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The ''Billboard'' Hot 100 is the
music industry The music industry consists of the individuals and organizations that earn money by s and s, creating and selling and , presenting , as well as the organizations that aid, train, represent and supply creators. Among the many individuals and ...
standard
record chart A record chart, in the music industry The music industry consists of the individuals and organizations that earn money by Musical composition, writing songs and musical compositions, creating and selling Sound recording and reproduction, r ...
in the United States for songs, published weekly by ''
Billboard A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising Out-of-home (OOH) advertising, also called outdoor advertising, outdoor media, and out-of-home media, is advertising experienced ou ...
'' magazine. Chart rankings are based on sales (physical and
digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology a ...
),
radio play Radio drama (or audio drama, audio play, radio play, radio theatre, or audio theatre) is a dramatized, purely acoustic performance. With no visual component, radio drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, rep ...
, and
online streaming Streaming media is multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, or video into a single presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media, such as printed ...
in the United States. The weekly tracking period for sales was initially Monday to Sunday when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but was changed to Friday to Thursday in July 2015. This tracking period also applies to compiling online streaming data. Radio airplay, which, unlike sales figures and streaming, is readily available on a real-time basis, is tracked on a Monday to Sunday cycle (previously Wednesday to Tuesday). A new chart is compiled and officially released to the public by ''Billboard'' on Tuesdays but post-dated to the following Saturdays. The first number one song of the ''Billboard'' Hot 100 was "
Poor Little Fool "Poor Little Fool" is a song written by Sharon Sheeley and first recorded by Ricky Nelson in 1958. Background Sheeley wrote the song when she was 15 years old. She had met Elvis Presley Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – Augus ...
" by
Ricky Nelson Eric Hilliard Nelson (May 8, 1940 – December 31, 1985), known professionally as Ricky Nelson, was an American singer, musician, and actor. From age eight he starred alongside his family in the radio and television series ''The Adventures of O ...
, on August 4, 1958. As of the issue for the week ending on April 17, 2021, the ''Billboard'' Hot 100 has had 1,121 different number one entries. The chart's current number-one song is " Leave the Door Open" by
Silk Sonic Silk Sonic is an American R&B super- duo composed of recording artists Bruno Mars and Anderson .Paak. The duo released their debut single, " Leave the Door Open", on March 5, 2021, with a forthcoming debut album, '' An Evening with Silk Soni ...

Silk Sonic
(
Bruno Mars Peter Gene Hernandez (born October 8, 1985), known professionally as Bruno Mars, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, multi-instrumentalist, and dancer. He is known for his stage performances, retro Retro style is a style that ...

Bruno Mars
and
Anderson .Paak
Anderson .Paak
).


History

Prior to 1955, ''Billboard''s lead popularity chart was the ''Honor Roll of Hits'', established in 1945. This chart ranked the most popular songs regardless of performer based on record and sheet sales, disk jockey, and juke box performances as determined by ''Billboard''s weekly nationwide survey. At the start of the rock era in 1955, there were three charts that measured songs by individual metrics: * ''Best Sellers in Stores'' was the first ''Billboard'' chart, established in 1940. This chart ranked the biggest selling singles in retail stores, as reported by merchants surveyed throughout the country (20 to 50 positions). * ''Most Played by Jockeys'' was ''Billboard'' s original airplay chart. It ranked the most played songs on United States radio stations, as reported by radio DJs and radio stations (20 to 25 positions). * ''Most Played in Jukeboxes'' ranked the most played songs in
jukebox A jukebox is a partially automated music box, music-playing device, usually a coin-operated machine, that will play a patron's selection from self-contained media. The classic jukebox has buttons, with letters and numbers on them, which are used ...

jukebox
es across the United States (20 positions). This was one of the main outlets of measuring song popularity with the younger generation of music listeners, as many radio stations resisted adding
rock and roll Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll, rock 'n' roll, or rock 'n roll) is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and st ...

