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A building, or edifice, is a
structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. ...

structure
with a
roof A roof is the top covering of a building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house A house is a single-unit residential building, which may range in co ...

roof
and
wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide ...

wall
s standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a
house A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house A house is a single-unit residential building, which may range ...

house
or
factory A factory, manufacturing plant or a production plant is an Industry (manufacturing), industrial site, often a complex consisting of several buildings filled with Outline of industrial machinery, machinery, where workers manufacturing, manufactu ...

factory
. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from
building material Building material is material used for construction. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-mad ...

building material
s available, to weather conditions, land prices, ground conditions, specific uses, and aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term ''building'' compare the list of
nonbuilding structure A nonbuilding structure, also referred to simply as a structure, refers to any body or system of connected parts used to support a load that was not designed for continuous human occupancy. The term is used by architects, structural engin ...
s. Buildings serve several societal needs – primarily as shelter from weather, security, living space, privacy, to store belongings, and to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a physical division of the
human habitat Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. They are the only Extant taxon, ...
(a place of comfort and safety) and the ''outside'' (a place that at times may be harsh and harmful). Ever since the first
cave painting Cave paintings are a type of parietal art In archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthrop ...

cave painting
s, buildings have also become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in
sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century The 21st (twenty-first) century is the current century in the '' Anno Domini'' era or Common Era, in accordance with the ...

sustainable
planning and building practices has also become an intentional part of the design process of many new buildings and other structures.


Definitions

The word ''building'' is both a noun and a verb: the structure itself and the act of making it. As a noun, a building is 'a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place'; "there was a three-storey building on the corner"; "it was an imposing edifice". In the broadest interpretation a
fence A fence is a structure that encloses an area, typically outdoors, and is usually constructed from posts that are connected by boards, wire, rails or netting. A fence differs from a wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an ...

fence
or wall is a building. However, the word ''structure'' is used more broadly than ''building'' including natural and man-made formations and does not necessarily have walls. Structure is more likely to be used for a fence. Sturgis' Dictionary included that " uildingdiffers from
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
in excluding all idea of artistic treatment; and it differs from
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
in the idea of excluding scientific or highly skilful treatment." As a verb, building is the act of construction. ''Structural height'' in technical usage is the height to the highest architectural detail on building from street-level. Depending on how they are classified, spires and masts may or may not be included in this height. Spires and masts used as antennas are not generally included. The definition of a ''low-rise vs. a high-rise'' building is a matter of debate, but generally three storeys or less is considered low-rise.


History

There is clear evidence of homebuilding from around 18,000 BC. Buildings became common during the Neolithic (see
Neolithic architecture Neolithic architecture refers to structures encompassing housing and shelter from approximately 10,000 to 2,000 BC, the Neolithic period. In southwest Asia, Neolithic cultures appear soon after 10,000 BC, initially in the Levant (Pre-Pottery Neol ...
).


Types


Residential

Single-family residential buildings are most often called
house A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house A house is a single-unit residential building, which may range ...

house
s or
home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for one or many Human, humans. It is a fully or semi sheltered space and can have both interior and exterior aspects to it. Homes provide sheltered spaces for ...

home
s. Multi-family residential buildings containing more than one dwelling unit are called a duplex or an
apartment An apartment (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United S ...

apartment
building. A
condominium A condominium (or condo for short) is a building structure divided into several units that are each separately owned, surrounded by common areas that are jointly owned. Residential condominiums are frequently constructed as apartment buildings ...
is an apartment that the occupant owns rather than rents. Houses may also be built in pairs (
semi-detached A semi-detached house (often abbreviated to semi) is a single family duplex dwelling house that shares one common wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security, Shelter in place, shelter, or ...
), in terraces where all but two of the houses have others either side; apartments may be built round courtyards or as rectangular blocks surrounded by a piece of ground of varying sizes. Houses which were built as a single dwelling may later be divided into apartments or
bedsitter A bedsit, bedsitter, or bed-sitting room is a form of accommodation common in some parts of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. Th ...
s; they may also be converted to another use e.g. an office or a shop. Building types may range from
hut A hut is a small dwelling, which may be constructed of various local materials. Huts are a type of vernacular architecture because they are built of readily available materials such as wood, snow, ice, stone, grass, palm leaves, branches, hid ...
s to multimillion-dollar high-rise
apartment block '' high-rise building in Kalasatama, Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on t ...

