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A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as authoritative
scripture Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred Sacred describes something that is dedicated or set apart for the service or worship of ...
. The English word ''
canon Canon or Canons may refer to: Places * Canon, Georgia Canon is a city in Franklin County, Georgia, Franklin and Hart County, Georgia, Hart counties in the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. The population was 804 at the 2010 census. His ...
'' comes from the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
κανών, meaning "
rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionma ...

rule
" or "
measuring stick A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the olde ...
". Christians were the first to use the term in reference to scripture, but
Eugene Ulrich Eugene Charles Ulrich (born November 5, 1938) is a U.S. doctor and the John A. O'Brien Professor emeritus of Hebrew Scripture and Theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the Divinity, divine and, more broadly, of religious bel ...
regards the notion as Jewish. Most of the canons listed below are considered by adherents to be "closed" (i.e., books cannot be added or removed), reflecting a belief that public
revelation In religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involu ...

revelation
has ended and thus some person or persons can gather approved
inspired ''InsPirEd'' is the second studio album by American Hip hop music, hip hop group and Public Enemy (group), Public Enemy spin-off PE 2.0. The album was released on October 11, 2015 and includes collaborations with Hip Hop icons KRS-One, Easy Mo Be ...
texts into a complete and authoritative canon, which scholar
Bruce Metzger Bruce Manning Metzger (February 9, 1914 – February 13, 2007) was an American biblical scholar, Bible translator and textual critic who was a long time professor at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who served on the board of th ...
defines as "an authoritative collection of books". In contrast, an "open canon", which permits the addition of books through the process of
continuous revelation Continuous revelation or continuing revelation is a theological belief or position that God God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, and principal object of faith Faith, derived from Latin ''fides'' an ...
, Metzger defines as "a collection of authoritative books". These canons have developed through debate and agreement on the part of the religious authorities of their respective faiths and denominations. Some books, such as the
Jewish–Christian gospels The Jewish–Christian Gospels were gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out; in this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, epis ...
, have been excluded from various canons altogether, but many disputed books are considered to be
biblical apocrypha The biblical apocrypha (from the grc, ἀπόκρυφος, translit=apókruphos, lit=hidden) denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books thought to have been written some time between 200 BC and 400 AD. Some Christian churches include ...
or
deuterocanonical The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its p ...
by many, while some denominations may consider them fully canonical. Differences exist between the Hebrew Bible and Christian biblical canons, although the majority of manuscripts are shared in common. In some cases where varying strata of scriptural inspiration have accumulated, it becomes prudent to discuss texts that only have an elevated status within a particular tradition. This becomes even more complex when considering the open canons of the various Latter Day Saint sects and the scriptural revelations purportedly given to several leaders over the years within that
movement Movement may refer to: Common uses * Movement (clockwork), the internal mechanism of a timepiece * Motion (physics), commonly referred to as movement Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * Movement (short story), "Movement", a shor ...
. Different religious groups include different books in their biblical canons, in varying orders, and sometimes divide or combine books. The Jewish
Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, ...
(sometimes called the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
) contains 24 books divided into three parts: the five books of the ''
Torah The Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") includes the first five books of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Heb ...

Torah
'' ("teaching"); the eight books of the ''
Nevi'im Nevi'im (; he, נְבִיאִים ''Nəḇīʾīm'', "Prophets", literally "spokespersons") is the second major division of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the of scriptures, including the , the , and the ...
'' ("prophets"); and the eleven books of ''
Ketuvim Ketuvim (; hbo, כְּתוּבִים Kethūvīm "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afro ...
'' ("writings"). It is composed mainly in
Biblical Hebrew Biblical Hebrew ( ''Ivrit Miqra'it'' or ''Leshon ha-Miqra''), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroas ...
. The Greek
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
closely resembles the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
but includes additional texts, is the main textual source for the Christian Greek Old Testament.
Christian Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek ...
s range from the 73 books of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...
canon, the 66 books of the canon of some denominations or the 80 books of the canon of other denominations of
Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church, errors in the Catholic Church. Protestants originating in the Ref ...
, to the 81 books of the
Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church ( am, የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ቤተ ክርስቲያን, ''Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan'') is the largest Oriental Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox church. On ...
canon. The first part of Christian Bibles is the
Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as aut ...
, which contains, at minimum, the above 24 books of the Hebrew Bible but divided into 39 (Protestant) or 46 (Catholic) books and ordered differently. The second part is the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
, containing 27 books; the four
canonical gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel"), but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out. In this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrative of the words an ...
,
Acts of the Apostles The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament The New T ...
, 21
Epistles An epistle (; el, ἐπιστολή, ''epistolē,'' "letter") is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal Didacticism, didactic letter. The epistle genre of letter-writing was common in ancient Eg ...
or letters and the
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
. For example, the
King James Bible The King James Version (KJV), also the King James Bible (KJB) and the Authorized Version, is an English translations of the Bible, English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, which was commissioned in 1604 and publ ...
contains 80 books: 39 in its Old Testament, 14 in its
Apocrypha Apocrypha (Gr. ἀπόκρυφος, ‘the hidden hings) The biblical Books received by the early Church as part of the Greek version of the Old Testament, but not included in the Hebrew Bible, being excluded by the non-Hellenistic Jews fro ...
, and 27 in its New Testament. The
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
and
Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), ...
churches hold that certain deuterocanonical books and passages are part of the Old Testament canon. The
Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
,
Oriental Orthodox The Oriental Orthodox Churches are a group of Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings ...
, and
Assyrian Christian Assyrians (, ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, mo ...
churches may have minor differences in their lists of accepted books. The list given here for these churches is the most inclusive: if at least one Eastern church accepts the book it is included here.


Jewish canons


Rabbinic Judaism

Rabbinic Judaism Rabbinic Judaism ( he, יהדות רבנית, Yahadut Rabanit), also called Rabbinism, Rabbinicism, or Judaism espoused by the Rabbanites, has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century Common era, CE, after the codification of ...
(Hebrew: יהדות רבנית) recognizes the twenty-four books of the
Masoretic Text The Masoretic Text (MT or 𝕸; he, נוסח המסורה, Nusakh Ham'mas'sora) is the authoritative Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic languag ...
, commonly called the ''Tanakh'' (Hebrew: תַּנַ"ךְ) or
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
. Evidence suggests that the process of canonization occurred between 200 BC and 200 AD, and a popular position is that the
Torah The Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") includes the first five books of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Heb ...

Torah
was canonized c. 400 BC, the
Prophets In religion, a prophet is an individual who is regarded as being in contact with a divinity, divine being and is said to speak on behalf of that being, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the super ...
c. 200 BC, and the Writings c. 100 AD perhaps at a hypothetical
Council of Jamnia The Council of Jamnia (presumably Yavneh Yavne ( he, יַבְנֶה) or Yavneh is a city in the Central District of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the State of Israel ( h ...
—however, this position is increasingly criticised by modern scholars. According to
Marc Zvi BrettlerMarc Brettler (Marc Zvi Brettler) is an American biblical scholar, and the Bernice and Morton Lerner Professor in Judaic Studies at Duke University. He earned his B.A., M.A., and PhD from Brandeis University, where he previously served as Dora Goldin ...
, the Jewish scriptures outside the Torah and the Prophets were fluid, different groups seeing authority in different books. The
Book of Deuteronomy The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law" from Greek ''deuteros'' + ''nomos'') is the fifth book of the Jewish Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically ...
includes a prohibition against adding or subtracting (, ) which might apply to the book itself (i.e. a "closed book", a prohibition against future
scribal
scribal
editing) or to the instruction received by
Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, ''Mōše''; also known as Moshe Rabbenu ( he, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ "Moshe our Teacher"); syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, ' () is considered the most important prophet in Judais ...

