Italy
as a martyr to freedom of thought. The inscription on the base reads: A BRUNO - IL SECOLO DA LUI DIVINATO - QUI DOVE IL ROGO ARSE ("To Bruno - the century predicted by him - here where the fire burned"). The body of theologian and scientist
Marco Antonio de Dominis Marco Antonio de Dominis ( hr, Markantun de Dominis) (1560September 1624) was a Dalmatian ecclesiastic, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Split, archbishop of Split and Primate of Dalmatia and all Croatia, adjudged heretic of the Catholic Faith, and m ...

Marco Antonio de Dominis
was also burned in this square in 1624. In addition to people, the Holy Office burned the
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (''halakha'') and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the ...

Talmud
in Campo de' Fiori; the
book burning Book burning is the deliberate destruction by fire of books or other written materials, usually carried out in a public context. The burning of books represents an element of censorship Censorship is the suppression of speech, public comm ...

book burning
took place on September 9, 1553, the first day of the Jewish new year holiday,
Rosh Hashanah Rosh HaShanah ( he, רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, ), literally meaning "head fthe year", is the Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international stan ...
. A plaque commemorating this incident was affixed to the marketplace street in Campo de' Fiori in 2011 (the idea of memorializing this event was inspired by the monument to Giordano Bruno). The plaque quotes a Talmudic description of the martyrdom of Rabbi Hananiah ben Teradion, who was burned alive wrapped in a Torah scroll; it also quotes "Sha'ali Serufah ba-Esh", a lamentation poem by
Meir of Rothenburg Meir ( he, מֵאִיר) is a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act i ...
written after seeing wagon-loads of Talmudic manuscripts burned in Paris in 1242. The demolition of a block of housing in 1858 enlarged Campo de' Fiori, and since 1869, a daily vegetable and fish market that was previously held in Piazza Navona has been held there. The ancient cattle fountain known as ''la Terrina'' (the "soupbowl") was resited in 1889 and replaced with a copy that now is used to keep cut flowers fresh. Its inscription: FA DEL BEN E LASSA DIRE ("Do good and let them talk") suits the gossipy nature of the marketplace. In the afternoons, local games of
football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called ''football'' include (known as ''soccer'' ...
give way to set-ups for outdoor cafés.
At night, Campo de' Fiori is a meeting place for tourists and young people coming from the whole city. In the years after 2000, it became one of the most dangerous nighttime places of the city due to assaults and affrays by drunk tourists and soccer supporters.


References


External links

{{DEFAULTSORT:Campo De' Fiori Piazzas in Rome Execution sites Rome R. VII Regola Rome R. VI Parione