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The Banu Qasi, Banu Kasi, Beni Casi ( ar, بني قسي or بنو قسي, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a
MuwalladThe ''Muladi'' ( es, muladí, , pl. ; pt, muladi, , pl. ; ca, muladita, or , , pl. or ; ar, مولد, trans. ''muwallad'', pl. , ''muwalladūn'' or , ''muwalladīn'') were Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Mo ...
dynasty that in the 9th century ruled the
Upper March The Upper March (in ar, الثغر الأعلى, ''aṯ-Tagr al-A'la''; in Spanish: ''Marca Superior'') was an administrative and military division in northeast Al-Andalus, roughly corresponding to the Ebro valley and adjacent Mediterranean ...
, a frontier territory of the
Umayyad The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the ...
Emirate of Córdoba An emirate is a territory ruled by an emir, a title used by monarchs or high officeholders in the Muslim world. There are three emirates that are independent states (Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Qatar); and the unrecognized Islamic Emirate ...
, located on the upper
Ebro , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro r ...
Valley. At their height in the 850s, family head Musa ibn Musa ibn Qasi was so powerful and autonomous that he would be called 'The Third Monarch of Hispania'. In the first half of the 10th century, an intra-family succession squabble, rebellions and rivalries with competing families, in the face of vigorous monarchs to the north and south, led to the sequential loss of all of their land.


Dynastic beginnings

The family is said to descend from the
Hispano-Roman
Hispano-Roman
or
Visigoth The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in late antiquity, or what is kno ...

Visigoth
ic nobleman named Cassius. Muslim chronicles and the ''
Chronicle of Alfonso III The ''Chronicle of Alfonso III'' ( la, Chronica Adefonsi tertii regis) is a chronicle composed in the early tenth century on the order of King Alfonso III of León with the goal of showing the continuity between Visigothic Spain and the later Christ ...
'' suggest he was a
Visigoth The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in late antiquity, or what is kno ...

Visigoth
. According to the 10th century
MuwalladThe ''Muladi'' ( es, muladí, , pl. ; pt, muladi, , pl. ; ca, muladita, or , , pl. or ; ar, مولد, trans. ''muwallad'', pl. , ''muwalladūn'' or , ''muwalladīn'') were Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Mo ...
historian,
Ibn al-Qūṭiyya Ibn al-Qūṭiyya (, died 6 November 977), born Muḥammad Ibn ʿUmar Ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn ʾIbrāhīm ibn ʿIsā ibn Muzāḥim (), also known as Abu Bakr or al-Qurtubi ("the Córdoban"), was an Al-Andalus, Andalusian historian and the greatest ...
,
Count CassiusCount Cassius (floruit, fl. 8th century A.D.), also called "Count Casius" ( es, Casio; ar, قَسِيّ قُومِس, links=no, "Qasīy Qūmis"), was a Hispano-Roman or Visigothic nobleman who founded the Banu Qasi dynasty. His actual existence has ...
converted to Islam in 714 as the '' mawlā'' (client) of the
Umayyads The Umayyad dynasty ( ar, بَنُو أُمَيَّةَ, Banū Umayya, Sons of Umayya) or Umayyads () were the ruling family of the Muslim Umayyad Caliphate, caliphate between 661 and 750 and later of Al-Andalus, Islamic Iberia in Europe between 7 ...
, shortly after their
conquest of Hispania The Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula was a process by which the Roman Republic seized territories in the Iberian Peninsula that were previously under the control of native Celtiberians, Celtiberian tribes and the Ancient Carthage, Carthagi ...
. After his conversion, he is said to have traveled to
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
to personally swear allegiance to the Umayyad
Caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
,
Al-Walid I Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan ( ar, الوليد بن عبد الملك ابن مروان, al-Walīd ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān; c. 674 – 23 February 715), commonly known as al-Walid I ( ar, الوليد الأول), was the sixth Um ...
. Under the Banu Qasi, the region of Upper Ebro (modern districts of
Logroño Logroño (, , ) is the capital of the province of La Rioja (Spain), La Rioja and situated in northern Spain. Traversed in its northern part by the Ebro River, Logroño has historically been a place of passage – such as the Camino de Santiago. ...