Moses
on Mt. Sinai. The book of 2 Maccabees, itself not a part of the Jewish canon, describes
Nehemiah Nehemiah is the central figure of the Book of Nehemiah, which describes his work in rebuilding Jerusalem during the Second Temple period. He was governor of Yehud Medinata, Persian Judea under Artaxerxes I of Persia (465–424 BC). The name i ...

Nehemiah
(c. 400 BC) as having "founded a library and collected books about the kings and prophets, and the writings of David, and letters of kings about votive offerings" (). The
Book of Nehemiah The Book of Nehemiah, in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah, the Nevi'im, and the Ketuvim. These texts are almos ...
suggests that the priest-scribe
Ezra Ezra (; he, עֶזְרָא, '; fl. 480–440 BCE), also called Ezra the Scribe (, ') and Ezra the Priest in the Book of Ezra The Book of Ezra is a book of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the of scripture ...

Ezra
brought the Torah back from Babylon to
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
and the
Second Temple The Second Temple (, ), also known in its later years as Herod's Temple, was the reconstructed Jewish holy temple that stood on the Temple Mount The Temple Mount (Hebrew language, Hebrew: , ; "Mount of the House f God, i.e. the Temple in ...

Second Temple
() around the same time period. Both I and II Maccabees suggest that
Judas Maccabeus Judah Maccabee (or Judas Maccabeus, also spelled Machabeus, or Maccabæus, Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it i ...

Judas Maccabeus
(c. 167 BC) likewise collected sacred books (, , ), indeed some scholars argue that the
Hasmonean
Hasmonean
dynasty fixed the Jewish canon. However, these
primary sources In the study of history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the invention of writing systems are considered prehistory. "History" is ...
do not suggest that the canon was at that time ''closed''; moreover, it is not clear that these sacred books were identical to those that later became part of the canon. The
Great AssemblyAccording to Jewish tradition the Men of the Great Assembly ( he, כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה) or Anshei Knesset HaGedolah (, "The Men of the Great Assembly"), also known as the Great Synagogue, or ''Synod'', was an assembly of 120 scrib ...
, also known as the Great Synagogue, was, according to Jewish tradition, an assembly of 120 scribes, sages, and prophets, in the period from the end of the Biblical prophets to the time of the development of Rabbinic Judaism, marking a transition from an era of prophets to an era of Rabbis. They lived in a period of about two centuries ending c. 70 AD. Among the developments in Judaism that are attributed to them are the fixing of the Jewish Biblical canon ource required including the books of Ezekiel, Daniel, Esther, and the Twelve Minor Prophets; the introduction of the triple classification of the
Oral Torah According to Rabbinic Judaism Rabbinic Judaism ( he, יהדות רבנית, Yahadut Rabanit), also called Rabbinism, Rabbinicism, or Judaism espoused by the Rabbanites, has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century Common era, C ...
, dividing its study into the three branches of
midrash ''Midrash'' (;"midrash"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''.
he, מִדְרָשׁ; ...

midrash
, halakot, and
aggadot Aggadah ( he, אַגָּדָה or ; Jewish Babylonian Aramaic אַגָּדְתָא; "tales, fairytale, lore") is the non-legalistic exegesis Exegesis (; from the Ancient Greek, Greek from , "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpret ...
; the introduction of the Feast of
Purim Purim (; Hebrew: ; , "Cleromancy, lots", from the word , , translated as 'lot' in the Book of Esther, perhaps related to Akkadian language, Akkadian , "stone, urn"; also called the Festival of Lots) is a Jewish holiday which commemorates the savi ...

Purim
; and the institution of the prayer known as the Shemoneh 'Esreh as well as the synagogal prayers, rituals, and benedictions. In addition to the Tanakh, mainstream Rabbinic Judaism considers the
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (''halakha'') and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the ...

Talmud
(Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד ) to be another central, authoritative text. It takes the form of a record of
rabbi A rabbi () is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, monotheism, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civili ...

rabbi
nic discussions pertaining to
Jewish law ''Halakha'' (; he, הֲלָכָה, ), also transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus '' trans-'' + '' liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → ...
,
ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, ...
, philosophy, customs, and history. The Talmud has two components: the
Mishnah The Mishnah or the Mishna (; he, מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb ''shanah'' , or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions which is known as the Oral Torah. ...
(c. 200 AD), the first written compendium of Judaism's oral Law; and the
Gemara The Gemara (also transliteration, transliterated Gemarah, or in Ashkenazi pronunciation Gemore; from Aramaic , from the Aramaic language, Hebrew verb ''gamar'', to finish or complete) is the component of the Talmud comprising rabbinical analys ...
(c. 500 AD), an elucidation of the Mishnah and related
Tannaitic ''Tannaim'' ( arc, תנאים , singular , ''Tanna'' "repeaters", "teachers") were the rabbinic Sage (philosophy), sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah, from approximately 10–220 CE. The period of the ''Tannaim'', also referred to as t ...
writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Tanakh. There are numerous citations of
Sirach The Book of Sirach, also called the Wisdom of Sirach or simply Sirach (), and also known as the Book of Ecclesiasticus (; abbreviated Ecclus.) or Ben Sira, is a Jewish work originally in Hebrew of ethical teachings, from approximately 200 to 17 ...
within the Talmud, even though the book was not ultimately accepted into the Hebrew canon. The Talmud is the basis for all codes of
rabbinic law In its primary meaning, the Hebrew language, Hebrew word ' (, meaning "commandment", , , Biblical Hebrew, Biblical: '; plural ' , Biblical: '; from ' "command") refers to a commandment Divine law, commanded by God to be performed as a religious ...
and is often quoted in other
rabbinic literature Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, is the entire spectrum of rabbi A rabbi is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism. One becomes a rabbi by being ordained by another rabbi, following a course of study of Jewish texts ...
. Certain groups of Jews, such as the Karaites, do not accept the oral Law as it is codified in the Talmud and only consider the Tanakh to be authoritative.