rock and roll
music to their playlists for many years. Although officially all three charts had equal "weight" in terms of their importance, ''Billboard'' retrospectively considers the ''Best Sellers in Stores'' chart when referencing a song's performance prior to the creation of the Hot 100. On the week ending November 12, 1955, ''Billboard'' published The Top 100 for the first time. ''The Top 100'' combined all aspects of a single's performance (sales, airplay and jukebox activity), based on a point system that typically gave sales (purchases) more weight than radio airplay. The ''Best Sellers in Stores'', ''Most Played by Jockeys'' and ''Most Played in Jukeboxes'' charts continued to be published concurrently with the new ''Top 100'' chart. On June 17, 1957, ''Billboard'' discontinued the ''Most Played in Jukeboxes'' chart, as the popularity of jukeboxes waned and radio stations incorporated more and more rock-oriented music into their playlists. The week ending July 28, 1958 was the final publication of the ''Most Played by Jockeys'' and ''Top 100'' charts, both of which had
Perez Prado
Perez Prado
's instrumental version of "
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" ascending to the top. On August 4, 1958, ''Billboard'' premiered one main all-genre singles chart: the ''Hot 100''. The Hot 100 quickly became the industry standard and ''Billboard'' discontinued the ''Best Sellers In Stores'' chart on October 13, 1958. The ''Billboard'' Hot 100 is still the standard by which a song's popularity is measured in the United States. The Hot 100 is ranked by radio airplay audience impressions as measured by Nielsen BDS, sales data compiled by
Nielsen Soundscan MRC Data (formerly Nielsen SoundScan and Nielsen Music Products) is a provider of music sales data. Established by Mike Fine and Mike Shalett in 1991, data is collected weekly and made available every Sunday (for albums sales) and every Monday (f ...
(both at retail and digitally) and streaming activity provided by online music sources. There are several component charts that contribute to the overall calculation of the Hot 100. The most significant ones are: * ''
Hot 100 Airplay The Radio Songs chart (previously named Hot 100 Airplay until 2014 and Top 40 Radio Monitor until 1991) is released weekly by ''Billboard (magazine), Billboard'' magazine and measures the airplay of songs being played on radio stations throughout t ...
'': ''(per Billboard)'' approximately 1,000 stations, "composed of
adult contemporary In North American music, adult contemporary music (AC) is a form of radio-played popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can b ...
,
R&B Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African-American communities in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African ...
,
hip hop Hip hop or hip-hop is a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabil ...
,
country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social ...

country
,
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
,
gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Te ...
,
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and
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...
formats, digitally monitored twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. Charts are ranked by number of gross audience impressions, computed by cross-referencing exact times of radio airplay with
Arbitron Nielsen Audio (formerly Arbitron) is a consumer research Marketing research is the systematic gathering, recording, and analysis of qualitative and quantitative data about issues relating to marketing products and services. The goal is to ide ...
listener data." * ''Hot Singles Sales'': ''(per Billboard)'' "the top selling singles compiled from a national sample of retail store, mass merchant and internet sales reports collected, compiled, and provided by
Nielsen SoundScan MRC Data (formerly Nielsen SoundScan and Nielsen Music Products) is a provider of music sales data. Established by Mike Fine and Mike Shalett in 1991, data is collected weekly and made available every Sunday (for albums sales) and every Monday (f ...
." The chart is released weekly and measures sales of physical commercial singles. With the decline in sales of physical singles in the US, many songs that become number one on this chart often do not even chart on the Hot 100. * ''
Digital Songs The Digital Songs or Digital Song Sales chart (previously named Hot Digital Songs) ranks the best-selling digital songs in the United States, as compiled by Nielsen SoundScan MRC Data (formerly Nielsen SoundScan and Nielsen Music Products) is a ...
'': Digital sales are tracked by Nielsen SoundScan and are included as part of a title's sales points. * ''
Streaming Songs The Streaming Songs chart is released weekly by '' Billboard'' magazine and lists each week's top streamed radio songs, on-demand songs and videos on leading online music services in the United States. The chart represents one of the three component ...
'': a collaboration between ''Billboard'', Nielsen SoundScan and
National Association of Recording MerchandisersThe Music Business Association (Music Biz), formerly known as the National Association of Recording Merchandisers (NARM), is a not-for-profit trade association based in Marlton, New Jersey that seeks to promote overall growth in all areas of the gl ...
which measures the top streamed radio songs, on-demand songs and videos on leading online music services.


