HOME

TheInfoList




Bloomsbury is a district in the
West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest cit ...
. It is considered a fashionable residential area, and is the location of numerous
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in ...
,
intellectual An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking Critical thinking is the analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex; several different Critical thinking#Definitions, definitions exist, which generally include ...
, and
educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal ...
s. Bloomsbury is home of the
British Museum The British Museum is a public institution dedicated to human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of hu ...

British Museum
, the largest museum in the United Kingdom, and several educational institutions, including
University College London University College London, which UCL, is a major located in , United Kingdom. UCL is a of the , and is the second-largest and the largest by postgraduate enrolment. Established in 1826, as London University, by founders inspired by the r ...
and a number of other colleges and institutes of the
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to indicate ...
as well as its central headquarters, the
New College of the Humanities New College of the Humanities (NCH) is a college of higher education in London, England. It was founded as a private college by the philosopher A. C. Grayling, who became its first Master (college), Master. The college, which grants undergraduat ...
, the
University of Law , motto_lang = lat , mottoeng = Let us know the laws and rights , established = ,2012 ( university status) , closed = , type = Private, for-profit , endowment = , budget = , chancellor = The Lord Neuberger of Abbotsbury , president ...

University of Law
, the
Royal Academy of Dramatic Art The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA ) is a drama school in London, England, that provides vocational conservatoire training for theatre, television, film, and radio. It is based in the Bloomsbury area of Central London, close to the Senate H ...
, the
British Medical Association The British Medical Association (BMA) is a registered trade union for doctors Doctor or The Doctor may refer to: Personal titles * Doctor (title), the holder of an accredited academic degree * A medical practitioner, including: ** Physi ...
and many others. Bloomsbury is an intellectual and literary hub for London, as home of world-known
Bloomsbury Publishing Bloomsbury Publishing plc is a British worldwide publishing house of fiction and non-fiction. It is a constituent of the FTSE SmallCap Index. Bloomsbury's head office is located in Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of Lo ...
, publishers of the ''
Harry Potter ''Harry Potter'' is a series of seven written by British author . The novels chronicle the lives of a young , , and his friends and , all of whom are students at . The main concerns Harry's struggle against , a dark wizard who intends to ...

Harry Potter
'' series, and namesake of the
Bloomsbury Set The Bloomsbury Group—or Bloomsbury Set—was a group of associated English writers, intellectuals, philosophers and artists in the first half of the 20th century, including Virginia Woolf Adeline Virginia Woolf (; ; 25 January 1882 28 ...
, a group of
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...
intellectuals which included author
Virginia Woolf Adeline Virginia Woolf (; ; 25 January 1882 28 March 1941) was an English writer, considered one of the most important modernist literature, modernist 20th-century authors and also a pioneer in the use of Stream of consciousness (narrative mod ...

Virginia Woolf
, biographer
Lytton Strachey Giles Lytton Strachey (; 1 March 1880 – 21 January 1932) was an English writer and critic. A founding member of the Bloomsbury Group and author of ''Eminent Victorians'', he is best known for establishing a new form of biography in which psy ...
, and economist
John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was an English economist, whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments. Originally trained in mat ...

John Maynard Keynes
. Bloomsbury began to be developed in the 17th century under the
Earls of Southampton Image:Wriothesley southampton.jpg, 200px, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton Earl of Southampton was a title that was created three times in the Peerage of England. The first creation came in 1537 in favour of the courtier William FitzWil ...
,
The London Encyclopaedia ''The London Encyclopaedia'', first published in 1983, is a 1100-page historical reference work, on the United Kingdom's capital city, London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of E ...
, Edited by Ben Weinreb and Christopher Hibbert. Macmillan London Ltd 1983
but it was primarily in the 19th century, under the
Duke of Bedford Duke of Bedford (named after Bedford, England) is a title that has been created six times (for five distinct people) in the Peerage of England. The first and second creations came in 1414 and 1433 respectively, in favour of Henry IV of England, ...
, that the district was planned and built as an affluent
Regency era The Regency era in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state that existed between 1801 and 1922. It was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the Ki ...
residential area by famed developer
James Burton James Edward Burton (born August 21, 1939, in Dubberly, Louisiana) is an American guitarist. A member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame since 2001 (his induction speech was given by longtime fan Keith Richards Keith Richards (born 18 Dece ...
. The district is known for its numerous garden squares, including
Bloomsbury Square Bloomsbury Square is a garden square in Holborn, London Borough of Camden, Camden, London. Developed in the late 17th century, it was initially known as Southampton Square and was one of the earliest London squares. By the early 19th century, Bedfor ...

Bloomsbury Square
,
Russell Square Russell Square is a large garden square in Bloomsbury, in the London Borough of Camden, built predominantly by the firm of James Burton (property developer), James Burton. It is near the University of London's main buildings and the British Museu ...

Russell Square
and
Bedford Square Bedford Square is a garden square A garden square is a type of communal garden in an urban area wholly or substantially surrounded by buildings and, commonly, continues to be applied to public and private parks formed after such a garden becomes ...

Bedford Square
. Bloomsbury's built heritage is currently protected by the designation of a
conservation area Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the ena ...
and a locally based conservation committee. Despite this, there is increasing concern about a trend towards larger and less sensitive development, and the associated demolition of Victorian and Georgian buildings.


History

Bloomsbury (including the closely linked
St Giles Saint Giles (, la, Aegidius, french: Gilles), also known as Giles the Hermit, was a hermit or monk active in the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers ...
area) has a long association with neighbouring
Holborn Holborn ( or ) is a district in central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city s ...

Holborn
; but is nearly always considered as distinct from Holborn.


Origins and etymology

The area appears to have been a part of the parish of
Holborn Holborn ( or ) is a district in central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city s ...