apartment block
s able to house thousands of people. Increasing settlement density in buildings (and smaller distances between buildings) is usually a response to high ground prices resulting from many people wanting to live close to work or similar attractors. Other common
building material Building material is material used for construction. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-mad ...

building material
s are brick, concrete or combinations of either of these with stone. Residential buildings have different names for their use depending if they are seasonal include
holiday cottage A holiday cottage, holiday home, or vacation property is accommodation used for holiday vacations, corporate travel, and temporary housing often for less than 30 days. Such properties are typically small homes, such as cottage A cottage, ...
(vacation home) or
timeshare A timeshare (sometimes called vacation ownership) is a property with a divided form of ownership or use rights. These properties are typically resort condominium units, in which multiple parties hold rights to use the property, and each owner o ...
; size such as a
cottage A cottage, during Feudalism in England, England's feudal period, was the holding by a cottager (known as a cotter or ''bordar'') of a small house with enough garden to feed a family and in return for the cottage, the cottager had to provide so ...

cottage
or
great house , Yorkshire, the largest private house in the United Kingdom. Picture from ''A Complete History of the County of York'' by Thomas Allen (1828–1830) Image:Longleat House.jpg"> Marquesses of Bath A great house is a large house or mansion w ...
; value such as a
shack A shack (or, less often, shanty) is a type of small shelter or dwelling, often primitive or rudimentary in design and construction. Like hut A hut is a primitive dwelling, which may be constructed of various local materials. Huts are a ty ...

shack
or
mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French from the Latin word ''mansio'' "dwelling", an abstract noun derived from the verb ''manere'' "to dwell". The English word ''manse'' originally defined a property la ...

mansion
; manner of construction such as a
log home Log most often refers to: * Trunk (botany) In botany, the trunk (or bole) is the plant stem, stem and main wooden axis of a tree, which is an important feature in tree identification, and which often differs markedly from the bottom of the tru ...

log home
or
mobile home A mobile home (also known as a park home, trailer, or trailer home) is a prefabricated Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a m ...

mobile home
; proximity to the ground such as house,
stilt house Stilt houses (also called pile dwellings or lake dwellings) are houses raised on stilts Stilts are poles, posts or pillars that allow a person or structure to stand at a height above the ground. In flood plains, and on beach A summ ...
, or
tree house A tree house, tree fort or treeshed is a platform or building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shap ...

tree house
. Also if the residents are in need of special care such as a
nursing home A nursing home is a facility for the residential care Residential care refers to long-term care Long-term care (LTC) is a variety of services which help meet both the medical and non-medical needs of people with a chronic illness or disabil ...

nursing home
,
orphanage Historically, an orphanage is a residential institution, or group home, devoted to the Childcare, care of orphans and other children who were separated from their biological families. Examples of what would cause a child to be placed in orp ...

orphanage
or
prison A prison, also known as a jail or gaol (dated, English language in England, standard English, Australian English, Australian, and Huron Historic Gaol, historically in Canada), penitentiary (American English and Canadian English), detention ...

prison
; or in group housing like
barracks Barracks are usually a group of long buildings built to house military personnel or laborers A laborer is a person who works in Manual labour, manual labor types, especially in the construction and factory industries' workforce. Laborers are in ...

barracks
or
dormitories A dormitory (originated from the Latin word ''dormitorium'', often abbreviated to dorm) is a building primarily providing sleeping and residential quarters for large numbers of people such as boarding school, high school, college or university stud ...

dormitories
. Historically many people lived in communal buildings called
longhouse A longhouse or long house is a type of long, proportionately narrow, single-room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe, and North America. Many were built from timber Lumber, also known as timber, ...

longhouse
s, smaller dwellings called
pit-house A pit house (or ''pithouse'') is a large house in the ground (usually circular) used for shelter. Besides providing shelter from the most extreme of weather conditions Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the g ...
s and houses combined with barns sometimes called
housebarn A housebarn (also house-barn or house barn) is a building that is a combination of a house A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in on ...
s. Buildings are defined to be substantial, permanent structures so other dwelling forms such as
houseboat A houseboat is a boat that has been designed or modified to be used primarily as a home. Some houseboats are not motorized, because they are usually moored, kept stationary at a fixed point and often tethered to land to provide utilities. ...