Compilation

The tracking week for sales and streaming begins on Friday and ends on Thursday, while the radio play tracking-week runs from Monday to Sunday. A new chart is compiled and officially released to the public by ''Billboard'' on Tuesday. Each chart is post-dated with the "week-ending" issue date four days after the charts are refreshed online (i.e., the following Saturday). For example: *Friday, January 1 – sales tracking-week begins, streaming tracking-week begins *Monday, January 4 – airplay tracking-week begins *Thursday, January 7 – sales tracking-week ends, streaming tracking-week ends *Sunday, January 10 – airplay tracking-week ends *Tuesday, January 12 – new chart released, with issue post-dated Saturday, January 16


Policy changes

The methods and policies by which this data is obtained and compiled have changed many times throughout the chart's history. Although the advent of a singles music chart spawned chart historians and chart-watchers and greatly affected
pop culture Pop or POP may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Music * Pop music Pop is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form during the mid-1950s in the United States and the United Kingdom. The terms ''popular music'' and ''p ...
and produced countless bits of trivia, the main purpose of the Hot 100 is to aid those within the music industry: to reflect the popularity of the "product" (the singles, the albums, etc.) and to track the trends of the buying public. ''Billboard'' has (many times) changed its methodology and policies to give the most precise and accurate reflection of what is popular. A very basic example of this would be the ratio given to sales and airplay. During the Hot 100's early history, singles were the leading way by which people bought music. At times, when singles sales were robust, more weight was given to a song's retail points than to its radio airplay. As the decades passed, the recording industry concentrated more on album sales than singles sales. Musicians eventually expressed their creative output in the form of full-length albums rather than singles, and by the 1990s many record companies stopped releasing singles altogether (see ''Album Cuts'', below). Eventually, a song's airplay points were weighted more so than its sales. ''Billboard'' has adjusted the sales/airplay ratio many times to more accurately reflect the true popularity of songs.


Double-sided singles

''Billboard'' has also changed its Hot 100 policy regarding "two-sided singles" several times. The pre-Hot 100 chart "Best Sellers in Stores" listed popular A- and-B-sides together, with the side that was played most often (based on its other charts) listed first. One of the most notable of these, but far from the only one, was
Elvis Presley Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer and actor. Dubbed the "Honorific nicknames in popular music, King of Rock and Roll", he is regarded as Cultural impact of Elvis Presley, one of the most si ...

Elvis Presley
's "Don't Be Cruel" / "Hound Dog". During the Presley single's chart run, top billing was switched back and forth between the two sides several times. But on the concurrent "Most Played in Juke Boxes", "Most Played by Jockeys" and the "Top 100", the two songs were listed separately, as was true of all songs. With the initiation of the Hot 100 in 1958, A- and-B-sides charted separately, as they had on the former Top 100. Starting with the Hot 100 chart for the week ending November 29, 1969, this rule was altered; if both sides received significant airplay, they were listed together. This started to become a moot point by 1972, as most major record labels solidified a trend they had started in the 1960s by putting the same song on both sides of the singles provided to radio. More complex issues began to arise as the typical A-and-B-side format of singles gave way to 12 inch singles and maxi-singles, many of which contained more than one B-side. Further problems arose when, in several cases, a B-side would eventually overtake the A-side in popularity, thus prompting record labels to release a new single, featuring the former B-side as the A-side, along with a "new" B-side. The inclusion of album cuts on the Hot 100 put the double-sided hit issues to rest permanently.


