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The Bouyei (also spelled ''Puyi'', ''Buyei'' and ''Buyi''; self called: Buxqyaix, or "Puzhong", "Burao", "Puman"; ; vi, người Bố Y), otherwise known as the Zhongjia, are an
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousn ...
living in Southern Mainland China. Numbering 2.5 million, they are the 11th largest of the 56
ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ances ...
officially recognized by the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
. Despite the Chinese considering them a separate group, they consider themselves
ZhuangZhuang may refer to: *Zhuang people (or Bouxcuengh people), ethnic group in China *Zhuang languages *Zhuang logogram *Zhuang Zhou, ancient Chinese philosopher *Zhuang (surname) (庄/莊), a Chinese surname {{disambiguation Language and nationality ...
(
Tai peoples Tai people refers to the population of descendants of speakers of a common Tai language, including sub-populations that no longer speak a Tai language. There are a total of about 93 million people of Tai ancestry worldwide, with the largest eth ...
). The Bouyei mostly live in Qianxinan and Qiannan prefectures of Southern
Guizhou Province Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and adminis ...

Guizhou Province
, as well as in
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
and
Sichuan Provinces
Sichuan Provinces
. Some 3,000 Bouyei also live in Northern
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
, where they are one of that nation's 54 officially recognized ethnic groups. In Vietnam, they are known as the Bố Y and mostly live in
Mường Khương District Mường Khương is a rural district Rural districts were a type of local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the word govern ...
of
Lào Cai Lào Cai () is a city in the Northwest The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostat ...

Lào Cai
and
Quản Bạ District Quản Bạ is a Districts of Vietnam, rural district of Ha Giang province in the Đông Bắc, Northeast region of Vietnam. As of 2019, the district had a population of 53 476. The district covers an area of 550 km². The district capital li ...
of
Hà Giang Province Hà is a Vietnamese surname. The name is transliterated as He in Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and ...
.


Names

The Bouyei consist of various subgroups. Below are their autonyms written in the
International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest s ...
with
numerical Chao tones
numerical Chao tones
. *', *', *', *', *', *', *', *', Some clans within the Bouyei groups include: *', *', *', In
Congjiang County Congjiang County () is a County (People's Republic of China), county in Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou, China. It is divided by the Duliu River (), the upper reaches of the Liu River, and borders Guangxi to the south. I ...
, Guizhou, there is a group that refer to themselves as "Buyeyi, 布也益", but are officially classified by the Chinese government as ethnic
ZhuangZhuang may refer to: *Zhuang people (or Bouxcuengh people), ethnic group in China *Zhuang languages *Zhuang logogram *Zhuang Zhou, ancient Chinese philosopher *Zhuang (surname) (庄/莊), a Chinese surname {{disambiguation Language and nationality ...
.


Distribution


In China by county

;County-level distribution of the Bouyei, from the 2000 Chinese census (Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >0.1% of China's Bouyei population.)


In Vietnam

;Province-level distribution of the Bố Y, from the 2009 Census


Language

The Bouyei speak the
Bouyei language The Bouyei language (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric or infraspecific name See also * ...
, which is very close to
Standard Zhuang Standard Zhuang (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, intern ...
language. There is a dialect continuum between these two. The Bouyei language has its own written form which was created by linguists in the 1950s based on the Latin alphabet and with spelling conventions similar for the
Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objecti ...

Pinyin
system that had been devised to romanise
Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more ...
.


History

The Bouyei are the native Tai peoples of the plains of Guizhou. They are one of the oldest peoples of China, living in the area for more than 2,000 years. Prior to the establishment of the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
, the Bouyei and
ZhuangZhuang may refer to: *Zhuang people (or Bouxcuengh people), ethnic group in China *Zhuang languages *Zhuang logogram *Zhuang Zhou, ancient Chinese philosopher *Zhuang (surname) (庄/莊), a Chinese surname {{disambiguation Language and nationality ...
were linked together; the differences between both ethnic groups grew greater and from year 900 already they were two different groups. The
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
abolished the system of local heads and commanded in its place to officials of the army which caused a change in the local economy; from then on, the land was in the hands of a few landowners, which caused the population to revolt. During the Nanlong Rebellion of 1797, the Bouyei underwent a strong repression that caused many of them to emigrate to faraway
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
.


Notable Bouyei people

* Huang Xiaoyun (黃霄雲), singer and actress


See also

* Bouyei churches *
List of ethnic groups in China Multiple ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, conscio ...
*
List of ethnic groups in Vietnam There are 54 ethnic groups in Vietnam recognized by the Vietnamese government.The Bouyei ethnic minority
(government homepage, in English) * (Bouyei online, in Bouyei and Chinese) * (Outline of the whole Liao ao, Lao, Taipeople)
Bouyei language page
(from Ethnologue site) * (the forum of Bouyei, in Bouyei and Chinese, the biggest site of Bouyei in China)
Map share of ethnic by county of China
{{Authority control Tai peoples Ethnic groups officially recognized by China Ethnic groups in Vietnam