Holborn
when
St Giles Saint Giles (, la, Aegidius, french: Gilles), also known as Giles the Hermit, was a hermit or monk active in the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers ...
hospital was established in the early 1100s. The earliest record of the name, Bloomsbury, is as ''Blemondisberi'' in 1281. It is named after a member of the Blemund family who held the manor. There are older records relating to the family in London in 1201 and 1230. Their name, Blemund, derives from Blemont, a place in
Vienne Vienne () is a landlocked department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and admin ...

Vienne
, in western France. At the end of the 14th century,
Edward III Edward III (13 November 131221 June 1377), also known as Edward of Windsor before his accession, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death in 1377. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal aut ...

Edward III
acquired Blemond's manor, and passed it on to the
Carthusian , formation = , headquarters = Grande Chartreuse (Mother House) , location = , coords = , type = Catholic religious order In the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, ofte ...
monks of the
London Charterhouse The London Charterhouse is a historic complex of buildings in Smithfield, London, dating back to the 14th century. It occupies land to the north of Charterhouse Square, and lies within the London Borough of Islington. Originally constructed as ...
. The area remained rural at this time. In the 16th century with the
Dissolution of the Monasteries#REDIRECT Dissolution of the monasteries {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
,
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged fro ...
took the land back into the possession of the Crown and granted it to
Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton (21 December 1505 – 30 July 1550), KG was an English peer, secretary of state, Lord Chancellor and Lord High Admiral. A naturally skilled but unscrupulous and devious politician who changed with th ...
.


Administrative history

The area was part of the
Ancient Parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the word ...
of
St Giles Saint Giles (, la, Aegidius, french: Gilles), also known as Giles the Hermit, was a hermit or monk active in the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers ...
, served by the church of
St Giles in the Fields St Giles-in-the-Fields, sometimes known as the Poets' Church, is in the West End of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stand ...

St Giles in the Fields
. Some sources indicate that the parish was in place before 1222 while others suggest 1547. From 1597 onwards, English parishes were obliged to take on a civil as well as ecclesiastical role, starting with the relief of the poor. In 1731 a small new independent parish of ''Bloomsbury'' was created, based on a small area round
Bloomsbury Square Bloomsbury Square is a garden square in Holborn, London Borough of Camden, Camden, London. Developed in the late 17th century, it was initially known as Southampton Square and was one of the earliest London squares. By the early 19th century, Bedfor ...

Bloomsbury Square
. In 1774 these parishes recombined, for civil purposes, to form the parish of ''St Giles in the Fields and St George Bloomsbury'' – which had the same boundaries as the initial parish of ''St Giles''. The area of the combined civil parish was used for the
St Giles District (Metropolis) St Giles District was a local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the word government refers specifically to a level of adminis ...
, established under the
Metropolis Management Act 1855 The Metropolis Management Act 1855 (18 & 19 Vict. c.120) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority ...
. This body managed certain infrastructure functions, while the civil parish continued with its responsibilities until the abolishment of the Poor Law in 1930, however it was not formally abolished until the creation of Greater London in 1965. In 1900 the area of the ''St Giles District (Metropolis)'' merged with
Holborn District (Metropolis) Holborn was a local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the word government refers specifically to a level of administration th ...
(excluding those parts of
Finsbury Division The Finsbury Division was one of four divisions of the Hundred of Ossulstone, in the historic county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chamber ...
which had been temporarily attached to Holborn) to form a new
Metropolitan Borough of Holborn The Metropolitan Borough of Holborn was a metropolitan borough in the County of London The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the gene ...

Metropolitan Borough of Holborn
. The traditional boundaries of ''St Giles'' and ''Bloomsbury'' were used for wards in the new borough, though these were subject to minor rationalisations to reflect the modern street pattern rather than the historic basis of the older streets and pre-urban field boundaries. The combined civil parish continued to operate, in parallel, for a considerable time after. In 1965 the
Metropolitan Borough of Holborn The Metropolitan Borough of Holborn was a metropolitan borough in the County of London The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the gene ...

Metropolitan Borough of Holborn
merged with St Pancras and
Hampstead Hampstead () is an area in , which lies northwest of , and extends from to , a large, hilly expanse of parkland. The area forms the northwest part of the , a borough in which for the purposes of the is designated as part of . Hampstead is ...

Hampstead
to form the new
London Borough of Camden The London Borough of Camden () is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London; each is governed by a ...
.


Boundaries

The formal historic boundaries of the combined parish of ''St Giles in the Fields and St George Bloomsbury'' (as adjusted in some places to reflect the modern street pattern) include Tottenham Court Road to the west, Torrington Place (formerly known, in part, as Francis Street) to the north, the borough boundary to the south and and
Southampton Row Southampton Row is a major thoroughfare running northwest–southeast in Bloomsbury, London, Bloomsbury, London Borough of Camden, Camden, central London, England. The road is designated as part of the A4200 road, A4200. Location To the nor ...
to the east. Bloomsbury no longer has official boundaries and is subject to varying informal definitions, based for convenience, on a quadrangle of streets. The western boundary of Tottenham Court Road is common to all and a northern limit of Euston Road is often understood, though Coram's Fields and the land to the north, consisting mainly of blocks of flats, built as both private and social housing, is often considered part of St Pancras (which includes King's Cross) rather than north-eastern Bloomsbury. The northern part of the informal quadrangular definitions are traditionally part of the parish and borough of St Pancras. The eastern boundary is sometimes taken to be in the region of Southampton Row or further east on Grays Inn Road. The southern extent is taken to approximates to
High Holborn High Holborn ( ) is a street in Holborn and Farringdon Without, Central London, which forms a part of the A40 road in London, A40 route from London to Fishguard. It starts in the west at the eastern end of St Giles High Street and runs past the ...
or the thoroughfare formed by
New Oxford Street Oxford Street is a major road in the City of Westminster City of Westminster is an Inner London, inner London City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough. It has been the capital city, ''de facto'', of multiple Brit ...
, Bloomsbury Way and Theobalds Road. On the west side, the traditional and various informal definitions of the area are all based on the ancient
Tottenham Court Road Tottenham Court Road (occasionally abbreviated as TCR) is a major road in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of E ...
. The differences between the formal and more recent understandings of the area (to the north and south), seem to derive from Bloomsbury having been commonly misconceived as being coterminous with the
Bedford Estate The Bedford Estate is an estate in central London owned by the Russell family, which holds the Peerages in the United Kingdom, peerage title of Duke of Bedford. The estate was originally based in Covent Garden, then stretched to include Bloomsb ...
.