Beta Israel

Ethiopian Jews—also known as
Beta Israel Beta Israel ( he, בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל, ''Beta Yisra'el''; gez, ቤተ እስራኤል, , modern ''Bēte 'Isrā'ēl'', Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "House of Israel" or "Community of Israel"), also known as E ...
( Ge'ez: ቤተ እስራኤል—''Bēta 'Isrā'ēl'')—possess a canon of scripture that is distinct from Rabbinic Judaism. ''Mäṣḥafä Kedus'' (Holy Scriptures) is the name for the religious literature of these Jews, which is written primarily in Ge'ez. Their holiest book, the ''Orit'', consists of the
Pentateuch The Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") includes the first five books of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebre ...
, as well as
Joshua Joshua () or Yehoshua ( he, יְהוֹשֻׁעַ ''Yəhōšūaʿ'') ''Yēšūʿ''; syr, ܝܫܘܥ ܒܪ ܢܘܢ ''Yəšūʿ bar Nōn''; el, Ἰησοῦς, ar , يُوشَعُ ٱبْنُ نُونٍ '' Yūšaʿ ibn Nūn''; la, Iosue functioned ...
,
Judges A judge A judge is a person who presides over court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. ...
, and Ruth. The rest of the Ethiopian Jewish canon is considered to be of secondary importance. It consists of the remainder of the Hebrew canon—with the possible exception of the
Book of Lamentations The Book of Lamentations ( he, אֵיכָה, ''‘Êykhôh'', from its incipit The incipit () of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label. In a musical composition File:Chord chart.svg, 250px, Jazz and ...
—and various
deuterocanonical books The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek language, Greek meaning "belonging to the second canon") are books and passages considered by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, and the Assyrian Church of ...
. These include
Sirach The Book of Sirach, also called the Wisdom of Sirach or simply Sirach (), and also known as the Book of Ecclesiasticus (; abbreviated Ecclus.) or Ben Sira, is a Jewish work originally in Hebrew of ethical teachings, from approximately 200 to 17 ...
, Judith, Tobit, 1 and
2 Esdras 2 Esdras (also called 4 Esdras, Latin Esdras, or Latin Ezra) is the name of an apocalyptic book in some English translations of the Bible, English versions of the Bible. Tradition ascribes it to Ezra, a sofer, scribe and kohen, priest of the , b ...
, 1 and
4 Baruch Fourth Baruch is a pseudepigraphical Pseudepigrapha (also anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are falsely attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figur ...
, the three books of
Meqabyan Meqabyan (Amharic Amharic ( or ; (Amharic: ), ', ) is an Ethiopian Semitic language, which is a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semit ...
,
Jubilees The Book of Jubilees, sometimes called Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work of 50 chapters, considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church as well as Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews), where it is known as the ''B ...
,
Enoch Enoch may refer to: Biblical occurrences *Enoch (ancestor of Noah), son of Jared, father of Methusaleh, great-grandfather of Noah, subject of the deuterocanonical Book of Enoch * Enoch (son of Cain) *Hanoch (Enoch), son of Reuben (son of Jacob), ...
,For a fuller discussion of issues regarding the canonicity of Enoch, see the Reception of Enoch in antiquity. the
Testament of AbrahamThe Testament of Abraham is a pseudepigraphic text of the Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon, which is based primarily upon the 24 books of the Hebrew Bible The Hebre ...
, the
Testament of Isaac The Testament of Isaac is a work now regarded as part of the Old Testament apocrypha. It is often treated as one of a trio of very similar works, the other two of which are the Testament of Abraham and Testament of Jacob, though there is no reason t ...
, and the
Testament of Jacob The Testament of Jacob is a work now regarded as part of the Old Testament apocrypha. It is often treated as one of a trio of very similar works, the other two of which are the Testament of Abraham and Testament of Isaac, though there is no rea ...
. The latter three patriarchal testaments are distinct to this scriptural tradition.Because of the lack of solid information on this subject, the exclusion of Lamentations from the Ethiopian Jewish canon is not a certainty. Furthermore, some uncertainty remains concerning the exclusion of various smaller deuterocanonical writings from this canon including the Prayer of Manasseh, the traditional additions to Esther, the traditional additions to Daniel, Psalm 151, and portions of Säqoqawä Eremyas. A third tier of religious writings that are important to Ethiopian Jews, but are not considered to be part of the canon, include the following: ''
Nagara Muse Nagara may refer to: Places * Nagara (ancient city), an ancient city in Afghanistan * Nagara, Karnataka, India * Nagara, Chiba, a town in Japan * Nagara River, a river in Japan People with the surname * Masashi Nagara (born 1977), Japanese fenc ...
'' (The Conversation of Moses), '' Mota Aaron'' (Death of Aaron), ''Mota Muse'' (Death of Moses), ''Te'ezaza Sanbat'' (Precepts of Sabbath), ''Arde'et'' (Students), the Apocalypse of Gorgorios, ''Mäṣḥafä Sa'atat'' (Book of Hours), ''Abba Elias'' (Father Elija), ''Mäṣḥafä Mäla'əkt'' (Book of Angels), ''Mäṣḥafä Kahan'' (Book of Priests), ''Dərsanä Abrəham Wäsara Bägabs'' (Homily on Abraham and Sarah in Egypt), ''Gadla Sosna'' (The Acts of Susanna), and ''Baqadāmi Gabra Egzi'abḥēr'' (In the Beginning God Created). In addition to these, ''Zëna Ayhud'' (the Ethiopic version of Josippon) and the sayings of various ''fālasfā'' (philosophers) are sources that are not necessarily considered holy, but nonetheless have great influence.


Samaritan canon

Another version of the Torah, in the Samaritan alphabet, also exists. This text is associated with the Samaritans (Hebrew: שומרונים; Arabic: السامريون), a people of whom the Jewish Encyclopedia states: "Their history as a distinct community begins with the taking of Samaria by the Assyrians in 722 BC." The Samaritan Pentateuch's relationship to the Masoretic Text is still disputed. Some differences are minor, such as the ages of different people mentioned in genealogy, while others are major, such as a commandment to be monogamous, which only appears in the Samaritan version. More importantly, the Samaritan text also diverges from the Masoretic in stating that Moses received the Ten Commandments on Mount Gerizim—not biblical Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai—and that it is upon Mount Gerizim that sacrifices to God should be made—not in Jerusalem. Scholars nonetheless consult the Samaritan version when trying to determine the meaning of text of the original Pentateuch, as well as to trace the development of text-families. Some scrolls among the Dead Sea scrolls have been identified as proto-Samaritan Pentateuch text-type. Comparisons have also been made between the Samaritan Torah and the Septuagint version. Samaritans consider the Torah to be inspired scripture, but do not accept any other parts of the Bible—probably a position also held by the Sadducees. They did not expand their canon by adding any Samaritan compositions. There is a Book of Joshua (Samaritan), Samaritan Book of Joshua; however, this is a popular chronicle written in Arabic and is not considered to be scripture. Other non-canonical Samaritans#Religious texts, Samaritan religious texts include the ''Memar Markah'' ("Teaching of Markah") and the ''Defter'' (Prayerbook)—both from the 4th century or later. The people of the remnants of the Samaritans in modern-day Israel/State of Palestine, Palestine retain their version of the Torah as fully and authoritatively canonical. They regard themselves as the true "guardians of the Law." This assertion is only re-enforced by the claim of the Samaritan community in Nablus (an area traditionally associated with the ancient city of Shechem) to possess the oldest existing copy of the Torah—one that they believe to have been penned by Abisha, a grandson of Aaron.


Christian canons

With the potential exception of the Septuagint, the apostles did not leave a defined set of scriptures; instead the canon of both the Development of the Old Testament canon, Old Testament and the New Testament Development of the New Testament canon, developed over time. Different denominations recognize different lists of books as canonical, following various church councils and the decisions of leaders of various churches. For mainstream Pauline Christianity (growing from proto-orthodox Christianity in pre-Nicene times) which books constituted the Christian biblical canons of both the #Old Testament, Old and #New Testament, New Testament was generally established by the 5th century, despite some scholarly disagreements, for the ancient undivided Church (the Catholic Church, Catholic and
Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
traditions, before the East–West Schism). The Catholic canon was set at the Council of Rome (382), the same Council commissioned Jerome to compile and translate those canonical texts into the Vulgate, Latin Vulgate Bible. In the wake of the Protestant Reformation, the Council of Trent (1546) affirmed the Vulgate as the official Catholic Bible in order to address changes Martin Luther made in his recently completed German translation which was based on the Hebrew language Tanakh in addition to the original Greek of the component texts. The canons of the Church of England and English Presbyterianism, Presbyterians were decided definitively by the Thirty-Nine Articles (1563) and the Westminster Confession of Faith (1647), respectively. The Synod of Jerusalem (1672), Synod of Jerusalem (1672) established additional canons that are widely accepted throughout the Orthodox Church. Various forms of Jewish Christianity persisted until around the fifth century, and canonicalized very different sets of books, including
Jewish–Christian gospels The Jewish–Christian Gospels were gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out; in this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, epis ...
which have been lost to history. These and many other works are classified as New Testament apocrypha by Pauline denominations. The Old and New Testament canons did not develop independently of each other and most primary sources for the canon specify both Old and New Testament books. For the biblical scripture for both Testaments, canonically accepted in major traditions of Christendom, see #Canons of various traditions, Biblical canon § Canons of various traditions.


