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The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, are a
confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issu ...
of Green state
political parties in Australia The politics of Australia has a mild two-party system, with two dominant political groupings in the Australian political system, the Australian Labor Party and the Liberal/National Coalition. Federally, 6 of the 151 members of the lower house ...
. As of the 2019 federal election, the Greens are currently the third largest political party in Australia by vote. The leader of the party is
Adam Bandt Adam Paul Bandt (born 11 March 1972) is an Australian politician and former industrial lawyer who is the leader of the Australian Greens and federal MP for Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capi ...
, and the party's co-deputy leaders are
Larissa Waters Larissa Joy Waters (born 8 February 1977) is an Australian politician. She is a member of the Australian Greens and has served as a Senator for Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and ...

Larissa Waters
and
Nick McKim Nicholas James McKim (born 11 June 1965) is an Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island ...
. The party was formed in 1992 and is a confederation of eight state and territorial parties. The party cites four core values, namely
ecological sustainability
ecological sustainability
,
social justice Social justice is justice in terms of the distribution of wealth Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial asset A financial asset is a non-physical asset whose value is derived from a contractual claim, such as deposit (finance), ban ...
, grassroots democracy and peace and non-violence. The party's origins can be traced to early
environmental movement in Australia Beginning as a conservation movement, the environmental movement in Australia was the first in the world to become a political movement. Australia was home to the world's first Green party. The normal environmental movement is represented by a w ...
, the
Franklin Dam controversy Franklin may refer to: People * Franklin (given name) * Franklin (surname) * Franklin (class), a member of a historical English social class Places Australia * Franklin, Tasmania, a township * Division of Franklin, federal electoral divi ...
, the
Green banA green ban is a form of strike action, usually taken by a trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the se ...
s, and the
nuclear disarmament Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons. It can also be the end state of a nuclear-weapons-free world, in which nuclear weapons are completely eliminated. The term denuclearization is also used to describe the ...
movement. Beginning with the
United Tasmania Group The United Tasmania Group (UTG) is generally acknowledged as the world's first Green party to contest elections. The party was formed on 23 March 1972, during a meeting of the Lake Pedder Action Committee (LPAC) at the Hobart Town Hall in orde ...
, one of the first
green parties A Green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about poli ...
in the world. Following the 2016 federal election, the Australian Greens had nine senators and one member in the
lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apache County *Chambers, Nebraska *Chambers, We ...
, 23 elected representatives across state and territory parliaments, more than 100 local councillors, and over 15,000 party members (as of 2016). All Senate and House of Representatives seats were retained at the 2019 federal election.


History


Formation

The origins of the Australian Greens can be traced to the early
environmental movement in Australia Beginning as a conservation movement, the environmental movement in Australia was the first in the world to become a political movement. Australia was home to the world's first Green party. The normal environmental movement is represented by a w ...
and the formation of the
United Tasmania Group The United Tasmania Group (UTG) is generally acknowledged as the world's first Green party to contest elections. The party was formed on 23 March 1972, during a meeting of the Lake Pedder Action Committee (LPAC) at the Hobart Town Hall in orde ...
, one of the first
green parties A Green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about poli ...
in the world, but also the
nuclear disarmament Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons. It can also be the end state of a nuclear-weapons-free world, in which nuclear weapons are completely eliminated. The term denuclearization is also used to describe the ...
movement in Western Australia and sections of the industrial left in New South Wales who were inspired by the
Builders Labourers Federation The Builders Labourers Federation (BLF) was an Australian trade union that existed from 1911 until 1972, and from 1976 until 1986, when it was permanently deregistered in various States and territories of Australia, Australian states by the fed ...
Green banA green ban is a form of strike action, usually taken by a trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the se ...
s in Sydney. Co-ordination between environmentalist groups occurred in the 1980s with various significant protests. Key people involved in these campaigns included
Bob Brown Robert James Brown (born 27 December 1944) is a former Australian politician, medical doctor and environmentalist. He was a senator and the parliamentary leader of the Australian Greens. Brown was elected to the Australian Senate on the Tas ...

