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A feud , referred to in more extreme cases as a blood feud, vendetta, faida, clan war, gang war, or private war, is a long-running argument or fight, often between
social group In the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of pla ...
s of people, especially
families In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politi ...

families
or
clan A clan is a group of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of ...

clan
s. Feuds begin because one party (correctly or incorrectly) perceives itself to have been attacked, insulted, wronged, or otherwise injured by another. Intense feelings of
resentment Resentment (also called ranklement or bitterness) is a complex, multilayered that has been described as a mixture of , , , and . Other psychologists consider it a or as a secondary emotion (including cognitive elements) that can be elicited i ...

resentment
trigger the initial
retribution Retribution may refer to: * Punishment * Retributive justice, a theory of justice ** Divine retribution, retributive justice in a religious context * Revenge, a harmful action against a person or group in response to a grievance Film and televisi ...
, which causes the other party to feel equally aggrieved and
vengeful
vengeful
. The dispute is subsequently fuelled by a long-running cycle of retaliatory
violence Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations ...

violence
. This continual cycle of provocation and retaliation makes it extremely difficult to end the feud peacefully. Feuds frequently involving the original parties' family members or associates, could last for
generation A generation is "all of the people born and living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms ** extant taxon, Living species, one that is not ex ...

generation
s, and may result in extreme acts of
violence Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations ...

violence
. They can be interpreted as an extreme outgrowth of social relations based in
family honor Family honor (or honour) is an abstract concept involving the perceived quality of worthiness and respectability that affects the social standing and the self-evaluation of a group of related people, both corporately and individually. The family ...
. Until the
early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adve ...
, feuds were considered legitimate legal instruments and were regulated to some degree. For example,
Montenegrin culture The culture of Montenegro is as pluralistic and diverse as its History of Montenegro, history and Geography of Montenegro, geographical position would suggest. Montenegro's culture has drawn influences mainly from Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Ch ...
calls this ''
krvna osveta Krvna osveta ( sr-cyr, Крвна освета, ''Blood feud'') is a law of Feud, vendetta among South Slavic peoples in Montenegro and Herzegovina, practised by Montenegrins (ethnic group), Montenegrins, Serbs and Croats (predominantly from Herce ...
'', meaning "blood revenge", which had unspoken but highly valued rules. In
Albanian culture Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic ...
it is called ''
gjakmarrja In the traditional Albanian culture Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern ...
'', which usually lasts for generations. In tribal societies, the blood feud, coupled with the practice of blood wealth, functioned as an effective form of social control for limiting and ending conflicts between individuals and groups who are related by
kinship In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Anthropologist Robin Fox states th ...

kinship
, as described by anthropologist
Max Gluckman Herman Max Gluckman (; 26 January 1911 – 13 April 1975) was a South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million peop ...
in his article "The Peace in the Feud" in 1955.


Blood feuds

A blood feud is a feud with a cycle of retaliatory violence, with the relatives or associates of someone who has been killed or otherwise wronged or
dishonored ''Dishonored'' is a 2012 action-adventure game Action-adventure is a video game genre that combines core elements from both the action game and adventure game genres. Action-adventure is a hybrid genre, and thus the definition is very i ...

dishonored
seeking vengeance by killing or otherwise physically punishing the culprits or their relatives. In the
English-speaking world Speakers of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Wo ...
, the Italian word ''vendetta'' is used to mean a blood feud; in Italian, however, it simply means (personal) "vengeance" or "revenge", originating from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
''vindicta'' (
vengeance Vengeance may refer to: *Vengeance (concept) or revenge, a harmful action against a person or group in response to a grievance Film * Vengeance (1930 film), ''Vengeance'' (1930 film), action adventure film directed by Archie Mayo * Vengeance (1 ...
), while the word '' faida'' would be more appropriate for a blood feud. In the English-speaking world, "vendetta" is sometimes extended to mean any other long-standing feud, not necessarily involving bloodshed. Sometimes it is not mutual, but rather refers to a prolonged series of hostile acts waged by one person against another without reciprocation.


History

Blood feuds were common in societies with a weak rule of law (or where the state did not consider itself responsible for mediating this kind of dispute), where family and kinship ties were the main source of
authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empiric ...

authority
. An entire family was considered responsible for the actions of any of its members. Sometimes two separate branches of the same family even came to blows, or worse, over some dispute. The practice has mostly disappeared with more centralized societies where
law enforcement 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterrence (legal), deterring, rehabilitation (penology), rehabilitating, or punishment, punishing people who viol ...
and
criminal law Criminal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its env ...
take responsibility for punishing lawbreakers.


Feuds in the Antiquity

In
Homeric Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...
ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
, the practice of personal vengeance against wrongdoers was considered natural and customary: "Embedded in the Greek morality of retaliation is the right of vengeance... Feud is a war, just as war is an indefinite series of revenges; and such acts of vengeance are sanctioned by the gods". In the ancient Hebraic context, it was considered the duty of the individual and family to avenge evil on behalf of God. The executor of the law of blood-revenge who personally put the initial killer to death was given a special designation: ''
go'el haddam ''Goel'' (Hebrew: גואל, lit. "redeemer"), in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language ...
'', the blood-avenger or blood-redeemer (
Book of Numbers The Book of Numbers (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population i ...
35: 19, etc.). Six
Cities of Refuge The cities of refuge ( ''‘ārê ha-miqlāṭ'') were six Levitical towns in the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah The Kingdom of Judah ( he, יְהוּדָה, ''Yəhūdā''; akk, 𒅀𒌑𒁕𒀀𒀀 ''Ya'uda'' 'ia-ú-da-a-a'' ...

