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Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and most populous city of the
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...
of
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...

Massachusetts
in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
and 21st most populous city in the country. The city proper covers with an estimated population of 692,600 in 2019, also making it the most populous city in
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
. It is the seat of Suffolk County (although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999). The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as
Greater Boston Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the Ea ...

Greater Boston
, a
metropolitan statistical area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area#REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throu ...
(MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest MSA in the country. A broader
combined statistical area Combined statistical area (CSA) is a United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent ...
(CSA), corresponding to the commuting area and including
Providence, Rhode Island Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, prima ...

Providence, Rhode Island
, is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth most populous in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest municipalities in the United States, founded on the
Shawmut Peninsula during the 19th century. Image:Boston, 1775bsmall1.png, 222px, Map of Shawmut Peninsula from 1775 showing tactical positions from the perspective of the British Army Shawmut Peninsula is the promontory of land on which Boston, Massachusetts was bui ...
in 1630 by
Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Je ...
settlers from the English town of the same name. It was the scene of several key events of the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
, such as the
Boston Massacre The Boston Massacre was a confrontation on March 5, 1770, in which British soldiers shot and killed several people while being harassed by a mob in Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the and city of the of in the ...

Boston Massacre
, the
Boston Tea Party The Boston Tea Party was an American political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relatio ...

Boston Tea Party
, the
Battle of Bunker Hill The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775, during the Siege of Boston The siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (177 ...
and the
siege of Boston The siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the . militiamen prevented the movement by land of the , which was ed in what was then the peninsular city of , . Both sides had to deal with resource, supply, and ...
. Upon American independence from
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
, the city continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original
peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el ...
through land reclamation and municipal annexation. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with
Faneuil Hall Faneuil Hall ( or ; previously ) is a marketplace and meeting hall located near the waterfront and today's Government Center, in Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Mas ...

Faneuil Hall
alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park (
Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is sometimes erroneously referred to as the Boston Commons. Dating from 1634, it is the oldest Urban park, city park in the United States. The ...

Boston Common
, 1634), first public or
state school State schools (in England, Wales, and New Zealand) or public schools (Scottish English Scottish English ( gd, Beurla Albannach) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, th ...
(
Boston Latin School The Boston Latin School is a public exam school in Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonweal ...

Boston Latin School
, 1635) and first subway system (
Tremont Street subway The Tremont Street subway in Boston's MBTA subway system is the oldest subway tunnel in North America and the third oldest still in use worldwide to exclusively use electric traction (after the City and South London Railway in 1890, and Line 1 (B ...
, 1897). Today, Boston is a thriving center of scientific research. The Boston area's many colleges and universities make it a world leader in
higher education Higher education is tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge ...
, including law, medicine, engineering and business, and the city is considered to be a global pioneer in
innovation Innovation is the practical implementation of ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relation ...

innovation
and
entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship is the creation or extraction of value. With this definition, entrepreneurship is viewed as change, generally entailing risk beyond what is normally encountered in starting a business, which may include other values than simply ...
, with nearly 5,000 startups. Boston's economic base also includes
finance Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corn ...
,
Accessed October 7, 2018.
professional and business services,
biotechnology Biotechnology is a broad area of biology, involving the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with related scientific fields. In the late 20th and early 21st c ...

biotechnology
, information technology and government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of
philanthropy Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life Quality of life (QOL) is defined by the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of th ...

philanthropy
in the United States; businesses and institutions rank among the top in the country for environmental
sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere and human civilization to co-exist. For many, sustainability is ...

sustainability
and investment. The city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone
gentrification Gentrification is a process of changing the character of a neighborhood through the influx of more affluent residents and businesses. It is a common and controversial topic in politics and in urban planning. Gentrification often increases th ...

gentrification
, though it remains high on world livability rankings.


History


Colonial

Boston's early European settlers had first called the area ''Trimountaine'' (after its "three mountains", only traces of which remain today) but later renamed it ''Boston'' after
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...
, Lincolnshire, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630 (
Old Style Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) indicate a dating system from before and after a calendar change, respectively. Usually this is the change from the to the as enacted in various European countries between 1582 and the 20th century. In ...
), was by
Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Je ...
colonists from England who had moved over from
CharlestownCharlestown or Charles Town may refer to: Places Australia *Charlestown, New South Wales ** Electoral district of Charlestown, an electoral district in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly including the area * Charlestown, Queensland Ireland ...
earlier that year in quest for fresh water. Their settlement was initially limited to the
Shawmut Peninsula during the 19th century. Image:Boston, 1775bsmall1.png, 222px, Map of Shawmut Peninsula from 1775 showing tactical positions from the perspective of the British Army Shawmut Peninsula is the promontory of land on which Boston, Massachusetts was bui ...
, at that time surrounded by the
Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers a ...
and
Charles River The Charles River (sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles) is an river in eastern Massachusetts. It flows northeast from Hopkinton, Massachusetts, Hopkinton to Boston, Massachusetts, Boston along a highly meandering route, t ...
and connected to the mainland by a narrow
isthmus An isthmus ( or ; plural: isthmuses or isthmi; from grc, ἰσθμός, isthmós, neck) is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated. A tombolo is an isthmus that consist ...

isthmus
. The
peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el ...

peninsula
is thought to have been inhabited as early as 4000 BC. In 1629, the
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body ...
's first governor
John Winthrop John Winthrop (January 12, 1587/88 – March 26, 1649) was an English Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that t ...

John Winthrop
led the signing of the
Cambridge AgreementThe Cambridge AgreementWest Windsor-Plainsboro Regional School District">West Windsor-Plainsboro Regional School District: ''The Cambridge Agreement''/ref> was signed, on August 29 1629, between the shareholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company, at C ...
, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history; America's first public school,
Boston Latin School The Boston Latin School is a public exam school in Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonweal ...

Boston Latin School
, was founded in Boston in 1635.
John HullJohn Hull may refer to: Politicians *John Hull (MP for Hythe), MP for Hythe (UK Parliament constituency), Hythe *John Hull (English politician) (died 1549), MP for Exeter *John A. T. Hull (1841–1928), American politician *John C. Hull (politician ...
and
the pine tree shilling The pine tree shilling was a type of coin minted and circulated in the thirteen colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British co ...
played a central role in the establishment of the
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body ...
and the
Old South Church Old South Church in Boston, Massachusetts, (also known as New Old South Church or Third Church) is a historic United Church of Christ congregation first organized in 1669. Its present building was designed in the Gothic Revival Gothic Revival ...

Old South Church
in the 1600s. In 1652 the
Massachusetts legislature The Massachusetts General Court (formally styled the General Court of Massachusetts) is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state ...
authorized
John HullJohn Hull may refer to: Politicians *John Hull (MP for Hythe), MP for Hythe (UK Parliament constituency), Hythe *John Hull (English politician) (died 1549), MP for Exeter *John A. T. Hull (1841–1928), American politician *John C. Hull (politician ...
to
produce Produce is a generalized term for many farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables (grains, oats, etc. are also sometimes considered ''produce''). More specifically, the term ''produce'' often implies that the products are wikt:fresh, fr ...
coinage. "The Hull Mint produced several denominations of silver coinage, including the pine tree shilling, for over 30 years until the political and economic situation made operating the mint no longer practical." for reasons which were mostly political deemed the "Hull Mint"
high treason Treason is the crime of attacking a Sovereign state, state authority to which one owes allegiance. This typically includes acts such as participating in a war against one's native country, attempting to Coup d'etat, overthrow its government, Es ...
which had a punishment of being
hanged, drawn and quartered To be hanged, drawn and quartered became a statutory A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislature, legislative authority that governs the legal entities of a city, State (polity), state, or country by way of consent. Typically, ...
. "On April 6, 1681,
Edward Randolph Edward Randolph (~October 1690 – after 1756), sometimes referred to as Edward Randolph of Bremo, was a Captain (nautical), ship captain, a London tobacco merchant, and the seventh and youngest son of William Randolph and Mary Isham. Biography ...
petitioned the king, informing him the colony was still pressing their own coins which he saw as high treason and believed it was enough to void the charter. He asked that a writ of
Quo warranto In British and American common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''B ...
(a legal action requiring the defendant to show what authority they have for exercising some right, power, or franchise they claim to hold) be issued against
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...

Massachusetts
for the violations." Boston was the largest town in the
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
until
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...

Philadelphia
outgrew it in the mid-18th century. Boston's made it a lively
port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility comprising one or more Wharf, wharves or loading areas, where ships load and discharge Affreightment, cargo and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, ports can a ...

port
, and the city primarily engaged in
shipping Freight transport is the physical process of transport Transport (in British English), or transportation (in American English), is the Motion, movement of humans, animals, and cargo, goods from one location to another. In other words, ...

shipping
and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. During this period, Boston encountered financial difficulties even as other cities in New England grew rapidly.