Logroño
and southern Navarre, based in
TudelaTudela may refer to: *Tudela, Navarre, a town and municipality in northern Spain ** Benjamin of Tudela Medieval Jewish traveller ** William of Tudela, Medieval troubadour who wrote the first part of the ''Song of the Albigensian Crusade'' ** Battle ...
) formed a semi-autonomous principality. The tiny emirate was faced by enemies in several directions. Although never realized, the threat of Frankish attempts to regain control over the western Pyrenees was a real one. In actuality, even more menacing was the gradual eastwards expansion of the Asturian Kingdom; while in the south lay the
Caliphate of Córdoba A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
, ever anxious to impose its authority over the frontier regions. As a local
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
dynasty in the
Ebro , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro r ...
valley (the
Upper March The Upper March (in ar, الثغر الأعلى, ''aṯ-Tagr al-A'la''; in Spanish: ''Marca Superior'') was an administrative and military division in northeast Al-Andalus, roughly corresponding to the Ebro valley and adjacent Mediterranean ...
of
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
; ar, الثغر الأعلى , ''Aṯ-Ṯaḡr al-Aʿlà''), the Banu Qasi were nominally clients of the emirate, but they thrived on regional rivalries and alliances with other
MuwalladThe ''Muladi'' ( es, muladí, , pl. ; pt, muladi, , pl. ; ca, muladita, or , , pl. or ; ar, مولد, trans. ''muwallad'', pl. , ''muwalladūn'' or , ''muwalladīn'') were Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Mo ...
dynasties of the Upper March, the
Vascon
Vascon
tribal chieftains of
Pamplona Pamplona (; eu, Iruña or ; oc, Pampalona), historically known as Pampeluna in English, is the capital city of the Chartered Community of Navarre, in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Ba ...
and
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in acc ...
, as well as with the Catalan counts of
Pallars Pallars is a historical region, historical and natural region of Catalonia. Located in the Pre-Pyrenees and Pyrenees area, most of its territory is mountainous. The Noguera Pallaresa river is named after this region. Geography The physiography of ...
- Ribagorza to the north and
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...
to the east, the
Kingdom of Asturias The Kingdom of Asturias ( la, Asturum Regnum; ast, Reinu d'Asturies) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous commun ...
to the west and the Umayyads to the south over the next two centuries. They frequently intermarried with other regional nobility, both Muslim and Christian. Musa ibn Musa and the Pamplona king Íñigo Arista were maternal half-brothers, while Musa also married Arista's daughter, and his own daughter and nieces were married to other Pyrenean princes. The cultural ambivalence of the Banu Qasi is also demonstrated by their mixed use of names: for example,
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...
(''Muhammad'', ''Musa'', ''Abd Allah''),
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
ate (''Awriya'', ''Furtun'', ''Lubb''), and
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
(''Garshiya''). The Umayyads of Cordova sanctioned the rule of the Banu Qasi and repeatedly granted them autonomy by appointing them as governors, only to replace them as they expressed too much independence, or launch punitive military expeditions into the region. Such acts on the part of the Umayyads demonstrated their failure to ever fully resolve the problem of effective, central control of outlying regions.


First rise to prominence

The speculated homeland of Count Cassius was a narrow strip across the Ebro from
TudelaTudela may refer to: *Tudela, Navarre, a town and municipality in northern Spain ** Benjamin of Tudela Medieval Jewish traveller ** William of Tudela, Medieval troubadour who wrote the first part of the ''Song of the Albigensian Crusade'' ** Battle ...
. The Arab historian
Ibn Hazm Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm ( ar, أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم; also sometimes known as al-Andalusī aẓ-Ẓāhirī; 7 November 994 – 15 August 1064Ibn Hazm. ' (Preface). Tr ...
listed the sons of Count Cassius as ''Furtun'', ''Abu Tawr'', ''Abu Salama'', ''Yunus'' and ''Yahya''. Of these, it has been suggested that the second may be the Abu Tawr, Wali of Huesca, who invited
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
to
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
in 778. Likewise, the
Banu Salama The Banu Salama ( ar, بني سلمة) were a Tudjibid (or perhaps Banu Qasi The Banu Qasi, Banu Kasi, Beni Casi ( ar, بني قسي or بنو قسي, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a Muwallad dynasty that in th ...
, removed from power in
Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Huesca
and Barbitanya (the area of
Barbastro Barbastro (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republ ...
) at the end of the 8th century, may have derived from Abu Salama. Subsequent leaders of the family descend from the eldest son, Furtun. His son, Musa ibn Furtun ibn Qasi, first garnered notice in 788, when on behalf of emir Hisham I of Córdoba he put down the rebellion of the Banu Husain in Zaragoza. The fate of Musa ibn Furtun is debated. An account of the 788 rebellion tells of Musa's murder shortly thereafter at the hands of a Banu Husain follower, yet a "Furtun ibn Musa" is said to have been killed in his own 802 Zaragoza uprising, and it has been suggested that this name may be an error for Musa ibn Furtun. However,
Ibn Hayyan Abū Marwān Ḥayyān ibn Khalaf ibn Ḥusayn ibn Ḥayyān al-Qurṭubī (987–1075), usually known as Ibn Hayyan, was a Muslim historian from Al-Andalus. Born at Córdoba, Spain, Córdoba, his father was an important official at the court of t ...
also reports a Furtun from the Banu Qasi forming a coalition with
Pamplona Pamplona (; eu, Iruña or ; oc, Pampalona), historically known as Pampeluna in English, is the capital city of the Chartered Community of Navarre, in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Ba ...
,
Álava Álava ( in Spanish language, Spanish) or Araba ( in Basque language, Basque, dialectal: ), officially Araba/Álava, is a Provinces of Spain, province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque Cou ...