Cities of Refuge
were established to provide protection and
due process Due process is the legal requirement that the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
for any unintentional manslayers. The avenger was forbidden from harming the unintentional killer if the killer took refuge in one of these cities. As the ''Oxford Companion to the Bible'' states: "Since life was viewed as sacred (
Genesis Genesis may refer to: Bible * Book of Genesis The Book of Genesis,, "''Bərēšīṯ''", "In hebeginning" the first book of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of ...

Genesis
9.6), no amount of
blood money Blood money may refer to: * Blood money (restitution), money paid to the family of a murder victim Films * Blood Money (1917 film), ''Blood Money'' (1917 film), a film starring Harry Carey * Blood Money (1921 film), ''Blood Money'' (1921 film) ...
could be given as recompense for the loss of the life of an innocent person; it had to be "life for life" (
Exodus Exodus or the Exodus may refer to: Religion * Book of Exodus, second book of the Hebrew Torah and the Christian Bible * The Exodus, the biblical story of the migration of the ancient Israelites from Egypt into Canaan Historical events * 1948 ...
21.23;
Deuteronomy The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law" from Greek ''deuteros'' + ''nomos'') is the fifth book of the Jewish , where it is called ''Devarim'' ( he, דְּבָרִים), "the words f Moses F, or f, is the sixth Letter (alphabet), let ...
19.21)". According to historian
Marc Bloch Marc Léopold Benjamin Bloch (; ; 6 July 1886 – 16 June 1944) was a French historian. He was a founding member of the Annales School of French social history. Bloch specialised in medieval history In the history of Europe The ...

Marc Bloch
:
Rita of Cascia Rita of Cascia (Born Margherita Lotti 1381 – 22 May 1457) was an Italians, Italian widow and Augustinian nuns, Augustinian nun venerated as a List of Catholic saints, saint in the Roman Catholic Church. After Rita's husband died, she joined an ...
, a popular 15th-century Italian saint, was canonized by the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
due mainly to her great effort to end a feud in which her family was involved and which claimed the life of her husband.


Feuds in pre-industrial tribes

The blood feud has certain similarities to the ritualized warfare found in many
pre-industrial Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forums of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from 1750 to 1850. ''Pre-industrial'' refers to a time before ...
tribes. For instance, more than a third of Ya̧nomamö males, on average, died from
warfare War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...
. The accounts of missionaries to the area have recounted constant infighting in the tribes for women or prestige, and evidence of continuous warfare for the
enslavement Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for another person (a slaver), while treated as property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved person being made ...
of neighboring tribes such as the Macu before the arrival of European settlers and government.Keeley, Lawrence H. '' War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage'' Oxford University Press, 1996


Samurai honours and feuds

In Japan's feudal past, the
samurai were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of History of Japan#Medieval Japan (1185–1573/1600), medieval and Edo period, early-modern Japan from the late 12th century to their abolition in 1876. They were the well-paid retainer ...

samurai
class upheld the honor of their family, clan, and their lord by ''katakiuchi'' (), or revenge killings. These killings could also involve the relatives of an offender. While some vendettas were punished by the government, such as that of the
Forty-seven Ronin 47 (forty-seven) is the natural number In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and total order, ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). In c ...
, others were given official permission with specific targets.


Feuds in Medieval and Renaissance Europe

At the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
's ''Reichstag'' at Worms in 1495 AD, the right of waging feuds was abolished. The
Imperial Reform Imperial Reform ( la, Reformatio imperii, german: Reichsreform) is the name given to repeated attempts in the 15th and 16th centuries to adapt the structure and the constitutional order (''Verfassungsordnung'') of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy ...
proclaimed an "eternal public peace" (''
Ewiger Landfriede The ''Ewiger Landfriede'' ("everlasting ''Landfriede A ''Landfrieden'' or ''Landfriede'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoke ...
'') to put an end to the abounding feuds and the anarchy of the robber barons, and it defined a new standing imperial army to enforce that peace. However, it took a few more decades until the new regulation was universally accepted. In 1506, for example, knight Jan Kopidlansky killed a family rival in
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...

Prague
, and the town councillors sentenced him to death and had him executed. His brother, Jiri Kopidlansky, revenged Jan by continuing atrocities. Another case was the Nuremberg-Schott feud, in which Maximilian was forced to step in to halt the damages done by robber knight Schott. In Greece, the custom of blood feud is found in several parts of the country, for instance in
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology ...