Revolution and the siege of Boston

Many of the crucial events of the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
occurred in or near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing lack of faith in either
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
or its Parliament fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city. When the British parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of
Andrew Oliver Andrew Oliver (March 28, 1706 – March 3, 1774) was a merchant and public official in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. Born into a wealthy and politically powerful merchant family, he is best known as the Massachusetts official responsible f ...

Andrew Oliver
, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, and Thomas Hutchinson, then the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists. This did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the
Boston Massacre The Boston Massacre was a confrontation on March 5, 1770, in which British soldiers shot and killed several people while being harassed by a mob in Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the and city of the of in the ...

Boston Massacre
, British troops shot into a crowd that had started to violently harass them. The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was widely publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Parliament passed the
Tea Act The Tea Act 1773 (13 Geo 3 c 44) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in May 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of UnionAct of Union may refer to: In Great Britain and Ireland ...
. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the
Townshend Acts The Townshend Acts () or Townshend Duties, refers to a series of British acts of Parliament passed during 1767 and 1768 relating to the British colonies in America. They are named after Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer The ...
. The act prompted the
Boston Tea Party The Boston Tea Party was an American political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relatio ...

Boston Tea Party
, where a group of angered Bostonian citizens threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Com ...
into
Boston Harbor Boston Harbor is a natural harbor and estuary of Massachusetts Bay, and is located adjacent to the city of Boston, Massachusetts. It is home to the Port of Boston, a major shipping facility in the northeastern United States. History Since it ...
. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the
Coercive Acts The Intolerable Acts were punitive laws passed by the British Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dep ...
, demanding compensation for the destroyed tea from the Bostonians. This angered the colonists further and led to the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the
Battles of Lexington and Concord The battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was init ...
. Boston itself was besieged for almost a year during the
siege of Boston The siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the . militiamen prevented the movement by land of the , which was ed in what was then the peninsular city of , . Both sides had to deal with resource, supply, and ...
, which began on April 19, 1775. The New England militia impeded the movement of the
British Army The British Army is the principal Army, land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of the British Armed Forces. , the British Army comprises 80,040 regular full-time personnel and 30,020 Army Reserve (United Kingdom), reserve personnel ...
. Sir William Howe, then the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege. On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the
Battle of Bunker Hill The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775, during the Siege of Boston The siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (177 ...
. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a
pyrrhic victory A Pyrrhic victory ( ) is a victory that inflicts such a devastating toll on the victor that it is tantamount to defeat. A Pyrrhic victory takes a heavy toll that negates any true sense of achievement or damages long-term progress. The phrase origi ...
for the British because their army suffered irreplaceable casualties. It was also a testament to the skill and training of the militia, as their stubborn defence made it difficult for the British to capture Charlestown without suffering further irreplaceable casualties. Several weeks later,
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the Continenta ...

George Washington
took over the militia after the
Continental Congress The Continental Congress was a series of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
established the
Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the Thirteen Colonies and the Revolutionary-era United States. It was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, and was established by a resolution of ...
to unify the revolutionary effort. Both sides faced difficulties and supply shortages in the siege, and the fighting was limited to small-scale raids and skirmishes. The narrow Boston Neck, which at that time was only about a hundred feet wide, impeded Washington's ability to invade Boston, and a long stalemate ensued. A young officer,
Rufus Putnam Brigadier General (United States), Brigadier-General Rufus Putnam (April 9, 1738 – May 4, 1824) was a colonial military officer during the French and Indian War, and a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. As an ...
, came up with a plan to make portable fortifications out of wood that could be erected on the frozen ground under cover of darkness. Putnam supervised this effort, which successfully installed both the fortifications and dozens of cannon on Dorchester Heights that
Henry Knox Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was an American military officer who was a senior general of the Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the Thirteen Colonies and the Revolutionary-era United States. It was fo ...

Henry Knox
had laboriously brought through the snow from Fort Ticonderoga. The astonished British awoke the next morning to see a large array of cannons bearing down on them. General Howe is believed to have said that the Americans had done more in one night than his army could have done in six months. The British Army attempted a cannon barrage for two hours, but their shot could not reach the colonists' cannons at such a height. The British gave up, boarded their ships and sailed away. Boston still celebrates "Evacuation Day" each year. Washington was so impressed, he made
Rufus Putnam Brigadier General (United States), Brigadier-General Rufus Putnam (April 9, 1738 – May 4, 1824) was a colonial military officer during the French and Indian War, and a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. As an ...
his chief engineer.


Post-revolution and the War of 1812

After the Revolution, Boston's long
seafaring Seamanship is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of wha ...
tradition helped make it one of the world's wealthiest international ports, with the
slave trade Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
, rum, fish, salt, and tobacco being particularly important. Boston's harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the
Embargo Act of 1807 The Embargo Act of 1807 was a general trade embargo Economic sanctions are commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Televisio ...
(adopted during the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
) and the
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Boston's merchants had found alternatives for their capital investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the city's economy, and the city's industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. A network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a dense network of railroads furthered the region's industry and commerce. During this period, Boston flourished culturally, as well, admired for its rarefied literary life and generous artistic patronage, with members of old Boston families—eventually dubbed ''
Boston Brahmin The Boston Brahmins or Boston elite are members of Boston's traditional upper class. They are often associated with Harvard University; Anglicanism; upper-class clubs such as the Somerset Club, Somerset in Boston, the Knickerbocker Club, Knickerb ...
s''—coming to be regarded as the nation's social and cultural elites. Boston was an early port of the in the New England colonies, but was soon overtaken by Salem, Massachusetts and
Newport Newport most commonly refers to: *Newport, Wales, UK *Newport, Rhode Island, US Newport or New Port may also refer to: Places Asia *Newport City, Metro Manila, a Philippine district in Pasay Europe Ireland *Newport, County Mayo, a town on ...
, Rhode Island. Boston eventually became a center of the
abolitionist Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and liberate the enslaved people. The British ...
movement. The city reacted strongly to the
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 The Fugitive Slave Act or Fugitive Slave Law was passed by the 31st United States Congress, United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern United States, Southern Slavery in the United States, i ...
, contributing to
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...

President
Franklin Pierce Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804October 8, 1869) was the 14th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of the ...

Franklin Pierce
's attempt to make an example of Boston after the
Anthony Burns 300px, A bust portrait of the twenty-four-year-old Anthony Burns, "Drawn by Barry from a daguereotype by Whipple and Black," is surrounded by scenes from his life. Anthony Burns (31 May 1834 – 17 July 1862) was a fugitive slave whose rec ...
Fugitive Slave Case. In 1822, the citizens of Boston voted to change the official name from the "Town of Boston" to the "City of Boston", and on March 19, 1822, the people of Boston accepted the charter incorporating the city. At the time Boston was chartered as a city, the population was about 46,226, while the area of the city was only .


19th century

In the 1820s, Boston's population grew rapidly, and the city's ethnic composition changed dramatically with the first wave of European
immigrants Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...
. Irish immigrants dominated the first wave of newcomers during this period, especially following the Great Famine; by 1850, about 35,000 Irish lived in Boston. In the latter half of the 19th century, the city saw increasing numbers of Irish,
Germans Germans (, ) are the natives or inhabitants of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German lan ...
,
Lebanese Lebanese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Lebanon * Lebanese people, people from Lebanon or of Lebanese descent * Lebanese Arabic, the colloquial form of Arabic spoken in Lebanon * Lebanese culture * Lebanese cuisine See also

, Syrians,
French Canadians French Canadians (referred to as Canadiens mainly before the twentieth century ; french: Canadiens français, ; feminine form: , ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identif ...
, and
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
and
Polish Jews The history of Jews in Poland dates back at least 1,000 years. For centuries, Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is div ...
settling in the city. By the end of the 19th century, Boston's core neighborhoods had become enclaves of ethnically distinct immigrants with their residence yielding lasting cultural change.
Italians Italians ( it, italiani ) are a Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong att ...
became the largest inhabitants of the ,
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...

Irish
dominated South Boston and
CharlestownCharlestown or Charles Town may refer to: Places Australia *Charlestown, New South Wales ** Electoral district of Charlestown, an electoral district in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly including the area * Charlestown, Queensland Ireland ...
, and Russians, Russian Jews lived in the West End, Boston, West End.
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...