Álava
, Castile,
AmayaAmaya may refer to: People * Amaya (Spanish-language name) lists people with the Spanish given name or surname, ''Amaya'' * Amaya (Japanese-language name) lists people with the Japanese surname, ''Amaya'' * Maja Keuc (born 1992), Slovenian singer k ...
and
Cerdanya Cerdanya () or often La Cerdanya ( la, Ceretani or ''Ceritania''; french: Cerdagne; es, Cerdaña), is a natural comarca and historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in tim ...
to fight against
Amrus ibn Yusuf'Amrus ibn Yusuf al-Muwallad al-Laridi ( ar, عمروس بن يوسف المولد, died 808/9 or 813/4) was a Muwallad (probably of Visigothic origin) general of the Emirate of Córdoba and governor of Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English a ...
at this time, suggesting that this is instead a son of Musa ibn Furtun overlooked by
Ibn Hazm Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm ( ar, أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم; also sometimes known as al-Andalusī aẓ-Ẓāhirī; 7 November 994 – 15 August 1064Ibn Hazm. ' (Preface). Tr ...
, whose genealogy provides most of what we know about the clan. In the next generation, Mutarrif ibn Musa, was likely a son of Musa ibn Furtun, although historian Ibn Hayyan only mentions his name and does not say that he was a member of the Banu Qasi clan. According to Ibn Hayyan, "in (183 H: 799-800) the people of Pamplona deceived Mutarrif ibn Musa and killed him". "This is perhaps one of the most quoted paragraphs by historians who on the basis of this brief news, have woven a complex web of relationships involving the Banu Qasi, the Arista and the Carolingians".
Évariste Lévi-ProvençalÉvariste Lévi-Provençal (4 January 1894 – 27 March 1956) was a French medievalist, orientalist, Arabist, and historian of Islam. The scholar who would take the name Lévi-Provençal was born 4 January 1894 in Constantine, Algeria, Constanti ...
was the first to say that "Pamplona, the capital of Vasconia, had not been governed by the Muslims since 798 (...) and that its inhabitants had killed the representative of the Umayyad authorities, Mutarrif ben Musa Ben Qasi, and had chosen one of their own, named Velasco." This Velasco would be the same "enemy of God, Balashk al-Yalashqi, Lord of Pamplona", a pro-Carolingian against whom the
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslims
launched a military campaign in 816. Spanish historian Claudio Sánchez Albornoz did not agree with this interpretation and believed that it had been the people of Pamplona, without any outside intervention, who took matters in their own hands. No where does Ibn Hayyan mention that Mutarrif ibn Musa was the governor of Pamplona or that Velasco was pro-Carolingian. It was Musa's son Musa ibn Musa ibn Qasi whose rule brought the family to the peak of its power.


Musa ibn Musa

Besides the Arab sources, Musa ibn Musa is mentioned in three Latin texts: the '' Chronica Adefonsi tertii regis''; the '' Albendensis''; and the ''
Códice de RodaThe ''Códice de Roda'' or ''Códice de Meyá'' (Roda or Meyá codex) is a medieval manuscript that represents a unique source for details of the 9th and early 10th century Kingdom of Navarre and neighbouring principalities. It is currently held in ...

Códice de Roda
''. The latter mentions his family relations as the half-brother and son-in-law of King
Íñigo Arista:''For the cyclone, see Cyclone Inigo.'' Inigo derives from the Castilian rendering (Íñigo) of the medieval Basque name Eneko (given name), Eneko. Ultimately, the name means "my little (love)". While mostly seen among the Iberian diaspora, it al ...
and the properties he held. The ''Albeldensis'' describes the
Battle of Monte Laturce The Battle of Monte Laturce, also known as the second Battle of Albelda, was a victory for the forces of Ordoño I of Asturias and his ally García Íñiguez of Pamplona. They defeated the latter's uncle and former ally, the Banu Qasi lord of Borja ...
, also referred to as the second Battle of Albelda, whereas the
Chronicle of Alfonso III The ''Chronicle of Alfonso III'' ( la, Chronica Adefonsi tertii regis) is a chronicle composed in the early tenth century on the order of King Alfonso III of León with the goal of showing the continuity between Visigothic Spain and the later Christ ...
provides a more detailed account of his life and feats. While Musa had been orphaned at an early age, his military activity may have begun in the 820s, and the Banu Qasi (possibly Musa himself) most probably participated in the second battle of the pass of Roncevaux along with their relatives of Pamplona, an event leading to the establishment of the kingdom of Pamplona. Historians agree that in the 840s, after the expulsion from his lands of a kinsman, 'Abd al-Jabbar ibn Qasi, Musa launched a series of revolts in conjunction with his maternal half-brother, Íñigo Arista of Pamplona.
Abd ar-Rahman II Abd ar-Rahman II () (792–852) was the fourth ''Umayyad'' Emir of Córdoba in the Al-Andalus Iberia The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Pénins ...
defeated them, and took Musa's son Lubb hostage. Musa repeatedly submitted, only to rise again. After repeated rebellions he controlled a region along the Ebro from Borja to
Logroño Logroño (, , ) is the capital of the province of La Rioja (Spain), La Rioja and situated in northern Spain. Traversed in its northern part by the Ebro River, Logroño has historically been a place of passage – such as the Camino de Santiago. ...