houseboat
s,
yurt A traditional yurt (from the Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe and Southern Europe to Central Asia, East Asia, Nort ...

yurt
s, and
motorhome A motorhome (or motor coach) is a type of self-propelled recreational vehicle (RV) which offers mobile living accommodation. Features Motorhomes usually have sleeping spaces for 2–8 people. Each sleeping space is either fixed or converts f ...

motorhome
s are
dwelling In law, a dwelling (also known as a residence or an abode) is a self-contained unit of accommodation used by one or more households A household consists of one or several persons who live in the same dwelling and share meals. It may also co ...

dwelling
s but not buildings.


Complex

Sometimes a group of inter-related (and possibly inter-connected) builds are referred to as a complex – for example a housing complex, educational complex, hospital complex, etc.


Creation

The practice of designing, constructing, and operating buildings is most usually a collective effort of different groups of
professional A professional is a member of a profession A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hold themselves out as, and are accepted by the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a wid ...
s and trades. Depending on the size, complexity, and purpose of a particular building project, the project team may include: * A
real estate developer Real estate development, or property development, is a business process, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw Real Estate, land and the sale of developed land or parcel ...
who secures
funding Funding is the act of providing resources A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced and that has some utility. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they are classified into renewable and non-re ...

funding
for the project; * One or more financial institutions or other investors that provide the funding * Local planning and code authorities * A
surveyor Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, art, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyo ...
who performs an ALTA/ACSM and construction surveys throughout the project; *
Construction manager Construction management (CM) is a professional service that uses specialized, project management Project management is the process of leading the work of a team to achieve goals and meet success criteria at a specified time. The primary challenge ...
s who coordinate the effort of different groups of project participants; * Licensed
architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that h ...

architect
s and
engineers Engineers, as practitioners of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of enginee ...
who provide
building design Building design refers to the broadly based architectural upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel ...
and prepare construction
document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought, often the manifestation of nonfiction, non-fictional, as well as fictional, content. The word originates from the Latin ''Documentum'', whic ...

document
s; * The principal design Engineering disciplines which would normally include the following professionals: Civil, Structural, Mechanical building services or HVAC (heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) Electrical Building Services, Plumbing and drainage. Also other possible design Engineer specialists may be involved such as Fire (prevention), Acoustic, façade engineers, building physics, Telecoms, AV (Audio Visual), BMS (Building Management Systems) Automatic controls etc. These design Engineers also prepare construction documents which are issued to specialist contractors to obtain a price for the works and to follow for the installations. *
Landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes. It i ...
s; *
Interior design Interior design is the and of enhancing the interior of a to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space. An interior designer is someone who plans, researches, coordinates, and manages s ...

Interior design
ers; * Other consultants; * Contractors who provide
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
services and install building systems such as
climate control Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. HVAC system design is a subdiscipline of mechanical eng ...

climate control
,
electrical Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its positio ...

electrical
,
plumbing Plumbing is any system that conveys fluid In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order o ...

plumbing
, decoration,
fire protection Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, suppression and investigation of fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxid ...
,
security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide variety of fields, from physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its El ...

security
and
telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other Electromagnetism, electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication ov ...
; * Marketing or
leasing A lease is a contract A contract is a legally binding document between at least two parties that defines and governs the rights and duties of the parties to an agreement. A contract is legally enforceable because it meets the requirements and ...
agents; * Facility managers who are responsible for operating the building. Regardless of their size or intended use, all buildings in the US must comply with zoning ordinances,
building code A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, u ...
s and other regulations such as
fire code#REDIRECT Fire safety#REDIRECT Fire safety Fire safety is the set of practices intended to reduce the destruction caused by fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat ...
s,
life safety code The publication ''Life Safety Code'', known as NFPA 101, is a consensus standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement ...
s and related standards. Vehicles—such as
trailers Trailer may refer to: Transportation * Trailer (vehicle), an unpowered vehicle pulled by a powered vehicle ** Bicycle trailer, a wheeled frame for hitching to a bicycle to tow cargo or passengers ** Full-trailer ** Semi-trailer **Horse trailer an ...
,
caravans Caravan or caravans may refer to: Transport and travel *Caravan (travellers), a group of travellers journeying together **Caravanserai, a place where a caravan could stop *Camel train, a convoy using camels as pack animals *Convoy, a group of vehi ...
,
ship A ship is a large watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional propertie ...

ship
s and passenger
aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by using either Buoyancy, static lift or by using the Lift (force), dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in ...

aircraft
—are treated as "buildings" for life safety purposes.