Early Church


Earliest Christian communities

The Early Church used the
Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as aut ...
, namely the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
(LXX) among Greek speakers, with a canon perhaps as found in the Development of the old testament canon#Bryennios List, Bryennios List or Melito's canon. The Apostles did not otherwise leave a defined set of new scriptures; instead, the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
developed over time. Writings attributed to the apostles circulated among the earliest Christians, Christian communities. The Pauline epistles were circulating in collected forms by the end of the 1st century AD. Justin Martyr, in the early 2nd century, mentions the "memoirs of the Apostles", which Christians (Greek: Χριστιανός) called "gospels", and which were considered to be authoritatively equal to the Old Testament.


Marcion's list

Marcion of Sinope was the first Christian leader in recorded history (though later considered heresy, heretical) to propose and delineate a uniquely Christian canon (c. AD 140). This included 10 epistles from St. Paul, as well as a version of the Gospel of Luke, which today is known as the Gospel of Marcion. By doing this, he established a particular way of looking at religious texts that persists in Christian thought today. After Marcion, Christians began to divide texts into those that aligned well with the "canon" (measuring stick) of accepted theological thought and those that promoted heresy. This played a major role in finalizing the structure of the collection of works called the Bible. It has been proposed that the initial impetus for the Proto-orthodox Christianity, proto-orthodox Christian project of canonization flowed from opposition to the list produced by Marcion.


Apostolic Fathers

A four-gospel canon (the ''Tetramorph'') was asserted by Irenaeus in the following quote: "It is not possible that the gospels can be either more or fewer in number than they are. For, since there are four-quarters of the earth in which we live, and four universal winds, while the church is scattered throughout all the world, and the 'pillar and ground' of the church is the gospel and the spirit of life, it is fitting that she should have four pillars breathing out immortality on every side, and vivifying men afresh ... Therefore the gospels are in accord with these things ... For the living creatures are quadriform and the gospel is quadriform ... These things being so, all who destroy the form of the gospel are vain, unlearned, and also audacious; those [I mean] who represent the aspects of the gospel as being either more in number than as aforesaid, or, on the other hand, fewer." By the early 3rd century, Christian theologians like Origen of Alexandria may have been using—or at least were familiar with—the same 27 books found in modern New Testament editions, though there were still disputes over the canonicity of some of the writings (see also Antilegomena). Likewise by 200, the Muratorian fragment shows that there existed a set of Christian writings somewhat similar to what is now the New Testament, which included four gospels and argued against objections to them. Thus, while there was a good measure of debate in the Early Church over the New Testament canon, the major writings were accepted by almost all Christians by the middle of the 3rd century.


Eastern Church


Alexandrian Fathers

Origen of Alexandria (184/85–253/54), an early scholar involved in the codification of the Biblical canon, had a thorough education both in Christian theology and in pagan philosophy, but was posthumously condemned at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553 since some of his teachings were considered to be heresy. Origen's canon included all of the books in the current New Testament canon except for four books: Epistle of James, James, Second Epistle of Peter, 2nd Peter, and the Second Epistle of John, 2nd and Third Epistle of John, 3rd epistles of John. He also included the Shepherd of Hermas which was later rejected. The religious scholar
Bruce Metzger Bruce Manning Metzger (February 9, 1914 – February 13, 2007) was an American biblical scholar, Bible translator and textual critic who was a long time professor at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who served on the board of th ...
described Origen's efforts, saying "The process of canonization represented by Origen proceeded by way of selection, moving from many candidates for inclusion to fewer." This was one of the first major attempts at the compilation of certain books and letters as authoritative and inspired teaching for the Early Church at the time, although it is unclear whether Origen intended for his list to be authoritative itself. In his Easter letter of 367, Patriarch Athanasius of Alexandria gave a list of exactly the same books that would become the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
–27 book–proto-canon, and used the phrase "being canonized" (''kanonizomena'') in regard to them. Athanasius also included the Book of Baruch, as well as the Letter of Jeremiah, in his Old Testament canon. However, from this canon, he omitted the Book of Esther.


Fifty Bibles of Constantine

In 331, Constantine I and Christianity, Constantine I commissioned Eusebius to deliver fifty Bibles for the Church of Constantinople. Athanasius recorded Early centers of Christianity#Alexandria, Alexandrian scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for Constans. Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon lists, and that Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus are examples of these Bibles. Those codices contain almost a full version of the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
; Vaticanus is only lacking 1–3 Books of the Maccabees, Maccabees and Sinaiticus is lacking 2–3 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, Book of Baruch, Baruch and Letter of Jeremiah. Together with the Peshitta and Codex Alexandrinus, these are the earliest extant Christian Bibles. There is no evidence among the First Council of Nicaea#Biblical canon, canons of the First Council of Nicaea of any determination on the canon, however, Jerome (347-420), in his ''Prologue to Judith'', makes the claim that the Book of Judith was "found by the Nicene Council to have been counted among the number of the Sacred Scriptures".


Eastern canons

The Eastern Churches had, in general, a weaker feeling than those in the West for the necessity of making sharp delineations with regard to the canon. They were more conscious of the gradation of spiritual quality among the books that they accepted (for example, the classification of Eusebius, see also Antilegomena) and were less often disposed to assert that the books which they rejected possessed no spiritual quality at all. For example, the Quinisext Council, Trullan Synod of 691–692, which Pope Sergius I (in office 687–701) rejected (see also Pentarchy), endorsed the following lists of canonical writings: the Canons of the Apostles, Apostolic Canons (c. 385), the Synod of Laodicea (c. 363), the Council of Carthage (397), Third Synod of Carthage (c. 397), and the Easter letter, 39th Festal Letter of Athanasius (367). And yet, these lists do not agree. Similarly, the New Testament canons of the Syriac Orthodox Church, Syriac, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian, Georgian Orthodox Church, Georgian, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Egyptian Coptic and Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Churches all have minor differences, yet five of these Churches are part of the Oriental Orthodoxy, same communion and hold the same theological beliefs. The Revelation of John is said to be one of the most uncertain books; it was not translated into Georgian until the 10th century, and it has never been included in the official lectionary of the Eastern Orthodox Church, whether in Byzantine or modern times.


Peshitta

The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac Christianity, Syriac tradition. Most of the
deuterocanonical books The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek language, Greek meaning "belonging to the second canon") are books and passages considered by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, and the Assyrian Church of ...
of the Old Testament are found in the Syriac, and the Wisdom of Sirach is held to have been translated from the Hebrew and not from the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
. This New Testament, originally excluding certain disputed books (2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation), had become a standard by the early 5th century. The five excluded books were added in the Harklean Version (616 AD) of Thomas of Harqel. The standard United Bible Societies 1905 edition of the New Testament of the Peshitta was based on editions prepared by Syriacists Philip E. Pusey (d.1880), George Gwilliam (d.1914) and John Gwynn (professor), John Gwyn. All twenty seven books of the common western #New Testament, New Testament are included in this British & Foreign Bible Society's 1905 Peshitta edition.