Bob Brown
and
Christine Milne Christine Anne Milne (; born 14 May 1953)
''Parliament of Tasmania''
is an Australian politicia ...
, who went on to contest and win seats in the
Parliament of Tasmania The Parliament of Tasmania is the bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, pa ...
and eventually form the
Tasmanian Greens The Tasmanian Greens are a political party in Australia which developed from numerous environmental campaigns in Tasmania Tasmania (; abbreviated as Tas, nicknamed Tassie, xpz, Lutruwita; Palawa kani: ''Lutruwita'') is an island States an ...
. Both Brown and Milne subsequently became leaders of the federal party. The formation of the federal party in 1992 brought together over a dozen green groups, from state and local organisations, some of which had existed for 20 years. Following formation of the national party in 1992, regional emphasis variations remained within the Greens, with members of the "industrial left" remaining a presence in the New South Wales branch. Brown resigned from the Tasmanian Parliament in 1993, and in 1996 he was elected as a senator for Tasmania, the first elected as an Australian Greens candidate. Initially the most successful Greens group during this period was The Greens (WA), at that time still a separate organisation from the Australian Greens. Vallentine was succeeded by
Christabel Chamarette Christabel Marguerite Alain Chamarette, sometimes Christabel Bridge (born 1 May 1948) was a Greens Western Australia, Greens Australian Senate, Senator for Western Australia from 1992 to 1996. Personal life Born in Hyderabad, India in 1948, Cha ...

Christabel Chamarette
in 1992, and she was joined by
Dee Margetts Diane Elizabeth Margetts (born 5 March 1955), known as Dee Margetts, is a former Australian politician. She was a member of the Australian Senate The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia The Parliament o ...

Dee Margetts
in 1993. But Chamarette was defeated in the
1996 federal election 1996 was designated as: * International Year for the Eradication of Poverty Events January * January 3 – Motorola introduces the Motorola StarTAC Wearable Cellular Telephone, the first clamshell mobile phone. * January 5 – Hamas ...
. Margetts lost her seat in the 1998 federal election, leaving Brown as the sole Australian Greens senator.


2001–2010

In the 2001 federal election, Brown was re-elected as a senator for Tasmania, and a second Greens senator,
Kerry Nettle Kerry Michelle Nettle (born 24 December 1973) is a former Australian Senator and member of the Australian Greens The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, are a confederation of Green state political parties in Australia. As of ...

Kerry Nettle
, was elected in New South Wales. The Greens opposed the
Howard Government The Howard Government refers to the federal executive government of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australia ...
's
Pacific Solution The Pacific Solution is the name given to the Government of Australia The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australi ...
of offshore processing for asylum seekers, and opposed the bipartisan offers of support to the US alliance and
Afghanistan War War in Afghanistan, Afghan war, or Afghan civil war may refer to: * Conquest of Afghanistan by Alexander the Great (330 BC – 327 BC) *Muslim conquests of Afghanistan The Muslim conquests of Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari languag ...
by the government and in the aftermath of the 11 September terrorist attacks in 2001, describing the Afghanistan commitment as "warmongering". This contributed to increased support for the Greens by disaffected Labor Party voters and helped identify the Greens as more than just a single-issue environmental party. On 19 October 2002 the Greens won a
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
seat for the first time when
Michael Organ Michael Keith Organ (born 22 September 1956) is a former Australian politician. He was an Australian Greens member of the Australian House of Representatives between 2002 and 2004, representing the Division of Cunningham, New South Wales. He was ...
won the Cunningham
by-election A by-election (also spelled bye-election), also known as a special election in the United States and the Philippines, or a bypoll (India), is an election used to fill an office that has become vacant between general elections. In most cases these ...
. In the
2004 federal election 4 (four) is a number, numeral (linguistics), numeral and numerical digit, digit. It is the natural number following 3 and preceding 5. It is the smallest composite number, and is tetraphobia, considered unlucky in many East Asian cultures. In math ...
the Australian Greens fielded candidates in every House of Representatives seat in Australia. The Greens' primary vote rose by 2.3% to 7.2%. This won them two additional Senate seats, taken by
Christine Milne Christine Anne Milne (; born 14 May 1953)
''Parliament of Tasmania''
is an Australian politicia ...
in Tasmania and
Rachel Siewert Rachel Mary Siewert (born 4 November 1961 in Sydney, New South Wales) is an Australian Greens The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, are a confederation of Green state political parties in Australia. As of the 2019 federal el ...
in Western Australia, bringing the total to four. The Greens increased their national vote by 1.38 points to 9.04% at the 2007 federal election, with the election of South Australian senator taking the number of Greens senators to five. Senators Bob Brown (Tas) and
Kerry Nettle Kerry Michelle Nettle (born 24 December 1973) is a former Australian Senator and member of the Australian Greens The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, are a confederation of Green state political parties in Australia. As of ...