Logroño
, including
TudelaTudela may refer to: *Tudela, Navarre, a town and municipality in northern Spain ** Benjamin of Tudela Medieval Jewish traveller ** William of Tudela, Medieval troubadour who wrote the first part of the ''Song of the Albigensian Crusade'' ** Battle ...
,
Tarazona Tarazona is a town and municipality in the Tarazona y el Moncayo comarca, province of Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza province and of the autonomous communities of ...

Tarazona
,
Arnedo Arnedo is the third largest town in La Rioja, Spain. It is located near Calahorra Calahorra [] ( an, Calagorra, la, Calagurris) La Rioja (autonomous community), La Rioja, Spain is a municipality in the comarca of Rioja Baja, near the border w ...

Arnedo
and
Calahorra Calahorra [] ( an, Calagorra, la, Calagurris) La Rioja (autonomous community), La Rioja, Spain is a municipality in the comarca of Rioja Baja, near the border with Navarre on the right bank of the Ebro. During Ancient Rome, Ancient Roman times, C ...

Calahorra
. The 851/2 deaths of Íñigo Arista and Abd ar-Rahman II, as well as a victory over Christian forces at
Albelda Albelda (; ) is a municipality located in the Huesca (province), province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain. According to the 2004 census (Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain), INE), the municipality had a population of 877 inhabitants. References ...
, gave Musa unprecedented status. The new emir,
Muhammad I of Córdoba Muhammad I (823–886) () was the ''Umayyad'' emir of Córdoba from 852 to 886 in the Al-Andalus (Moors, Moorish Iberian Peninsula, Iberia). Biography Muhammad was born in Córdoba, Spain, Córdoba. His reign was marked by several revolts and se ...
named Musa the
Wali A wali (''wali'' ar, وَلِيّ, '; plural , '), the Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle Eas ...
of Zaragoza and governor of the Upper March. Over the next decade Musa expanded the family's lands to include Zaragoza,
Najera
Najera
,
Viguera
Viguera
and
Calatayud Calatayud (; 2014 pop. 20,658) is a Municipalities of Spain, municipality in the Province of Zaragoza, within Aragón, Spain, lying on the river Jalón (river), Jalón, in the midst of the Sistema Ibérico mountain range. It is the second-largest ...
, while also governing Tudela,
Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Huesca
and
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
, and according to the '' Chronica Adefonsi tertii regis'', Musa had his followers call him "the third king of ''Spaniae''". Throughout this period, as reported by Ibn Hazm, Musa was also involved in a struggle within his family. Musa's brother Yunus ibn Musa is said to have remained loyal to Córdoba, and joined with the sons of their uncle Zahir ibn Furtun to fight Musa over a period of about 30 years. Ibn Hazm reports that Yunus had descendants, but provides no further details. In 859,
Ordoño I of Asturias Ordoño I (c. 821 – 27 May 866) was King of Asturias from 850 until his death. He was born in Oviedo, where he spent his early life in the court of Alfonso II of Asturias, Alfonso II. He was probably associated with the crown from an early age. ...
and
García Íñiguez of Pamplona García Íñiguez I (Latin: ''Garsea Enneconis'', Basque language, Basque: ''Gartzea Eneko''; c. 810 – 882), also known as García I was the second List of Navarrese monarchs, King of Pamplona from 851-2 until his death. He was the son of Íñigo ...
joined forces to deal Musa a crushing defeat at
Albelda Albelda (; ) is a municipality located in the Huesca (province), province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain. According to the 2004 census (Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain), INE), the municipality had a population of 877 inhabitants. References ...
, which passed into Christian legend as the Battle of Clavijo. Emir Muhammad then stripped Musa of his titles and restored direct Cordoban control over the region. Musa died in 862 of wounds received in a petty squabble with a son-in-law, and the family disappeared from the political scene for a decade.


Sons of Musa

Following the 862 death of Musa, nothing is known of the family until 871. It is presumed that the members of the family associated with the Cordoban court and military campaigns, but no record of their presence there survives. According to the '' Chronica Adefonsi tertii regis'', upon learning of his father's defeat at Albelda, his son Lubb ibn Musa ibn with all his men, submitted themselves to the rule of the Asturian king Ordoño and became his lifelong subjects. By the time the Banu Qasi reappear, they had lost control of most of their lands, being left with just a small area surrounding
Arnedo Arnedo is the third largest town in La Rioja, Spain. It is located near Calahorra Calahorra [] ( an, Calagorra, la, Calagurris) La Rioja (autonomous community), La Rioja, Spain is a municipality in the comarca of Rioja Baja, near the border w ...