Western Church


Latin Fathers

The first Council that accepted the present Catholic canon (the Canon of Trent of 1546) may have been the Synod of Hippo, Synod of Hippo Regius, held in North Africa in 393. A brief summary of the acts was read at and accepted by the Council of Carthage (397) and also the Council of Carthage (419). These Councils took place under the authority of Augustine of Hippo, St. Augustine (354–430), who regarded the canon as already closed. Their decrees also declared by fiat that Epistle to the Hebrews was written by Paul, for a time ending all debate on the subject. Augustine of Hippo declared without qualification that one is to "prefer those that are received by all Catholic Churches to those which some of them do not receive" (On Christian Doctrines 2.12). In the same passage, Augustine asserted that these dissenting churches should be outweighed by the opinions of "the more numerous and weightier churches", which would include Eastern Churches, the prestige of which Augustine stated moved him to include the Book of Hebrews among the canonical writings, though he had reservation about its authorship. Philip Schaff says that "the council of Hippo in 393, and the third (according to another reckoning the sixth) council of Carthage in 397, under the influence of Augustine, who attended both, fixed the catholic canon of the Holy Scriptures, including the Apocrypha of the Old Testament, ... This decision of the transmarine church however, was subject to ratification; and the concurrence of the Roman see it received when Innocent I and Gelasius I (A.D. 414) repeated the same index of biblical books. This canon remained undisturbed till the sixteenth century, and was sanctioned by the council of Trent at its fourth session." According to Lee Martin McDonald, the Book of Revelation, Revelation was added to the list in 419. These councils were convened under the influence of Augustine of Hippo, St. Augustine, who regarded the canon as already closed.Ferguson, Everett. "Factors leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament Canon", in ''The Canon Debate'', eds. L. M. McDonald & J. A. Sanders (Hendrickson, 2002) p. 320 Pope Damasus I's Council of Rome in 382 (if the ''Decretum Gelasianum, Decretum'' issued a biblical canon identical to that mentioned above). Likewise, Damasus' commissioning of the Latin Vulgate edition of the Bible, 383, proved instrumental in the fixation of the canon in the West. In a letter ( 405) to Exuperius, Exsuperius of Toulouse, a Gallic bishop, Pope Innocent I mentioned the sacred books that were already received in the canon. When bishops and Councils spoke on the matter of the Biblican canon, however, they were not defining something new, but instead "were ratifying what had already become the mind of the Church". Thus from the 4th century there existed unanimity in the Western Christianity, West concerning the New Testament canon as it is today, with the exception of the
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
. In the 5th century the Eastern Christianity, East too, with a few exceptions, came to accept the Book of Revelation and thus came into harmony on the matter of the New Testament canon. As the canon crystallised, non-canonical texts fell into relative disfavour and neglect.


Reformation era

Before the Protestant Reformation, the Council of Florence (1439–1443) took place. With the approval of this ecumenical council, Pope Eugenius IV (in office 1431-1447) issued several papal bulls (Decree (Catholic canon law), decrees) with a view to restoring the Eastern churches, which the Catholic Church considered as schismatic bodies, into Full communion, communion with Rome. Catholic theologians regards these documents as infallible statements of Catholic doctrine. The ''Decretum pro Jacobitis'' contains a complete list of the books received by the Catholic Church as inspired, but omits the terms "canon" and "canonical". The Council of Florence therefore taught the inspiration of all the Scriptures, but did not formally pronounce itself on canonicity. Only in the 16th century, when the Protestant reformers began to insist upon the supreme authority of scripture alone (the doctrine of ''sola scriptura'') did it became more important for Rome to establish a definitive dogmatic canon, which the Council of Trent adopted in 1546.


Luther's canon and apocrypha

Martin Luther (1483–1546) moved seven Old Testament books (Tobit, Judith, 1–2 Maccabees, Book of Wisdom, Sirach, and Baruch) into a section he called the "
Apocrypha Apocrypha (Gr. ἀπόκρυφος, ‘the hidden hings) The biblical Books received by the early Church as part of the Greek version of the Old Testament, but not included in the Hebrew Bible, being excluded by the non-Hellenistic Jews fro ...
, that are books which are not considered equal to the Holy Scriptures, but are useful and good to read". Because the word "apocrypha" already referred to ancient Christian writings that the Catholic Church did not include in its set canon, the term Deuterocanonicals, deuterocanonical was adopted at the Council of Trent (1545-1563) to refer to those books that Luther moved into the apocrypha section of his Bible. Luther removed the books of Antilegomena#Reformation, Hebrews, James, Jude and Revelation from the canon partially because some were perceived to go against certain Protestant doctrines such as sola scriptura and sola fide), while defenders of Luther cite previous scholarly precedent and support as the justification for his marginalization of certain books, including 2 Maccabees Luther's smaller canon was not fully accepted in Protestantism, though apocryphal books are ordered last in the German-language Luther Bible to this day. All of these apocrypha are called Biblical Apocrypha#Anagignoskomena, ''anagignoskomena'' by the Eastern Orthodox per the Synod of Jerusalem (1672), Synod of Jerusalem. The Anglican Communion accepts "the Apocrypha for instruction in life and manners, but not for the establishment of doctrine", and many "lectionary readings in The Book of Common Prayer are taken from the Apocrypha", with these lessons being "read in the same ways as those from the Old Testament". The Protestant Apocrypha contains three books (3 Esdras, 4 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh) that are accepted by many Eastern Orthodox Churches and Oriental Orthodox Churches as canonical, but are regarded as non-canonical by the Catholic Church and are therefore not included in modern Catholic Bibles.


Council of Trent

In response to Martin Luther's demands, the Council of Trent on 8 April 1546 approved the present Catholic Bible canon, which includes the
deuterocanonical books The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek language, Greek meaning "belonging to the second canon") are books and passages considered by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, and the Assyrian Church of ...
, and the decision was confirmed by an anathema by vote (24 yea, 15 nay, 16 abstain). The council confirming the same list as produced at the Council of Florence in 1442, Augustine's 397-419 Councils of Carthage, and probably Damasus' 382 Council of Rome. The Old Testament books that had been rejected by Luther were later termed "deuterocanonical", not indicating a lesser degree of inspiration, but a later time of final approval. The Sixto-Clementine Vulgate contained in the Appendix several books considered as apocryphal by the council: Prayer of Manasseh, 1 Esdras, 3 Esdras, and 2 Esdras, 4 Esdras.Praefatio, ''Biblia Sacra Vulgata'', Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1983, p. XX.


Protestant confessions

Several Protestant confessions of faith identify the 27 books of the New Testament canon by name, including the French Confession of Faith (1559), the Belgic Confession (1561), and the Westminster Confession of Faith (1647). The Second Helvetic Confession (1562), affirms "both Testaments to be the true Word of God" and appealing to Augustine of Hippo, Augustine's ''De Civitate Dei'', it rejected the canonicity of the Apocrypha.The Thirty-Nine Articles, issued by the Church of England in 1563, names the books of the Old Testament, but not the New Testament. The Belgic Confession and Westminster Confession named the 39 books in the Old Testament and, apart from the aforementioned New Testament books, expressly rejected the canonicity of any others. The Lutheran Epitome of the Formula of Concord of 1577 declared that the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures comprised the Old and New Testaments alone. Luther's canon, Luther himself did not accept the canonicity of the Apocrypha although he believed that its books were "Not Held Equal to the Scriptures, but Are Useful and Good to Read".