Kerry Nettle
(NSW) were up for re-election, Brown was re-elected, but Nettle was unsuccessful, becoming the only Australian Greens senator to lose their seat. In November 2008, Senator
Christine Milne Christine Anne Milne (; born 14 May 1953)
''Parliament of Tasmania''
is an Australian politicia ...
was elected deputy leader in a ballot contested against Senator
Rachel Siewert Rachel Mary Siewert (born 4 November 1961 in Sydney, New South Wales) is an Australian Greens The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, are a confederation of Green state political parties in Australia. As of the 2019 federal el ...
.


2010–2013

The 2010 federal election marked a high point for the Greens electorally with the party receiving its largest vote to date and sharing the balance of power. The Greens received a four percent swing to finish with 13 percent of the vote in the Senate. The Greens won a seat in each of the six states at the election, bringing the party to a total of nine senators from July 2011, holding the balance of power in the Senate. The new senators were Lee Rhiannon in New South Wales,
Richard Di Natale Richard Luigi Di Natale (born 6 June 1970) is a former Australian politician who was a senator The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is ...
in Victoria, Larissa Waters in Queensland,
Rachel Siewert Rachel Mary Siewert (born 4 November 1961 in Sydney, New South Wales) is an Australian Greens The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, are a confederation of Green state political parties in Australia. As of the 2019 federal el ...
in Western Australia, in South Australia and
Christine Milne Christine Anne Milne (; born 14 May 1953)
''Parliament of Tasmania''
is an Australian politicia ...
in Tasmania. Incumbents
Scott Ludlam Scott Ludlam (born 10 January 1970) is a New Zealand born Australian former politician. A member of the Australian Greens, he was a senator in the Australian Senate The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the l ...

Scott Ludlam
in Western Australia, Sarah Hanson-Young in South Australia and Bob Brown in Tasmania were not due for re-election. The Greens also won their first
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
seat at a general election, the seat of
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...
with candidate Adam Bandt, who was a
crossbencher A crossbencher is an independent or minor party A minor party is a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to ...
in the first
hung parliament A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no particular political party or pre-existing coalition (also known as an alliance or bloc) has an absolute majority of legislators (c ...
since the 1940 federal election. Almost two weeks after the election, the Greens agreed to support a
Labor Labour or labor may refer to: * , the delivery of a baby * , or work ** , physical work ** , a socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer Literature * , an American quarterly on the history of the labor movement * ', an academic ...
minority government A minority government, minority cabinet, minority administration, or a minority parliament is a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Art ...
on
confidence and supply In a parliamentary democracy A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (or subordinate entity) where the Executive (government), executive de ...
votes. Labor was returned to government with the additional support of three
independent Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group), a group of modernist painters based in the New Hope, Pennsylvania, area of the United States during the early 1930s * Independent ...
crossbenchers.Emma Rodgers: ''Greens sign deal to back Labor'', ABC News, 1 September 2010
Retrieved 1 September 2010.
Prior to the 2010 Federal Election, the Electrical Trades Union's Victorian branch donated $325,000 to the Greens' Victorian campaign – the largest political donation ever directed to the Party up to that time. The Greens signed a formal agreement with the
Australian Labor Party The Australian Labor Party (ALP), also simply known as Labor and historically spelt Labour, is the major centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language ...
involving consultation in relation to policy and support in the House of Representatives in relation to
confidence and supply In a parliamentary democracy A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (or subordinate entity) where the Executive (government), executive de ...
and three of the independents declared their support for Labor on confidence and supply,'Labor day: Gillard retains grip on power'
– ABC – Emma Rodgers (7 September 2010) – . Retrieved 8 September 2010.
allowing Gillard and Labor to remain in power with a 76–74 minority government. On 24 February 2011, in a joint press conference of the "Climate Change Committee" – comprising the Government, Greens and two independent MPs – Prime Minister Gillard announced a plan to legislate for the introduction of a fixed price to be imposed on "carbon pollution" from 1 July 2012 The
carbon price A carbon price — the method widely agreed to be the most efficient way for nations to reduce global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. ...
would be placed for three to five years before a full emissions trading scheme is implemented, under a blueprint agreed by a multi-party parliamentary committee. Key issues remained to be negotiated between the Government and the cross-benches, including compensation arrangements for households and businesses, the carbon price level, the emissions reduction target and whether or not to include fuel in the price.