Development

In the early 1660s, the
Earl of Southampton 200px, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton Earl of Southampton was a title that was created three times in the Peerage of England. The first creation came in 1537 in favour of the courtier William FitzWilliam, 1st Earl of Southampton, Wi ...
, who held the manors of St Giles and Bloomsbury, constructed what eventually became
Bloomsbury Square Bloomsbury Square is a garden square in Holborn, London Borough of Camden, Camden, London. Developed in the late 17th century, it was initially known as Southampton Square and was one of the earliest London squares. By the early 19th century, Bedfor ...

Bloomsbury Square
. '' The Yorkshire Grey'' public house on the corner of
Gray's Inn Road Gray's Inn Road (or Grays Inn Road) is an important road in the Bloomsbury district of Central London, in the London Borough of Camden. The road begins at the City of London boundary, where it bisects High Holborn, and ends at London King's Cro ...

Gray's Inn Road
and
Theobald's Road Theobalds Road is a road in the Holborn district of London. It is named after Theobalds House, Theobalds Palace because James I, King James I used this route when going between there and London, travelling with his court and baggage of some 200 ...

Theobald's Road
dates from 1676. The estate passed to the Russell family following the marriage of
William Russell, Lord Russell William Russell, Lord Russell (29 September 163921 July 1683), was an English politician. He was a leading member of the Country Party, forerunners of the British Whig Party, Whigs, who during the reign of Charles II of England, King Charles II ...
(1639–1683) (third son of
William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford Order of the Garter, KG Privy Council, PC (August 1616 – 7 September 1700) was an English nobleman and politician who sat in the House of Commons of England, House of Commons from 1640 until 1641 when he inh ...
) to
Rachel Wriothesley Rachel, Lady Russell ( ; – 29 September 1723) was an English noblewoman, heiress, and author. Her second husband was William Russell, Lord Russell, William, Lord Russell, who was implicated in the Rye House Plot and later executed. A collectio ...
, heiress of Bloomsbury, younger of the two daughters and co-heiresses of
Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, KG ( ; 10 March 1607 – 16 May 1667), styled Lord Wriothesley before 1624, was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germa ...
(1607-1667). Rachel's son and heir was
Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford KG (1 November 1680 – 26 May 1711) was an English nobleman and politician. He was the son of William Russell, Lord Russell, and his wife Lady Rachel Wriothesley. From 1683 until 1694, he was styled Lo ...

Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford
(1680–1711), of
Woburn Abbey Woburn Abbey (), occupying the east of the village of Woburn, Bedfordshire, England, is a English country house, country house, the family seat of the Duke of Bedford. Although it is still a family home to the current duke, it is open on specifi ...

Woburn Abbey
in
Bedfordshire Bedfordshire (; abbreviated Beds) is a Counties of England, county in the East of England. It is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and a Historic counties of England, historic county, covered by three Unitary authorities of Engl ...

Bedfordshire
, whose family also owned
Covent Garden Covent Garden is a district in London, on the eastern fringes of the West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre st ...

Covent Garden
, south of Bloomsbury, acquired by them at the
Dissolution of the Monasteries#REDIRECT Dissolution of the monasteries {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
. The area was laid out mainly in the 18th century, largely by
Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford (25 May 1708 – 23 October 1732) was an English nobleman and peer. He was the son of Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford KG (1 November 1680 – 26 May 171 ...

Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford
, who built Bloomsbury Market, which opened in 1730. The major development of the squares that we see today started in about 1800 when
Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford (23 July 1765 – 2 March 1802) was an English aristocrat and Whig politician, responsible for much of the development of central Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London. It is cons ...
demolished Bedford House and developed the land to the north with
Russell Square Russell Square is a large garden square in Bloomsbury, in the London Borough of Camden, built predominantly by the firm of James Burton (property developer), James Burton. It is near the University of London's main buildings and the British Museu ...

Russell Square
as its centrepiece. Much is still owned today by the
Bedford Estate The Bedford Estate is an estate in central London owned by the Russell family, which holds the Peerages in the United Kingdom, peerage title of Duke of Bedford. The estate was originally based in Covent Garden, then stretched to include Bloomsb ...
in trust for the Russell family.


London Beer Flood

The London Beer Flood (also known as the ''Great Beer Flood'') was a disaster that occurred in October 1814, when a large vat of
porter Porter may refer to: Companies * Porter Airlines, Canadian regional airline based in Toronto * Porter Chemical Company, a defunct U.S. toy manufacturer of chemistry sets * Porter Motor Company, defunct U.S. car manufacturer * H.K. Porter, Inc., a ...
at the
Horse Shoe Brewery The Horse Shoe Brewery was an English brewery in the City of Westminster that was established in 1764 and became a major producer of porter (beer), porter, from 1809 as Henry Meux & Co. It was the site of the London Beer Flood in 1814, which kill ...
, just west of Dyott Street, burst open, releasing a 15-foot wave of beer onto the surrounding streets, killing eight people.


