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Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories (1925–1984)) is an American industrial research and scientific development
company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal or a mixture of both, with a specific objective. Company members share a common ...
owned by
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...

Finnish
company
Nokia Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications, information technology company, information technology, and consumer electronics company, ...

Nokia
. With headquarters located in Murray Hill, New Jersey, the company operates several laboratories in the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...

United States
and around the world. Bell Labs has its origins in the complex past of the
Bell System The Bell System was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company and later by AT&T AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company, Delaware-registered but it is headquartered at Whitacre Tower in ...
. In the late 19th century, the laboratory began as the Western Electric Engineering Department, and was located at 463 West Street in New York City. In 1925, after years of conducting research and development under
Western Electric The Western Electric Company was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company officially founded in 1869. A wholly owned subsidiary of American Telephone & Telegraph, AT&T for most of its lifespan, it served as the primary equipment ...
, the Engineering Department was reformed into Bell Telephone Laboratories, and placed under the shared ownership of
American Telephone & Telegraph Company AT&T Corporation, originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T, AT&T Inc. that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government ...
and Western Electric. Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of
radio astronomy Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies Astronomical object, celestial objects at radio frequency, radio frequencies. The first detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was in 1932, when Karl Jansky at Bell Telephone La ...
, the
transistor file:MOSFET Structure.png, upright=1.4, Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), showing Metal gate, gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (pink). A ...

transistor
, the
laser A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radia ...

laser
, the
photovoltaic cell A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physics, physical and Chemical substance, chemical phenomenon.
, the
charge-coupled device imaging A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit File:PExdcr01CJC.jpg, 200px, A circui ...
(CCD),
information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification (science), quantification, computer data storage, storage, and telecommunication, communication of Digital data, digital information. The field was fundamentally established by the ...
, the
Unix Unix (; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser Multi-user software is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to ...
operating system, and the programming languages B, C,
C++ C++ () is a general-purpose programming language In computer software, a general-purpose programming language is a programming language dedicated to a general-purpose, designed to be used for writing software in a wide variety of application ...
, S,
SNOBOL SNOBOL ("StriNg Oriented and symBOlic Language") is a series of programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various kinds of Input/output, outpu ...
,
AWK AWK (''awk'') is a domain-specific languageA domain-specific language (DSL) is a computer languageA computer language is a method of communication with a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of ari ...
,
AMPL AMPL (A Mathematical Programming Language) is an algebraic modeling language to describe and solve high-complexity problems for large-scale mathematical computing (i.e., large-scale optimization and scheduling File:Departure for the south - Na ...
, and others. Nine
Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's Will and testament, will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to ...
s have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories.


Origin and historical locations


Bell's personal research after the telephone

In 1880, when the
French government The Government of the French Republic (french: Gouvernement de la République française ) exercises executive power ''Executive Power'' is Vince Flynn's fifth novel, and the fourth to feature Mitch Rapp, an American agent that works for t ...

French government
awarded
Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Graham Bell (; born Alexander Bell, March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born inventor, scientist, and engineer who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone A telephone is a tele ...

Alexander Graham Bell
the
Volta PrizeThe Volta Prize (French: ''prix Volta'') was originally established by Napoleon III during the Second French Empire The Second French Empire (), officially the French Empire (), was the Empire, Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from ...
of 50,000
francs The franc is any of several units of currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gil ...
(approximately US$10,000 at that time; about $ in January 2019's dollars) for the
invention of the telephone The invention of the telephone was the culmination of work done by many individuals, and led to an array of lawsuits relating to the patent claims of several individuals and numerous companies. Early development The concept of the telephon ...
, he used the award to fund the
Volta Laboratory The Volta Laboratory (also known as the "Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory", the "Bell Carriage House" and the "Bell Laboratory") and the Volta Bureau were created in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. by Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Graham Bell ...
(''Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory'') in Washington, D.C. in collaboration with
Sumner Tainter
Sumner Tainter
and Bell's cousin
Chichester Bell Chichester Alexander Bell (1848–1924) was a chemist, first cousin of Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Graham Bell (; March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born inventor, scientist, and engineer who is credited with inventing ...
.Bruce, Robert V. ''Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude''. Ithaca, New York:
Cornell University Press The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University Cornell University is a Private university, private Ivy League and Statutory college, statutory Land-grant university, land-grant research university, based in Ithaca, New York. ...
, 1990. .
The laboratory was variously known as the ''Volta Bureau'', the ''Bell Carriage House'', the ''Bell Laboratory'' and the ''Volta Laboratory''. It focused on the analysis, recording, and transmission of sound. Bell used his considerable profits from the laboratory for further research and education to permit the " ncreaseddiffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf": resulting in the founding of the Volta Bureau (c. 1887) which was located at Bell's father's house at 1527 35th Street N.W. in Washington, D.C. Its carriage house became their headquarters in 1889. In 1893, Bell constructed a new building close by at 1537 35th Street N.W., specifically to house the lab. This building was declared a
National Historic Landmark A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government ...
in 1972. and   After the invention of the telephone, Bell maintained a relatively distant role with the Bell System as a whole, but continued to pursue his own personal research interests.


Early antecedent

The Bell Patent Association was formed by
Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Graham Bell (; born Alexander Bell, March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born inventor, scientist, and engineer who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone A telephone is a tele ...