2013–present

At the 2013 federal election the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
(lower house) primary vote was 8.7 percent (−3.1) with the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
(upper house) primary vote at 8.7 percent (−4.5). Despite receiving a decline in votes, the Greens representation in the parliament increased. Adam Bandt retained his
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...
seat with a primary vote of 42.6 percent (+7.0) and a
two-candidate preferred In politics of Australia, Australian politics, the two-party-preferred vote (TPP or 2PP) is the result of an election or opinion poll after preferences have been distributed to the highest two candidates, who in some cases can be independents. For ...
vote of 55.3 percent (−0.6). The Greens won four Senate positions, increasing their Senate representation from nine to ten Senators. At the 2014 Australian Senate special election in Western Australia the Greens won in excess of a quota with the primary vote increasing from 9.5 to 15.6 percent, re-electing
Scott Ludlam Scott Ludlam (born 10 January 1970) is a New Zealand born Australian former politician. A member of the Australian Greens, he was a senator in the Australian Senate The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the l ...

Scott Ludlam
. In December 2015, the Greens struck a deal with the Coalition Government, passing a law requiring multinational private companies with a turnover over $200 million to disclose their tax arrangements and also making it mandatory for multinational companies with a ''global'' turnover of $1 billion or more to have to prepare "general purpose" financial statements, which disclose greater tax details than previously occurred in Australia. The following year the Coalition Government and the Greens agreed on a permanent 15% tax rate for backpackers, in exchange for a $100 million funding boost to environmental stewardship
not-for-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in contrast with an entity that o ...
Landcare. At the 2016 federal election the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...

House of Representatives
(lower house) primary vote increased to 10.23 percent (+1.58) but decreased in the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
(upper house), with primary vote at 8.65 percent (−0.58). Adam Bandt was elected to a third term in his
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...
seat with a primary vote of 43.75 percent (+1.13) and a
two-candidate preferred In politics of Australia, Australian politics, the two-party-preferred vote (TPP or 2PP) is the result of an election or opinion poll after preferences have been distributed to the highest two candidates, who in some cases can be independents. For ...
vote of 68.48 percent (+13.21). Despite a campaign focus on winning additional seats in the lower house, The Greens failed to win any lower house contests. The Greens also lost one Senate position in
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Austral ...

South Australia
, decreasing their Senate representation from ten to nine Senators, to a total of ten Green members in the
Parliament of Australia The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament, also called the Commonwealth Parliament) is the legislative branch A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind ...

Parliament of Australia
. The result was seen as disappointing, and caused internal divisions to flare up, with former Federal Leader Bob Brown calling upon Senator Lee Rhiannon to resign, citing the "need for renewal".


2017–18 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis

In 2017, Senators
Scott Ludlam Scott Ludlam (born 10 January 1970) is a New Zealand born Australian former politician. A member of the Australian Greens, he was a senator in the Australian Senate The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the l ...

Scott Ludlam
and Larissa Waters were forced to resign during
2017–18 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis Starting in July 2017, the eligibility of several members of the Parliament of Australia to be elected was questioned. Referred by some as a "constitutional crisis", fifteen sitting politicians were ruled ineligible by the High Court of Austr ...
after it was found that Ludlam had dual Australian-New Zealand citizenship and Waters had dual citizenship with
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
. Subsequently, Adam Bandt and Rachel Siewert were named as temporary co-deputy leaders until the arrival of Ludlam and Waters' replacements in Canberra.


2019 election

At the 2019 federal election, the Australian Greens received a primary vote of 10.4% in the House of Representatives, with a federal swing of +0.2%. The party's highest vote was captured in the Australian Capital Territory (16.8%), followed by Victoria (11.9%), Western Australia (11.6%), Queensland (10.3%), Northern Territory (10.2%), Tasmania (10.1%), South Australia (9.6%) and New South Wales (8.7%). The party retained the federal electorate of Melbourne with Adam Bandt sitting at a 71.8% two-party preferred vote. In the Senate, the Greens received favourable swings in South Australia (+5.03%), Queensland (+3.12%), the Australian Capital Territory (+1.61%), Western Australia (+1.48%), Tasmania (+1.41%) and New South Wales (+1.32%). Small swings against the Greens in the Senate were observed in only Victoria (-0.25%) and the Northern Territory (−0.54%). All 6 Greens Senators up for re-election retained their seats, including Senators Mehreen Faruqi, Janet Rice, Larissa Waters, Sarah Hanson-Young, Jordon Steele-John and Nick McKim. Three key seats were targeted by the Greens in Victoria, including Kooyong, Higgins and Macnamara. Prominent barrister
Julian Burnside Julian William Kennedy Burnside AO QC (born 9 June 1949) is an Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian contin ...
, who stood for Kooyong, came close to unseating treasurer and deputy Liberal leader
Josh Frydenberg Joshua Anthony Frydenberg (born 17 July 1971) is an Australian politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other f ...