Conservation

All of the geographic area of Bloomsbury is covered by the Bloomsbury Conservation Area, an historic designation designed to limit new development, and ensure that changes to the built environment preserve and enhance its special character. This
conservation area Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the ena ...
is one of the oldest and most significant in the UK, having been designated in 1968, less than a year after conservation areas were promulgated in the Civic Amenities Act 1967. The Bloomsbury Conservation Area is almost unique in the UK in that it also has a ''conservation area advisory committee'', an expert committee of architects, planners, lawyers, and other community members that also live and work in Bloomsbury. This group was founded in 1968 by the
local authority Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of government policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a government ...
and continues to serve Bloomsbury and the surrounding area. It is generally thought that the Bloomsbury Conservation Area Advisory Committee (BCAAC) has the most detailed knowledge of Bloomsbury's built heritage and social history due to its members having lived in the area for many decades. It is accordingly consulted with on all major and minor development proposals in the area, including traffic circulation changes, and its objections carry formal planning weight through the local authority's constitution. Bloomsbury contains one of the highest proportions of listed buildings and monuments per square metre of any conservation area, including many of the UK's most iconic buildings, such as the British Museum. However its strategic location in the centre of London and associated high development pressures has seen a rise in the demolition of historic fabric, and the construction of tall and harmful development. Between 2015 and 2020 the local authority recommended approval for a total of five major developments judged to be harmful by the BCAAC, with the Greater London Authority approving one. The BCAAC were only successful in defeating one of those developments. As a result, Victorian buildings and even some of Bloomsbury's famous Georgian terraces have been demolished in recent years. This has led to sharp criticism of the local authority's approach to the conservation and preservation of Bloomsbury, with national heritage groups such as the Victorian Society and Georgian Group voicing concerns along with local groups. A local campaign associated with the BCAAC, Save Bloomsbury, has written and campaigned extensively to protect Bloomsbury's heritage. As of 2021 Camden Council has not adopted any strategy to ensure Bloomsbury's conservation, and harmful development proposals continue to come forward.


Geography

Bloomsbury's topography is largely flat, being situated in the Thames basin, with a gradual decline in elevation eastwards towards Gray's Inn Road and King's Cross Road, where the culverted River Fleet runs. The area is surrounded by four major roads, its historic boundaries, with Euston Road in the north, Gray's Inn Road to the east, High Holborn/New Oxford Street to the south, and Tottenham Court Road to the west. These major and busy thoroughfares give a well-defined boundary to Bloomsbury's geographic area, with a perceptible change in character across these boundaries. Bloomsbury is also bisected north to south by the main road Southampton Row/Woburn Place, which has several large tourist hotels and links Tavistock Square and Russell Square. The road runs from
Euston Road Euston Road is a road in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on ...
in the north to
High Holborn High Holborn ( ) is a street in Holborn and Farringdon Without, Central London, which forms a part of the A40 road in London, A40 route from London to Fishguard. It starts in the west at the eastern end of St Giles High Street and runs past the ...
in the south. The area west of Southampton Row/Woburn Place is notable for its concentration of academic establishments, museums, and formal squares. The area comprises the British Museum and the central departments and colleges of the University of London, including Birkbeck College, University College London, the School of Oriental and African Studies, and the University of London's School of Advanced Study. Within this area runs Gower Street which is a two-way (since Sunday 28 February 2021) street running south from Euston Road towards Shaftesbury Avenue in
Covent Garden Covent Garden is a district in London, on the eastern fringes of the West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre st ...

Covent Garden
, becoming Bloomsbury Street when it passes to the south of Great Russell Street. East of Southampton Row/Woburn Place are
Brunswick Square Brunswick Square is a public garden and ancillary streets along two of its sides in Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London. It is considered a fashionable residential area, and is the location of numerous cultural ...
,
Mecklenburgh Square Mecklenburgh Square is a Grade II listed A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England in England, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland, in Wales, a ...
,
Cartwright Gardens Cartwright Gardens is a crescent A crescent shape (, British English also ) is a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, Object (philosophy), object, or wikt:relationshi ...
,
Argyle Square Argyle Square is a garden square in the London Borough of Camden in London, England. It is the main Urban park, public park in Kings Cross, London, Kings Cross. The square was built in the 1830s and 1840s, after the collapse of an attempt to buil ...
St George's Gardens, and Queen Square making this area far greener than its western counterpart. By far the largest building in this area is the Brutalist
Brunswick Centre The Brunswick Centre is a grade II Listed building, listed residential and shopping centre in Bloomsbury, London Borough of Camden, Camden, London, England, located between Brunswick Square and Russell Square. Planning and design The centre rep ...
a residential building with a shopping centre at ground floor. The area to the south is notable for containing several hospitals clustered around Queen Square and
Great Ormond Street Great Ormond Street Hospital (informally GOSH or Great Ormond Street, formerly the Hospital for Sick Children) is a children's hospital Image:The Children's Castle, Helsinki.jpg, Children's Castle (''Lastenlinna''), a former children's hosp ...
. Neighbouring areas include St Pancras to the north and west,
Fitzrovia Fitzrovia () is a district of central London, England, near the West End of London, West End. The eastern part of area is in the London Borough of Camden, and the western in the City of Westminster. It has its roots in the Manor of Tottenham Cour ...
to the west,
Covent Garden Covent Garden is a district in London, on the eastern fringes of the West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre st ...

Covent Garden
and
Holborn Holborn ( or ) is a district in central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city s ...

Holborn
to the south, and
Clerkenwell Clerkenwell () is an area of central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands ...
to the east. For street name etymologies see '' Street names of Bloomsbury''.