Alexander Graham Bell
, Thomas Sanders, and
Gardiner Hubbard Gardiner Greene Hubbard (August 25, 1822 – December 11, 1897) was an American lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually abbreviated in everyday sp ...
when filing the first patents for the telephone in 1876. Bell Telephone Company, the first telephone company, was formed a year later. It later became a part of the American Bell Telephone Company.
American Telephone & Telegraph Company AT&T Corporation, originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T, AT&T Inc. that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government ...
(AT&T) and its own subsidiary company, took control of American Bell and the Bell System by 1889. American Bell held a controlling interest in Western Electric (which was the manufacturing arm of the business) whereas AT&T was doing research into the service providers. In 1884, the
American Bell Telephone Company The Bell Telephone Company, a common law joint stock company A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders. Each shareholder owns company stock in proportion, evidence ...
created the Mechanical Department from the Electrical and Patent Department formed a year earlier.


Formal organization and location changes

In 1896, Western Electric bought property at 463 West Street to station their manufacturers and engineers who had been supplying AT&T with their product. This included everything from telephones,
telephone exchange manually connecting calls with cord pairs at a telephone switchboard A telephone exchange, telephone switch, or central office is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or in large enterprises. It intercon ...
switches, and transmission equipment. On January 1, 1925, Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. was organized to consolidate the development and research activities in the communication field and allied sciences for the Bell System. Ownership was evenly shared between
Western Electric The Western Electric Company was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company officially founded in 1869. A wholly owned subsidiary of American Telephone & Telegraph, AT&T for most of its lifespan, it served as the primary equipment ...
and AT&T. The new company had existing personnel of 3600 engineers, scientists, and support staff. In addition to the existing research facilities of 400,000 square feet of space, its space was extended with a new building on about one quarter of a city block.Telephony, Volume 87(5), p.20, January 31, 1925 The first chairman of the board of directors was
John J. Carty John Joseph Carty (April 14, 1861 – December 27, 1932) was an American electrical engineer and a major contributor to the development of telephone wires and related technology. He was a recipient of the Edison Medal The IEEE Edison Medal ...
, the vice-president of AT&T, and the first president was
Frank B. Jewett Frank Baldwin Jewett (; 5 September 1879 – 18 November 1949) worked as an engineer for American Telegraph and Telephone where his work demonstrated transatlantic radio telephony using a vacuum-tube transmitter. He was also a physicist A p ...
, also a board member, who stayed there until 1940. The operations were directed by E. B. Craft, executive vice-president, and formerly chief engineer at Western Electric. By the early 1940s, Bell Labs engineers and scientists had begun to move to other locations away from the congestion and environmental distractions of New York City, and in 1967 Bell Laboratories headquarters was officially relocated to Murray Hill, New Jersey. Among the later Bell Laboratories locations in New Jersey were
Holmdel Holmdel Township is a township ''Township'' refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. While a ''township'' may be associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to the rule. In ...
, Crawford Hill, the Deal Test Site,
Freehold Freehold may refer to: In real estate * Freehold (law), the tenure of property in fee simple * Customary freehold, a form of feudal tenure of land in England *Parson's freehold, where a Church of England rector or vicar of holds title to benefice ...
, Lincroft, Long Branch, Middletown,
Neptune Neptune is the eighth and farthest-known Solar planet from the Sun. In the Solar System, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter, the third-most-massive planet, and the densest giant planet. It is 17 times the mass of Earth, slightly mor ...
,
Princeton Princeton University is a private Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United States. The term '' ...
, Piscataway, Red Bank,
Chester Chester is a walled cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the the Crown, monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities: , there are List of cities in the United Kingdom, 69 cities in the Unite ...
, and Whippany. Of these, Murray Hill and Crawford Hill remain in existence (the Piscataway and Red Bank locations were transferred to and are now operated by
Telcordia Technologies iconectiv is a supplier of network planning and network management services to telecommunications providers. Known as Bellcore after its establishment in the United States in 1983 as part of the break-up of the Bell System, the company's name cha ...
and the Whippany site was purchased by
Bayer Bayer Aktiengesellschaft, AG (; ) is a German multinational corporation, multinational pharmaceutical company, pharmaceutical and life sciences company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. Headquartered in Leverkusen, ...

Bayer
). The largest grouping of people in the company was in
Illinois Illinois ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. It has the List of U.S. states and territories by GDP, fifth largest gross domestic product (GDP), List of U.S. states and territor ...

Illinois
, at
Naperville Naperville () is a city in DuPage and Will Will may refer to: Common meanings * Will and testament A will or testament is a legal document that expresses a person's ( testator) wishes as to how their property (estate (law), estate) is to b ...
- Lisle, in the Chicago area, which had the largest concentration of employees (about 11,000) prior to 2001. There also were groups of employees in
Indianapolis Indianapolis (), colloquially known as Indy, is the List of U.S. state and territorial capitals, state capital and List of U.S. states' largest cities by population, most-populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the county seat, seat of M ...