Josh Frydenberg
, falling short by 5.7% in the two-party preferred vote. Greens candidate Jason Ball, for the
Division of Higgins The Division of Higgins is an Australian Electoral Division in Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Ca ...
, failed to enter the two-party preferred vote, despite optimism within the Greens and a diminishing Liberal vote. In Macnamara (formerly Melbourne Ports), a three-way contest emerged between the Liberals, Labor and Greens. Greens candidate Steph Hodgins-May had come within a few hundred votes in 2016 of taking the seat, however, redistributions in the electorate for the 2019 election were unfavourable for the Greens' vote, and the party's final vote sat at 24.2%.


Ideology

The Australian Greens are part of the global "
green politics Green politics, or ecopolitics, is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed to a person or group of persons, especially as held for reasons that are not purely epistemic, in which "practical element ...
" movement. The charter of the Australian Greens identifies four main pillars as the party's policy: "
social justice Social justice is justice in terms of the distribution of wealth Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial asset A financial asset is a non-physical asset whose value is derived from a contractual claim, such as deposit (finance), ban ...
", "
sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere and human civilization to co-exist. For many, sustainability is ...

sustainability
", " grassroots democracy" and "
peace Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of hostility Hostility is seen as form of emotionally charged aggressive behavior. In everyday speech it is more commonly used as a synonym A synonym is a word, morph ...

peace
and
non-violence Nonviolence is the personal practice of not causing harm to one's self and others under every condition. It may come from the belief that hurting people, animals and/or the environment is unnecessary to achieve an outcome and it may refer to a g ...
".


Policy positions

The Australian Greens' policies cover a wide range of issues. Most notably, the party favours
environmentalism Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical real ...
, including expansion of
recycling Recycling is the process of converting waste Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use. A by-product A by-product or ...

recycling
facilities; phasing out single-use plastics;
conservation Conservation is the preservation or efficient use of resources, or the conservation of various quantities under physical laws. Conservation may also refer to: Environment and natural resources * Nature conservation, the protection and manageme ...
efforts; better
water management Water resource management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources. It is an aspect of water cycle management. Water is essential for our survival. The field of water resources manageme ...
; and addressing ,
habitat loss Habitat destruction (also termed habitat loss and habitat reduction) is the process by which a natural habitat In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the rela ...
and
deforestation deforestation in 1750-2004 (net loss) showing anthropogenic modification of remaining forest. File:MODIS (2020-08-01).jpg, 300px, Dry seasons, exacerbated by climate change, and the use of slash-and-burn methods for clearing tropical forest ...

deforestation
in Australia. The Greens strongly support efforts to address
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
based on scientific evidence, by transitioning away from the burning of
fossil fuel A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon In , a hydrocarbon is an consisting entirely of and . Hydrocarbons are examples of s. Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and hydrophobic with only weak odours. Because of their diverse molecular structure ...
s to
renewable energy Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resource File:Global Vegetation.jpg, Global vegetation A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural resource which will replenish to replace the portion resou ...
production in the next decade, as well as reintroducing a
carbon price A carbon price — the method widely agreed to be the most efficient way for nations to reduce global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. ...
. The party supports lowering household electricity prices through the creation of a publicly-owned renewable energy provider, and building thousands of new jobs in renewable energy generation. A target of
100% renewable energy Comparing trends in worldwide energy use, the growth of renewable energy to 2015 is the green line 100% renewable energy is where all energy use is sourced from renewable energy sources. The endeavor to use 100% renewable energy for electr ...
by 2030 has been adopted by the party. The party strongly favours policies to promote
animal welfare Animal welfare is the well-being of non-human animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as ...
and strict laws against
animal cruelty Cruelty to animals, also called animal abuse, animal neglect or animal cruelty, is the infliction by omission (neglect) or by commission by humans of suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and ...
. The Greens are in favour of phasing out live animal exports, instead favouring investment in the chilled meat industry. The Greens have also campaigned on banning
greyhound racing Greyhound racing is an organized, competitive sport in which greyhounds are raced around a track. There are two forms of greyhound racing, track racing (normally around an oval track) and coursing. Track racing uses an artificial lure (now based ...
,
whaling Whaling is the process of hunting of whales for their usable products such as Whale meat, meat and blubber, which can be turned into Whale oil, a type of oil that became increasingly important in the Industrial Revolution. It was practiced as ...