Album cuts

As many Hot 100 chart policies have been modified over the years, one rule always remained constant: songs were not eligible to enter the Hot 100 unless they were available to purchase as a single. However, on December 5, 1998, the Hot 100 changed from being a "singles" chart to a "songs" chart. During the 1990s, a growing trend in the music industry was to promote songs to radio without ever releasing them as singles. It was claimed by major record labels that singles were cannibalizing album sales, so they were slowly phased out. During this period, accusations began to fly of chart manipulation as labels would hold off on releasing a single until airplay was at its absolute peak, thus prompting a top ten or, in some cases, a number one debut. In many cases, a label would delete a single from its catalog after only one week, thus allowing the song to enter the Hot 100, make a high debut and then slowly decline in position as the one-time production of the retail single sold out. It was during this period that several popular mainstream hits never charted on the Hot 100, or charted well after their airplay had declined. During the period that they were not released as singles, the songs were not eligible to chart. Many of these songs dominated the ''Hot 100 Airplay'' chart for extended periods of time: * 1995
The Rembrandts The Rembrandts are an American pop rock Pop rock (also typeset as pop/rock) is rock music with a greater emphasis on professional songwriting and recording craft, and less emphasis on attitude. Originating in the late 1950s as an alternati ...
: " I'll Be There for You" (number one for eight weeks) * 1996
No Doubt No Doubt is an American rock music, rock band from Anaheim, California, formed in 1986. The band consists of vocalist Gwen Stefani, guitarist Tom Dumont, bassist Tony Kanal, and drummer Adrian Young. Since the mid-1990s, they have been supported ...
: "
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" (number one for 16 weeks) * 1997
Sugar Ray Sugar Ray is an American rock band formed in Newport Beach, California in 1986. Originally playing heavier nu metal style music, the band achieved mainstream popularity in 1997 with their more pop-influenced single " Fly". The song's succes ...

Sugar Ray
featuring
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: "
Fly Flies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Lat ...
" (number one for six weeks) * 1997
Will Smith Willard Carroll Smith Jr. (born September 25, 1968) is an American actor, rapper, and film producer. Smith has been nominated for five Golden Globe Awards and two Academy Awards, and has won four Grammy Awards. During the late 1980s, he ach ...

Will Smith
: "
Men in Black In popular culture and UFO conspiracy theories, men in black (MIB) are supposed men dressed in black suits who claim to be quasi- government agents who harass, threaten or sometimes even assassinate UFO witnesses to keep them quiet about what ...
" (number one for four weeks) * 1997
The Cardigans The Cardigans are a Swedish rock band formed in Jönköping, Sweden, in 1992 by guitarist Peter Svensson, bassist Magnus Sveningsson, drummer Bengt Lagerberg, keyboardist Lars-Olof Johansson and lead singer Nina Persson. Post-hiatus shows si ...

The Cardigans
: "
Lovefool "Lovefool" is a song written by Peter Svensson and Nina Persson for Sweden, Swedish Rock music, rock band the Cardigans' third studio album, ''First Band on the Moon'' (1996). It was released as the album's lead single on 14 September 1996 in th ...
" (number two for eight weeks) * 1998
Natalie Imbruglia Natalie Jane Imbruglia ( , ; born 4 February 1975) is an Australian singer-songwriter and actress, currently residing in the UK. In the early 1990s, she played Beth Brennan in the Australian soap opera ''Neighbours ''Neighbours'' is an Au ...

Natalie Imbruglia
: " Torn" (number one for 11 weeks) * 1998
Goo Goo Dolls The Goo Goo Dolls are an American rock music, rock band formed in 1986 in Buffalo, New York, by guitarist/vocalist John Rzeznik, bassist/vocalist Robby Takac, and drummer George Tutuska. After starting off as a cover band and then developing a ...
: " Iris" (number one for 18 weeks) As debate and conflicts occurred more and more often, ''Billboard'' finally answered the requests of music industry artists and insiders by including airplay-only singles (or "album cuts") in the Hot 100.


EPs

Extended play An extended play record, usually referred to as an EP, is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single Single may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Single (music), a song release Songs * Single (Natasha Bedingfield s ...
(EP) releases were listed by ''Billboard'' on the Hot 100 and in pre-Hot 100 charts (Top 100) until the mid-to-late 1960s. With the growing popularity of albums, it was decided to move EPs (which typically contain four to six tracks) from the Hot 100 to the ''Billboard'' 200, where they are included to this day.