Indianapolis
, Indiana;
Columbus, Ohio Columbus is the List of US state capitals, state capital and the List of cities in Ohio, most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio. With a population of 905,748 for the 2020 United States census, 2020 census, it is the List of United States ci ...
;
North Andover, Massachusetts North Andover is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin ...
;
Allentown, Pennsylvania Allentown (Pennsylvania German language, Pennsylvania German: ''Allenschteddel'', ''Allenschtadt'', or ''Ellsdaun'') is a city in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. It is Pennsylvania's third-most-populous city and the List of United States cities by p ...
;
Reading, Pennsylvania Reading ( ; Pennsylvania German language, Pennsylvania German: ''Reddin'') is a city in and the county seat of Berks County, Pennsylvania, Berks County, Pennsylvania, United States. With a population of 95,112 as of the 2020 United States census ...
; and Breinigsville, Pennsylvania; Burlington, North Carolina (1950s–1970s, moved to Greensboro 1980s) and
Westminster, Colorado The City of Westminster is a Home Rule Municipality Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized gove ...
. Since 2001, many of the former locations have been scaled down or closed. The Holmdel site, a 1.9 million square foot structure set on 473 acres, was closed in 2007. The mirrored-glass building was designed by
Eero Saarinen Eero Saarinen (, ; August 20, 1910 – September 1, 1961) was a Finnish-American architect and industrial designer noted for his wide-ranging array of designs for buildings and monuments. Saarinen is best known for designing the Washington Dull ...
. In August 2013, Somerset Development bought the building, intending to redevelop it into a mixed commercial and residential project. A 2012 article expressed doubt on the success of the newly named Bell Works site, but several large tenants had announced plans to move in through 2016 and 2017.


Discoveries and developments

Bell Laboratories was, and is, regarded by many as the premier research facility of its type, developing a wide range of revolutionary technologies, including
radio astronomy Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies Astronomical object, celestial objects at radio frequency, radio frequencies. The first detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was in 1932, when Karl Jansky at Bell Telephone La ...
, the
transistor file:MOSFET Structure.png, upright=1.4, Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), showing Metal gate, gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (pink). A ...

transistor
, the
laser A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radia ...

laser
,
information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification (science), quantification, computer data storage, storage, and telecommunication, communication of Digital data, digital information. The field was fundamentally established by the ...
, the operating system
Unix Unix (; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser Multi-user software is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to ...
, the programming languages C and
C++ C++ () is a general-purpose programming language In computer software, a general-purpose programming language is a programming language dedicated to a general-purpose, designed to be used for writing software in a wide variety of application ...
,
solar cells A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physics, physical and Chemical substance, chemical phenomenon.
, the
charge-coupled device imaging A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit File:PExdcr01CJC.jpg, 200px, A circui ...
(CCD), and many other optical, wireless, and wired communications technologies and systems.


1920s

In 1926, the laboratories invented an early example synchronous-sound motion picture system, in competition with Fox Movietone and DeForest Phonofilm. In 1924, Bell Labs physicist Walter A. Shewhart proposed the
control chart Control may refer to: Basic meanings Economics and business * Control (management), an element of management * Control, an element of management accounting * Comptroller (or controller), a senior financial officer in an organization * Controlling ...
as a method to determine when a process was in a state of statistical control. Shewhart's methods were the basis for
statistical process controlStatistical process control (SPC) is a method of quality control Quality control (QC) is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. ISO 9000 defines quality control as "A part of quality management focu ...
(SPC): the use of statistically based tools and techniques to manage and improve processes. This was the origin of the modern quality movement, including
Six Sigma Six Sigma (6σ) is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement. It was introduced by American engineer Bill Smith (Motorola engineer), Bill Smith while working at Motorola in 1986. A six sigma process is one in which 99.99966% of all opp ...
. In 1927, a Bell team headed by Herbert E. Ives successfully transmitted long-distance 128-line television images of
Secretary of Commerce The United States secretary of commerce (SecCom) is the head of the United States Department of Commerce. The secretary serves as the principal advisor to the president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is t ...
Herbert Hoover Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American politician, businessman, and engineer, who served as the 31st president of the United States from 1929 to 1933. A member of the Republican Party (United States), Re ...

Herbert Hoover
from Washington to New York. In 1928 the
thermal noise Example of a thermal column between the ground and a cumulus A thermal column (or thermal) is a column of rising air in the lower altitudes of Earth's atmosphere File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by vo ...
in a resistor was first measured by John B. Johnson, and
Harry Nyquist Harry Nyquist (, ; February 7, 1889 – April 4, 1976) was a Swedish physicist and electronic engineer Printed circuit board Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering disciplin ...
provided the theoretical analysis; this is now termed ''Johnson noise''. During the 1920s, the
one-time pad In cryptography, the one-time pad (OTP) is an encryption technique that cannot be cryptanalysis, cracked, but requires the use of a single-use pre-shared key that is no smaller than the message being sent. In this technique, a plaintext is paired ...

one-time pad
cipher In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. An alternative, less common term is ''encipherment''. To encipher or encode ...

cipher
was invented by
Gilbert VernamGilbert Sandford Vernam (3 April 1890 – 7 February 1960) was a Worcester Polytechnic Institute 1914 graduate and AT&T AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company, Delaware-registered but it is headquartered at ...
and at the laboratories. Bell Labs'
Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such top ...
later proved that it is unbreakable.


1930s

In 1931, a foundation for
radio astronomy Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies Astronomical object, celestial objects at radio frequency, radio frequencies. The first detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was in 1932, when Karl Jansky at Bell Telephone La ...
was laid by
Karl Jansky Karl Guthe Jansky (October 22, 1905 – February 14, 1950) was an American physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area ...