Irish
and Italian Americans, Italian immigrants brought with them Roman Catholicism. Currently, Catholics make up Boston's largest religious community, and the Irish have played a major role in Boston politics since the early 20th century; prominent figures include the Kennedy family, Kennedys, Tip O'Neill, and John F. Fitzgerald. Between 1631 and 1890, the city tripled its area through land reclamation by filling in marshes, mud flats, and gaps between wharves along the waterfront.. Also see The largest reclamation efforts took place during the 19th century; beginning in 1807, the crown of Beacon Hill was used to fill in a mill pond that later became the Haymarket Square (Boston), Haymarket Square area. The present-day Massachusetts State House, State House sits atop this lowered Beacon Hill. Reclamation projects in the middle of the century created significant parts of the South End, Boston, South End, the West End, Boston, West End, the Financial District, Boston, Financial District, and Chinatown, Boston, Chinatown. After the Great Boston fire of 1872, workers used building rubble as landfill along the downtown waterfront. During the mid-to-late 19th century, workers filled almost of brackish Charles River marshlands west of
Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is sometimes erroneously referred to as the Boston Commons. Dating from 1634, it is the oldest Urban park, city park in the United States. The ...

Boston Common
with gravel brought by rail from the hills of Needham Heights. The city annexed the adjacent towns of South Boston (1804), East Boston (1836), Roxbury, Boston, Roxbury (1868), Dorchester, Boston, Dorchester (including present-day Mattapan and a portion of South Boston) (1870), Brighton, Boston, Brighton (including present-day Allston) (1874), West Roxbury (including present-day Jamaica Plain and Roslindale) (1874),
CharlestownCharlestown or Charles Town may refer to: Places Australia *Charlestown, New South Wales ** Electoral district of Charlestown, an electoral district in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly including the area * Charlestown, Queensland Ireland ...
(1874), and Hyde Park, Boston, Hyde Park (1912). Other proposals were unsuccessful for the annexation of Boston–Brookline annexation debate of 1873, Brookline, Cambridge, and Chelsea, Massachusetts, Chelsea.


Early 20th century

Fenway Park, home of the Boston Red Sox, opened in 1912.  Many architecturally significant buildings were built during these early years of the 20th century: Horticultural Hall, Boston, Massachusetts, Horticultural Hall, the Tennis and Racquet Club, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Fenway Studios, Jordan Hall, and the Boston Opera House (1909), Boston Opera House.  The Longfellow Bridge, built in 1906, was mentioned by Robert McCloskey in ''Make Way for Ducklings'', describing its "salt and pepper shakers" feature. Logan International Airport opened on September 8, 1923. The Boston Bruins were founded in 1924 and played their first game at Boston Garden in November 1928. Boston went into decline by the early to mid-20th century, as factories became old and obsolete and businesses moved out of the region for cheaper labor elsewhere. Boston responded by initiating various urban renewal projects, under the direction of the Boston Planning and Development Agency, Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) established in 1957. In 1958, BRA initiated a project to improve the historic West End neighborhood. Extensive demolition was met with strong public opposition, and thousands of families were displaced. The BRA continued implementing eminent domain projects, including the clearance of the vibrant Scollay Square area for construction of the modernist style Government Center, Boston, Government Center. In 1965, the Columbia Point Health Center opened in the Dorchester, Boston, Dorchester neighborhood, the first Community health centers in the United States, Community Health Center in the United States. It mostly served the massive Columbia Point (Boston), Columbia Point public housing complex adjoining it, which was built in 1953. The health center is still in operation and was rededicated in 1990 as the Geiger-Gibson Community Health Center. The Columbia Point complex itself was redeveloped and revitalized from 1984 to 1990 into a mixed-income residential development called Harbor Point Apartments.Cf. Roessner, p.293. "The HOPE VI housing program, inspired in part by the success of Harbor Point, was created by legislation passed by Congress in 1992." By the 1970s, the city's economy had begun to recover after 30 years of economic downturn. A large number of high-rises were constructed in the Financial District, Boston, Financial District and in Boston's Back Bay, Boston, Back Bay during this period. This boom continued into the mid-1980s and resumed after a few pauses. Hospitals such as Massachusetts General Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Brigham and Women's Hospital lead the nation in medical innovation and patient care. Schools such as the Boston Architectural College, Boston College, Boston University, the Harvard Medical School, Tufts University School of Medicine, Northeastern University, Massachusetts College of Art and Design, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Berklee College of Music, the Boston Conservatory, and many others attract students to the area. Nevertheless, the city experienced conflict starting in 1974 over desegregation busing, which resulted in unrest and violence around public schools throughout the mid-1970s.


21st century

Boston is an intellectual, technological, and political center but has lost some important regional institutions, including the loss to mergers and acquisitions of local financial institutions such as FleetBoston Financial, which was acquired by Charlotte, North Carolina, Charlotte-based Bank of America in 2004. Boston-based department stores Jordan Marsh and Filene's have both merged into the New York City–based Macy's, Inc., Macy's. The 1993 acquisition of ''The Boston Globe'' by ''The New York Times'' was reversed in 2013 when it was re-sold to Boston businessman John W. Henry. In 2016, it was announced General Electric would be moving its corporate headquarters from Connecticut to the Seaport District in Boston, joining many other companies in this rapidly developing neighborhood. Boston has experienced
gentrification Gentrification is a process of changing the character of a neighborhood through the influx of more affluent residents and businesses. It is a common and controversial topic in politics and in urban planning. Gentrification often increases th ...

gentrification
in the latter half of the 20th century, with housing prices increasing sharply since the 1990s. Living expenses have risen; Boston has one of the highest costs of living in the United States and was ranked the 129th-most expensive major city in the world in a 2011 survey of 214 cities. Despite cost-of-living issues, Boston ranks high on livability ratings, ranking 36th World's most liveable cities, worldwide in quality of living in 2011 in a survey of 221 major cities. On April 15, 2013, two Chechen Islamist brothers Boston Marathon bombing, detonated a pair of bombs near the finish line of the 2013 Boston Marathon, Boston Marathon, killing three people and injuring roughly 264. In 2016, Boston briefly Boston bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics, shouldered a bid as the US applicant for the 2024 Summer Olympics. The bid was supported by the mayor and a coalition of business leaders and local philanthropists, but was eventually dropped due to public opposition. The United States Olympic Committee, USOC then selected Los Angeles to be the American candidate with Los Angeles ultimately securing the right to host the 2028 Summer Olympics.


Geography

Boston has an area of — (54%) of land and (46%) of water. The city's official elevation, as measured at Logan International Airport, is Above mean sea level, above sea level. The highest point in Boston is Bellevue Hill, Boston, Bellevue Hill at above sea level, and the lowest point is at sea level. Situated onshore of the Atlantic Ocean, Boston is the only state capital in the contiguous United States with an oceanic shoreline. Boston is surrounded by the "
Greater Boston Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the Ea ...

Greater Boston
" region and is contiguously bordered by the New England town, cities and towns of Winthrop, Massachusetts, Winthrop, Revere, Massachusetts, Revere, Chelsea, Massachusetts, Chelsea, Everett, Massachusetts, Everett, Somerville, Massachusetts, Somerville, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cambridge, Watertown, Massachusetts, Watertown, Newton, Massachusetts, Newton, Brookline, Massachusetts, Brookline, Needham, Massachusetts, Needham, Dedham, Massachusetts, Dedham, Canton, Massachusetts, Canton, Milton, Massachusetts, Milton, and Quincy, Massachusetts, Quincy. The
Charles River The Charles River (sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles) is an river in eastern Massachusetts. It flows northeast from Hopkinton, Massachusetts, Hopkinton to Boston, Massachusetts, Boston along a highly meandering route, t ...
separates Boston's Allston-Brighton, Fenway-Kenmore and Back Bay neighborhoods from Watertown, Massachusetts, Watertown and the majority of Cambridge, and the mass of Boston from its own Charlestown neighborhood. To the east lie
Boston Harbor Boston Harbor is a natural harbor and estuary of Massachusetts Bay, and is located adjacent to the city of Boston, Massachusetts. It is home to the Port of Boston, a major shipping facility in the northeastern United States. History Since it ...
and the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area (which includes part of the city's territory, specifically Calf Island (Massachusetts), Calf Island, Gallops Island, Great Brewster Island, Green Island (Massachusetts), Green Island, Little Brewster Island, Little Calf Island, Long Island (Massachusetts), Long Island, Lovells Island, Middle Brewster Island, Nixes Mate, Outer Brewster Island, Rainsford Island, Shag Rocks (Massachusetts), Shag Rocks, Spectacle Island (Massachusetts), Spectacle Island, The Graves (Massachusetts), The Graves, and Thompson Island (Massachusetts), Thompson Island). The Neponset River forms the boundary between Boston's southern neighborhoods and the city of Quincy, Massachusetts, Quincy and the town of Milton, Massachusetts, Milton. The Mystic River separates Charlestown from Chelsea and Everett, and Chelsea Creek and Boston Harbor separate East Boston from Downtown, the North End, and the Seaport.