whaling
and animal-tested cosmetics. In terms of agricultural policy, the party believes in phasing out caged egg production and sow stalls, instead favouring ethical farming practices. The party acknowledges that methane emissions from livestock need to be reduced as these emissions are a major source of global warming. This would be achieved by supporting research, animal health and nutrition, selection and genetics. The Greens strongly support community-driven decision-making processes as a means by which Soil degradation, soil and water degradation can be addressed. Support for farmers experiencing the effects of climate change through droughts, and soil and water degradation has been expressed by the Greens. Another aim of the party is to ensure "fair" prices for farmers, against growing international competition, and to "reward farmers for the repair and maintenance of ecosystems". On economic issues, the Greens oppose tax cuts that solely benefit the top bracket of income earners and lead to Economic inequality, socioeconomic inequality and believe that all essential services need to be adequately funded to suit community needs; and argue for the recreation of a publicly-owned bank. The party supports the implementation of a Green New Deal, which entails investment in renewable energy technology and a revitalisation of Manufacturing in Australia, Australian manufacturing, as economic stimulus. Manufacturing would be required to produce solar panels, wind turbines and green steel produced from hydrogen. To support the transition to clean energy, the party calls for growth in Lithium mining in Australia, lithium mining. The Greens have also proposed plans to boost jobs and apprenticeships in the construction of Public housing in Australia, public housing units as further economic stimulus as well as to address rising homelessness in Australia. Green politicians have campaigned on free undergraduate university (for the first three years) and Technical and further education, TAFE, paid for by ending tax avoidance and Fossil fuel subsidies in Australia, fossil fuel subsidies. The party opposes fee hikes for degrees and funding cuts for universities, and have called for increased funding for public schools. The party supports universal health care. The party is in favour of extending Medicare (Australia), Medicare coverage to all non-cosmetic Dental Health, dental health care and increasing subsidised mental health care on the basis of symptomatology. Furthermore, the party supports Reproductive rights, reproductive health rights and voluntary euthanasia. The Greens support drug law reform, including the Legality of cannabis, legalisation of cannabis; treating Drug liberalization, drug use as a health issue rather than a criminal issue; and community Pill testing, pill-testing, in line with recommendations from the Australian Medical Association. The Greens are often known for their outspoken advocacy on numerous social issues, such as the legalisation of Same-sex marriage in Australia, marriage equality, the right to Asylum seeker, seek asylum and Gender inequality in Australia, gender equality. The Greens also advocate for policies that they believe will strengthen Australian democracy and "clean up politics", including capping Political donations in Australia, political donations and instituting a federal anti-corruption watchdog.


Structure


Parliament


Federal leaders

On Saturday 12 November 2005 at the national conference in Hobart the Australian Greens abandoned their long-standing tradition of having no official leader and approved a process whereby a parliamentary leader could be elected by the Greens Parliamentary Party Room. On Monday 28 November 2005, Bob Brown – who had long been regarded as ''de facto'' leader by many inside the party, and most people outside the party – was elected unopposed as the Parliamentary Party Leader. Each leader has been described to represent a faction within the party, with the political journalist Paddy Manning describing that Christine Milne came from the right wing of the party, while Bandt is the first Greens leader from the left wing of the party.


Parliamentary portfolios

Greens MPs are each assigned their own portfolios, or specific areas of responsibility. All portfolios are decided by the party and may differ in title from the government's portfolio priorities The Greens have formed a Gun Control portfolio, of which there is no equivalent in the government. Portfolios are divided into five major categories according to the Greens such as "an equal society", "world-class essential services", "climate and the environment", "the green economy", and "a confident Australia".


National Council

The Australian Greens is federalism, federally organised with separately registered state parties signing up to a national constitution, yet retaining considerable policy-making and organisational autonomy from the centre. The national decision-making body of the Australian Greens is the National Council, consisting of delegates from each member body (a state or territory Greens party), two members of the federal party room, a representative of the Greens' First Nations network, and the national office bearers including the National Convenor, Secretary and Treasurer. As at May 2020, all 7 of the party's office bearer positions are held by women. There is also a Public Officer, a Party Agent and a Registered Officer. The National Council arrives at decisions by consensus. All policies originating from this structure are subject to ratification by the members of the Australian Greens at National Conference.