Crete
and Mani. Throughout history, the
Maniots The Maniots or Maniates ( el, Μανιάτες) are the inhabitants of Mani Peninsula The Mani Peninsula ( el, Μάνη, Mánē), also long known by its medieval name Maina or Maïna (Μαΐνη), is a geographical and cultural region in southe ...
have been regarded by their neighbors and their enemies as fearless warriors who practice blood feuds, known in the Maniot dialect of Greek as "Γδικιωμός" (Gdikiomos). Many vendettas went on for months, some for years. The families involved would lock themselves in their towers and, when they got the chance, would murder members of the opposing family. The Maniot vendetta is considered the most vicious and ruthless; it has led to entire family lines being wiped out. The last vendetta on record required the
Greek Army The Hellenic Army ( el, Ελληνικός Στρατός, ''Ellinikós Stratós'', sometimes abbreviated as ΕΣ), formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country lo ...
with
artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry firearms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls and fortifications dur ...

artillery
support to force it to a stop. Regardless of this, the Maniot Greeks still practice vendettas even today. Maniots in America, Australia, Canada and
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
still have on-going vendettas which have led to the creation of
mafia A mafia is a type of criminal organization whose central activity is the arbitration of disputes between criminals and the organization and enforcement of illicit agreements through the use of violence. Mafias often engage in secondary activities ...

mafia
families known as "Γδικιωμέοι" (Gdikiomeoi). In
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
, vendetta was a social code (mores) that required Corsicans to kill anyone who wronged the family honor. Between 1821 and 1852, no less than 4,300 murders were perpetrated in Corsica. In the
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical com ...
in Spain, the Vascongadas was ravaged by the
War of the Bands The War of the Bands ( eu, Bando gerrak, es, Guerra de los Bandos) was a civil war, really an extended series of blood feuds, in the western Basque Country, Gascony, and Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ; oc, Navarra ), off ...
, bitter partisan wars between local ruling families. In the Spanish region of
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
, next to Vascongadas, these conflicts became polarised in a violent struggle between the Agramont and Beaumont parties. In
Biscay Biscay (; eu, Bizkaia ; es, Vizcaya ) is a Provinces of Spain, province of Spain, lying on the south shore of the Bay of Biscay, eponymous bay. The name also refers to a historical territory of the Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque ...
, in Vascongadas, the two major warring factions were named Oinaz and Gamboa. (''Cf.'' the
Guelphs and Ghibellines The Guelphs and Ghibellines (, , ; it, guelfi e ghibellini ) were faction Faction or factionalism may refer to: * Political faction, a group of people with a common political purpose * Faction (literature), a type of historical novel based o ...
in Italy). High defensive structures ("towers") built by local noble families, few of which survive today, were frequently razed by fires, and sometimes by royal decree. Leontiy Lyulye, an expert on conditions in the
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...
, wrote in the mid-19th century: "Among the
mountain people Hill people, also referred to as mountain people, is a general term for people who live in the hill A hill is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body. Landforms t ...
the blood feud is not an uncontrollable permanent feeling such as the vendetta is among the Corsicans. It is more like an obligation imposed by the public opinion." In the
Dagestan village of Grar File:Сулакский каньон.jpg, Kara-Koysu River Canyon Dagestan (; russian: Дагеста́н), officially the Republic of Dagestan (russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н), is a republics of Russia, rep ...

Dagestan
i ''
aul An aul ( ce, oil, russian: аул, Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish languag ...
'' of
KadarKadar may refer to: People First name *Kadar Brock (born 1980), American contemporary abstract artist *Ka'dar Hollman (born 1996), American football player *Kadar Khan, an alternate spelling of Kader Khan (born 1935/1936), Indian actor Last name * ...
, one such blood feud between two antagonistic clans lasted for nearly 260 years, from the 17th century till the 1860s.


Pre-Christian Northern Europe

The
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry ...

Celtic
phenomenon of the ''blood feud'' demanded "an eye for an eye," and usually descended into murder. Disagreements between
clan A clan is a group of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of ...

clan
s might last for generations in Scotland and Ireland. In
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...

Scandinavia
in
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Pro ...

Viking
era, feuds were common, as the lack of a central government left dealing with disputes up to the individuals or families involved. Sometimes these would descend into "blood revenges", and in some cases devastating whole families. The ravages of the feuds as well as the dissolution of them is a central theme in several of the
Icelandic saga The sagas of Icelanders ( is, Íslendingasögur, ), also known as family sagas, are one genre of Icelandic Saga, sagas. They are prose narratives mostly based on historical events that mostly took place in Iceland in the ninth, tenth, and ear ...
s. An alternative to feud was ''
blood money Blood money may refer to: * Blood money (restitution), money paid to the family of a murder victim Films * Blood Money (1917 film), ''Blood Money'' (1917 film), a film starring Harry Carey * Blood Money (1921 film), ''Blood Money'' (1921 film) ...
'' (or ''
weregild Weregild (also spelled wergild, wergeld (in archaic/historical usage of English), weregeld, etc.), also known as man price (blood money Blood money may refer to: * Blood money (restitution), money paid to the family of a murder victim Films ...
'' in the
Norse Norse is demonym for Norsemen, a medieval North Germanic ethnolinguistic group ancestral to modern Scandinavians, defined as speakers of Old Norse from about the 9th to the 13th centuries. Norse may also refer to: Culture and religion * Norse m ...
culture), which demanded set value to be paid by those responsible for a wrongful permanent disfigurement or death, even if accidental. If these payments were not made, or were refused by the offended party, a blood feud could ensue.