Digital downloads, online streaming and bundles

Since February 12, 2005, the ''Billboard'' Hot 100 tracks paid digital downloads from such internet services as
iTunes iTunes () is a media player, media library, Internet radio Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, online radio) is a digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or ...

iTunes
, Musicmatch, and Rhapsody. ''Billboard'' initially started tracking downloads in 2003 with the
Hot Digital Tracks The Hot Digital Tracks chart is a song popularity chart that ranks the best selling digital tracks in the United States according to ''Billboard'' magazine. It is not to be confused with the Hot Digital Songs The Digital Songs or Digital Song ...
chart. However, these downloads did not count towards the Hot 100 and that chart (as opposed to
Hot Digital Songs The Digital Songs or Digital Song Sales chart (previously named Hot Digital Songs) ranks the best-selling digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electron ...
) counted each version of a song separately (the chart still exists today along with Hot Digital Songs). This was the first major overhaul of the Hot 100's chart formula since December 1998. The change in methodology has shaken up the chart considerably, with some songs debuting on the chart strictly with robust online sales and others making drastic leaps. In recent years, several songs have been able to achieve 80-to-90 position jumps in a single week as their digital components were made available at online music stores. Since 2006, the all-time record for the biggest single-week upward movement was broken nine times. In the issue dated August 11, 2007, ''Billboard'' began incorporating weekly data from
streaming media Streaming media is multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media which ...
and on-demand services into the Hot 100. The first two major companies to provide their statistics to Nielsen BDS on a weekly basis were
AOL AOL (stylized as Aol., formerly a company known as AOL Inc. and originally known as America Online) is an American web portal A web portal is a specially designed website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page ...

AOL
Music and
Yahoo! Music Yahoo! Music was a brand under which Yahoo! Yahoo (, styled as yahoo''!'') is an American web services The term Web service (WS) is either: * a service offered by an electronic device to another electronic device, communicating with each ...
. On March 24, 2012, Billboard premiered its On-Demand Songs chart, and its data was incorporated into the equation that compiles the Hot 100. This was expanded to a broader
Streaming Songs The Streaming Songs chart is released weekly by '' Billboard'' magazine and lists each week's top streamed radio songs, on-demand songs and videos on leading online music services in the United States. The chart represents one of the three component ...
chart in January 2013, which ranks web radio streams from services such as
Spotify Spotify (Help:IPA/English, /ˈspɒtɪfaɪ/; Swedish: Help:IPA/Swedish, spɔ̂tːɪfaj, is a Sweden, Swedish Streaming media, audio streaming and media services provider, founded in 2006 by Daniel Ek. Spotify is incorporated in Luxembourg a ...

Spotify
, as well as on-demand audio titles. In February 2013, U.S. views for a song on
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
were added to the Hot 100 formula. " Harlem Shake" was the first song to reach number one after the changes were made. The Hot 100 formula starting 2013 generally incorporates sales (35–45%), airplay (30–40%) and streaming (20–30%), and the precise percentage can change from week to week. In July 2020, ''Billboard'' announced that they would no longer allow sales of physical/digital bundles to be reported as digital sales. This refers to songs being bought along with merchandise, either from an artists website or through another vendor. The magazine stated that this was a tactic generally used by certain artists to boost their chart positions. Instead, such physical releases are now only counted when they are shipped to the consumer, rendering the tactic "ineffectual".


Remixes

A growing trend in the early first decade of the 21st century was to issue a song as a "remix" that was so drastically different in structure and lyrical content from its original version that it was essentially a whole new song. Under normal circumstances, airplay points from a song's album version, "radio" mix and/or
dance music Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dance, dancing. It can be either a whole musical piece or part of a larger musical arrangement. In terms of performance, the major categories are Concert, live dance music an ...
remix, etc. were all combined and factored into the song's performance on the Hot 100, as the structure, lyrics and melody remained intact. Criticisms began when songs were being completely re-recorded to the point that they no longer resembled the original recording. The first such example of this scenario is
Jennifer Lopez Jennifer Lynn "J.Lo" Lopez (born July 24, 1969) is an American singer, actress, and dancer. In 1991, Lopez began appearing as a Fly Girl dancer on ''In Living Color ''In Living Color'' is an American sketch comedy Sketch comedy compris ...

Jennifer Lopez
' " I'm Real". Originally entering the Hot 100 in its album version, a "remix" was issued in the midst of its chart run that featured rapper
Ja Rule Jeffrey Bruce Atkins (born February 29, 1976), better known by his stage name Ja Rule (), is an American rapper, singer, songwriter and actor. Born in Hollis, Queens Hollis is a residential middle class, middle-class neighborhood within the s ...
. This new version proved to be far more popular than the album version and the track was propelled to number one. To address this issue, ''Billboard'' now separates airplay points from a song's original version and its remix, if the remix is determined to be a "new song". Since administering this new chart rule, several songs have charted twice, normally credited as "Part 1" and "Part 2". The remix rule is still in place.