State and territory parties

The Australian Greens are a federation consisting of eight parties from each state and territory. The various States and territories of Australia, Australian states and territories have different Electoral systems of the Australian states and territories, electoral systems, all of which allow the Greens to gain representation. In New South Wales, Victoria, Western Australia and South Australia, the Greens hold seats in the Legislative Councils (upper houses), which are elected by proportional representation. The Greens also hold seats in the unicameral Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly and Legislative Assembly of Queensland. As of 2020, no members have been elected from the Northern Territory. Three Greens have become ministers at the state/territory level: Nick McKim and Cassy O'Connor in Tasmania until 2014, and Shane Rattenbury in the Australian Capital Territory, ACT to the present. Most of the state-based Green parties which have joined the Australian Greens do not have a formal leader, and instead they have a shared leadership structure. However, Tasmania, Victoria, and the ACT, have adopted singular leadership structures into their party. The current Australian Green member parties are the following:


Working groups

A variety of working groups have been established by the National Council, which are directly accessible to all Greens members. Working groups perform an advisory function by developing policy, reviewing or developing the party structure, or by performing other tasks assigned by the National Council. The Australian Young Greens are a federation of Young Greens groups from each Australian state and territory. Together they form the youth wing of the Australian Greens A national Sexuality and Gender Identity Working Group exists at a federal level, and there are LGBTIQ working groups in some state and territory parties, including
Queer Greens Victoria
Queensland Greens#Other working groups, Queensland Rainbow Greens, SA Greens#Member action groups, SA Greens Queer Members Action Group, Greens New South Wales#Working groups, NSW Greens Sex, Sexuality and Gender Identity Working Group.


Support

The Greens generally draw support from younger voters with higher than average educational attainment. The Greens absorbed much of the Australian Democrats, Australian Democrats' support base following its downfall as the third party in Australia and many of the social and environmental policies and issues that the Democrats advocated for have been taken up by the Greens. Much like the Democrats, the Greens have a higher proportion of supporters who are university educated, under 40, identify as professionals in their field, are small business owners, and earn above the national average wage. Notably, there has also been a steady increase in working-class support for the Greens since the creation of the party.


Electoral results


Federal Parliament


House of Representatives


Senate


Current Federal Parliamentarians

File:Adam Bandt portrait (2020) (cropped).jpg,
Adam Bandt Adam Paul Bandt (born 11 March 1972) is an Australian politician and former industrial lawyer who is the leader of the Australian Greens and federal MP for Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capi ...
MP (
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...
, Vic), 2010–present File:Larissa Waters 2019.png, Senator
Larissa Waters Larissa Joy Waters (born 8 February 1977) is an Australian politician. She is a member of the Australian Greens and has served as a Senator for Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and ...

Larissa Waters
(Qld), 2011–2017, 2018–present File:NickMcKim2019 (cropped).jpg, Senator
Nick McKim Nicholas James McKim (born 11 June 1965) is an Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island ...
(Tas), 2015–present File:Rachel Siewert 2019 (cropped).jpg, Senator
Rachel Siewert Rachel Mary Siewert (born 4 November 1961 in Sydney, New South Wales) is an Australian Greens The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, are a confederation of Green state political parties in Australia. As of the 2019 federal el ...
(WA), 2005–present File:Janet-rice-2019.jpg, Senator Janet Rice (Vic), 2014–present File:Sarah-Hanson-Young-2019.jpg, Senator (SA), 2008–present File:SenatorWhishWilson.jpg, Senator Peter Whish-Wilson (Tas), 2012–present File:Jordon-Steele-John-2019 (cropped).jpg, Senator Jordon Steele-John (WA), 2017–present File:Mehreen-Faruqi-2019.jpg, Senator Mehreen Faruqi (NSW), 2018–present File:Lidia Thorpe 2020.png, Senator Lidia Thorpe (Vic), 2020–present


Former

*Senator Jo Vallentine, 1990–1992, Greens WA (originally elected in 1984 as Nuclear Disarmament Party) *Senator
Christabel Chamarette Christabel Marguerite Alain Chamarette, sometimes Christabel Bridge (born 1 May 1948) was a Greens Western Australia, Greens Australian Senate, Senator for Western Australia from 1992 to 1996. Personal life Born in Hyderabad, India in 1948, Cha ...