Ownership and funding

*
Mortgage loan A mortgage loan or simply mortgage () is a loan In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money ...
*
Real estate developer Real estate development, or property development, is a business process, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw Real Estate, land and the sale of developed land or parcel ...


Building services


Physical plant

Any building requires a certain general amount of internal infrastructure to function, which includes such elements like heating / cooling, power and telecommunications, water and wastewater etc. Especially in
commercial building Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.William J. Stanton. ''Fundamentals of Marketing' ...
s (such as offices or factories), these can be extremely intricate systems taking up large amounts of space (sometimes located in separate areas or double floors / false ceilings) and constitute a big part of the regular maintenance required.


Conveying systems

Systems for
transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and ...

transport
of people within buildings: *
Elevator An elevator (North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety (linguistics), variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and ...

Elevator
*
Escalator An escalator is a moving staircase which carries people between floors of a building or structure. It consists of a motor An engine or motor is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control ...

Escalator
*
Moving sidewalk Moving or Movin' may refer to: Moving of goods * Relocation (personal), the process of leaving one dwelling and settling in another * Relocation of professional sports teams * Relocation (computer science) * Structure relocation Music Al ...

Moving sidewalk
(horizontal and inclined) Systems for transport of people between interconnected buildings: *
Skyway A skyway, skybridge, or skywalk is an elevated type of pedway connecting two or more buildings in an urban area, or connecting elevated points within mountainous recreational zones. Urban skyways very often take the form of Covered bridge, enclo ...

Skyway
*
Underground city An underground city is a series of linked subterranean spaces that may provide a defensive refuge; a place for living, working or shopping; a transit system; mausolea A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monum ...


Building damage

Buildings may be damaged during the construction of the building or during maintenance. There are several other reasons behind building damage like accidents such as storms, explosions, subsidence caused by mining, water withdrawal or poor foundations and landslides. Buildings also may suffer from
fire damage Fire is the rapid oxidation (mild reducing agent) are added to powdered potassium permanganate Potassium permanganate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KMnO4 and composed of potassium ion, K+ and permanganate, . It is ...

fire damage
and flooding in special circumstances. They may also become dilapidated through lack of proper maintenance or alteration work improperly carried out.


See also

*
Autonomous building An autonomous building is a building designed to be operated independently from infrastructural support services such as the electric power Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy Electrical energy is energy d ...
* Commercial modular construction *
Earthquake engineering Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other ...
*
Float glass Float glass is a sheet of glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optic ...
*
Green building Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible Ecosophy or ecophilosophy (a portmanteau of ecological philosophy) is a ...

Green building
* Hurricane-proof building * List of buildings and structures *
List of largest buildings in the world The tables in this article list buildings from around the world by usable space (volume), footprint (area), and floor space (area). Here, ''building'' refers to single structures that are suitable for continuous human occupancy. There are, however ...
*
List of tallest buildings in the world 485px, The tallest buildings in 2020 This list of tallest buildings includes skyscraper A skyscraper is a large continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres ...
*
Natural building A natural building involves a range of building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions ...
*
Natural disaster A natural disaster is a major adverse event An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relations ...
and
earthquake An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth resulting from a sudden release of energy in the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known ...

earthquake
*
Skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no universally accepted definition. Skyscrapers ar ...

Skyscraper
*
Steel building A steel building is a metal structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a s ...
*
Tent A tent () is a consisting of sheets of or other material draped over, attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting . While smaller tents may be free-standing or attached to the ground, large tents are usually anchored using tied t ...

Tent


References


External links

* * * {{Authority control