Karl Jansky
during his work investigating the origins of static on long-distance shortwave communications. He discovered that radio waves were being emitted from the center of the
galaxy A galaxy is a gravitation Gravity (), or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass Mass is both a property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or ...

galaxy
. In 1931 and 1932, experimental high fidelity, long playing, and even stereophonic recordings were made by the labs of the
Philadelphia Orchestra The Philadelphia Orchestra is an American symphony orchestra, based in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and ...
, conducted by
Leopold Stokowski Leopold Anthony Stokowski (18 April 1882 – 13 September 1977) was a British conductor of mixed Polish and Irish descent. One of the leading conductors of the early and mid-20th century, he is best known for his long association with the Ph ...

Leopold Stokowski
. In 1933, stereo signals were transmitted live from
Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous city in the state of Pennsylvania, with a 2019 estimated population ...

Philadelphia
to Washington, D.C. In 1937, the
vocoder A vocoder (, a contraction (grammar), contraction of ''voice'' and ''encoder'') is a Speech coding#Categories, category of voice codec that Synthesizer#Analysis/resynthesis, analyzes and synthesizes the human voice signal for audio data compressi ...

vocoder
, an electronic speech compression device, or codec, and the
VoderThe Bell Telephone Laboratory's Voder (from ''Voice Operating Demonstrator'') was the first attempt to electronically synthesize human speech by breaking it down into its acoustic components. It was invented by Homer Dudley Homer W. Dudley (14 Nove ...
, the first electronic
speech synthesizer Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech Speech is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses Phonetics, phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all ...
, were developed and demonstrated by
Homer Dudley Homer W. Dudley (14 November 1896– 18 September 1980) was a pioneering electronic and acoustic engineer who created the first electronic voice synthesizer for Bell Labs in the 1930s and led the development of a method of sending secure voice trans ...
, the Voder being demonstrated at the 1939 New York World's Fair. Bell researcher
Clinton Davisson Clinton Joseph Davisson (October 22, 1881 – February 1, 1958) was an American physics, physicist who won the 1937 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of electron diffraction in the famous Davisson–Germer experiment. Davisson shared the Nob ...

Clinton Davisson
shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with
George Paget Thomson Sir George Paget Thomson, FRS (; 3 May 189210 September 1975) was an English physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science ...

George Paget Thomson
for the discovery of
electron diffraction#REDIRECT Electron diffractionElectron diffraction refers to the wave nature of electrons. However, from a technical or practical point of view, it may be regarded as a technique used to study matter by firing electrons at a sample and observing the ...

electron diffraction
, which helped lay the foundation for
solid-state electronics Solid-state electronics means semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a Electrical conductor, conductor, such as metallic copper, and an insulat ...
.


1940s

In the early 1940s, the
photovoltaic cell A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physics, physical and Chemical substance, chemical phenomenon.
was developed by
Russell Ohl Russell Shoemaker Ohl (January 30, 1898 – March 20, 1987) was an American engineer who is generally recognized for patent NPOV disputes from March 2021 A patent is a Title (property), title that gives its owner the legal right to exclude oth ...
. In 1943, Bell developed
SIGSALY SIGSALY (also known as the X System, Project X, Ciphony I, and the Green Hornet) was a secure voice, secure speech system used in World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, g ...

SIGSALY
, the first digital scrambled speech transmission system, used by the Allies in World War II. The British wartime codebreaker
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
visited the labs at this time, working on speech encryption and meeting
Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such top ...
. Bell Labs Quality Assurance Department gave the world and the United States such statisticians as Walter A. Shewhart, ,
Harold F. Dodge Harold French Dodge (January 23, 1893 in Lowell, Massachusetts Lowell () is a city in the U.S. Commonwealth of Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous U.S. state, state in the New E ...
, George D. Edwards, Harry Romig, R. L. Jones, Paul Olmstead, E.G.D. Paterson, and Mary N. Torrey. During World War II, Emergency Technical Committee – Quality Control, drawn mainly from Bell Labs' statisticians, was instrumental in advancing Army and Navy ammunition acceptance and material sampling procedures. In 1947, the
transistor file:MOSFET Structure.png, upright=1.4, Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), showing Metal gate, gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (pink). A ...

transistor
, probably the most important invention developed by Bell Laboratories, was invented by
John Bardeen John Bardeen (; May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are Professional, professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test Machine, machines, complex systems, ...
,
Walter Houser Brattain Walter Houser Brattain (; February 10, 1902 – October 13, 1987) was an American physicist at Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories ...
, and William Bradford Shockley (and who subsequently shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956). In 1947,
Richard Hamming Richard Wesley Hamming (February 11, 1915 – January 7, 1998) was an American mathematician whose work had many implications for computer engineering Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of engineering Engineering is the ...
invented
Hamming code In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algo ...
s for
error detection and correction In information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification (science), quantification, computer data storage, storage, and telecommunication, communication of Digital data, digital information. The field was funda ...
. For patent reasons, the result was not published until 1950. In 1948, "
A Mathematical Theory of Communication "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" is an article by mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (numb ...
", one of the founding works in
information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification (science), quantification, computer data storage, storage, and telecommunication, communication of Digital data, digital information. The field was fundamentally established by the ...
, was published by
Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such top ...
in the ''
Bell System Technical Journal The ''Bell Labs Technical Journal'' is the in-house scientific journal In academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other conte ...
''. It built in part on earlier work in the field by Bell researchers
Harry Nyquist Harry Nyquist (, ; February 7, 1889 – April 4, 1976) was a Swedish physicist and electronic engineer Printed circuit board Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering disciplin ...
and
Ralph Hartley Ralph Vinton Lyon Hartley (November 30, 1888 – May 1, 1970) was an American electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matte ...
, but it greatly extended these. Bell Labs also introduced a series of increasingly complex calculators through the decade. Shannon was also the founder of modern cryptography with his 1949 paper ''
Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems"Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems" is a paper published in 1949 by Claude Shannon discussing cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logy, -logia ...
''.