Recurrents

''Billboard'', in an effort to allow the chart to remain as current as possible and to give proper representation to new and developing artists and tracks, has (since 1991) removed titles that have reached certain criteria regarding its current rank and number of weeks on the chart. Recurrent criteria have been modified several times and currently (), a song is permanently moved to "recurrent status" if it has spent 20 weeks on the Hot 100 and fallen below position number 50. Additionally, descending songs are removed from the chart if ranking below number 25 after 52 weeks. Exceptions are made to re-releases and sudden resurgence in popularity of tracks that have taken a very long time to gain mainstream success. These rare cases are handled on a case-by-case basis and ultimately determined by ''Billboard''s chart managers and staff. Christmas songs have been a regular presence on the Hot 100 each December since the relaxation of recurrent rules, culminating in
Mariah Carey Mariah Carey (; born March 27, 1969) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and record producer. Known for her five-octave vocal range Vocal range is the range of pitches that a human voice The human voice consists of sound mad ...
's 1994 recording "
All I Want for Christmas is You "All I Want for Christmas Is You" is a Christmas song by American singer-songwriter Mariah Carey. She co-wrote and co-produced it with Walter Afanasieff for her fourth studio album and first holiday album, ''Merry Christmas (Mariah Carey album ...
" reaching #1 on the chart in December 2019.


Adjustment of tracking week

''Billboard'' altered its tracking-week for sales, streaming and radio airplay in order to conform to a new Global Release Date, which now falls on Fridays in all major-market territories (United States product was formerly released on Tuesdays prior to June 2015). This modified tracking schedule took effect in the issue dated July 25, 2015.


Year-end charts

''Billboard''s "chart year" runs from the first week of December to the final week in November. This altered calendar allows for ''Billboard'' to calculate year-end charts and release them in time for its final print issue in the last week of December. Prior to Nielsen SoundScan, year-end singles charts were calculated by an inverse-point system based solely on a song's performance on the Hot 100 (for example, a song would be given one point for a week spent at position 100, two points for a week spent at position 99 and so forth, up to 100 points for each week spent at number one). Other factors including the total weeks a song spent on the chart and at its peak position were calculated into its year-end total. After ''Billboard'' began obtaining sales and airplay information from Nielsen SoundScan, the year-end charts are now calculated by a very straightforward cumulative total of yearlong sales, streaming, and airplay points. This gives a more accurate picture of any given year's most popular tracks, as the points accrued by one song during its week at number one in March might be less than those accrued by another song reaching number three in January. Songs at the peak of their popularity at the time of the November/December chart-year cutoff many times end up ranked on the following year's chart as well, as their cumulative points are split between the two chart-years, but often are ranked lower than they would have been had the peak occurred in a single year.


Use in media

The Hot 100 served for many years as the data source for the weekly radio countdown show ''
American Top 40 ''American Top 40'' (commonly abbreviated to ''AT40'') is an internationally syndicated Syndication may refer to: * Broadcast syndication, where individual stations buy programs outside the network system * Print syndication, where individual n ...
''. This relationship ended on November 30, 1991, as ''American Top 40'' started using the airplay-only side of the Hot 100 (then called Top 40 Radio Monitor). The ongoing splintering of Top 40 radio in the early 1990s led stations to lean into specific formats, meaning that practically no station would play the wide array of genres that typically composed each weekly Hot 100 chart. An artist or band's ability to have hits in the Hot 100 across multiple decades is recognized as a sign of longevity and being able to adapt to changing musical styles. Only five artists had a Hot 100 Top 40 hit in each of the four decades from the 1980s through the 2010s:
Michael Jackson Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter and dancer. Dubbed the " King of Pop", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural figures of the 20th century. Over a four-decade car ...