Other apocrypha

Various books that were never canonized by any church, but are known to have existed in antiquity, are similar to the New Testament and often claim apostolic authorship, are known as the New Testament apocrypha. Some of these writings have been cited as Bible, scripture by early Christians, but since the fifth century a widespread consensus has emerged limiting the New Testament to the Development of the New Testament canon, 27 books of the modern canon. Thus Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches generally do not view these New Testament apocrypha as part of the Bible.


Canons of various traditions

Final dogmatic articulations of the canons were made at the Council of Trent of 1546 for Roman Catholicism, the Thirty-Nine Articles of 1563 for the Church of England, the Westminster Confession of Faith of 1647 for Calvinism, and the Synod of Jerusalem (1672), Synod of Jerusalem of 1672 for the Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox. Other traditions, while also having closed canons, may not be able to point to an exact year in which their canons were complete. The following tables reflect the current state of various Christian canons.


Old Testament

The Early Christianity, Early Church primarily used the Greek
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
(or LXX) as its source for the Old Testament. Among Aramaic speakers, the Targum was also widely used. All of the major Christian traditions accept the books of the Protocanonical books, Hebrew protocanon in its entirety as divinely inspired and authoritative, in various ways and degrees. Another set of books, largely written during the intertestamental period, are called the
biblical apocrypha The biblical apocrypha (from the grc, ἀπόκρυφος, translit=apókruphos, lit=hidden) denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books thought to have been written some time between 200 BC and 400 AD. Some Christian churches include ...
("hidden things") by Protestants, the deuterocanon ("second canon") by Catholics, and the deuterocanon or ''anagignoskomena'' ("worthy of reading") by Orthodox. These are works recognized by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox Churches as being part of scripture (and thus deuterocanonical rather than apocryphal), but Protestants do not recognize them as Biblical inspiration, divinely inspired. Some Protestant Bibles—especially the English King James Bible and the Lutheran Bible—include an "Apocrypha" section. Many denominations recognize deuterocanonical books as good, but not on the level of the other books of the Bible. Anglicanism considers the apocrypha worthy of being "read for example of life" but not to be used "to establish any doctrine."The foundational Thirty-Nine Articles of Anglicanism, in :s:Thirty-Nine Articles, Article VI, asserts that these disputed books are not (to be) used "to establish any doctrine," but "read for example of life." Although the Biblical apocrypha are still used in Anglican Liturgy, ("Two of the hymns used in the American Prayer Book office of Morning Prayer, the Benedictus (Song of Zechariah), Benedictus es and Benedicite, are taken from the Apocrypha. One of the offertory sentences in Holy Communion comes from an apocryphal book (Tob. 4: 8–9). Lessons from the Apocrypha are regularly appointed to read in the daily, Sunday, and special services of Morning and Evening Prayer. There are altogether 111 such lessons in the latest revised American Prayer Book Lectionary [The books used are: II Esdras, Tobit, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Three Holy Children, and I Maccabees.]"
The Apocrypha, Bridge of the Testaments
), the modern trend has been to not even print the Old Testament Apocrypha in editions of Anglican-used Bibles.
Luther's canon, Luther made a parallel statement in calling them: "not considered equal to the Holy Scriptures, but...useful and good to read." The difference in canons derives from the difference in the Masoretic Text and the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
. Books found in both the Hebrew and the Greek are accepted by all denominations, and by Jews, these are the protocanonical books. Catholics and Orthodox also accept those books present in manuscripts of the Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament with great currency among the Jews of the ancient world, with the coda that Catholics consider 3 Esdras and 3 Maccabees apocryphal. Daniel was written several hundred years after the time of Ezra, and since that time several books of the Septuagint have been found in the original Hebrew, in the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Cairo Geniza, and at Masada, including a Hebrew text of Sirach (Qumran, Masada) and an Aramaic text of Tobit (Qumran); the additions to Esther and Daniel are also in their respective Semitic languages. In the Oriental Ethiopian Biblical canon, Orthodox Tewahedo canon, the books of Book of Lamentations, Lamentations, Book of Jeremiah, Jeremiah, and Baruch, as well as the Letter of Jeremiah and
4 Baruch Fourth Baruch is a pseudepigraphical Pseudepigrapha (also anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are falsely attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figur ...
, are all considered canonical by the Orthodox Tewahedo Churches. However, it is not always clear as to how these writings are arranged or divided. In some lists, they may simply fall under the title "Jeremiah", while in others, they are divided in various ways into separate books. Moreover, the book of Book of Proverbs, Proverbs is divided into two books—Messale (Prov. 1–24) and Tägsas (Prov. 25–31). Additionally, while the books of
Jubilees The Book of Jubilees, sometimes called Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work of 50 chapters, considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church as well as Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews), where it is known as the ''B ...
and
Enoch Enoch may refer to: Biblical occurrences *Enoch (ancestor of Noah), son of Jared, father of Methusaleh, great-grandfather of Noah, subject of the deuterocanonical Book of Enoch * Enoch (son of Cain) *Hanoch (Enoch), son of Reuben (son of Jacob), ...
are fairly well known among western scholars, 1, 2, and 3
Meqabyan Meqabyan (Amharic Amharic ( or ; (Amharic: ), ', ) is an Ethiopian Semitic language, which is a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semit ...
are not. The three books of Meqabyan are often called the "Ethiopian Maccabees", but are completely different in content from the books of Maccabees that are known or have been canonized in other traditions. Finally, the Book of Joseph ben Gurion, or Josippon, Pseudo-Josephus, is a history of the Jewish people thought to be based upon the writings of Josephus.Josephus's ''The Jewish War'' and ''Antiquities of the Jews'' are highly regarded by Christians because they provide valuable insight into 1st century Judaism and early Christianity. Moreover, in ''Antiquities'', Josephus made two extra-Biblical references to Jesus, which have played a crucial role in establishing him as a historical figure. The Ethiopic version (Zëna Ayhud) has eight parts and is included in the Ethiopian Biblical canon#Broader Biblical canon, Orthodox Tewahedo broader canon.The Orthodox Tewahedo broader canon in its fullest form—which includes the narrower canon in its entirety, as well as nine additional books—is not known to exist at this time as one published compilation. Some books, though considered canonical, are nonetheless difficult to locate and are not even widely available in Ethiopia. While the narrower canon has indeed been published as one compilation, there may be no real ''emic'' distinction between the broader canon and the narrower canon, especially in so far as divine inspiration and scriptural authority are concerned. The idea of two such classifications may be nothing more than Emic and etic, etic taxonomic conjecture. Additional books accepted by the Syriac Orthodox Church (due to inclusion in the Peshitta): * 2 Baruch with the Letter of Baruch (only the letter has achieved canonical status) * Psalms 152–155 (not canonical) The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Tewahedo church accepts all of the deuterocanonical books of Catholicism and anagignoskomena of Eastern Orthodoxy except for the four Books of Maccabees. It accepts the 39 protocanonical books along with the following books, called the "Bible translations into Amharic#New Haile Selassie I Bible (1962), narrow canon". The enumeration of books in the Ethiopic Bible varies greatly between different authorities and printings. *
4 Baruch Fourth Baruch is a pseudepigraphical Pseudepigrapha (also anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are falsely attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figur ...
or the Paralipomena of Jeremiah * Book of Enoch, 1 Enoch * Book of Jubilees, Jubilees * Meqabyan, First, Second and Third Books of Ethiopian Maccabees * The Orthodox Tewahedo biblical canon, Ethiopian broader Biblical Canon Protestants and Catholics use the
Masoretic Text The Masoretic Text (MT or 𝕸; he, נוסח המסורה, Nusakh Ham'mas'sora) is the authoritative Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic languag ...
of the Jewish
Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, ...
as the textual basis for their translations of the protocanonical books (those accepted as canonical by both Jews and all Christians), with various changes derived from a multiplicity of other ancient sources (such as the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
, the Vulgate, the Dead Sea Scrolls, etc.), while generally using the Septuagint and Vulgate, now supplemented by the ancient Hebrew and Aramaic manuscripts, as the textual basis for the
deuterocanonical books The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek language, Greek meaning "belonging to the second canon") are books and passages considered by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, and the Assyrian Church of ...
. The Eastern Orthodox use the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
(translated in the 3rd century BCE) as the textual basis for the entire Old Testament in both protocanonical and deuteroncanonical books—to use both in the Greek for liturgical purposes, and as the basis for translations into the vernacular. Most of the quotations (300 of 400) of the Old Testament in the New Testament, while differing more or less from the version presented by the Masoretic text, align with that of the Septuagint.