Neighborhoods

Boston is sometimes called a "city of neighborhoods" because of the profusion of diverse subsections; the city government's Office of Neighborhood Services has officially designated 23 neighborhoods. More than two-thirds of inner Boston's modern land area did not exist when the city was founded. Instead, it was created via the gradual filling in of the surrounding tidal areas over the centuries, with earth from leveling or lowering Boston's three original hills (the "Trimountain", after which Tremont Street is named) and with gravel brought by train from Needham to fill the Back Bay. Downtown Boston, Downtown and its immediate surroundings consist largely of low-rise masonry buildings (often Federal architecture, Federal style and Greek Revival) interspersed with modern highrises, in the Financial District, Government Center, and South Boston. Back Bay includes many prominent landmarks, such as the Boston Public Library, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Christian Science Center, Copley Square, Newbury Street, and New England's two tallest buildings: the 200 Clarendon Street, John Hancock Tower and the Prudential Tower, Prudential Center. Near the John Hancock Tower is the Berkeley Building, old John Hancock Building with its prominent weather beacon, illuminated beacon, the color of which forecasts the weather. Smaller commercial areas are interspersed among areas of single-family homes and wooden/brick multi-family row houses. The South End Historic District is the largest surviving contiguous Victorian-era neighborhood in the US. The geography of downtown and South Boston was particularly affected by the Central Artery/Tunnel Project (known unofficially as the "Big Dig") which removed the unsightly elevated Central Artery and incorporated new green spaces and open areas.


Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, depending on the isotherm used, Boston has either a humid subtropical climate (Köppen ''Cfa'') under the isotherm or a humid continental climate under the 0 °C isotherm (Köppen ''Dfa''). The city is best described as being in a transitional zone between the two climates. Summers are typically hot and humid, while winters are cold and stormy, with occasional periods of heavy snow. Spring and fall are usually cool to mild, with varying conditions dependent on wind direction and jet stream positioning. Prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore minimize the influence of the Atlantic Ocean. However, in winter areas near the immediate coast will often see more rain than snow as warm air is drawn off the Atlantic at times. The city lies at the transition between USDA plant hardiness zones 6b (most of the city) and 7a (Downtown, South Boston, and East Boston neighborhoods). The hottest month is July, with a mean temperature of . The coldest month is January, with a mean of . Periods exceeding in summer and below freezing in winter are not uncommon but rarely extended, with about 13 and 25 days per year seeing each, respectively. The most recent sub- reading occurred on January 7, 2018, when the temperature dipped down to . In addition, several decades may pass between readings, with the most recent such occurrence on July 22, 2011, when the temperature reached . The city's average window for freezing temperatures is November 9 through April 5. Official temperature records have ranged from on February 9, 1934, up to on July 4, 1911. The record cold daily maximum is on December 30, 1917 while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is on August 2, 1975 and July 21, 2019. Boston's coastal location on the North Atlantic moderates its temperature but makes the city very prone to Nor'easter weather systems that can produce much snow and rain. The city averages of Precipitation (meteorology), precipitation a year, with of snowfall per season. Most snowfall occurs from mid-November through early April, and snow is rare in May and October. There is also high year-to-year variability in snowfall; for instance, the winter of 2011–12 saw only of accumulating snow, but the previous winter, the corresponding figure was . Fog is fairly common, particularly in spring and early summer. Due to its location along the North Atlantic, the city often receives sea breezes, especially in the late spring, when water temperatures are still quite cold and temperatures at the coast can be more than colder than a few miles inland, sometimes dropping by that amount near midday. Thunderstorms occur from May to September, that are occasionally severe with large hail, damaging winds and heavy downpours. Although downtown Boston has never been struck by a violent tornado, the city itself has experienced many tornado warnings. Damaging storms are more common to areas north, west, and northwest of the city. Boston has a relatively sunny climate for a coastal city at its latitude, averaging over 2,600 hours of sunshine per annum.


Cityscapes


Demographics

In 2019, Boston was estimated to have 692,600 residents living in 266,724 households—a 9% population increase over 2010. The city is the List of United States cities by population density, third-most densely populated large U.S. city of over half a million residents, and the most densely populated state capital. Some 1.2 million persons may be within Boston's boundaries during work hours, and as many as 2 million during special events. This fluctuation of people is caused by hundreds of thousands of suburban residents who travel to the city for work, education, health care, and special events. In the city, the population was spread out, with 21.9% at age 19 and under, 14.3% from 20 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, and 10.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males. There were 252,699 households, of which 20.4% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 25.5% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 54.0% were non-families. 37.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 3.08. Boston has one of the LGBT demographics of the United States#By city, largest LGBT populations in the United States. The Median income, median household income in Boston was $51,739, while the median income for a family was $61,035. Full-time year-round male workers had a median income of $52,544 versus $46,540 for full-time year-round female workers. The per capita income for the city was $33,158. 21.4% of the population and 16.0% of families were below the poverty line. Of the total population, 28.8% of those under the age of 18 and 20.4% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Boston has a significant racial wealth gap with white Bostonians having an average net worth of $247,500 compared to an $8 average net worth for non-immigrant Black residents and $0 for Dominican immigrant residents. In 1950, Race (United States Census), whites represented 94.7% of Boston's population. From the 1950s to the end of the 20th century, the proportion of non-Hispanic whites in the city declined. In 2000, non-Hispanic whites made up 49.5% of the city's population, making the city majority minority for the first time. However, in the 21st century, the city has experienced significant
gentrification Gentrification is a process of changing the character of a neighborhood through the influx of more affluent residents and businesses. It is a common and controversial topic in politics and in urban planning. Gentrification often increases th ...

gentrification
, during which affluent whites have moved into formerly non-white areas. In 2006, the US Census Bureau estimated non-Hispanic whites again formed a slight majority but , in part due to the housing crash, as well as increased efforts to make more affordable housing more available, the non-white population has rebounded. This may also have to do with increased Latin American and Asian Americans, Asian populations and more clarity surrounding US Census statistics, which indicate a non-Hispanic white population of 47 percent (some reports give slightly lower figures). People of History of Irish Americans in Boston, Irish descent form the largest single American ancestry, ethnic group in the city, making up 15.8% of the population, followed by Italian Americans, Italians, accounting for 8.3% of the population. People of West Indies, West Indian and Caribbean ancestry are another sizable group, at 6.0%. In Greater Boston, these numbers grew significantly, with Dominicans 170,000+ according to 2018 estimates, Puerto Ricans numbering 145,000+, Salvadorans 45,000+, Guatemalans 40,000+, and Colombians 35,000+.
/ref> East Boston has a diverse Hispanic/Latino population of Colombians, Salvadorans, Dominicans, Guatemalans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and even Portuguese-speaking people from Portugal and Brazil. Hispanic populations in southwest Boston neighborhoods are mainly made up of Dominicans and Puerto Ricans, usually sharing neighborhoods in this section with African Americans and Blacks with origins from the Caribbean and Africa especially Cape Verdeans and Haitians. Neighborhoods such as Jamaica Plain, Boston, Jamaica Plain and Roslindale, Boston, Roslindale have experienced a growing number of Dominican-Americans in Boston, Dominican Americans. Large Portuguese-speaking communities of Portuguese Americans, Portuguese, Brazilian Americans, Brazilians, and Cape Verdean Americans, Cape Verdeans are present in areas like East Boston, Roxbury, and Jamaica Plain, usually blending in with Hispanics, blacks, and whites. Over 27,000 Chinese Americans in Boston, Chinese Americans made their home in Boston city proper in 2013.


Ancestry

According to the 2012–2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, the largest ancestry groups in Boston, Massachusetts are:


Demographic breakdown by ZIP Code


Income

Data is from the 2008–2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.


Religion

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 57% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, with 25% attending a variety of Protestantism, Protestant churches and 29% professing Catholic Church, Roman Catholic beliefs; 33% claim Irreligion, no religious affiliation, while the remaining 10% are composed of adherents of Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, Baháʼí Faith, Baháʼí and other faiths. , the Catholic Church had the highest number of adherents as a single denomination in the
Greater Boston Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the Ea ...

Greater Boston
area, with more than two million members and 339 churches, followed by the Episcopal Church with 58,000 adherents in 160 churches. The United Church of Christ had 55,000 members and 213 churches. The city has a American Jews, Jewish population of an estimated 248,000 Jews within the Boston metro area. More than half of Jewish households in the Greater Boston area reside in the city itself, Brookline, Massachusetts, Brookline, Newton, Massachusetts, Newton, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cambridge, Somerville, Massachusetts, Somerville, or adjacent towns.


Economy

A global city, Boston is placed among the top 30 most economically powerful cities in the world. Encompassing $363 billion, the
Greater Boston Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the Ea ...