Calculators

* Model I: A complex number calculator, completed in 1939 and put into operation in 1940, for doing calculations of
complex number In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...

complex number
s. * Model II: Relay Computer / Relay Interpolator, September 1943, for interpolating data points of flight profiles (needed for performance testing of a gun director). This model introduced error detection (self checking). * Model III: Ballistic Computer, June 1944, for calculations of ballistic trajectories * Model IV: Error Detector Mark II, March 1945, improved ballistic computer *
Model V The Model V was among the early electromechanical In engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, ...

Model V
: General purpose electromechanical computer, of which two were built, July 1946 and February 1947 * Model VI: 1949, an enhanced Model V


1950s

In 1952,
William Gardner PfannWilliam Gardner Pfann (commonly called Bill; October 27, 1917 – October 22, 1982) was an inventor An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering ...
revealed the method of
zone melting Zone melting (or zone refining, or floating-zone method, or floating-zone technique) is a group of similar methods of purifying crystals, in which a narrow region of a crystal is melted, and this molten zone is moved along the crystal. The molten ...
which enabled semiconductor purification and level doping. The 1950s also saw developments based upon
information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification (science), quantification, computer data storage, storage, and telecommunication, communication of Digital data, digital information. The field was fundamentally established by the ...
. The central development was
binary code Image:Wikipedia in binary.gif, The word 'Wikipedia' represented in ASCII binary code, made up of 9 bytes (72 bits). A binary code represents plain text, text, instruction set, computer processor instructions, or any other data using a two-symbol sys ...

binary code
systems. Efforts concentrated on the prime mission of supporting the Bell System with engineering advances, including the N-carrier system. TD
microwave radio relay Microwave transmission is the Data transmission, transmission of information by microwave radio waves. Although an experimental microwave telecommunication link across the English Channel was demonstrated in 1931, the development of radar in Wo ...
,
direct distance dialingDirect distance dialing (DDD) is a telecommunication service feature in North America by which a call originator, caller may, without operator assistance, call any other User (telecommunications), user outside the local calling area. Direct dialing ...
, E-
repeater In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal (information theory), signal and retransmits it. Repeaters are used to extend transmissions so that the signal can cover longer distances or be received on the other s ...
,
wire spring relay A wire spring relay is a type of relay, that has springs made from drawn wires of nickel silver, rather than cut from flat sheet metal as in the flat-spring relay. This class of relays provided manufacturing and operating advantages over previous de ...
, and the
Number Five Crossbar Switching SystemThe Number Five Crossbar Switching System (5XB switch) is a telephone switch for telephone exchanges designed by Bell Labs and manufactured by Western Electric starting in 1947. It was used in the Bell System principally as a Class 5 telephone switch ...
. In 1953,
Maurice Karnaugh Maurice Karnaugh (; born 4 October 1924) is an American physicist, mathematician and inventor known for the Karnaugh map used in Boolean algebra. Career Karnaugh studied mathematics and physics at City College of New York (1944 to 1948) and tran ...
developed the
Karnaugh map The Karnaugh map (KM or K-map) is a method of simplifying Boolean algebra In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra ...
, used for managing of Boolean algebraic expressions. In 1954, the first modern
solar cell A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception, perceived ...

solar cell
was invented at Bell Laboratories. In 1956
TAT-1 TAT-1 (Transatlantic No. 1) was the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable system. It was laid between Oban, Oban, Scotland and Clarenville, Clarenville, Newfoundland. Two cables were laid between 1955 and 1956 with one cable for each direct ...

TAT-1
, the first
transatlantic communications cable A transatlantic telecommunications cable is a submarine communications cable connecting one side of the Atlantic Ocean to the other. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, each cable was a single wire. After mid-century, coaxial cable came into use, ...
, was laid between Scotland and Newfoundland in a joint effort by AT&T, Bell Laboratories, and British and Canadian telephone companies. In 1957,
Max Mathews Max Vernon Mathews (November 13, 1926 in Columbus, Nebraska, USA – April 21, 2011 in San Francisco San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially ...
created
MUSIC Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societies. General definitions of music include common elements such as pit ...
, one of the first computer programs to play
electronic music Electronic music is music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societies. General definitions of music incl ...
. Robert C. Prim and
Joseph Kruskal Joseph Bernard Kruskal, Jr. (; January 29, 1928 – September 19, 2010) was an Americans, American mathematician, statistician, computer scientist and psychometrician. Personal life Kruskal was born to a American Jews, Jewish family in New York ...
developed new
greedy algorithm Image:Greedy algorithm 36 cents.svg, 280px, Greedy algorithms determine minimum number of coins to give while making change. These are the steps most people would take to emulate a greedy algorithm to represent 36 cents using only coins with values ...

greedy algorithm
s that revolutionized computer network design. In 1958, a technical paper by Arthur Schawlow and Charles Hard Townes first described the
laser A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radia ...

laser
. In 1959, Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng invented the MOSFET, metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). The MOSFET has achieved electronic hegemony and sustains the large-scale integration (LSI) of circuits underlying today's information society.