Arnedo
. In 870, a rebellion in Huesca initiated a chain of events that would bring the Banu Qasi back to dominance. In that year, Amrus ibn Umar of the Banu Amrus assassinated the ''amil'' Musa ibn Galind, thought to have been son of the Córdoba-resident brother of Pamplona king García Íñiguez. The ''Amir'', Muhammad, sent an army to the north, but Amrus allied himself with García, and the Cordoban general, Abd al-Gafir ibn Abd al-Aziz, was killed before the gates of Zaragoza. The Banu Qasi sons of Musa, apparently under the leadership of eldest son Lubb ibn Musa, then allied themselves with García, and reestablished control over their father's possessions. First, the residents of Huesca called on Mutarrif ibn Musa ibn Qasi for leadership. In January 872,
Isma'il ibn MusaIsma'il ibn Musa () () was a Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic language, Arabic word meaning "submitter (t ...
entered Zaragoza, and was there joined by Lubb, the two of them together taking Monzon.
Isma'il Ishmael ( ar, إسماعيل, ) is the figure known in Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of Judah, Judah", via Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ioudaismos''; the term itself is of Angl ...
also allied himself with the Banu Jalaf of Barbitanya, marrying Sayyida, daughter of Abd Allah ibn Jalaf. Furtun ibn Musa occupied Tudela, whose governor the Banu Qasi imprisoned at Arnedo, then killed following an escape. Lubb also occupied and refortified Viguera. The immediate response of emir Muhammad was to try to limit the expansion of the Banu Qasi by installing a rival dynasty, the
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
Banu Tujib The Banu Tujib ( ar, بنو تجيب), the Tujibids ( ar, التجيبيون, al-Tujibiyyun, sing. Tujibi) or Banu al-Muhajir, were an Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, ع ...
, in Calatayud, the one part of their father's possessions not reclaimed. In the next year, 873, Muhammad launched a campaign against the various northern rebels. He first bought off the rebels of Toledo with governorships, and this encouraged Amrus to offer his loyalty, for which he was rewarded with Huesca where he captured Mutarrif and his family, including wife Belasquita, the daughter of García Íñiguez of Pamplona. In spite of a desperate attack by the combined troops of his brothers, Mutarrif and three sons, Muhammad, Musa and Lubb, were taken to Córdoba and crucified. The next year, Furtun died in Tudela, while Lubb was killed in an accident in Viguera in 875. This left control of the family in the hands of two men, the remaining brother
Isma'il ibn MusaIsma'il ibn Musa () () was a Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic language, Arabic word meaning "submitter (t ...
in Monzon, and Lubb's son, Muhammad ibn Lubb ibn Qasi, who is first known as a defender of Zaragoza against the emirate troops.


Muhammad ibn Lubb

Over the next decade, following the deaths of his father and two uncles, Muhammad ibn Lubb ibn Qasi maneuvered to become the leader of the family. He resisted 879 and 882 campaigns from Córdoba. The latter was under general, Hashim ibn Abd al-Aziz, and
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...
tried to persuade Hashim to unite with him against the Asturians, now ruled by Alfonso III. The earlier hostage-taking done by all parties, greatly complicated such situation. Hashim did not want to antagonize Alfonso, who was holding his son as a hostage. Hashim himself held a son of
Isma'il ibn MusaIsma'il ibn Musa () () was a Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic language, Arabic word meaning "submitter (t ...
, and he sent his captive and other gifts to Alfonso in return for his son. Muhammad would later ally himself with the kings of Pamplona and Asturias, and it was apparently he who raised the future
Ordoño II of León Ordoño II (c. 873 – June 924, León, León, León) was a king of Galicia from 910, and king of Kingdom of Galicia, Galicia and Kingdom of León, León from 914 until his death. He was an energetic ruler who submitted the kingdom of Leon to his ...
at his court. The struggle for power within the Banu Qasi family came to a head in 882, when Muhammad fought, near Calahorra, a 7000-man force of his uncle Isma'il ibn Musa, and Isma'il ibn Furtun, a son of his uncle Furtun. In the following internecine squabbles, Furtun's four sons were killed and
Isma'il ibn MusaIsma'il ibn Musa () () was a Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic language, Arabic word meaning "submitter (t ...
was forced to retreat to Monzon. From there he rebuilt
Lleida Lleida (, ; es, Lérida ) is a city in the west of Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Spain, designated as a ''na ...

Lleida
and routed an army sent by Wilfred of Barcelona. Muhammad ibn Lubb, now the clear head of the family, was left in control of the majority of the Banu Qasi lands. In 884, the emir sent two military campaigns into the region and took Zaragoza, although chronicler
Ibn Hayyan Abū Marwān Ḥayyān ibn Khalaf ibn Ḥusayn ibn Ḥayyān al-Qurṭubī (987–1075), usually known as Ibn Hayyan, was a Muslim historian from Al-Andalus. Born at Córdoba, Spain, Córdoba, his father was an important official at the court of t ...
reports that Muhammad ibn Lubb had sold the city to count
Raymond I of Pallars and RibagorzaRaymond I ( ca, Ramon, es, Raimundo) (floruit, fl. 884–920) was the first independent Count of Pallars and Count of Ribagorza, Ribagorza from 872 until his death. Early speculation made him a scion of the County of Toulouse, Counts of Toulouse, bu ...
prior to its fall. This resulted in a consolidated Banu Qasi powerbase around Arnedo, Borja, Calahorra and Viguera, with Isma'il holding an enclave to the east, around Monzon and Lleida. In 885 and 886, Muhammad launched attacks against Castile, in the first apparently killing count
Diego Rodríguez Porcelos Diego Rodríguez Porcelos (governed 873 – c. 885), was the second List of Castilian counts, Count of Castile, succeeding his father Rodrigo of Castile, Rodrigo. He did not govern Álava, however, as his father had done, since this responsibility ...
, while the second was an attack on
Álava Álava ( in Spanish language, Spanish) or Araba ( in Basque language, Basque, dialectal: ), officially Araba/Álava, is a Provinces of Spain, province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque Cou ...