Greater Boston
metropolitan area has the List of cities by GDP, sixth-largest economy in the country and 12th-largest in the world. Boston's colleges and universities exert a significant impact on the regional economy. Boston attracts more than 350,000 college students from around the world, who contribute more than US$4.8 billion annually to the city's economy. The area's schools are major employers and attract industries to the city and surrounding region. The city is home to a number of technology companies and is a hub for
biotechnology Biotechnology is a broad area of biology, involving the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with related scientific fields. In the late 20th and early 21st c ...

biotechnology
, with the Milken Institute rating Boston as the top List of life sciences, life sciences cluster in the country. Boston receives the highest absolute amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health of all cities in the United States. The city is considered highly innovative for a variety of reasons, including the presence of academia, access to venture capital, and the presence of many high-tech companies. The Massachusetts Route 128, Route 128 corridor and Greater Boston continue to be a major center for venture capital investment, and high technology remains an important sector. Tourism also composes a large part of Boston's economy, with 21.2 million domestic and international visitors spending $8.3 billion in 2011. Excluding visitors from Canada and Mexico, over 1.4 million international tourists visited Boston in 2014, with those from China and the United Kingdom leading the list. Boston's status as a state capital as well as the regional home of federal agencies has rendered law and government to be another major component of the city's economy. The city is a major Port of Boston, seaport along the East Coast of the United States and the oldest continuously operated industrial and fishing port in the Western Hemisphere. In the 2018 Global Financial Centres Index, Boston was ranked as having the thirteenth most competitive financial services center in the world and the second most competitive in the United States. Boston-based Fidelity Investments helped popularize the mutual fund in the 1980s and has made Boston one of the top financial centers in the United States. The city is home to the headquarters of Santander Bank, and Boston is a center for venture capital firms. State Street Corporation, which specializes in asset management and custody services, is based in the city. Boston is a printing and publishing center—Houghton Mifflin Harcourt is headquartered within the city, along with Bedford-St. Martin's, Bedford-St. Martin's Press and Beacon Press. Pearson PLC publishing units also employ several hundred people in Boston. The city is home to three major convention centers—the Hynes Convention Center in the Back Bay, and the Seaport Hotel and Seaport World Trade Center, Seaport World Trade Center and Boston Convention and Exhibition Center on the South Boston waterfront. The General Electric Corporation announced in January 2016 its decision to move the company's global headquarters to the Seaport District in Boston, from Fairfield, Connecticut, Fairfield, Connecticut, citing factors including Boston's preeminence in the realm of
higher education Higher education is tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge ...
. Boston is home to the headquarters of several major athletic and footwear companies including Converse (shoe company), Converse, New Balance, and Reebok. Rockport (company), Rockport, Puma (brand), Puma and Wolverine World Wide, Wolverine World Wide, Inc. headquarters or regional offices are just outside the city. In 2019, a yearly ranking of time wasted in traffic listed Boston area drivers lost approximately 164 hours a year in lost productivity due to the area's traffic congestion. This amounted to $2,300 a year per driver in costs.


Education


Primary and secondary education

The Boston Public Schools enroll 57,000 students attending 145 schools, including the renowned Boston Latin Academy, John D. O'Bryant School of Mathematics & Science, John D. O'Bryant School of Math & Science, and
Boston Latin School The Boston Latin School is a public exam school in Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonweal ...

Boston Latin School
. The Boston Latin School was established in 1635 and is the oldest public high school in the US. Boston also operates the United States' second-oldest public high school and its oldest public elementary school. The system's students are 40% Hispanic or Latino, 35% Black or African American, 13% White, and 9% Asian. There are private, parochial, and charter schools as well, and approximately 3,300 minority students attend participating suburban schools through the METCO, Metropolitan Educational Opportunity Council. In September 2019, the city formally inaugurated Boston Saves, a program that provides every child enrolled in the city's kindergarten system a savings account containing $50 to be used toward college or career training.


Higher education

Some of the most renowned and highly ranked universities in the world are near Boston. Three universities with a major presence in the city, Harvard University, Harvard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, and Tufts University, Tufts, are just outside of Boston in the cities of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cambridge and Somerville, Massachusetts, Somerville, known as the ''Brainpower Triangle''. Harvard is the nation's oldest institute of higher education and is centered across the Charles River in Cambridge, though the majority of its land holdings and a substantial amount of its educational activities are in Boston. Its Harvard Business School, business school and athletics facilities are in Boston's Allston neighborhood, and its Harvard Medical School, medical, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, dental, and Harvard School of Public Health, public health schools are located in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area, Longwood area. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) originated in Boston and was long known as "History of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology#Boston Tech (1865–1916), Boston Tech"; it moved across the river to Cambridge in 1916. Tufts University's main campus is north of the city in Somerville, Massachusetts, Somerville and Medford, Massachusetts, Medford, though it locates its medical and dental schools in Boston's Chinatown at Tufts Medical Center, a 451-bed academic medical institution that is home to a full-service hospital for adults and the Floating Hospital for Children. Four members of the Association of American Universities are in Greater Boston (more than any other metropolitan area): Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston University, and Brandeis University. Furthermore, Greater Boston contains seven List of research universities in the United States#Universities classified as "R1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity", Highest Research Activity (R1) Universities as per the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, Carnegie Classification. This includes, in addition to the aforementioned four, Boston College, Northeastern University, and Tufts University. This is, by a large margin, the highest concentration of such institutions in a single metropolitan area. Hospitals, universities, and research institutions in Greater Boston received more than $1.77 billion in National Institutes of Health grants in 2013, more money than any other American metropolitan area. Greater Boston has more than 100 colleges and universities, with 250,000 students enrolled in Boston and Cambridge alone. The city's largest private universities include Boston University (also the city's fourth-largest employer), with its main campus along Commonwealth Avenue (Boston), Commonwealth Avenue and a medical campus in the South End, Boston, South End, Northeastern University in the Fenway–Kenmore, Fenway area, Suffolk University near Beacon Hill, Boston, Beacon Hill, which includes Suffolk University Law School, law school and Sawyer Business School, business school, and Boston College, which straddles the Boston (Brighton)–Newton border. Boston's only public university is the University of Massachusetts Boston on Columbia Point in Dorchester, Massachusetts, Dorchester. Roxbury Community College and Bunker Hill Community College are the city's two public community colleges. Altogether, Boston's colleges and universities employ more than 42,600 people, accounting for nearly seven percent of the city's workforce. Smaller private colleges include Babson College, Bentley University, Boston Architectural College, Emmanuel College (Massachusetts), Emmanuel College, Fisher College, MGH Institute of Health Professions, MCPHS University, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Simmons College, Wellesley College, Wheelock College, Wentworth Institute of Technology, New England School of Law (originally established as America's first all female law school), and Emerson College. Metropolitan Boston is home to several music school, conservatories and art schools, including Lesley University, Lesley University College of Art and Design, Massachusetts College of Art and Design, Massachusetts College of Art, the School of the Museum of Fine Arts at Tufts, School of the Museum of Fine Arts, New England Institute of Art, New England School of Art and Design (Suffolk University), Longy School of Music of Bard College, and the New England Conservatory of Music, New England Conservatory (the oldest independent conservatory in the United States). Other conservatories include the Boston Conservatory and Berklee College of Music, which has made Boston an important city for jazz music.


Public safety

Boston included $414 million in spending on the Boston Police Department in the fiscal 2021 budget. This is the second largest allocation of funding by the city after the allocation to Boston Public Schools. Like many major American cities, Boston has seen a great reduction in violent crime since the early 1990s. Boston's low crime rate since the 1990s has been credited to the Boston Police Department's collaboration with neighborhood groups and church parishes to prevent youths from joining gangs, as well as involvement from the United States Attorney, United States Attorney and District Attorney's offices. This helped lead in part to what has been touted as the "Boston Miracle". Murders in the city dropped from 152 in 1990 (for a murder rate of 26.5 per 100,000 people) to just 31—not one of them a juvenile—in 1999 (for a murder rate of 5.26 per 100,000). In 2008, there were 62 reported homicides. Through December 30, 2016, major crime was down seven percent and there were 46 homicides compared to 40 in 2015.


Culture

Boston shares many cultural roots with greater New England, including a dialect of the non-Rhoticity in English, rhotic Eastern New England English, New England accent known as the Boston accent and a New England cuisine, regional cuisine with a large emphasis on seafood, salt, and dairy products. Boston also has its own collection of neologisms known as ''Boston slang'' and sardonic humor. In the early 1800s, William Tudor (1779–1830), William Tudor wrote that Boston was "'perhaps the most perfect and certainly the best-regulated democracy that ever existed. There is something so impossible in the immortal fame of Athens, that the very name makes everything modern shrink from comparison; but since the days of that glorious city I know of none that has approached so near in some points, distant as it may still be from that illustrious model.' From this, Boston has been called the "Athens of America" (also a nickname of
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...