1960s

In December 1960, Ali Javan and his associates William R. Bennett Jr., William Bennett and Donald Heriot successfully operated the first gas laser, the first continuous-light laser, operating at an unprecedented accuracy and color purity. In 1962, the electret microphone was invented by Gerhard Sessler, Gerhard M. Sessler and James Edward Maceo West. Also in 1962, John R. Pierce's vision of communications satellites was realized by the launch of Telstar. In 1964, the Carbon dioxide laser was invented by Kumar Patel. The research of Philip W. Anderson into electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems led to improved understanding of metals and insulators for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1977. In 1965, Penzias and Wilson discovered the cosmic microwave background, for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1978. Frank W. Sinden, Edward E. Zajac, Kenneth C. Knowlton, and A. Michael Noll made computer-animated movies during the early to mid-1960s. Ken C. Knowlton invented the computer animation language BEFLIX. The first digital computer art was created in 1962 by Noll. In 1966, Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), a key technology in wireless services, was developed and patented by R. W. Chang. In 1968, Molecular beam epitaxy was developed by J.R. Arthur and A.Y. Cho; molecular beam epitaxy allows semiconductor chips and laser matrices to be manufactured one atomic layer at a time. In 1969, Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson created the computer operating system UNIX for the support of telecommunication switching systems as well as general purpose computing. From 1969 to 1971, Aaron Marcus, the first graphic designer involved with computer graphics, researched, designed, and programmed a prototype interactive page-layout system for the Picturephone. In 1969, the
charge-coupled device imaging A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit File:PExdcr01CJC.jpg, 200px, A circui ...
(CCD) was invented by Willard Boyle and George E. Smith, for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2009. In the 1960s, the Bell Laboratories Building (Manhattan), New York City site was sold and became the Westbeth Artists Community complex.


1970s

The 1970s and 1980s saw more and more computer-related inventions at the Bell Laboratories as part of the personal computing revolution. In 1972, Dennis Ritchie developed the compiled programming language C as a replacement for the interpreted language B which was then used in a worse is better rewrite of UNIX. Also, the language
AWK AWK (''awk'') is a domain-specific languageA domain-specific language (DSL) is a computer languageA computer language is a method of communication with a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of ari ...
was designed and implemented by Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan of Bell Laboratories. In 1972, Marc Rochkind invented the Source Code Control System. In 1970, A. Michael Noll invented a tactile, force-feedback system, coupled with interactive stereoscopic computer display. In 1971, an improved task priority system for computerized
telephone exchange manually connecting calls with cord pairs at a telephone switchboard A telephone exchange, telephone switch, or central office is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or in large enterprises. It intercon ...
switching systems for telephone traffic was invented by Erna Schneider Hoover, who received one of the first software patents for it. In 1976, Optical fiber systems were first tested in Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia and in 1980, the first single-chip 32-bit microprocessor, the Bellmac 32A was demonstrated. It went into production in 1982. The 1970s also saw a major central office technology evolve from crossbar electromechanical relay-based technology and discrete transistor logic to Bell Labs-developed thick film hybrid and transistor–transistor logic (TTL), stored program-controlled switching systems; 1ESS switch, 1A/4ESS switch, #4 TOLL Electronic Switching Systems (ESS) and 2A Local Central Offices produced at the Bell Labs Naperville and Western Electric Lisle, Illinois facilities. This technology evolution dramatically reduced floor space needs. The new ESS also came with its own diagnostic software that needed only a switchman and several frame technicians to maintain.


1980s

In 1980, the Time division multiple access, TDMA and CDMA digital cellular telephone technology was patented. In 1982, Fractional quantum Hall effect was discovered by Horst Ludwig Störmer, Horst Störmer and former Bell Laboratories researchers Robert B. Laughlin and Daniel C. Tsui; they consequently won a Nobel Prize in 1998 for the discovery. In 1985, the programming language
C++ C++ () is a general-purpose programming language In computer software, a general-purpose programming language is a programming language dedicated to a general-purpose, designed to be used for writing software in a wide variety of application ...
had its first commercial release. Bjarne Stroustrup started developing C++ at Bell Laboratories in 1979 as an extension to the original C language. In 1984, the first photoconductive antennas for picosecond electromagnetic radiation were demonstrated by Auston and others. This type of antenna became an important component in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In 1984, Karmarkar's algorithm for linear programming was developed by mathematician Narendra Karmarkar. Also in 1984, Modification of Final Judgment, a divestiture agreement signed in 1982 with the American Federal government forced the break-up of AT&T: Bellcore (now
Telcordia Technologies iconectiv is a supplier of network planning and network management services to telecommunications providers. Known as Bellcore after its establishment in the United States in 1983 as part of the break-up of the Bell System, the company's name cha ...
) was split off from Bell Laboratories to provide the same R&D functions for the newly created local exchange carriers. AT&T also was limited to using the Bell trademark only in association with Bell Laboratories. ''Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc.'' became a wholly owned company of the new AT&T Technologies unit, the former Western Electric. The 5ESS Switch was developed during this transition. In 1985, laser cooling was used to slow and manipulate atoms by Steven Chu and team. In 1985, the modeling language ''A Mathematical Programming Language''
AMPL AMPL (A Mathematical Programming Language) is an algebraic modeling language to describe and solve high-complexity problems for large-scale mathematical computing (i.e., large-scale optimization and scheduling File:Departure for the south - Na ...
was developed by Robert Fourer, David M. Gay and Brian Kernighan at Bell Laboratories. Also in 1985, Bell Laboratories was awarded the National Medal of Technology "For contribution over decades to modern communication systems". During the 1980s, the operating system ''Plan 9 from Bell Labs'' was developed extending the UNIX model. Also, the Radiodrum, an electronic music instrument played in three space dimensions was invented. In 1988, TAT-8 became the first transatlantic fiber-optic cable. Bell Labs in Freehold, NJ developed the 1.3-micron fiber, cable, splicing, laser detector, and 280 Mbit/s repeater for 40,000 telephone-call capacity. Arthur Ashkin invented optical tweezers that grab particles, atoms, viruses and other living cells with their laser beam fingers. A major breakthrough came in 1987, when Ashkin used the tweezers to capture living bacteria without harming them. He immediately began studying biological systems and optical tweezers are now widely used to investigate the machinery of life.