Feuds in 19th century rural USA

Due to the Celtic heritage of many people living in
Appalachia Appalachia () is a cultural region 's map of native American cultural areas within the territory of the United States (1948) as defined by Melville J. Herskovits influence , homelands of the Celtic languages The Celtic languages ( ...
, a series of prolonged violent engagements in late nineteenth-century
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...
and
West Virginia West Virginia () is a U.S. state, state in the Appalachian region, Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States.The United States Census Bureau, Census Burea ...
were referred to commonly as feuds, a tendency that was partly due to the nineteenth-century popularity of
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national p ...

William Shakespeare
and
Sir Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832), was a Scottish historical novelist, poet, playwright and historian. Many of his works remain classics of European and Scottish literature Scottish literature is literatu ...
, both of whom had written semihistorical accounts of blood feuds. These incidents, the most famous of which was the
Hatfield–McCoy feud The Hatfield–McCoy feud, also described by journalists as the Hatfield–McCoy war, involved two rural American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the Unite ...
, were regularly featured in the newspapers of the eastern U.S. between the
Reconstruction Era The Reconstruction era was a period in American history The history of the United States started with the arrival of Native Americans in North America around 15,000 BC. Native American cultures in the United States, Numerous indigenous ...
and the early twentieth century, and are seen by some as linked to a Southern culture of honor with its roots in the
Scots-Irish Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irish may refer to: * Ulster Scots people, an ethnic group in Ulster, Ireland, who trace their roots to settlers from Scotland * Scotch-Irish Americans, descendants of Ulster Scots who first migrated to America in large number ...
forebears of the residents of the area. Another prominent example is the Regulator–Moderator War, which took place between rival factions in the
Republic of Texas The Republic of Texas ( es, República de Tejas) was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovere ...

Republic of Texas
. It is sometimes considered the largest blood feud in American history.


Feuds in modern times

Blood feuds are still practised in some areas in: * France (especially
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
and within
Manush
Manush
communities) * in
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , ...

Sardinia
where a blood feud is called in the local language "Disamistade". * Ireland (especially
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...

Dublin
and
Limerick Limerick ( ; ga, Luimneach ) is a city in County Limerick County Limerick ( ga, Contae Luimnigh) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chamber ...

Limerick
) * In Northern Ireland between
Irish republican Irish republicanism ( ga, poblachtánachas Éireannach) is the political movement for the unity Unity may refer to: Buildings * Unity Building The Unity Building, in Oregon, Illinois, is a historic building in that city's Oregon Commercial H ...
and
Ulster loyalism Ulster loyalism is a strand of Ulster unionism Unionism in Ireland is a political tradition on the island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_lar ...
communities; particularly during
The Troubles The Troubles ( ga, Na Trioblóidí) were an ethno-nationalist Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethnonationalism, is a form of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation A na ...
*
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivis ...
(especially
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
,
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
,
Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demogr ...

Calabria
,
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
and other areas of the same territory) *
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
( Mani and
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology ...

Crete
) * Between
White British White British is an Classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom, ethnicity classification used for indigenous white British (English people, English, Scottish people, Scottish and Welsh people, Welsh), Irish people, Irish/People of North ...
,
British Asian Asian British people (also referred to as British Asians or Asian Britons) are a multi-ethnic group of UK residents who identify as and are perceived to be Asian people. They constitute a significant and growing minority of the people living in ...

British Asian
or
Black British Black British people are British citizens British nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Bri ...
working-class families, crime groups and clans throughout Britain and Ireland. Feuds amongst Traveller clans are also relatively common throughout Britain and Ireland. Multiple diaspora communities also partake in feuding, such as
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...
and Kurdish communities. * Between rival
crime families A crime family is a unit of an organized crime syndicate, particularly in the Mafia (both in Sicily and American Mafia, in the United States), often operating within a specific geographic territory. In its strictest sense, a ''family'' (or ''clan' ...
in
Galicia, Spain Galicia (; gl, Galicia or ; es, Galicia}, pt, Galiza) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created i ...
* Between so-called ''woonwagenbewoners'' (ethnic
Dutch people The Dutch (Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * D ...

Dutch people
who live in
mobile homes A mobile home (also known as a park home, trailer, trailer home, house trailer, static caravan, RV, residential caravan, motorhome or simply caravan) is a prefabricated structure, built in a factory on a permanently attached chassis before be ...
) in the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
* Among
Kurdish
Kurdish
and
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...
clans in
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
(as well as between Kurdish clans in
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
and
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
) * Between
Turkish Cypriots Turkish Cypriots or Cypriot Turks ( tr, Kıbrıs Türkleri or ''Kıbrıslı Türkler''; el, Τουρκοκύπριοι, Tourkokýprioi) are mostly ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the ...
* Between rival clans in northern
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a par ...

Albania
and
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
* Between Canadian Aboriginal tribes * Among
Pashtuns Pashtuns (, or ; ps, پښتانه, ; Pakhtuns or Pathans), historically known as Afghan (ethnonym), Afghans,, ''Afğân'' or Bactrian language, Bactrian Abgân - αβγανο are an Iranian peoples, Iranian ethnic group native to Central ...