Philadelphia
) for its literary genre, literary culture, earning a reputation as "the intellectual capital of the United States". In the nineteenth century, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Margaret Fuller, James Russell Lowell, and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote in Boston. Some consider the Old Corner Bookstore to be the "cradle of American literature", the place where these writers met and where ''The Atlantic Monthly'' was first published. In 1852, the Boston Public Library was founded as the first free library in the United States. Boston's literary culture continues today thanks to the city's many universities and the Boston Book Festival. Music is afforded a high degree of civic engagement, civic support in Boston. The Boston Symphony Orchestra is one of the "Big Five (orchestras), Big Five", a group of the greatest American orchestras, and the classical music magazine ''Gramophone (magazine), Gramophone'' called it one of the "world's best" orchestras. Symphony Hall, Boston, Symphony Hall (west of Back Bay) is home to the Boston Symphony Orchestra and the related Boston Youth Symphony Orchestras, Boston Youth Symphony Orchestra, which is the largest youth orchestra in the nation, and to the Boston Pops Orchestra. The British newspaper ''The Guardian'' called Boston Symphony Hall "one of the top venues for classical music in the world", adding "Symphony Hall in Boston was where science became an essential part of concert hall design". Other concerts are held at the New England Conservatory of Music, New England Conservatory's Jordan Hall. The Boston Ballet performs at the Boston Opera House (1980), Boston Opera House. Other performing-arts organizations in the city include the Boston Lyric Opera, Boston Lyric Opera Company, Opera Boston, Boston Baroque (the first permanent Baroque orchestra in the US), and the Handel and Haydn Society (one of the oldest choral companies in the United States). The city is a center for contemporary classical music with a number of performing groups, several of which are associated with the city's conservatories and universities. These include the Boston Modern Orchestra Project and Boston Musica Viva. Several theaters are in or near the Washington Street Theatre District, Theater District south of Boston Common, including the Cutler Majestic Theatre, Citi Performing Arts Center, the Colonial Theatre (Boston), Colonial Theater, and the Orpheum Theatre (Boston), Orpheum Theatre. There are several major annual events, such as First Night which occurs on New Year's Eve, the Boston Early Music Festival, the annual Boston Arts Festival at Christopher Columbus Waterfront Park, the annual Boston gay pride parade and festival held in June, and Italian summer feasts in the North End honoring Catholic saints. The city is the site of several events during the Independence Day (United States), Fourth of July period. They include the week-long Harborfest festivities and a Boston Pops concert accompanied by fireworks on the banks of the
Charles River The Charles River (sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles) is an river in eastern Massachusetts. It flows northeast from Hopkinton, Massachusetts, Hopkinton to Boston, Massachusetts, Boston along a highly meandering route, t ...
. Several historic sites relating to the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
period are preserved as part of the Boston National Historical Park because of the city's prominent role. Many are found along the Freedom Trail, which is marked by a red line of bricks embedded in the ground. The city is also home to several art museums and galleries, including the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Museum of Fine Arts and the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. The Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, Institute of Contemporary Art is housed in a contemporary building designed by Diller Scofidio + Renfro in the Seaport District. Boston's South End Art and Design District (SoWa) and Newbury St. are both art gallery destinations. Columbia Point is the location of the University of Massachusetts Boston, the Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the United States Senate, the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, and the Massachusetts Archives, Massachusetts Archives and Commonwealth Museum. The Boston Athenæum (one of the oldest independent libraries in the United States), Boston Children's Museum, Bull & Finch Pub (whose building is known from the television show ''Cheers''), Museum of Science (Boston), Museum of Science, and the New England Aquarium are within the city. Boston has been a noted religious center from its earliest days. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston serves nearly 300 parishes and is based in the Cathedral of the Holy Cross (Boston), Cathedral of the Holy Cross (1875) in the South End, while the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts serves just under 200 congregations, with the Cathedral Church of St. Paul, Boston, Cathedral Church of St. Paul (1819) as its episcopal seat. Unitarian Universalist Association, Unitarian Universalism has its headquarters in the Fort Point neighborhood. The Church of Christ, Scientist, Christian Scientists are headquartered in Back Bay at the The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Mother Church (1894). The oldest church in Boston is First Church in Boston, founded in 1630. King's Chapel was the city's first Anglican church, founded in 1686 and converted to Unitarianism in 1785. Other churches include Christ Church (better known as Old North Church, 1723), the oldest church building in the city, Trinity Church, Boston, Trinity Church (1733), Park Street Church (1809),
Old South Church Old South Church in Boston, Massachusetts, (also known as New Old South Church or Third Church) is a historic United Church of Christ congregation first organized in 1669. Its present building was designed in the Gothic Revival Gothic Revival ...

Old South Church
(1874), Jubilee Christian Church, and Basilica and Shrine of Our Lady of Perpetual Help on Mission Hill, Boston, Mission Hill (1878).


Environment


Pollution control

Air quality in Boston is generally very good. Between 2004 and 2013, there were only four days in which the air was unhealthy for the general public, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA. Some of the cleaner energy facilities in Boston include the Allston green district, with three ecologically compatible housing facilities. Boston is also breaking ground on multiple green affordable housing facilities to help reduce the carbon impact of the city while simultaneously making these initiatives financially available to a greater population. Boston's climate plan is updated every three years and was most recently modified in 2013. This legislature includes the Building Energy Reporting and Disclosure Ordinance, which requires the city's larger buildings to disclose their yearly energy and water use statistics and to partake in an energy assessment every five years. These statistics are made public by the city, thereby increasing incentives for buildings to be more environmentally conscious. Mayor Thomas Menino introduced the Renew Boston Whole Building Incentive which reduces the cost of living in buildings that are deemed energy efficient. This gives people an opportunity to find housing in neighborhoods that support the environment. The ultimate goal of this initiative is to enlist 500 Bostonians to participate in a free, in-home energy assessment.


Water purity and availability

Many older buildings in certain areas of Boston are supported by wooden piles driven into the area's fill; these piles remain sound if submerged in water, but are subject to dry rot if exposed to air for long periods. Ground water levels have been dropping in many areas of the city, due in part to an increase in the amount of rainwater discharged directly into sewers rather than absorbed by the ground. The Boston Groundwater Trust coordinates monitoring ground water levels throughout the city via a network of public and private monitoring wells. However, Boston's drinking water supply from the Quabbin Reservoir, Quabbin and Wachusett Reservoirs is one of the very few in the country so pure as to satisfy the Federal Clean Water Act without filtration.


Climate change and sea level rise

The City of Boston has developed a climate action plan covering carbon reduction in buildings, transportation, and energy use. Mayor Thomas Menino commissioned the city's first Climate Action Plan in 2007, with an update released in 2011. Since then, Mayor Marty Walsh (politician), Marty Walsh has built upon these plans with further updates released in 2014 and 2019. As a coastal city built largely on Land reclamation, fill, Sea level rise, sea-level rise is of major concern to the city government. The latest version of the climate action plan anticipates between two and seven feet of sea-level rise in Boston by the end of the century. A separate initiative, Resilient Boston Harbor, lays out neighborhood-specific recommendations for coastal resilience.