Diagram of the development of the Old Testament


Table

The order of some books varies among canons.


Table notes

The table uses the spellings and names present in modern editions of the Bible, such as the New American Bible Revised Edition, Revised Standard Version and English Standard Version. The spelling and names in both the 1609–1610 Douay-Rheims Bible, Douay Old Testament (and in the 1582 Rheims New Testament) and the 1749 revision by Bishop Challoner (the edition currently in print used by many Catholics, and the source of traditional Catholic spellings in English) and in the Septuagint differ from those spellings and names used in modern editions that derive from the Hebrew Masoretic text. The King James Version references some of these books by the traditional spelling when referring to them in the New Testament, such as "Esaias" (for Isaiah). In the spirit of ecumenism more recent Catholic translations (e.g., the New American Bible, Jerusalem Bible, and ecumenical translations used by Catholics, such as the Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition) use the same "standardized" (King James Version) spellings and names as Protestant Bibles (e.g., 1 Chronicles, as opposed to the Douaic 1 Paralipomenon, 1–2 Samuel and 1–2 Kings, instead of 1–4 Kings) in the Protocanonical books, protocanonicals. The
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (''halakha'') and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the ...

Talmud
in Bava Batra 14b gives a different order for the books in ''Nevi'im'' and ''Ketuvim''. This order is also quoted in Mishneh Torah Hilchot Sefer (Hebrew), Sefer
Torah The Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") includes the first five books of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Heb ...

Torah
7:15. The order of the books of the Torah are universal through all denominations of Judaism and Christianity.


New Testament

Among the various Christian denominations, the New Testament canon is a generally agreed-upon list of 27 books. However, the way in which those books are arranged may vary from tradition to tradition. For instance, in the Slavonic, Orthodox Tewahedo, Syriac, and Armenian traditions, the New Testament is ordered differently from what is considered to be the standard arrangement. Protestant Bibles in Russia and Ethiopia usually follow the local Orthodox order for the New Testament. The Syriac Orthodox Church and the Assyrian Church of the East both adhere to the Peshitta liturgical tradition, which historically excludes five books of the New Testament Antilegomena: 2 John, 3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation. However, those books are included in certain Bibles of the modern Syriac traditions. Other New Testament works that are generally considered apocryphal nonetheless appear in some Bibles and manuscripts. For instance, the Epistle to the LaodiceansA translation of the Epistle to the Laodiceans can be accessed online at th
Internet Sacred Texts Archive
was included in numerous Latin Vulgate manuscripts, in the eighteen German Bibles prior to Martin Luther, Luther's translation, and also a number of early English Bibles, such as Gundulf's Bible and John Wycliffe's English translation—even as recently as 1728, William Whiston considered this epistle to be genuinely Pauline. Likewise, the Third Epistle to the CorinthiansThe Third Epistle to the Corinthians can be found as a section within the Acts of Paul, which has survived only in fragments. A translation of the entire remaining Acts of Paul can be accessed online a
Early Christian Writings
was once considered to be part of the Armenian Orthodox Bible, but is no longer printed in modern editions. Within the Syriac Orthodox tradition, the Third Epistle to the Corinthians also has a history of significance. Both Aphrahat and Ephraem of Syria held it in high regard and treated it as if it were canonical. However, it was left-out of the Peshitta and ultimately excluded from the canon altogether. The Didache,Various translations of the Didache can be accessed online a
Early Christian Writings
The Shepherd of Hermas,A translation of the Shepherd of Hermas can be accessed online at th
Internet Sacred Texts Archive
and other writings attributed to the Apostolic Fathers, were once considered scriptural by various early Church fathers. They are still being honored in some traditions, though they are no longer considered to be canonical. However, certain canonical books within the Orthodox Tewahedo traditions find their origin in the writings of the Apostolic Fathers as well as the Ancient Church Orders. The Orthodox Tewahedo churches recognize these eight additional New Testament books in its broader canon. They are as follows: the four books of Sinodos, the two books of the Covenant, Ethiopic Clement, and the Ethiopic Didascalia.


Table


Table notes


Latter Day Saint canons


The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The standard works are the four books that currently constitute the continuous revelation, open sacred text, scriptural canon of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church): * The King James Version of the BibleThe LDS Church uses the King James Version (KJV) in English-speaking countries; other versions are used in non-English speaking countries. without the
biblical apocrypha The biblical apocrypha (from the grc, ἀπόκρυφος, translit=apókruphos, lit=hidden) denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books thought to have been written some time between 200 BC and 400 AD. Some Christian churches include ...
* The Book of Mormon, Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ * The Doctrine and Covenants of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints * The Pearl of Great Price (Mormonism), Pearl of Great Price The Pearl of Great Price contains five sections: "Selections from the Book of Moses", "The Book of Abraham", "Joseph Smith–Matthew", "Joseph Smith–History", and "The Articles of Faith (Latter Day Saints), Articles of Faith". The Book of Moses and Joseph Smith–Matthew are portions of the Book of Genesis and the Gospel of Matthew (respectively) from the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible, also known as the Inspired Version of the Bible. The manuscripts of the unfinished Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible (JST-LDS) state that "the Song of Solomon is not inspired scripture", but it is still printed in every version of the King James Bible published by the church. The standard works are printed and distributed by the LDS Church in a single binding called a "quadruple combination" or as a set of two books, with LDS edition of the Bible, the Bible in one binding, and the other three books in a second binding called a "triple combination". Current editions of the standard works include a Bible Dictionary (LDS Church), bible dictionary, photographs, maps and gazetteer, topical guide, index, footnotes, cross references, excerpts from the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible, and other study aids.