Álava
in which many Christians were killed. The latter year also saw the death of emir Muhammad I of Córdoba. Muhammad ibn Lubb tested his power against the new emirs, and they responded by again trying to balance Banu Qasi power in the region, giving Zaragoza to the rival Tujibids, and Huesca to Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik al-Tawil of the
MuwalladThe ''Muladi'' ( es, muladí, , pl. ; pt, muladi, , pl. ; ca, muladita, or , , pl. or ; ar, مولد, trans. ''muwallad'', pl. , ''muwalladūn'' or , ''muwalladīn'') were Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Mo ...
Banu Shabrit clan. The latter was shortly challenged by
Isma'il ibn MusaIsma'il ibn Musa () () was a Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic language, Arabic word meaning "submitter (t ...
, whose sons fought a battle against al-Tawil's troops, Musa ibn Isma'il being killed and his brother Mutarrif captured. Isma'il died shortly thereafter, in 889, and al-Tawil and Muhammad ibn Lubb each took their case to emir Abd Allah for possession of Isma'il's lands, the emir confirming the succession of Muhammad ibn Lubb. There followed a period of relative peace and collaboration between Muhammad ibn Lubb and al-Tawil. In 891, Muhammad defeated a Christian force at Castro Sibiriano, but he dedicated most of his efforts in his final years against Tujibid Zaragoza, initiating what would become a 17-year siege. In 897, the citizens of Toledo rose up and offered their city to Muhammad, but being occupied with Zaragoza, he sent his son Lubb. Muhammad was reconnoitering Zaragoza in 898, when on 8 October, he was caught by a guard who spitted him on a lance. His head was presented to the Tujibids, who sent it to Córdoba, where it was displayed in front of the palace for eight days before being buried with the honors due a brave foe.


Lubb ibn Muhammad

Muhammad's son, Lubb ibn Muhammad ibn Qasi, was born in 870, and was already active at the time of his father's death. In 896, he was refortifying Monzon when al-Tawil of Huesca tried his luck. Though being attacked by a larger, better equipped army, Lubb was able to rout al-Tawil's men, taking his brother prisoner. In January 897 he went to Toledo to take up the leadership offer the citizens had made his father. Back in the east, he launched an attack on Aura that led to the death of Wilfred of Barcelona. Returning through Toledo in 898, he next marched to Jaén, with the intent of forming a coalition with another rebel,
Umar ibn Hafsun #REDIRECT Umar ibn HafsunImage:Bobastro ruinas.jpg, 300px, Ruins of the Bobastro Church. Umar ibn Hafsun ibn Ja'far ibn Salim ( ar, عمر بن حَفْصُون بن جَعْفَ بن سالم) (c. 850 – 917), known ...
, but before Umar reached Jaén, the news of his father's death at Zaragoza forced Lubb's return to Tudela, where he formally recognized the sovereignty of the emir, Abd Allah, in exchange for the formal governorship over Tudela and Tarazona. His return north found al-Tawil moving to take advantage of the temporary power vacuum and three weeks after his father's death, Lubb captured the Huesca ruler in a skirmish. To buy his freedom, al-Tawil ceded lands between Huesca and Monzon to Lubb, and agreed to pay 100,000 gold dinares for the possession of Huesca. Paying 50,000 immediately, he gave his son Abd al-Malik and daughter Sayyida as hostages to ensure payment of the second half. Lubb would relent, forgiving the remaining debt and returning the hostages except Sayyida, whom he married. Lubb ibn Muhammad continued his father's siege of Zaragoza, but found himself drawn in other directions. Perhaps in 900, Alfonso III, in conjunction with
Fortún Garcés of Pamplona Fortún Garcés (Basque language, Basque: ''Orti Gartzez''; died 922) nicknamed the One-eyed (''el Tuerto''), and years later the Monk (''el Monje''), was List of Navarrese monarchs, King of Pamplona from 882 until 905. He appears in Arabic records ...
, launched a raid against Tarazona, in Lubb's realms; which he successfully blocked. Then in 903, Toledo again rebelled against Cordova, asking Lubb to take control. He sent his brother Mutarrif, who was proclaimed their ''
Amir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elemen ...
''. Mutarrif's fate is unknown, but by 906, he had been replaced by Lubb's kinsman, Muhammad ibn Isma'il, son of Isma'il ibn Musa, who was then assassinated. Alfonso again attacked Lubb's lands, laying siege to Grañón, but was forced to lift the siege when Lubb moved with an army toward Alava. This threat neutralized, Lubb turned toward
Pallars Pallars is a historical region, historical and natural region of Catalonia. Located in the Pre-Pyrenees and Pyrenees area, most of its territory is mountainous. The Noguera Pallaresa river is named after this region. Geography The physiography of ...
, ravaging the lands, killing hundreds and taking a thousand captives, including Isarn, Count Raymond's son, who was kept in Tudela for a decade before being freed. In 905, a coalition of the King of Asturias, the counts of Aragon and Pallars, and, it is sometimes claimed, Lubb ibn Muhammad, engineered a coup in Navarre that brought Sancho Garcés to the throne in place of Fortún Garcés. Two years later, Lubb launched an attack on Pamplona and fought at "Liédena" on 30 September 907, resulting in a total rout of the Banu Qasi forces, while Lubb was killed. The transcendent battle marked a permanent change in the regional balance, Sancho's Pamplona becoming a major regional power, while it initiated the final decline of the Banu Qasi.