Pashtuns
in
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
* Among
Tribes of MontenegroThe tribes of Montenegro (Montenegrin language, Montenegrin and sr, племена Црне Горе / ''plemena Crne Gore'') or Montenegrin tribes (Montenegrin and sr, црногорска племена, link=no / ''crnogorska plemena'') were his ...
* Among
Somali clans The demographics of Somalia encompass the demographic features of Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script The Osmanya script ( so, Farta Cismaanya 𐒍𐒖𐒇𐒂𐒖 𐒋𐒘𐒈𐒑𐒛𐒒𐒕𐒖), also known as Far Soomaali (𐒍 ...
* Among the
Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, the Canary Islands, and to a lesser ...
of
Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , religion = , official_languages = , languages_type = Oth ...

Algeria
and
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
* Between
Yoruba Yoruba may refer to: * Yoruba people The Yoruba people () are a Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa (commonly called Black Africa) is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the U ...
and
Igbo Igbo may refer to: * Igbo people, an ethnic group of Nigeria * Igbo language, their language * anything related to Igboland, a cultural region in Nigeria See also

* Ibo (disambiguation) * Igbo mythology * Igbo music * Igbo art * * Igbo-Ukwu, ...

Igbo
clans over land in
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as we ...

Nigeria
* Between clans in India and between rival tribes in the north-east Indian state of
Assam Assam (, ) is a state in Northeast India, northeastern India, south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra Valley, Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. Assam covers an area of . The state is bordered by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to ...

Assam
* Among
Sikh Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ', ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a Monotheism, monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The te ...

Sikh
clans in
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
*
Rayalaseema Rayalaseema () is a geographic region in the Indian state India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by a ...

Rayalaseema
of
Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh (English: Telugu: ) is a States and union territories of India, state in the south-eastern Coastal India, coastal region of India. It is the List of states and union territories of India by area, seventh-largest state by area c ...

Andhra Pradesh
in India * Between Mirpuri clans in
Azad Kashmir Azad Jammu and Kashmir ( ur, , translit=āzād jammū̃ o kaśmīr, translit-std=IAST, ), abbreviated as AJK and colloquially referred to as simply Azad Kashmir, is a region administered by Pakistan as a nominally self-governing entitySee: ...

Azad Kashmir
(as well as between
British Pakistanis British Pakistanis ( ur, ; also known as Pakistani British people or Pakistani Britons) are citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its pro ...
of Mirpuri descent in
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
) * Among rival clans in China, and especially in
Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, sub ...

Fujian
and
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
provinces * In the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
(especially in
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the ...
between Muslim Moro and Christian Cebuano clans) * Between
Burakumin is a former untouchable group in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. I ...
clans in Japan * In the lawless Wa territories of northern
Burma Myanmar (; my, မြန်မာ ) or Burma ( my, ဗမာ ), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast, Laos a ...

Burma
* Among the Arab
Bedouins The Bedouin, Beduin or Bedu (; , singular ; , singular ) are nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups inc ...
and other
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
tribes inhabiting the mountains of
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
* Between
Shiites Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life a ...
and
Sunnis Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and ...
in
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
* Among
Palestinian The Palestinian people ( ar, الشعب الفلسطيني, ''ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī''), also referred to as Palestinians ( ar, الفلسطينيون, links=no, ''al-Filasṭīniyyūn''; he, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian A ...
clans in
Gaza Gaza may refer to: Places Palestine * Gaza Strip, a Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea ** Gaza City, a city in the Gaza Strip ** Gaza Governorate, a governorate in the Gaza Strip United States * Gaza, Iowa, an ...
* Between
Maronite The Maronites ( ar, الموارنة; syr, ܡܖ̈ܘܢܝܐ) are an ethnoreligious Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christ ...
clans, and between
Shiites Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life a ...
and
Sunnis Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and ...
, in
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part ...

Lebanon
* Between
Mhallami The Mhallami, Mahallami or Mardelli ( ar, محلّمي, Mḥallame; syr, ܡܚܠ̈ܡܝܐ, Mḥallmāye; tr, Mıhellemi; ku, Mehelmî) are an Arabic-speaking tribal group, traditionally living in and around the city of Mardin Mardin ( ku, Mêr ...
clans in
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part ...

Lebanon
* In northwest and southern Ethiopia * Among the highland tribes of New Guinea * In Svaneti, in Georgia (country), Georgia (especially between Svan people, Svan clans) * In the mountainous areas of
Dagestan village of Grar File:Сулакский каньон.jpg, Kara-Koysu River Canyon Dagestan (; russian: Дагеста́н), officially the Republic of Dagestan (russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н), is a republics of Russia, rep ...