Michael Jackson
,
Madonna Madonna Louise Ciccone (; ; born August 16, 1958) is an American singer-songwriter and actress. She is considered Cultural impact of Madonna, one of the most influential figures in popular culture and has often been referred to as the "Honor ...
,
"Weird Al" Yankovic Alfred Matthew "Weird Al" Yankovic ( ; born October 23, 1959) is an American singer, musician, record producer, and actor who is known for Comedy music, humorous songs that make light of popular culture, pop culture and often parody specific ...
, , and
Kenny G Kenneth Bruce Gorelick (born June 5, 1956), known professionally as Kenny G, is an American smooth jazz saxophonist, composer, and producer. His 1986 album ''Duotones'' brought him commercial success. Kenny G is one of the List of best-selling ...
.
Mariah Carey Mariah Carey (; born March 27, 1969) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and record producer. Known for her five-octave vocal range Vocal range is the range of pitches that a human voice The human voice consists of sound mad ...
is the first and only artist to have a number-one single in four different decades.


Similar charts

A new chart, the
Pop 100 The Pop 100 was a songs chart that debuted in February 2005 and was released weekly by ''Billboard'' magazine in the United States until its discontinuation in 2009. It ranked songs based on airplay on Mainstream Top 40 The Mainstream Top 40 Air ...
, was created by ''Billboard'' in February 2005 to answer criticism that the Hot 100 was biased in favor of pop songs, as throughout most of its existence, the Hot 100 was seen predominantly as a pop chart. It was discontinued in June 2009 due to the charts becoming increasingly similar. The
Canadian Hot 100 The Canadian Hot 100 is a music industry record chart A record chart, also called a music chart, is a ranking of Sound recording and reproduction, recorded music according to certain criteria during a given period. Many different criteria are u ...
was launched June 16, 2007. Like the Hot 100 chart, it uses sales and airplay tracking compiled by Nielsen SoundScan and BDS. The
Japan Hot 100 The ''Billboard Japan'' Hot 100 is a record chart in Japan. It has been compiled by '' Billboard Japan'' and ''Hankyu Hanshin Holdings, Hanshin Contents Link'' ever since February 2008. The chart is updated every Wednesday at billboard-Japan.com (J ...
was launched in the issue dated May 31, 2008, using the same methodologies as the Hot 100 charts for the U.S. and Canada, using sales and airplay data from SoundScan Japan and radio tracking service Plantech.


See also

*
Bestseller A bestseller is a book A book is a medium for recording information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its c ...
* ''Billboard'' charts * ''Billboard'' Music Awards *
Chart-topper A record chart, in the music industry The music industry consists of the individuals and organizations that earn money by Musical composition, writing songs and musical compositions, creating and selling Sound recording and reproduction, ...
* ''Billboard'' Global 200 *
List of artists who reached number one in the United States This is a list of recording artists who have reached number one on ''Billboard A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising structure (a billing board), typically found in hig ...
*
List of best-selling music artists The following is an independently verified list of best-selling music artists (those with claims of 75 million or more record sales) from the second half of the 20th century to the present. Only artists whose claimed sales figures can be cross-r ...
* List of ''Billboard'' Hot 100 chart achievements and milestones * List of ''Billboard'' Hot 100 number-one singles of the 2020s * List of ''Billboard'' number-one singles * List of ''Billboard'' top 10 singles * Single certifications * ''Rolling Stone'' Top 100


Notes


References

* Bronson, Fred. ''Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits, 5th Edition'' () * Feldman, Christopher G. ''The Billboard Book of No. 2 Singles'' () * Whitburn, Joel. ''Top Pop Singles 1955-2008, 12 Edition'' () * Whitburn, Joel. ''The Billboard Pop Charts, 1955–1959'' () * Whitburn, Joel. ''The Billboard Hot 100 Charts: The Sixties'' () * Whitburn, Joel. ''The Billboard Hot 100 Charts: The Seventies'' () * Whitburn, Joel. ''The Billboard Hot 100 Charts: The Eighties'' () * Whitburn, Joel. ''The Billboard Hot 100 Charts: The Nineties'' ()


External links

* {{Hot 100 year-end charts
Hot 100 The ''Billboard'' Hot 100 is the music industry The music industry consists of the individuals and organizations that earn money by Musical composition, writing songs and musical compositions, creating and selling Sound recording and repr ...
Top lists 1958 establishments in the United States