Culture

Historically, Bloomsbury is associated with the arts, education, and medicine. The area gives its name to the
Bloomsbury Group The Bloomsbury Group—or Bloomsbury Set—was a group of associated English writers, intellectuals, philosophers and artists in the first half of the 20th century, including Virginia Woolf Adeline Virginia Woolf (; ; 25 January 1882 2 ...
of artists, among whom was
Virginia Woolf Adeline Virginia Woolf (; ; 25 January 1882 28 March 1941) was an English writer, considered one of the most important modernist literature, modernist 20th-century authors and also a pioneer in the use of Stream of consciousness (narrative mod ...

Virginia Woolf
, who met in private homes in the area in the early 1900s, and to the lesser known Bloomsbury Gang of Whigs formed in 1765 by
John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford, (30 September 17105 January 1771) was an 18th-century Kingdom of Great Britain, British wikt:statesman, statesman.G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord How ...
. The publisher
Faber & Faber Faber and Faber Limited, usually abbreviated to Faber, is an independent publishing house in London. Published authors and poets include T. S. Eliot (an early Faber editor and director), W. H. Auden, William Golding, Samuel Beckett, Philip Larki ...
used to be located in Queen Square, though at the time
T. S. Eliot Thomas Stearns Eliot (26 September 18884 January 1965) was a poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform the ...
was editor the offices were in Tavistock Square. The
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and art critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt File:Hunt-AwakeningConscience1853.jpg, ''The Awakening Conscience'' (1853) ...
was founded in John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street in 1848. The Bloomsbury Festival was launched in 2006 when local resident Roma Backhouse was commissioned to mark the re-opening of the Brunswick Centre, a residential and shopping area. The free festival is a celebration of the local area, partnering with galleries, libraries and museums, and achieved charitable status at the end of 2012. As of 2013, the Duchess of Bedford is a festival patron and Cathy Mager is the Festival Director.


Educational institutions

Bloomsbury is home to Senate House and the main library of the University of London, Birkbeck College, Institute of Education, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, School of Pharmacy, School of Oriental and African Studies, and the Royal Veterinary College and
University College London University College London, which UCL, is a major located in , United Kingdom. UCL is a of the , and is the second-largest and the largest by postgraduate enrolment. Established in 1826, as London University, by founders inspired by the r ...
(with the Slade School of Fine Art), a branch of the University of Law,
London Contemporary Dance School London Contemporary Dance School (informally LCDS) is a contemporary dance school located in London, England and a part of the Conservatoire for Dance and DramaThe Conservatoire for Dance and Drama is a higher education Higher education is te ...
, the
Royal Academy of Dramatic Art The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA ) is a drama school in London, England, that provides vocational conservatoire training for theatre, television, film, and radio. It is based in the Bloomsbury area of Central London, close to the Senate H ...
, and
Goodenough College Goodenough College is a postgraduate Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be desc ...

Goodenough College
. Other colleges include the University of London's School of Advanced Study, the
Architectural Association School of Architecture The Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, commonly referred to as the AA, is the oldest Independent school (United Kingdom), independent school of architecture in the UK and one of the most prestigious and competitive in t ...
in Bedford Square, and the London campuses of several American colleges including
Arcadia University Arcadia University is a private university in Glenside, Pennsylvania Glenside is a census-designated place (CDP) located in Cheltenham Township and Abington Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, Abington Township in Montgomery County, Pen ...

Arcadia University
, the
University of California The University of California (UC) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university, research university system in the U.S. state of California. The system is composed of the campuses at University of Califor ...
,
University of Delaware The University of Delaware (colloquially UD, UDel or Delaware) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organizat ...
,
Florida State University Florida State University (Florida State or FSU) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organis ...
,
Syracuse University Syracuse University (Syracuse, 'Cuse, or SU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, afte ...

Syracuse University
,
New York University New York University (NYU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of ne ...
, and the
Hult International Business School Hult International Business School (also known as Hult Business School or Hult) is a private business school with campuses in Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the R ...
. Also different kinds of tutoring institutions like Bloomsbury International for English Language, Bloomsbury Law Tutors for law education, Skygate Tutors and Topmark Tutors Centre contributing to grow the private tutoring sector in Bloomsbury.


Museums

The
British Museum The British Museum is a public institution dedicated to human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of hu ...

British Museum
, which first opened to the public in 1759 in Montagu House, is at the heart of Bloomsbury. At the centre of the museum the space around the former
British Library Reading Room The British Museum Reading Room, situated in the centre of the Great Court of the British Museum The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London. It is considered a fashionable residential ar ...
, which was filled with the concrete storage bunkers of the British Library, is today the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court, an indoor square with a glass roof designed by British architect Norman Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, Norman Foster. It houses displays, a cinema, a shop, a cafe and a restaurant. Since 1998, the British Library has been located in a purpose-built building just outside the northern edge of Bloomsbury, in Euston Road. Also in Bloomsbury is the Foundling Museum, close to Brunswick Square, which tells the story of the Foundling Hospital opened by Thomas Coram for unwanted children in Georgian London. The hospital, now demolished except for the Georgian colonnade, is today a playground and outdoor sports field for children, called Coram's Fields. It is also home to a small number of sheep. The nearby Lamb's Conduit Street is a pleasant thoroughfare with shops, cafes and restaurants. The Dickens House, Dickens Museum is in Doughty Street. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology and the University College London#Museums and collections, Grant Museum of Zoology are at University College London in Gower Street. The Postal Museum, London, Postal Museum is on 15-20 Phoenix Place.


Churches

Bloomsbury contains several notable churches: *St. George's Church, Bloomsbury, located on Bloomsbury Way. This is Bloomsbury's own parish church, and was built by Nicholas Hawksmoor between 1716 and 1731. It has a deep Roman porch with six huge Corinthian order, Corinthian columns, and is notable for its steeple based on the Tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus and for the statue of King George II of Great Britain, George I on the top. *
St Giles in the Fields St Giles-in-the-Fields, sometimes known as the Poets' Church, is in the West End of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stand ...