Dagestan
* Between Kyrgyz people, Kyrgyz and Uzbek people, Uzbek clans * Between Yazidi clans in Armenia and Azerbaijan * In republics of the northern
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...
such as Chechnya and Ingushetia * Among Chechen people, Chechen teips where those seeking retribution do not accept or respect the local law enforcement authority Blood feuds within Russian people, Russian communities do exist (mostly related to criminal gangs), but are neither as common nor as pervasive as they are in the
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...
. In the United States, gang warfare also often takes the form of blood feuds. African-Americans, African-American, Italian-American Mafia, Italian-American, Khmer people, Cambodian, Cuban people, Cuban Marielito, Dominican people (Dominican Republic), Dominican, Guatemalan people, Guatemalan, Haitian people, Haitian, Hmong people, Hmong, Sino-Vietnamese Hoa people, Hoa, Irish Mob, Irish-American, Jamaican people, Jamaican, Korean people, Korean, Lao people, Laotian, Puerto Rican people, Puerto Rican, Salvadorans, Salvadoran and Vietnamese people, Vietnamese gang and organized crime conflicts in the United States very often have taken the form of blood feuds, in which a family member in the gang is killed and a relative takes revenge by killing the murderer as well as other members of the rival gang. This can also be observed in particular cases in conflicts among Colombian, Mexicans, Mexican, Brazilians, Brazilian, and other Latin American gangs, drug cartels, and paramilitary groups; in turf wars among Cape Coloureds, Cape Coloured gangs in South Africa; in gang fights among Dutch Antilleans, Dutch Antillean, Surinamese people, Surinamese and Moluccans, Moluccan gangs in the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
; and in criminal feuds between Scottish people, Scottish,
White British White British is an Classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom, ethnicity classification used for indigenous white British (English people, English, Scottish people, Scottish and Welsh people, Welsh), Irish people, Irish/People of North ...
, Black British, Black and Mixed British gangs in the UK. This has resulted in gun violence and murders in cities like Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Ciudad Juarez, Medellin, Rio de Janeiro, Cape Town, Amsterdam, London, Liverpool, and Glasgow, to name just a few. Blood feuds also have a long history within the White Southerners, White Southerner population (and in particular among the Scots-Irish American, "Scots-Irish" or Ulster Scots American population) of the Southern United States, where it is called the "Culture of honor (Southern United States), culture of honor", and still exists to the present day.


Albania

In
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a par ...

Albania
, ''gjakmarrja'' (blood feuding) is a tradition. Blood feuds in Albania trace back to the Kanun (Albania), Kanun, this custom is also practiced among the Albanians of
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
. It returned in rural areas after more than 40 years of being abolished by Albanian Communists led by Enver Hoxha. In 1980 Albanian author Ismail Kadare published ''Broken April'', about the centuries-old tradition of hospitality, blood feuds, and revenge killing in the highlands of north Albania in the 1930s. ''The New York Times'', reviewing it, wrote: "''Broken April'' is written with masterly simplicity in a bardic style, as if the author is saying: Sit quietly and let me recite a terrible story about a blood feud and the inevitability of death by gunfire in my country. You know it must happen because that is the way life is lived in these mountains. Insults must be avenged; family honor must be upheld...." The novel was made into a 2001 movie entitled ''Behind the Sun (film), Behind the Sun'' by filmmaker Walter Salles, set in 1910 Brazil and starring Rodrigo Santoro, which was nominated for a BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language and a Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film. More than 3,000 Albanian families are currently engaged in them. There are now more than 1,600 families who live under an ever-present death sentence because of them, and since 1992, at least 10,000 Albanians have been killed in them. A feud may develop into a vicious circle of further killings, retaliation, counterattacks, and all-out warfare that can end in the mutual extinction of both families. Often the original cause is forgotten, and feuds continue simply because it is perceived that there has always been a feud.


Kosovo

Blood feuds have also been part of a centuries-old tradition in
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
, tracing back to the Kanun (Albania), Kanun, a 15th-century codification of Albanian customary rules. In the early 1990s, most cases of blood feuds were reconciled in the course of a large-scale reconciliation movement to end blood feuds led by Anton Çetta. The largest reconciliation gathering took place at Verrat e Llukës on 1 May 1990, which had between 100,000 and 500,000 participants. By 1992 the reconciliation campaign ended at least 1,200 deadly blood feuds, and in 1993 not a single homicide occurred in Kosovo.


Republic of Ireland

Criminal gang feuds also exist in
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...

Dublin
, Ireland and in the Republic's third-largest city,
Limerick Limerick ( ; ga, Luimneach ) is a city in County Limerick County Limerick ( ga, Contae Luimnigh) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chamber ...

Limerick
. Traveller feuds are also common in towns across the country. Feuds can be due to personal issues, money, or disrespect, and grudges can last generations. Since 2001, over 300 people have been killed in feuds between different drugs gangs, dissident republicans, and Traveller families.


Philippines

Family and clan feuds, known locally as ''rido'', are characterized by sporadic outbursts of retaliatory violence between families and kinship groups, as well as between communities. It can occur in areas where the government or a central authority is weak, as well as in areas where there is a perceived lack of justice and security. ''Rido'' is a Maranao language, Maranao term commonly used in
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the ...
to refer to clan feuds. It is considered one of the major problems in Mindanao because, apart from numerous casualties, ''rido'' has caused destruction of property, crippled local economies, and displaced families. Located in the southern Philippines, Mindanao is home to a majority of the country’s Muslim community, and includes the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. Mindanao "is a region suffering from poor infrastructure, high poverty, and violence that has claimed the lives of more than 120,000 in the last three decades." There is a widely held stereotype that the violence is perpetrated by armed groups that resort to terrorism to further their political goals, but the actual situation is far more complex. While the Muslim-Christian conflict and the state-rebel conflicts dominate popular perceptions and media attention, a survey commissioned by The Asia Foundation in 2002—and further verified by a recent Social Weather Stations survey—revealed that citizens are more concerned about the prevalence of ''rido'' and its negative impact on their communities than the conflict between the state and rebel groups. The unfortunate interaction and subsequent confusion of ''rido''-based violence with secessionism, communist insurgency, banditry, military involvement and other forms of armed violence shows that violence in Mindanao is more complicated than what is commonly believed. ''Rido'' has wider implications for conflict in Mindanao, primarily because it tends to interact in unfortunate ways with separatist conflict and other forms of armed violence. Many armed confrontations in the past involving insurgent groups and the military were triggered by a local ''rido''. The studies cited above investigated the dynamics of ''rido'' with the intention of helping design strategic interventions to address such conflicts.