1990s

In the early 1990s, approaches to increase modem speeds to 56K were explored at Bell Labs, and early patents were filed in 1992 by Ender Ayanoglu, Nuri R. Dagdeviren and their colleagues. In 1994, the quantum cascade laser was invented by Federico Capasso, Alfred Cho, Jerome Faist and their collaborators. Also in 1994, Peter Shor devised his quantum factorization algorithm. In 1996, SCALPEL electron lithography, which prints features atoms wide on microchips, was invented by Lloyd Harriott and his team. The operating system Inferno (operating system), Inferno, an update of Plan 9, was created by Dennis Ritchie with others, using the then-new Concurrent computing, concurrent programming language Limbo (programming language), Limbo. A high performance database engine (Dali) was developed which became DataBlitz in its product form. In 1996, AT&T spun off Bell Laboratories, along with most of its equipment manufacturing business, into a new company named Alcatel-Lucent, Lucent Technologies. AT&T retained a small number of researchers who made up the staff of the newly created AT&T Labs. In 1997, the smallest then-practical transistor (60 nanometers, 182 atoms wide) was built. In 1998, the first Optical IP Switching, optical router was invented.


2000s

Image:Alcatel Lucent Logo.svg, 200px, Pre-2013 logo of Alcatel-Lucent, parent company of Bell Labs 2000 was an active year for the Laboratories, in which DNA machine prototypes were developed; progressive geometry compression algorithm made widespread 3-D communication practical; the first electrically powered Dye laser, organic laser invented; a large-scale map of cosmic dark matter was compiled, and the F-15 (material), an organic material that makes Organic electronics, plastic transistors possible, was invented. In 2002, physicist Schön scandal, Jan Hendrik Schön was fired after his work was found to contain fraudulent data. It was the first known case of fraud at Bell Labs. In 2003, the New Jersey Institute of Technology Biomedical Engineering Laboratory was created at Murray Hill, New Jersey. In 2005, Jeong H. Kim, former President of Lucent's Optical Network Group, returned from academia to become the President of Bell Laboratories. In April 2006, Bell Laboratories' parent company, Lucent Technologies, signed a merger agreement with Alcatel-Lucent, Alcatel. On December 1, 2006, the merged company, Alcatel-Lucent, began operations. This deal raised concerns in the United States, where Bell Laboratories works on defense contracts. A separate company, LGS Innovations, with an American board was set up to manage Bell Laboratories' and Lucent's sensitive U.S. government contracts. In March 2019, LGS Innovations was purchased by CACI. In December 2007, it was announced that the former Lucent Bell Laboratories and the former Alcatel Research and Innovation would be merged into one organization under the name of Bell Laboratories. This is the first period of growth following many years during which Bell Laboratories progressively lost manpower due to layoffs and spin-offs making the company shut down for a short period of time. As of July 2008, however, only four scientists remained in physics research, according to a report by the scientific journal ''Nature''. On August 28, 2008, Alcatel-Lucent announced it was pulling out of basic science, material physics, and semiconductor research, and it will instead focus on more immediately marketable areas, including networking, high-speed electronics, wireless networks, nanotechnology and software. In 2009, Willard Boyle and George Smith were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention and development of the
charge-coupled device imaging A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit File:PExdcr01CJC.jpg, 200px, A circui ...
(CCD).


2010s

Gee Rittenhouse, former Head of Research, returned from his position as chief operating officer of Alcatel-Lucent's Software, Services, and Solutions business in February 2013, to become the 12th President of Bell Labs. On November 4, 2013, Alcatel-Lucent announced the appointment of Marcus Weldon as President of Bell Labs. His stated charter was to return Bell Labs to the forefront of innovation in Information and communications technology by focusing on solving the key industry challenges, as was the case in the great Bell Labs innovation eras in the past. In July 2014, Bell Labs announced it had broken "the broadband Internet speed record" with a new technology dubbed XG-FAST that promises 10 gigabits per second transmission speeds. In 2014, Eric Betzig shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in super-resolved fluorescence microscopy which he began pursuing while at Bell Labs in the Semiconductor Physics Research Department. On April 15, 2015,
Nokia Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications, information technology company, information technology, and consumer electronics company, ...