Sports

Boston has teams in Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada, the four major North American professional sports leagues plus Major League Soccer, and, as of List of U.S. cities by number of professional sports championships, 2019, has won 39 championships in these leagues. It is one of eight cities (along with Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, St. Louis and Washington) to have won championships in all four major American sports leagues. It has been suggested that Boston is the new "TitleTown, USA", as the city's professional sports teams have won twelve championships since 2001: Patriots (2001, 2003, 2004, 2014, 2016 and 2018), Red Sox (2004, 2007, 2013, and 2018), Celtics (2008), and Bruins (2011). This love of sports made Boston the United States Olympic Committee's choice to Bids for Olympic Games, bid to hold the 2024 Summer Olympic Games, but the city cited financial concerns when it withdrew its bid on July 27, 2015. The Boston Red Sox, a founding member of the American League of Major League Baseball in 1901, play their home games at Fenway Park, near Kenmore Square, in the city's Fenway-Kenmore, Fenway section. Built in 1912, it is the oldest sports arena or stadium in active use in the United States among the four major professional American sports leagues, Major League Baseball, the National Football League, National Basketball Association, and the National Hockey League. Boston was the site of the first game of the first modern World Series, in 1903. The series was played between the AL Champion Boston Americans and the NL champion Pittsburgh Pirates. Persistent reports that the team was known in 1903 as the "Boston Pilgrims" appear to be unfounded. Boston's first professional baseball team was the Red Stockings, one of the charter members of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, National Association in 1871, and of the National League in 1876. The team played under that name until 1883, under the name Beaneaters until 1911, and under the name Braves from 1912 until they moved to Milwaukee after the 1952 season. Since 1966 they have played in Atlanta as the Atlanta Braves. The TD Garden, formerly called the FleetCenter and built to replace the old, since-demolished Boston Garden, is adjoined to North Station and is the home of two major league teams: the Boston Bruins of the National Hockey League and the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association. The arena seats 18,624 for basketball games and 17,565 for ice hockey games. The Bruins were the first American member of the National Hockey League and an Original Six franchise. The Boston Celtics were founding members of the Basketball Association of America, one of the two leagues that merged to form the NBA. The Celtics, along with the Los Angeles Lakers, have the distinction of having won more championships than any other NBA team, both with seventeen. The venue is also set to host the 2020 Laver Cup, an international men's tennis tournament consisting of two teams: Team Europe and Team World, the latter of which consisting of non-European players. This will be the 4th edition of the tournament, and the first time Boston has hosted an ATP tournament since 1999, where Marat Safin defeated Greg Rusedski. While they have played in suburban Foxborough, Massachusetts, Foxborough since 1971, the New England Patriots of the National Football League were founded in 1960 as the Boston Patriots, changing their name after relocating. The team won the Super Bowl after the 2001, 2003, 2004, 2014, 2016 and 2018 seasons. They share Gillette Stadium with the New England Revolution of Major League Soccer. The Boston Breakers (WPS), Boston Breakers of Women's Professional Soccer, which formed in 2009, played their home games at Dilboy Stadium in Somerville, Massachusetts, Somerville. The Boston Storm (UWLX), Boston Storm of the United Women's Lacrosse League was formed in 2015. The area's many colleges and universities are active in college athletics. Four National Collegiate Athletic Association, NCAA Division I members play in the area—Boston College, Boston University, Harvard University, and Northeastern University. Of the four, only Boston College participates in college football at the highest level, the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision, Football Bowl Subdivision. Harvard participates in the second-highest level, the Football Championship Subdivision. The Boston Cannons of the Major League Lacrosse, MLL play at Harvard Stadium. One of the best known sporting events in the city is the Boston Marathon, the race which is the world's oldest annual marathon, run on Patriots' Day in April. On April 15, 2013, Boston Marathon bombing, two explosions killed three people and injured hundreds at the marathon. Another major annual event is the Head of the Charles Regatta, held in October.


Parks and recreation

Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is sometimes erroneously referred to as the Boston Commons. Dating from 1634, it is the oldest Urban park, city park in the United States. The ...

Boston Common
, near the Financial District and Beacon Hill, is the oldest public park in the United States. Along with the adjacent Public Garden (Boston), Boston Public Garden, it is part of the Emerald Necklace, a string of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted to encircle the city. The Emerald Necklace includes the Back Bay Fens, Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Pond, Boston's largest body of freshwater, and Franklin Park (Boston), Franklin Park, the city's largest park and home of the Franklin Park Zoo. Another major park is the Charles River Esplanade, Esplanade, along the banks of the Charles River. The Hatch Shell, an outdoor concert venue, is adjacent to the Charles River Esplanade. Other parks are scattered throughout the city, with major parks and beaches near Castle Island (Massachusetts), Castle Island, in Charlestown and along the Dorchester, South Boston, and East Boston shorelines. Boston's park system is well-reputed nationally. In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, Trust for Public Land, The Trust for Public Land reported Boston was tied with Sacramento, California, Sacramento and San Francisco for having the third-best park system among the 50 most populous US cities. ParkScore ranks city park systems by a formula that analyzes the city's median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.


Government and politics

Boston has a Mayor–council government, strong mayor – council government system in which the mayor (elected every fourth year) has extensive executive power. Marty Walsh (politician), Marty Walsh became Mayor in January 2014, his predecessor Thomas Menino's twenty-year tenure having been the longest in the city's history. The Boston City Council is elected every two years; there are nine district seats, and four citywide "at-large" seats. The School Committee, which oversees the Boston Public Schools, is appointed by the mayor. In addition to city government, numerous commissions and state authorities—including the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, the Boston Public Health Commission, the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority, Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA), and the Massachusetts Port Authority, Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport)—play a role in the life of Bostonians. As the capital of Massachusetts, Boston plays a major role in Massachusetts#Politics, state politics. The city has several federal facilities, including the John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building, the Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Federal Building (Boston), Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Federal Building, the John W. McCormack Post Office and Courthouse, the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, and the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts. Both courts are housed in the John Joseph Moakley United States Courthouse. Federally, Boston is split between two congressional districts. Three-fourths of the city is in the Massachusetts's 7th congressional district, 7th district and is represented by Ayanna Pressley while the remaining southern fourth is in the Massachusetts's 8th congressional district, 8th district and is represented by Stephen Lynch (politician), Stephen Lynch, both of whom are Democrats; a Republican has not represented a significant portion of Boston in over a century. The state's senior member of the United States Senate is Democrat Elizabeth Warren, first elected in 2012. The state's junior member of the United States Senate is Democrat Ed Markey, who was elected in 2013 to succeed John Kerry after Kerry's appointment and confirmation as the United States Secretary of State. The city uses an algorithm created by the Walsh administration, called CityScore, to measure the effectiveness of various city services. This score is available on a public online dashboard and allows city managers in police, fire, schools, emergency management services, and 3-1-1 to take action and make adjustments in areas of concern. Boston has an ordinance, enacted in 2014, that bars the Boston Police Department "from detaining anyone based on their immigration status unless they have a criminal warrant".


Media


Newspapers

''The Boston Globe'' is the oldest and largest daily newspaper in the city and is generally acknowledged as its paper of record. The city is also served by other publications such as the ''Boston Herald'', ''Boston (magazine), Boston magazine'', ''DigBoston'', and the Boston edition of ''Metro International, Metro''. ''The Christian Science Monitor'', headquartered in Boston, was formerly a worldwide daily newspaper but ended publication of daily print editions in 2009, switching to continuous online and weekly magazine format publications. ''The Boston Globe'' also releases a teen publication to the city's public high schools, called ''Teens in Print'' or ''T.i.P.'', which is written by the city's teens and delivered quarterly within the school year. ''The Improper Bostonian'', a glossy lifestyle magazine, was published from 1991 through April 2019. The Bay State Banner is an independent newspaper primarily geared toward the readership interests of the African-American community in Boston, Massachusetts. The Bay State Banner was founded in 1965 by Melvin B. Miller who remains the chief editor and publisher. In 2015, the publication celebrated its 50th anniversary serving the region's minority-oriented neighborhoods. The city's growing Hispanic and Latino Americans, Latino population has given rise to a number of local and regional Spanish language, Spanish-language newspapers. These include ''El Planeta'' (owned by the former publisher of ''The Phoenix (newspaper), The Boston Phoenix''), ''El Mundo'', and ''La Semana''. ''Siglo21'', with its main offices in nearby Lawrence, Massachusetts, Lawrence, is also widely distributed. There are a number of weekly newspapers dedicated to Boston neighborhoods. Among them is South Boston Online, founded in 1999, which appears in print and online, and covers events in South Boston and the Seaport District. Various LGBT publications serve the city's large LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) population such as ''The Rainbow Times'', the only minority and lesbian-owned LGBT news magazine. Founded in 2006, ''The Rainbow Times'' is now based out of Boston, but serves all of New England.


Radio and television

Boston is the largest broadcasting market in New England, with the radio market being the ninth largest in the United States. Several major AM broadcasting, AM stations include talk radio WRKO, sports radio, sports/talk station WEEI (AM), WEEI, and iHeartMedia WBZ (AM), WBZ. WBZ (AM) broadcasts a all-news radio, news radio format and is a 50,000 watt "clear channel" station, whose nighttime broadcasts are heard hundreds of miles from Boston. A variety of commercial FM broadcasting, FM radio formats serve the area, as do National Public Radio, NPR stations WBUR and WGBH (FM), WGBH. College and university radio stations include WERS (Emerson), WHRB (Harvard), WUMB (UMass Boston), WMBR (MIT), WZBC (Boston College), WMFO (Tufts University), WBRS (Brandeis University), WTBU (college radio), WTBU (Boston University, campus and web only), WRBB (Northeastern University) and WMLN-FM (Curry College). The Boston television Designated market area, DMA, which also includes Manchester, New Hampshire, Manchester, New Hampshire, is the 8th largest in the United States. The city is served by stations representing every major List of United States broadcast television networks, American network, including WBZ-TV 4 and its sister station WSBK-TV 38 (the former a CBS Owned-and-operated station, O&O, the latter a MyNetwork TV affiliate), WCVB-TV 5 and its sister station WMUR-TV 9 (both American Broadcasting Company, ABC), WHDH (TV), WHDH 7 and its sister station WLVI 56 (the former an Independent station (North America), independent station, the latter a The CW, CW affiliate), WBTS-CD 15 (a NBC O&O), and WFXT-TV, WFXT 25 (Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox). The city is also home to PBS member station WGBH-TV 2, a major producer of PBS programs, which also operates WGBX 44. Spanish-language television networks, including UniMás (WUTF-TV 27), Telemundo (WNEU 60, a sister station to WBTS-CD), and Univisión (WUNI 66), have a presence in the region, with WNEU and WUNI serving as network owned-and-operated stations. Most of the area's television stations have their transmitters in nearby Needham, Massachusetts, Needham and Newton, Massachusetts, Newton along the Massachusetts Route 128, Route 128 corridor. Six Boston television stations are carried by Canadian satellite television provider Bell TV and by cable television providers in Canada.