=Causes

= The causes of ''rido'' are varied and may be further complicated by a society's concept of Face (sociological concept), honor and shame, an integral aspect of the social rules that determine accepted practices in the affected communities. The triggers for conflicts range from petty offenses, such as theft and jesting, to more serious crimes, like homicide. These are further aggravated by land disputes and political rivalries, the most common causes of ''rido''. Proliferation of firearms, lack of law enforcement and credible mediators in conflict-prone areas, and an inefficient justice system further contribute to instances of ''rido''.


=Statistics

= Studies on ''rido'' have documented a total of 1,266 ''rido'' cases between the 1930s and 2005, which have killed over 5,500 people and displaced thousands. The four provinces with the highest numbers of ''rido'' incidences are: Lanao del Sur (377), Maguindanao (218), Lanao del Norte (164), and Sulu Province, Sulu (145). Incidences in these four provinces account for 71% of the total documented cases. The findings also show a steady rise in ''rido'' conflicts in the eleven provinces surveyed from the 1980s to 2004. According to the studies, during 2002–2004, 50% (637 cases) of total ''rido'' incidences occurred, equaling about 127 new ''rido'' cases per year. Out of the total number of ''rido'' cases documented, 64% remain unresolved.


= Resolution

= ''Rido'' conflicts are either resolved, unresolved, or reoccurring. Although the majority of these cases remain unresolved, there have been many resolutions through different conflict-resolving bodies and mechanisms. These cases can utilize the formal procedures of the Philippine government or the various indigenous systems. Formal methods may involve official courts, local government officials, police, and the military. Indigenous methods to resolve conflicts usually involve elder leaders who use local knowledge, beliefs, and practices, as well as their own personal influence, to help repair and restore damaged relationships. Some cases using this approach involve the payment of
blood money Blood money may refer to: * Blood money (restitution), money paid to the family of a murder victim Films * Blood Money (1917 film), ''Blood Money'' (1917 film), a film starring Harry Carey * Blood Money (1921 film), ''Blood Money'' (1921 film) ...
to resolve the conflict. Hybrid mechanisms include the collaboration of government, religious, and traditional leaders in resolving conflicts through the formation of collaborative groups. Furthermore, the institutionalization of traditional conflict resolution processes into laws and ordinances has been successful with the hybrid method approach. Other conflict-resolution methods include the establishment of ceasefires and the intervention of youth organizations.


Famous blood feuds

*Three Kingdoms period, feuding warlords during the fall of the Han Dynasty (184–280 AD; China) *Njál's saga, an Icelandic account of a
Norse Norse is demonym for Norsemen, a medieval North Germanic ethnolinguistic group ancestral to modern Scandinavians, defined as speakers of Old Norse from about the 9th to the 13th centuries. Norse may also refer to: Culture and religion * Norse m ...
blood feud (960–1020; Iceland, Ireland and Norway) *The Clan Mackintosh, Mackintosh-Clan Cameron, Cameron Stand-off at the Fords of Arkaig, feud (1290s–1665; Scotland) *The Battle of the North Inch; the battle is fictionalised in the novel ''The Fair Maid of Perth'' by
Sir Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832), was a Scottish historical novelist, poet, playwright and historian. Many of his works remain classics of European and Scottish literature Scottish literature is literatu ...
(Michaelmas 1396; Scotland) *The Bonville–Courtenay feud (1450s; England) *The Percy–Neville feud (1450s; England) *The Wars of the Roses (1455–1487; England) *The Viscount Lisle, Talbot–Baron Berkeley, Berkeley feud (1455–1485 England) (concurrent with the Wars of the Roses) *The Clan Gunn, Gunn–Clan Keith, Keith feud (1464–1978; Scotland) *The Clan Campbell, Campbell–Clan MacDonald, MacDonald feud, including the Massacre of Glencoe (1692; Scotland) *The Clan Forbes–Clan Gordon feud, (1500s–1571; Scotland) *The Clan Forbes–Clan Leslie feud, (1520s–1530s; Scotland) *The Clan Forbes–City of Aberdeen feud, (1529–1539; Scotland) *The Regulator-Moderator War, (1839–1844;
Republic of Texas The Republic of Texas ( es, República de Tejas) was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovere ...