Christabel Chamarette
, 1992–1996, Greens WA *Senator
Dee Margetts Diane Elizabeth Margetts (born 5 March 1955), known as Dee Margetts, is a former Australian politician. She was a member of the Australian Senate The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia The Parliament o ...

Dee Margetts
, 1993–1999, Greens WA *
Michael Organ Michael Keith Organ (born 22 September 1956) is a former Australian politician. He was an Australian Greens member of the Australian House of Representatives between 2002 and 2004, representing the Division of Cunningham, New South Wales. He was ...
MP for Cunningham (NSW), 2002–2004 *Senator
Kerry Nettle Kerry Michelle Nettle (born 24 December 1973) is a former Australian Senator and member of the Australian Greens The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, are a confederation of Green state political parties in Australia. As of ...

Kerry Nettle
(NSW), 2002–2008 *Senator
Bob Brown Robert James Brown (born 27 December 1944) is a former Australian politician, medical doctor and environmentalist. He was a senator and the parliamentary leader of the Australian Greens. Brown was elected to the Australian Senate on the Tas ...

Bob Brown
(Tasmania), 1996–2012 *Senator
Christine Milne Christine Anne Milne (; born 14 May 1953)
''Parliament of Tasmania''
is an Australian politicia ...
(Tasmania), 2005-2015 *Senator (SA), 2011–2015 *Senator Robert Simms (politician), Robert Simms (SA), 2015–2016 *Senator
Scott Ludlam Scott Ludlam (born 10 January 1970) is a New Zealand born Australian former politician. A member of the Australian Greens, he was a senator in the Australian Senate The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the l ...

Scott Ludlam
(WA), 2008-2017 *Senator Lee Rhiannon (NSW), 2011-2018 *Senator Andrew Bartlett (QLD), 2017–2018 *Senator
Richard Di Natale Richard Luigi Di Natale (born 6 June 1970) is a former Australian politician who was a senator The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is ...
(Vic), 2011–2020 Senators Vallentine, Chamarette and Margetts were all elected as Greens Western Australia, Greens (WA) senators and served their terms before the Greens WA affiliated to the Australian Greens, meaning that they were not considered to be Australian Greens senators at the time. For current and former state parliamentarians, see the List of Australian Greens parliamentarians.


Other notable members

* Andrew Bartlett, former Australian Democrats, Democrats Leader, former Greens Senator for Queensland and candidate for Division of Brisbane, Brisbane * Clive Hamilton, Greens candidate for the 2009 Higgins by-election * Chris Harris (New South Wales politician), Chris Harris, former Greens Councillor for the City of Sydney * Jean Jenkins (politician), Jean Jenkins, former Australian Democrats, Democrats Senator for Western Australia * Jack Mundey, trade union leader involved in the green bans * Janet Powell, former Australian Democrats, Democrats leader * Peter Singer, moral philosopher and Greens candidate for the 1994 Kooyong by-election * Brian Walters SC, prominent Human Rights lawyer and candidate for the state seat of Melbourne at the 2010 Victorian election * Andrew Wilkie, former Greens candidate and independent federal member for Division of Denison, Denison (2010–19) and Division of Clark, Clark (2019–present) *
Julian Burnside Julian William Kennedy Burnside AO QC (born 9 June 1949) is an Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian contin ...
AO QC, prominent barrister, human rights and refugee advocate, and candidate for the federal seat of Division of Kooyong, Kooyong in the 2019 federal election * Jason Ball, former Australian rules football player and mental health advocate, and candidate for Division of Higgins, Higgins


Donors

For the 2015-2016 financial year, the top ten disclosed donors to the Greens were: Graeme Wood (businessman), Graeme Wood ($500,000), Duncan Turpie ($500,000), Electrical Trades Union of Australia ($320,000), Louise Crossley ($138,000), Anna Hackett ($100,000), Pater Investments ($100,000), Ruth Greble ($35,000), Minax Uriel Ptd Ltd ($39,800) and Chilla Bulbeck ($30,000). Since 2017, the Australian Greens have implemented real-time disclosure of donations to them of over $1,000, in an effort to "clean up politics".


See also

* List of Australian Greens parliamentarians


Footnotes


References


Further reading

* * * *


External links

* {{Authority control Australian Greens 1992 establishments in Australia Global Greens member parties Green political parties in Australia Non-interventionist parties Organisations based in Canberra Organizations that support same-sex marriage Political parties established in 1992 Political parties in Australia