Film

Films have been made in Boston since as early as 1903, and it continues to be both a popular setting and a popular filming location. Notable movies like ''The Fighter'' and ''The Town (2010 film), The Town'' were filmed in Boston.


Healthcare

The Longwood Medical and Academic Area, adjacent to the Fenway district, is home to a large number of medical and research facilities, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston Children's Hospital, Dana–Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Joslin Diabetes Center, and the MCPHS University, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. Prominent medical facilities, including Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital are in the Beacon Hill area. St. Elizabeth's Medical Center (Boston), St. Elizabeth's Medical Center is in Brighton Center of the city's Brighton neighborhood. New England Baptist Hospital is in Mission Hill. VA Boston Healthcare System, The city has Veterans Affairs medical centers in the Jamaica Plain and West Roxbury neighborhoods. The Boston Public Health Commission, an agency of the Massachusetts government, oversees health concerns for city residents. Boston EMS provides pre-hospital emergency medical services to residents and visitors. Many of Boston's medical facilities are associated with universities. The facilities in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area and in Massachusetts General Hospital are affiliated with Harvard Medical School. Tufts Medical Center (formerly Tufts-New England Medical Center), in the southern portion of the Chinatown neighborhood, is affiliated with Tufts University School of Medicine. Boston Medical Center, in the South End neighborhood, is the primary teaching facility for the Boston University School of Medicine as well as the largest trauma center in the Boston area; it was formed by the merger of Boston University Hospital and Boston City Hospital, which was the first municipal hospital in the United States.


Infrastructure


Transportation

Logan International Airport, in East Boston and operated by the Massachusetts Port Authority, Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport), is Boston's principal airport. Nearby general aviation airports are Beverly Municipal Airport to the north, Hanscom Field to the west, and Norwood Memorial Airport to the south. Massport also operates several major facilities within the Port of Boston, including a cruise ship terminal and facilities to handle bulk and container cargo in South Boston, and other facilities in
CharlestownCharlestown or Charles Town may refer to: Places Australia *Charlestown, New South Wales ** Electoral district of Charlestown, an electoral district in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly including the area * Charlestown, Queensland Ireland ...
and East Boston. Downtown Boston's streets grew organically, so they do not form a Grid plan, planned grid, unlike those in later-developed Back Bay, Boston, Back Bay, East Boston, the South End, Boston, South End, and South Boston, Boston, South Boston. Boston is the eastern terminus of Interstate 90, I-90, which in Massachusetts runs along the Massachusetts Turnpike. The elevated portion of the Central Artery, which carried most of the through traffic in downtown Boston, was replaced with the Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Tunnel, O'Neill Tunnel during the Big Dig, Construction management#Post-Construction, substantially completed in early 2006. The former and current Central Artery follow Interstate 93, I-93 as the primary north–south artery from the city. Other major highways include U.S. Route 1 in Massachusetts, US 1, which carries traffic to the North Shore (Massachusetts), North Shore and areas south of Boston, U.S. Route 3, US 3, which connects to the northwestern suburbs, Massachusetts Route 3, which connects to the South Shore (Massachusetts), South Shore and Cape Cod, and Massachusetts Route 2 which connects to the western suburbs. Surrounding the city is Massachusetts Route 128, a partial beltway which has been largely subsumed by other routes (mostly Interstate 95 in Massachusetts, I-95 and I-93). With nearly a third of Bostonians using public transit for their commute to work, Boston has the List of U.S. cities with high transit ridership, Fourth-highest rate of public transit usage in the country. The city of Boston has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 35.4 percent of Boston households lacked a car, which decreased slightly to 33.8 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Boston averaged 0.94 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. Boston's public transportation agency, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) operates the oldest underground rapid transit system in the Americas, and is the List of United States rapid transit systems by ridership, fourth-busiest rapid transit system in the country, with of track on four lines. The MBTA also operates busy bus and commuter rail networks, and water shuttles. Amtrak intercity rail to Boston is provided through four stations: South Station, North Station, Back Bay station, Back Bay, and Route 128 station, Route 128. South Station is a major Intermodal passenger transport, intermodal transportation hub and is the terminus of Amtrak's ''Northeast Regional'', ''Acela Express'', and ''Lake Shore Limited'' routes, in addition to multiple MBTA services. Back Bay is also served by MBTA and those three Amtrak routes, while Route 128, in the southwestern suburbs of Boston, is only served by the ''Acela Express'' and ''Northeast Regional''. Meanwhile, Amtrak's ''Downeaster (train), Downeaster'' to Brunswick, Maine, Brunswick, Maine terminates in North Station, and is the only Amtrak route to do so. Nicknamed "The Walking City", Boston hosts more pedestrian commuters than do other comparably populated cities. Owing to factors such as necessity, the compactness of the city and large student population, 13 percent of the population commutes by foot, making it the List of U.S. cities with most pedestrian commuters, highest percentage of pedestrian commuters in the country out of the major American cities. In 2011, Walk Score ranked Boston the third most walkable city in the United States. , Walk Score still ranks Boston as the third most walkable US city, with a Walk Score of 80, a Transit Score of 75, and a Bike Score of 70. Between 1999 and 2006, ''Bicycling (magazine), Bicycling'' magazine named Boston three times as one of the worst cities in the US for cycling; regardless, it has one of the highest rates of bicycle commuting. In 2008, as a consequence of improvements made to bicycling conditions within the city, the same magazine put Boston on its "Five for the Future" list as a "Future Best City" for biking, and Boston's bicycle commuting percentage increased from 1% in 2000 to 2.1% in 2009. The bikeshare program Bluebikes, originally called Hubway, launched in late July 2011, logging more than 140,000 rides before the close of its first season. The neighboring municipalities of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cambridge, Somerville, Massachusetts, Somerville, and Brookline, Massachusetts, Brookline joined the Hubway program in the summer of 2012. In 2016, there are 1,461 bikes and 158 docking stations across the city. PBSC Urban Solutions provides bicycles and technology for this Bicycle-sharing system, bike-sharing system. In 2013, the Boston-Cambridge-Newton metropolitan statistical area (Boston MSA) had the seventh-lowest percentage of workers who commuted by private automobile (75.6 percent), with 6.2 percent of area workers traveling via rail transit. During the period starting in 2006 and ending in 2013, the Boston MSA had the greatest percentage decline of workers commuting by automobile (3.3 percent) among MSAs with more than a half-million residents.


International relations

The City of Boston has eleven official Twin towns and sister cities, sister cities: * Kyoto, Japan (1959) * Strasbourg, France (1960) * Barcelona, Spain (1980) * Hangzhou, China (1982) * Padua, Italy (1983) * Melbourne, Australia (1985) * Beira, Mozambique, Beira, Mozambique (1990) * Taipei, Taiwan (1996) * Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana (2001) * Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom, UK (2014) * Praia, Cape Verde (2015) Boston has formal partnership relationships through a Memorandum Of Understanding (MOU) with four additional cities or regions: * Guangzhou, China (2014) * Lyon, France (2016) * Copenhagen, Denmark (2017) * Mexico City, Mexico (2017) * North West of Ireland, Republic of Ireland, Ireland (2017)


See also

* Outline of Boston * Boston City League (high school athletic conference) * Boston nicknames * Boston–Halifax relations * List of diplomatic missions in Boston * List of people from Boston * National Register of Historic Places listings in Boston


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

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Further reading

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External links

* * *
Historical Maps of Boston
from the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library * {{Featured article Boston, 1630 establishments in Massachusetts Cities in Massachusetts Cities in Suffolk County, Massachusetts County seats in Massachusetts Greater Boston Irish-American culture in Boston Populated coastal places in Suffolk County, Massachusetts Populated places established in 1630 Port cities and towns in Massachusetts University towns in the United States Geographical articles missing image alternative text