Republic of Texas
) *The Punti–Hakka Clan Wars, (1855–1868;
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
, China) *The Black Donnellys#The feud, Donnelly–Biddulph community feud (1857–1880; Ontario, Canada) *The Lincoln County War (1878–1881; New Mexico, United States) *The Lincoln County Feud (1878–1890;
West Virginia West Virginia () is a U.S. state, state in the Appalachian region, Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States.The United States Census Bureau, Census Burea ...
, United States) *The Hatfield-McCoy feud (1878–1891;
West Virginia West Virginia () is a U.S. state, state in the Appalachian region, Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States.The United States Census Bureau, Census Burea ...
&
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...
, United States) *The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, Clanton/McLaury–Earp feud (see also Earp Vendetta Ride), also known as the "Gunfight at the O.K. Corral" (1881; Arizona, United States) *The Pleasant Valley War, also known as the "Tonto Basin Feud" (1882–1892; Arizona, United States) *The Al Capone, Capone–Bugs Moran, Moran feud, including the St. Valentine's Day massacre (1925–1930; Chicago, Illinois, United States) *The Castellammarese War (1929–1931; New York City, New York United States) *The Cohen crime family, Battle of the Sunset Strip (1947–1951; Los Angeles, California United States) *The First Colombo crime family, Colombo Family War (1960–1963; New York City, United States) *The Second Colombo Family War (1971–1975; New York City, United States) *The Philadelphia crime family, Riccobene War (1982–1984; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States) *The Third Colombo War (1991–1993; New York City, United States) *The Second Philadelphia Mafia War (1991–1995; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States) *The Internal Patriarca crime family, Patriarca War (1991–1996; Boston, Massachusetts, United States) *Second Mafia War, Great Mafia War (1981–1983;
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
, Italy) *The Feud of Scampia (2004–2005; Naples, Italy) *The Maguindanao Massacre (2009; Ampatuan, Maguindanao, Ampatuan,
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
) *The Limerick feud (2000–present;
Limerick Limerick ( ; ga, Luimneach ) is a city in County Limerick County Limerick ( ga, Contae Luimnigh) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chamber ...

Limerick
, Ireland) *The Rizzuto crime family, Montreal Mafia War (2009–present; mostly the Canada, Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario)


See also

*Dassler brothers feud *Bedouin systems of justice#Blood feud protocols, Bedouin blood feud *Blood Law *Communal conflicts in Nigeria *Endemic warfare *Ethnic violence in South Sudan *Feud (professional wrestling) *Frontier justice *Gjakmarrja *Kin punishment *List of feuds in the United States *Mobbing *Punti–Hakka Clan Wars *San Luca feud *Sippenhaft *Sudanese nomadic conflicts *Warrior


Notes


Further reading

* Grutzpalk, Jonas. "Blood Feud and Modernity. Max Weber's and Émile Durkheim's Theory." ''Journal of Classical Sociology'' 2 (2002); p. 115–134. *Hyams, Paul. 2003. ''Rancor and Reconciliation in Medieval England''. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. * Kreuzer, Peter. 2005. "Political Clans and Violence in the Southern Philippines." Frankfurt: Peace Research Institute Frankfurt
PDF
* Miller, William Ian. 1990. ''Bloodtaking and peacemaking : feud, law, and society in Saga Iceland''. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. * Torres, Wilfredo M. (ed). 2007. ''Rido: Clan Feuding and Conflict Management in Mindanao''. Makati: The Asia Foundation
PDF
* Torres, Wilfredo M. 2010. "Letting A Thousand Flowers Bloom: Clan Conflicts and their Management." ''Challenges to Human Security in Complex Situations: The Case of Conflict in the Southern Philippines''. Kuala Lumpur: Asian Disaster Reduction and Response Network (ADRRN)
PDF
* Boehm, Christopher. 1984. ''Blood Revenge: The Anthropology of Feuding in Montenegro and Other Tribal Societies''. Lawrence, Kansas, Lawrence: University of Kansas
at Google Books


External links


BBC: "In pictures: Egypt vendetta ends"
May, 2005. "One of the most enduring and bloody family feuds of modern times in Upper Egypt has ended with a tense ceremony of humiliation and forgiveness. [...] Police are edgy. After lengthy peace talks, no one knows if the penance — and a large payment of blood money — will end the vendetta which began in 1991 with a children's fight."
15 clan feuds settled in Lanao; rido tops cause of evacuation more than war
from the MindaNews website. Posted on 13 July 2007.
2 clans in Matanog settle rido, sign peace pact
from the MindaNews website. Posted on 30 January 2008.
Albania: Feuding families…bitter livesBlood feuds blight Albanian livesBlood feuds tearing Gaza apartCalabrian clan feud suspected in slayings

Children as teacher-facilitators for peace
from the Inquirer website. Posted on 29 September 2007.
Family Feud in Ireland Involves 200 RiotersGangs clash in Nigerian oil cityIraq's death squads: On the brink of civil warMafia feuds bring bloodshed to Naples' streetsMaratabat and the Maranaos
from the blog of Datu Jamal Ashley Yahya Abbas, originally in "Reflections on the Bangsa Moro." Posted on 1 May 2007.
Mexico drugs cartels feud erupts
*
Rido
', from The Asia Foundation's ''Rido'' Map website.
''Rido'' and its Influence on the Academe, NGOs and the Military
an essay from the website of the Balay Mindanaw Foundation, Inc. Posted on 28 February 2007.
'Rido' seen [as] major Mindanao security concern
from the Inquirer website. Posted on 18 November 2006.
Thousands fear as blood feuds sweep AlbaniaTribal warfare kills nine in Indonesia's Papua

Villages in "rido" area return home
from the MindaNews website. Posted on 1 November 2007.

*[http://www.stippy.com/japan-news-and-media/a-yakuza-war-has-started-in-central-tokyo/ A "Yakuza War" has started in Central Tokyo] {{Authority control Feuds, Gangland warfare tactics Revenge Violence Violent crime Interpersonal conflict