Other Latter Day Saint sects

Canons of various Latter Day Saint denominations diverge from the LDS Church's standard works. Some denominations accept earlier versions of the standard works or work to develop corrected translations. Others have purportedly received additional revelation. Some accept only portions of the standard works. For instance, The Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite), Bickertonite church does not consider the Pearl of Great Price or the Doctrine and Covenants to be scriptural. Rather, they believe that the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
scriptures contain a true description of the church as established by Jesus Christ, and that both the King James Bible and Book of Mormon are the inspired word of God. The Community of Christ affirms the Bible, along with the Book of Mormon, as well as its own regularly appended version of Doctrine and Covenants as scripture for the church. While it publishes a version of the Joseph Smith Translation, which includes material from the Book of Moses, the Community of Christ also accepts the use of other translations of the Bible, such as the standard King James Version and the New Revised Standard Version. The Church of Christ (Temple Lot) rejects the Doctrine and Covenants and the Pearl of Great Price, as well as the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible, preferring to use only the King James Bible and the Book of Mormon as doctrinal standards. The Book of Commandments is accepted as being superior to the Doctrine and Covenants as a compendium of Joseph Smith's early revelations, but is not accorded the same status as the Bible or Book of Mormon. ''The Word of the Lord'' and ''The Word of the Lord Brought to Mankind by an Angel'' are two related books considered to be scriptural by certain (Church of Christ (Fettingite), Fettingite) factions that separated from the Temple Lot church. Both books contain revelations allegedly given to former Church of Christ (Temple Lot) Apostle Otto Fetting by an angelic being who claimed to be John the Baptist. The latter title (120 messages) contains the entirety of the former's material (30 msgs.) with additional revelations (90 msgs.) purportedly given to W. A. Draves, William A. Draves by this same being, after Fetting's death. Neither are accepted by the larger Temple Lot body of believers. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite) considers the Bible (when correctly translated), the Book of Mormon, and editions of the Doctrine and Covenants published prior to Joseph Smith's death (which contained the Lectures on Faith) to be inspired scripture. They also hold the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible to be inspired, but do not believe modern publications of the text are accurate. Other portions of The Pearl of Great Price, however, are not considered to be scriptural, although they are not necessarily fully rejected either. The Sefer haYashar (midrash), Book of Jasher was consistently used by both Joseph Smith and James Strang, but there is no official stance on its authenticity, and it is not considered canonical."Strangite Scriptures"
. Strangite.org. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
An additional work called the ''Book of the Law of the Lord'' is also accepted as inspired scripture by the Strangites. They likewise hold as scriptural several prophecies, visions, revelations, and translations printed by James Strang, and published in the ''Revelations of James J. Strang''. Among other things, this text contains his purported "Letter of Appointment" from Joseph Smith and his translation of the Voree plates. The Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite) accepts the following as scripture: the Inspired Version of the Bible (including the Book of Moses and Joseph Smith–Matthew), the Book of Mormon, and the 1844 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants (including the Lectures on Faith). However, the revelation on tithing (section 107 in the 1844 edition; section 119 in modern LDS editions) is emphatically rejected by members of this church, as it is not believed to be given by Joseph Smith. The Book of Abraham is rejected as scripture, as are the other portions of the Pearl of Great Price that do not appear in the Inspired Version of the Bible. Many Latter Day Saint denominations have also either adopted the Articles of Faith (Latter Day Saints), Articles of Faith or at least view them as a statement of basic theology. They are considered scriptural by the larger LDS Church and are included in the Pearl of Great Price. At times, the Articles have been adapted to fit the respective belief systems of various faith communities.


Table

The order of some books varies among canons.


See also

* Related to the Bible ** Biblical criticism ** Canon (fiction) – a concept inspired by Biblical canon ** Canonical criticism ** Jewish apocrypha ** List of Old Testament pseudepigrapha ** Non-canonical gospels include: *** Gospel of Barnabas *** Gospel of Bartholomew *** Gospel of Basilides *** Gospel of Thomas ** Pseudepigraph ** Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible * Canons of other religions ** Islamic holy books ** Canonization of Islamic scripture ** Avesta or Zoroastrian scriptures ** Yazidism#Yazidi holy texts, Yazidi holy texts ** Hindu scriptures ** Sikh scriptures or Adi Granth aka Guru Granth Sahib ** Tripiṭaka or Buddhist canon *** Pāli Canon *** Mahayana Canons ** Chinese classics ** Thirteen Classics or Confucian canon *** Ruzang ** Daozang or Taoist canon


Notes


References


Citations


Bibliography

* ''Ante-Nicene Fathers''. Eerdmans Press. * * ''Encyclopedia of the Early Church''. Oxford. * * * * * * * Hennecke-Schneemelcher. ''NT Apocrypha'' * * *


Further reading

* Armstrong, Karen (2007) ''The Bible: A Biography''. Books that Changed the World Series. Atlantic Monthly Press. * Barnstone, Willis (ed.) (1984). ''The Other Bible: Ancient Alternative Scriptures''. HarperCollins. . * Brevard Childs, Childs, Brevard S.. (1984). ''The New Testament as Canon: An Introduction''. SCM Press. . * McDonald, Lee Martin (2009). ''Forgotten Scriptures. The Selection and Rejection of Early Religious Writings''. Westminster John Knox Press. . * McDonald, Lee Martin (1988). ''The Formation of the Christian Biblical Canon''. Abingdon Press. . * McDonald, Lee Martin (2000). ''Early Christianity and Its Sacred Literature''. Hendrickson Publishers. . * McDonald, Lee Martin (2007). The Biblical Canon: Its Origin, Transmission, and Authority''. Hendrickson Publishers. . * Alexander Souter, Souter, Alexander (1954). ''The Text and Canon of the New Testament''. 2nd ed. Studies in Theology, No. 25. London: Duckworth. * Stonehouse, Ned Bernhard (1929). ''The Apocalypse in the Ancient Church: A Study in the History of the New Testament Canon''. Oosterbaan & Le Cointre. * Taussig, Hal (2013). ''A New New Testament: A Bible for the 21st Century Combining Traditional and Newly Discovered Texts''. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. * Wall, Robert W.; Lemcio, Eugene E. (1992). ''The New Testament as Canon: A Reader in Canonical Criticism''. JSOT Press. . * Westcott, Brooke Foss. (1875). ''A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament''. 4th ed. London: Macmillan.


External links

*
Bible Book Abbreviations


– contains multiple links and articles

* [http://www.crosswire.org/wiki/OSIS_Book_Abbreviations Cross Wire Bible Society]
Old Testament Reading Room
an
New Testament Reading Room
– Online resources referenced by Tyndale Seminary
The Development of the Canon of the New Testament
– includes very detailed charts and direct links to ancient witnesses


Jewish Encyclopedia: Bible Canon

What's in Your Bible?
– a chart comparing Jewish, Orthodox, Catholic, Syriac, Ethiopian, and Protestant canons (''Bible Study Magazine'', November–December 2008.) * Online Latter Day Saint scripture: *
The Standard Works
(LDS Church) *
Lectures on Faith
(1844 edition of Doctrine and Covenants) *
The Book of the Law of the Lord
(Strangite) *

(Strangite) *

(Fettingite/Elijah Message)
Biblical Canon of the Orthodox Christian Church




– includes Latin, English, Hebrew and abbreviated names (from Tel Aviv University).
Judaica Press Translation – Online Jewish translation of the books of the Bible.
The Tanakh and Rashi's entire commentary.
Books of the Apocrypha
(from the United Methodist Church, UMC)
Western Armenian Bible
(an essay, with full official canon at the end) * H. Schumacher
''The Canon of the New Testament''
(London 1923), pp. 84–94. * * * .
''WELS Topical Q&A'': Canon - 66 Books in the Bible
by Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (Confessional Lutheran perspective) {{DEFAULTSORT:Biblical Canon Bible, Canon Christian terminology, Biblical canon Development of the Christian biblical canon