St Giles in the Fields
, also known as the ''Poet's Church''. The current church building was built in the Palladian architecture, Palladian style in 1733. *The Early English Neo-Gothic Church of Christ the King, Bloomsbury, Church of Christ the King on Gordon Square. It was designed for the Irvingites by Raphael Brandon in 1853. Since 10 June 1954 it has been a Grade I listed building. *St Pancras New Church, near Euston railway station, Euston station. This church was completed in 1822, and is notable for the caryatids on north and south which are based on the "porch of the maidens" from the Erechtheum, Temple of the Erechtheum. *The church of St George the Martyr Holborn, in Queen Square was built 1703–06, and was where Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath married on Bloomsday in 1956. *Bloomsbury Central Baptist Church in Shaftesbury Avenue, is the central church of the Baptists, Baptist denomination. It was opened in 1848, having been built by Sir Samuel Moreton Peto MP, one of the great railway contractors of the age.


Parks and squares

Bloomsbury contains some of London's finest parks and buildings, and is particularly known for its formal squares. These include: * Russell Square, a large and orderly square; its gardens were originally designed by Humphry Repton. Russell Square tube station, Russell Square Underground station is a short distance away. *
Bedford Square Bedford Square is a garden square A garden square is a type of communal garden in an urban area wholly or substantially surrounded by buildings and, commonly, continues to be applied to public and private parks formed after such a garden becomes ...

Bedford Square
, built between 1775 and 1783, is still surrounded by Georgian town houses. *
Bloomsbury Square Bloomsbury Square is a garden square in Holborn, London Borough of Camden, Camden, London. Developed in the late 17th century, it was initially known as Southampton Square and was one of the earliest London squares. By the early 19th century, Bedfor ...

Bloomsbury Square
has a small circular garden surrounded by Georgian buildings. * Queen Square, home to the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery. * Gordon Square, surrounded by the history and archaeology departments of University College London, Birkbeck College's School of Arts, as well as the former homes of writer
Virginia Woolf Adeline Virginia Woolf (; ; 25 January 1882 28 March 1941) was an English writer, considered one of the most important modernist literature, modernist 20th-century authors and also a pioneer in the use of Stream of consciousness (narrative mod ...

Virginia Woolf
and economist
John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was an English economist, whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments. Originally trained in mat ...

John Maynard Keynes
. This is where the Bloomsbury Group lived and met. * Woburn Square, home to other parts of University College London. Named after
Woburn Abbey Woburn Abbey (), occupying the east of the village of Woburn, Bedfordshire, England, is a English country house, country house, the family seat of the Duke of Bedford. Although it is still a family home to the current duke, it is open on specifi ...

Woburn Abbey
in
Bedfordshire Bedfordshire (; abbreviated Beds) is a Counties of England, county in the East of England. It is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and a Historic counties of England, historic county, covered by three Unitary authorities of Engl ...

Bedfordshire
, the main seat of the Dukes of Bedford. *Torrington Square, home to other parts of University College London. Named after Hon. Georgiana Byng, daughter of George Byng, 4th Viscount Torrington, and wife of John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford (1766-1839). * Tavistock Square, home to the
British Medical Association The British Medical Association (BMA) is a registered trade union for doctors Doctor or The Doctor may refer to: Personal titles * Doctor (title), the holder of an accredited academic degree * A medical practitioner, including: ** Physi ...
; its eastern edge was the site of one of the 7 July 2005 London bombings. Named after Tavistock Abbey in Devon, granted to the Russell family at the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and after which they took the title Marquess of Tavistock, since held as a courtesy title by the eldest son and heir apparent of the Duke of Bedford. *
Mecklenburgh Square Mecklenburgh Square is a Grade II listed A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England in England, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland, in Wales, a ...
, east of Coram's Fields, one of the few squares which remains locked for the use of local residents. Named after the mother of King George IV. * Coram's Fields, a large recreational space on the eastern edge of the area, formerly home to the Foundling Hospital. It is only open to children and to adults accompanying children. *
Brunswick Square Brunswick Square is a public garden and ancillary streets along two of its sides in Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London. It is considered a fashionable residential area, and is the location of numerous cultural ...
, now occupied by the School of Pharmacy, University of London, School of Pharmacy and the Foundling Museum. Named after the wife of King George IV. * St George's Gardens, originally the burial ground for St George's Queen Square and St George's Bloomsbury


Hospitals

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and the Royal London Hospital for Integrated Medicine (formerly the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital) are both located on Great Ormond Street, off Queen Square, which itself is home to the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (formerly the National Hospital for Nervous Diseases). Bloomsbury is also the location of University College Hospital, which re-opened in 2005 in new buildings on Euston Road, built under the government's private finance initiative (PFI). The Eastman Dental Hospital is located on Gray's Inn Road close to the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital administered by the Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust.


Administration and representation

Bloomsbury is in the parliamentary constituency of Holborn and St Pancras (UK Parliament constituency), Holborn and St Pancras. The western half of the district comprises Bloomsbury (ward), Bloomsbury ward, which elects three councillors to Camden London Borough Council, Camden Borough Council.


Economy

] In February 2010, businesses were balloted on an expansion of the InHolborn Business Improvement District (BID) to include the southern part of Bloomsbury. Only businesses with a rateable value in excess of £60,000 could vote as only these would pay the BID levy. This expansion of the BID into Bloomsbury was supported by Camden Council. The proposal was passed and part of Bloomsbury was brought within the InHolborn BID. Controversy was raised during this BID renewal when InHolborn proposed collecting Bloomsbury, St Giles and Holborn under the name of "Midtown", since it was seen as "too American". Businesses were informed about the BID proposals, but there was little consultation with residents or voluntary organisations. InHolborn produced a comprehensive business plan aimed at large businesses. Bloomsbury is now part of InMidtown BID with its 2010 to 2015 business plan and a stated aim to make the area "a quality environment in which to work and live, a vibrant area to visit, and a profitable place in which to do business".