Decline (905-929)

With the fall of Lubb, his local rivals immediately fell upon the Banu Qasi lands. Sancho descended toward Calahorra. The Tujibids finally broke the siege of Zaragoza and captured
Ejea
Ejea
. Al-Tawil retook the lands he had lost, and proceeded to overrun the family's eastern enclave, taking Barbastro and Lleida. Monzon was briefly controlled by Lubb's brother Yunus ibn Muhammad, but he could not hold it, and Monzon too fell to the al-Tawil. In the reduced western lands, Lubb was succeeded by brother Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Qasi. In 911, Abd Allah and al-Tawil jointly, along with al-Tawil's brother-in-law
Galindo Aznárez IIGalindo Aznárez II (died 922) was County of Aragon#Navarrese rule, Count of Aragon (893922), the son of Aznar Galíndez II and his wife Onneca Garcés, daughter of King García Íñiguez of Pamplona. Life Galindo succeeded his father as count of Ar ...
of
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in acc ...
, attacked Pamplona. After destroying several castles, they developed cold feet and withdrew, but were caught by Sancho. Al-Tawil defected and escaped, while Galindo was crushed and forced to recognize Sancho as feudal sovereign, ending the autonomy of the Aragon. Arab sources describe Abd Allah's rear-guard action at Luesia as a victory, but if so it was only a tactical victory and he immediately retreated south. In 914, Sancho turned the tables, marching into the heart of the Banu Qasi homeland, taking Arnedo and attacking Calahorra. In the next year, 915, Sancho turned toward Tudela, and there captured Abd Allah, killing a thousand of his best men. Mutarrif ibn Muhammad ibn Qasi, Abd Allah's brother, rushed to relieve the city, and Abd Allah was ransomed, his daughter Urraca and probably son Furtun ibn Abd Allah being given as hostages. However, two months later Abd Allah was assassinated, it is said, through the machinations of Sancho. The only bright spot for the family in this period happened in the east. In 913, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik al-Tawil died, and the next year, the residents of Monzon rejected his son Amrus ibn Muhammad, and invited the Banu Qasi to return in the person of Muhammad ibn Lubb, son of Lubb ibn Muhammad. After a brief siege, he was able to reclaim the city for his family, as well as Lleida. In the west, Mutarrif ibn Muhammad and his nephew Muhammad ibn Abd Allah struggled for dominance. The latter proved victorious, killing Mutarrif in 916. Since the death of Lubb in 907, the Banu Qasi had been left fractured and weakened in the face of two resurgent powers: to the north and west, a collaboration between the new
king of León In the reign of Ordoño I of Asturias (850–866), the kingdom began to be known as that of Kingdom of León, León. In 910, an independent Kingdom of León was founded when the king of Asturias divided his territory amongst his three sons. B ...
, Ordoño II, and Sancho I of Navarre brought a strong army south, ravaging the Banu Qasi lands around Viguera, Najera and Tudela in 918, while the young and energetic
Abd ar-Rahman III Abd al-Raḥmān III, also known as 'Abd al-Rahmān ibn Muḥammad ibn 'Abd Allāh ibn Muḥammad ibn 'Abd al-Raḥmān ibn al-Ḥakam al-Rabdī ibn Hishām ibn 'Abd al-Raḥmān al-Dākhil () (889/91 - 961), was the Umayyad Emir of Córdoba fr ...
, who was to temporarily reverse the centrifugal forces at work in the Emirate, soon to be
Caliphate of Córdoba A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
, sent armies north, routing the Christians. The next year, both Banu Qasi leaders, Muhammad ibn Abd Allah and Muhammad ibn Lubb, attacked the Banu al-Tawil at Barbastro, but Sancho took advantage of this, and allying himself with his cousin
Bernard I of Ribagorza Bernard (''Bernhard'') is a French language, French and West Germanic masculine given name. The name is attested from at least the 9th century. West Germanic ''Bernhard'' is composed from the two elements ''bern'' "bear" and ''hard'' "brave, hard ...
and the Banu al-Tawil, he attacked and burned Monzon, which was hence lost to the Banu Qasi. In 920, the emir, Abd ar-Rahman III, personally led the Cordoban army north, and forced Sancho to abandon fortifications he had been building. After some maneuvering the emir met the armies of Ordoño and Sancho, and defeated them at Valdejunquera. In 923, the Christian allies brought another force south, and while Muhammad ibn Abd Allah formed a coalition of local nobles to resist it, their armies were dispersed and Viguera and Najera fell. Like his father, Muhammad was captured, then assassinated on Sancho's orders, and when Abd ar-Rahman launched another punitive campaign the next year, on his return to Tudela he removed the Banu Qasi and sent them to Córdoba, placing their old rivals the Tujibids of Zaragoza in their place. After 923, only the eastern enclave encompassing Lleida and the ''
husûn
husûn
'' of Balaguer, Barbastro and Ayera were in the hands of the family. However, one by one these expelled Muhammad ibn Lubb ibn Qasi and turned to the Tujibids for leadership, leaving him only Ayera in 928, when Jimeno Garcés, the new king of Navarre, intervened on his behalf in opposition to Hasim ibn Muhammad al-Tujibi. The next year, Muhammad fell victim to an ambush and was killed by his brother-in-law, a son of Raymond of Pallars.