Nokia
agreed to acquire Alcatel-Lucent, Bell Labs' parent company, in a share exchange worth $16.6 billion. Their first day of combined operations was January 14, 2016. In September 2016, Nokia Bell Labs, along with Technische Universität Berlin, Deutsche Telekom T-Labs and the Technical University of Munich achieved a data rate of one terabit per second by improving transmission capacity and spectral efficiency in an optical communications field trial with a Constellation shaping#Probabilistic Constellation Shaping, new modulation technique. In 2018, Arthur Ashkin shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on "the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems" which was developed at Bell Labs in 1980s.


2020s

In 2021, Alfred Aho and Jeffrey Ullman shared the Turing Award for their work on Compilers.


Nobel Prizes and Turing Awards

Nine Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories. * 1937: Clinton Davisson, Clinton J. Davisson shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for demonstrating the wave nature of matter. * 1956:
John Bardeen John Bardeen (; May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are Professional, professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test Machine, machines, complex systems, ...
, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley received the Nobel Prize in Physics for inventing the first
transistor file:MOSFET Structure.png, upright=1.4, Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), showing Metal gate, gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (pink). A ...

transistor
s. * 1977: Philip W. Anderson shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for developing an improved understanding of the electronic structure of glass and magnetic materials. * 1978: Arno A. Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, Robert W. Wilson shared the Nobel Prize in Physics. Penzias and Wilson were cited for their discovering cosmic microwave background radiation, a nearly uniform glow that fills the Universe in the microwave band of the radio spectrum. * 1997: Steven Chu shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for developing methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light. * 1998: Horst Störmer, Robert Laughlin, and Daniel Tsui, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for discovering and explaining the fractional quantum Hall effect. * 2009: Willard S. Boyle, George E. Smith shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Charles K. Kao. Boyle and Smith were cited for inventing
charge-coupled device imaging A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit File:PExdcr01CJC.jpg, 200px, A circui ...
(CCD) semiconductor imaging sensors. * 2014: Eric Betzig shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in super-resolved fluorescence microscopy which he began pursuing while at Bell Labs. * 2018: Arthur Ashkin shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on "the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems" which was developed at Bell Labs. The Turing Award has been won five times by Bell Labs researchers. * 1968:
Richard Hamming Richard Wesley Hamming (February 11, 1915 – January 7, 1998) was an American mathematician whose work had many implications for computer engineering Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of engineering Engineering is the ...
for his work on numerical methods, automatic coding systems, and error-detecting and error-correcting codes. * 1983: Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie for their work on operating system theory, and for developing
Unix Unix (; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser Multi-user software is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to ...
. * 1986: Robert Tarjan with John Hopcroft, for fundamental achievements in the design and analysis of algorithms and data structures. * 2018: Yann LeCun and Yoshua Bengio shared the Turing Award with Geoffrey Hinton for their work in Deep Learning. * 2021: Alfred Aho and Jeffrey Ullman shared the Turing Award for their work on Compilers.


Notable alumni

* __ Nobel Prize * __ Turing Award


Programs

On May 20, 2014, Bell Labs announced the ''Bell Labs Prize'', a competition for innovators to offer proposals in information and communication technologies, with cash awards of up to $100,000 for the grand prize.


Bell Labs Technology Showcase

The Murray Hill campus features a exhibit, the Bell Labs Technology Showcase, showcasing the technological discoveries and developments at Bell Labs. The exhibit is located just off the main lobby and is open to the public.


See also

* Bell Labs Holmdel Complex * ''Bell Labs Technical Journal''—Published scientific journal of Bell Laboratories (1996–present) * ''
Bell System Technical Journal The ''Bell Labs Technical Journal'' is the in-house scientific journal In academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other conte ...
''—Published scientific journal of Bell Laboratories (1922–1983) * ''Bell Labs Record'' * Industrial laboratory * George Stibitz—Bell Laboratories engineer—"father of the modern digital computer" * History of mobile phones—Bell Laboratories conception and development of cellular phones * High speed photography & Wollensak—''Fastax'' high speed (rotating prism) cameras developed by Bell Labs * Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory * Simplified Message Desk Interface * Sound film—''Westrex'' sound system for cinema films developed by Bell Labs * ''TWX Magazine''—A short-lived trade periodical published by Bell Laboratories (1944–1952) * Walter A. Shewhart—Bell Laboratories engineer—"father of statistical quality control" * "Worse is Better"—A software design philosophy also called "The New Jersey Style" under which UNIX and C were supposedly developed * Experiments in Art and Technology—A collaboration between artists and Bell Labs engineers & scientists to create new forms of art.


References


Further reading

* Martin, Douglas
Ian M. Ross, a President at Bell Labs, Dies at 85
''The New York Times'', March 16, 2013, p. A23 * * Gleick, James. ''The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood''. Vintage Books, 2012, 544 pages. .


External links

* *
Bell Works
the re-imagining of the historic former Bell Labs building in Holmdel, New Jersey
Timeline of discoveries as of 2006
(https://www.bell-labs.com/timeline)
Bell Labs' Murray Hill anechoic chamber



The Idea Factory
a video interview with Jon Gertner, author of "The Idea Factory: Bell Labs and the Great Age of American Innovation, by Dave Iverson of KQED-FM Public Radio, San Francisco {{Coord, 40.683404, -74.400744, type:landmark, display=title Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent Bell System Berkeley Heights, New Jersey Companies based in Union County, New Jersey Computer science institutes in the United States Computer science research organizations Former AT&T subsidiaries History of telecommunications in the United States National Medal of Technology recipients New Providence, New Jersey Nokia Research institutes in the United States Science and technology in New Jersey