Transport


Rail

Several London railway stations serve Bloomsbury. There are three London Underground stations in Bloomsbury: * Russell Square tube station, Russell Square * King's Cross St Pancras tube station, King's Cross St. Pancras * Euston Square tube station, Euston Square * Goodge Street tube station, Goodge Street King's Cross St. Pancras station offers step-free access to all lines, whilst Euston Square offers step-free access to the westbound platform. Other stations nearby include: Euston tube station, Euston, Warren Street tube station, Warren Street, Goodge Street tube station, Goodge Street, Tottenham Court Road tube station, Tottenham Court Road, Holborn tube station, Holborn and Chancery Lane tube station, Chancery Lane. There is a disused station in Bloomsbury on the Piccadilly line at the British Museum tube station, British Museum. There are also three National Rail stations to the north of Bloomsbury: * Euston railway station, Euston * London King's Cross railway station, King's Cross * St Pancras railway station, St Pancras International Eurostar services to Gare du Nord, France, Brussels-midi, Brussels and Amsterdam Centraal station, the Netherlands begin in London at St Pancras.


Buses

Several bus stops can be found in Bloomsbury. All buses passing through Bloomsbury call at bus stops on
Russell Square Russell Square is a large garden square in Bloomsbury, in the London Borough of Camden, built predominantly by the firm of James Burton (property developer), James Burton. It is near the University of London's main buildings and the British Museu ...

Russell Square
, Gower Street or
Tottenham Court Road Tottenham Court Road (occasionally abbreviated as TCR) is a major road in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of E ...
. Several key London destinations can be reached from Bloomsbury directly, including: Camden Town, Greenwich, Hampstead Heath, Piccadilly Circus, Victoria, London, Victoria, and Waterloo, London, Waterloo. Euston bus station is to the north of Bloomsbury.


Road

One of the 13 surviving Cabmen's Shelter Fund, taxi drivers' shelters in London, where drivers can stop for a meal and a drink, is in Russell Square. Bloomsbury's road network links the district to several destinations across London. Key routes nearby include: * the A40 road, A40 (Bloomsbury Way/
High Holborn High Holborn ( ) is a street in Holborn and Farringdon Without, Central London, which forms a part of the A40 road in London, A40 route from London to Fishguard. It starts in the west at the eastern end of St Giles High Street and runs past the ...
) - eastbound to
Clerkenwell Clerkenwell () is an area of central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands ...
(via A401 road, A401), Holborn Circus and Bank; westbound to Oxford Circus and Marble Arch * the A400 road (Great Britain), A400 (Gower Street, London, Gower St./Bloomsbury Street, Bloomsbury St.) - northbound to Camden Town, Holloway, London, Holloway (via A503 road, A503) and Archway, London, Archway; southbound to Trafalgar Square * the A4200 road, A4200 (
Southampton Row Southampton Row is a major thoroughfare running northwest–southeast in Bloomsbury, London, Bloomsbury, London Borough of Camden, Camden, central London, England. The road is designated as part of the A4200 road, A4200. Location To the nor ...
/Woburn Place, Woburn Pl.) - northbound to Euston, London, Euston and Camden Town; southbound to Aldwych * the London Inner Ring Road, A501 Inner Ring Road (Euston Road, Euston Rd.) - eastbound towards Kings Cross, London, King's Cross and Angel, London, Angel; westbound to Regent's Park and Marylebone


Air pollution

The
London Borough of Camden The London Borough of Camden () is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London; each is governed by a ...
measures roadside air quality in Bloomsbury. In 2017, average Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) levels recorded in Bloomsbury significantly exceeded the UK National Objective for cleaner air, set at 40μg/m3 (micrograms per cubic metre).


Cycling

Several cycle routes cross Bloomsbury, with cycling infrastructure provided and maintained by both the
London Borough of Camden The London Borough of Camden () is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London; each is governed by a ...
and Transport for London (TfL). Many routes across Bloomsbury feature Cycle-track, segregated cycle tracks or bus lanes for use by cyclists. Additionally, Bloomsbury is connected to the wider List of cycle routes in London, London cycle network via several routes, including: * Quietway 1 (Q1) - Running on segregated cycle track or residential streets, Q1 carries cyclists on an unbroken, signposted cycle route from
Covent Garden Covent Garden is a district in London, on the eastern fringes of the West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre st ...

Covent Garden
, via Bloomsbury, to Kings Cross, London, King's Cross and Kentish Town. The route is carried south–north through Bloomsbury on Bury Place, Montague Street, London, Montague Street, Montague Place, Malet Street, Tavistock Place, and Judd Street. * Quietway 2 (Q2) - Running on segregated cycle track or residential streets, Q2 carries cyclists on an unbroken, signposted cycle route from Bloomsbury to Walthamstow. In Bloomsbury, the route begins to the east of Russell Square, leaving the area eastbound on Guilford Street, Guildford Street. ''En route'' to Walthamstow, Q2 passes through Angel, London, Angel, Islington, London Fields and Hackney Central. TfL proposes that Q2 will head west from Bloomsbury in the future, towards East Acton. * Cycle Superhighway 6 (CS6) - CS6 passes to the east of Bloomsbury, via Judd Street, Tavistock Place and Regent's Square. To the north, CS6 terminates at King's Cross. To the south, CS6 passes through Farringdon, London, Farringdon, Ludgate Circus and Blackfriars, London, Blackfriars ''en route'' to Elephant and Castle.