Legacy

The death of Muhammad ibn Lubb marked the end of the Banu Qasi in the Ebro valley. Their rivals the Tujibids would follow their model, making an independent peace with Leon in 937, a move that resulted in a punitive expedition from the Caliph similar to those of prior years against the Banu Qasi. The Tujibids would eventually establish a full-fledged Taifa kingdom centered at Zaragoza. Two other Taifa crowns were ruled by men with names reminiscent of the Banu Qasi and are claimed as dynastic members, although there is no evidence of any actual genealogical connection. A small Taifa state at
Alpuente
Alpuente
was founded by Abd Allah ibn Qasim. He was of a convert family that claimed a tribal affiliation with the Yamanī/Fíhrī. In 1144, another Christian convert and
Sufi Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is mysticism in Islam, "characterized ... y particularvalues, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions". It is variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, ...

Sufi
mystic from Silves,
Abu-l-Qasim Ahmad ibn al-Husayn ibn Qasi Abūʾl-Qāsim Aḥmad ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn Qasī (died 1151) was a Sufi, a rebel leader against the Almoravid dynasty in Al-Garb Al-Andalus and governor of Taifa of Silves, Silves for the Almohads. The main sources for his life are Ibn al-Abbār, ...
, called ibn Qasi, rose and established a Taifa state at
Mértola
Mértola
, expanding it to much of southern
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
, and he encouraged the successful move of the
Almohads The Almohad Caliphate (International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA: ; from ar, المُوَحِّدون, translit=al-Muwaḥḥidūn, lit=those who profess the unity of God) was a North African Berbers, Berber Muslim empire founded in the 12th century. ...

Almohads
(to whom he would submit) against
Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situate ...

Seville
. They fell out and Ibn Qasi was assassinated in 1151 by his own men.;


Leadership of the Banu Qasi

The following men are the documented leaders of the Banu Qasi (entries in ''italics'' are of uncertain affiliation to the family): * Cassius, fl. 714 ** '' Abu Tawr, Wali of Huesca, fl. 778, perhaps son of Cassius'' * Musa ibn Furtun, grandson of Cassius ** ''Mutarrif ibn Musa, assassinated 799, perhaps son of Musa ibn Furtun'' ** ''Furtun ibn Musa, killed in rebellion 801, perhaps son of Musa ibn Furtun, else identical to him'' * Musa ibn Musa, d. 862, son of Musa ibn Furtun * Lubb ibn Musa, d. 875, son of Musa ibn Musa *
Isma'il ibn MusaIsma'il ibn Musa () () was a Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic language, Arabic word meaning "submitter (t ...
, co-leader to 882, d. 889, son of Musa ibn Musa *
Muhammad ibn Lubb ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates = , nationality = , other_names = , years_active = , notable ...
, co-leader to 882, then sole leader, d. 899, son of Lubb ibn Musa *
Lubb ibn MuhammadLubb ibn Muhammad ibn Lubb () (? - 907), was a ''Wali (administrative title), wali'' of Tudela, Navarre, Tudela (890-907) and Lleida, Larida, as well as a prominent Islam, Muslim Feudal lord, lord on the Upper March of Al-Andalus. Family Lubb was a ...
, d. 907, son of Muhammad ibn Lubb * Abd Allah ibn Muhammad, d. 915, son of Muhammad ibn Lubb :(succession struggle between Mutarrif ibn Muhammad and Muhammad ibn Abd Allah, 915-916) * Muhammad ibn Abd Allah, d. 923, son of Abd Allah ibn Muhammad * Muhammad ibn Lubb, d. 929, son of Lubb ibn Muhammad :(end of dynasty)


Notes


References


Bibliography

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External links


Banu KasiCasiusKasi
an
Qasi
in the Spanish-language
Auñamendi Encyclopedia Pic d'Anie (Basque language, Basque Auñamendi) is a mountain of the Pyrenees in France, located close to the Spanish border. It is high. The mountain boasts an almost perfect pyramidal shape and is surrounded by the spectacular karst landscape ...
.
Historia Medieval del Reyno de Navarra; Banu Qasi
{{coord missing, Spain 9th century in Al-Andalus Basque history History of Catalonia Al-Andalus dynasties Upper March