Notable residents

*Hylda Baker, the actress and TV comedienne, had an apartment in Ridgmount Gardens in Torrington Place, Bloomsbury, where she lived throughout the 1960s and 70s when she was in London. *Ada Ballin (1863–1906), magazine editor and writer on fashionAda Ballin
ODNB, Retrieved 6 October 2016
*J. M. Barrie (1860–1937), playwright and novelist, lived in Guilford Street and 8 Grenville Street when he first moved to London; this is where Barrie situated the Darlings' house in ''Peter Pan''. *Vanessa Bell (1879–1961), painter, sister of Virginia Woolf, lived at 46 Gordon Square. *William Copeland Borlase M.P. (1848–1899), died bankrupt and disowned by his family at 34 Bedford Court Mansions. *Vera Brittain (1893–1970) and Winifred Holtby (1898–1935), lived at 58 Doughty Street. *Randolph Caldecott (1846–1886), illustrator, lived at 46 Great Russell Street. *William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire (1698–1755), sold the Old Devonshire House at 48 Boswell Street. *Charles Darwin (1809–1882), lived at 12 Upper Gower Street in 1839. *George Dance the Younger, George Dance (1741–1825), architect, lived at 91 Gower Street. *Charles Dickens (1812–1870), novelist, lived at 14 Great Russell Street, Tavistock Square and 48 Doughty Street. *George du Maurier (1834–1896), artist and writer, lived at 91 (formerly 46) Great Russell Street. *Benton Fletcher (1866–1944), housed his keyboard collection at the Old Devonshire House, 48 Boswell Street, in the 1930s and 40s. *E. M. Forster (1879–1970), novelist, essayist, and broadcaster, resided in Brunswick Square *Ricky Gervais (born 1961), comedian, lived until recently in Southampton Row, Store Street and owned one of the penthouses in Bloomsbury Mansions in Russell Square, WC1. *Mary Anne Everett Green (1818–1895), Calenderer of State Papers, author of ''Lives of the Princesses of England'', mother of Evelyn Everett-Green, a prolific 19th-century novelist. *Philip Hardwick (1792–1870) and Philip Charles Hardwick (1822–1892), father and son, architects, lived at 60
Russell Square Russell Square is a large garden square in Bloomsbury, in the London Borough of Camden, built predominantly by the firm of James Burton (property developer), James Burton. It is near the University of London's main buildings and the British Museu ...

Russell Square
for over ten years. *Travers Humphreys (1867–1956), barrister and judge, was born in Doughty Street. *
John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was an English economist, whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments. Originally trained in mat ...

John Maynard Keynes
(1883–1946), economist, lived for 30 years in Gordon Square. *Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924), founder of the USSR, lived here in 1908. *Emanuel Litvinoff (1915–2011), author, poet, playwright and human rights campaigner, lived for 46 years in Mecklenburgh Square. *Edmund Lodge (1756–1839), officer of arms and writer on heraldry, died at his Bloomsbury Square house on 16 January 1839. *Bob Marley (1945–1981), musician, lived in 34 Ridgmount Gardens for six months in 1972. *Charlotte Mew (1869–1928), poet, was born at 30 Doughty Street and lived there until the family moved nearby to 9 Gordon Street, in 1890. *Jacquie O'Sullivan (born 1960), musician and former member of Bananarama. *Dorothy Richardson (1873–1957), novelist, lived at 7 Endesleigh Street and 1905–6 Woburn Walk. Her experiences are recorded in her autobiographical novel, in thirteen volumes, ''Pilgrimage''. *Sir Francis Ronalds (1788–1873), inventor of the electric telegraph, lived at 40 Queen Square in 1820–1822. *Dorothy L. Sayers (1893–1957), novelist lived at 24 Great James Street from 1921 to 1929. Her main female character Harriet Vane also lived in Bloomsbury. *Alexei Sayle (born 1952), English stand-up comedian, actor and author. *John Shaw Sr., John Shaw Senior (1776–1832) and John Shaw Jr., John Shaw Junior (1803–1870), father and son, architects, lived in Gower Street. *Catherine Tate (born 1968), actress and comedian, was brought up in the Brunswick Centre, close to
Russell Square Russell Square is a large garden square in Bloomsbury, in the London Borough of Camden, built predominantly by the firm of James Burton (property developer), James Burton. It is near the University of London's main buildings and the British Museu ...

Russell Square
. *Wee Georgie Wood (1895–1979), actor and comedian, lived and died at Gordon Mansions on Torrington Place. *
Virginia Woolf Adeline Virginia Woolf (; ; 25 January 1882 28 March 1941) was an English writer, considered one of the most important modernist literature, modernist 20th-century authors and also a pioneer in the use of Stream of consciousness (narrative mod ...

Virginia Woolf
(1882–1941), author, essayist, and diarist, resided at 46 Gordon Square (1904-7) and 52 Tavistock Square (1924–39). *Thomas Henry Wyatt (1807–1880), architect, lived at 77 Great Russell Street. *John Wyndham (1903–1969), lived at the Penn Club in Tavistock Square (1924–38) and then (except for 1943–46 army service) at the club's present address, 21–22 Bedford Place, off Russell Square, until his marriage in 1963 to Grace Isabel Wilson, who had lived in the next room at the club. *W. B. Yeats, William Butler Yeats (1865–1939), poet, dramatist and prose writer, lived at Woburn Walk.


References


External links

*
Bloomsbury Conservation Areas Advisory Committee (BCAAC)

Bloomsbury area guide
* {{Authority control Bloomsbury, Districts of the London Borough of Camden Areas of London James Burton (property developer) buildings Former civil parishes in London Bills of mortality parishes Bloomsbury Group locations