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The Australian Army is the military land force of
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
. Formed in 1901, as the Commonwealth Military Forces, through the amalgamation of the Australian colonial forces following
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized ...
; it is part of the
Australian Defence Force The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the Armed forces, military organisation responsible for the defence of the Australia, Commonwealth of Australia and its national interests. It consists of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), Australian Army, R ...
(ADF) along with the
Royal Australian Navy The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the navy, naval force of Australia. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate Colonial navies of Australia, colonial navies were integrated into a national force, ca ...
and the
Royal Australian Air Force "Through Adversity to the Stars" , colours = , colours_label = , march = Royal Australian Air Force March Past , mascot = , anniversaries ...
. While the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) commands the ADF, the Army is commanded by the
Chief of ArmyChief of Army may refer to: *Chief of Army (Australia) *Chief of Army (Malaysia) *Chief of Army (Singapore) *Chief of Army (Sweden) See also

*Chief of Army Staff (disambiguation) {{Disambiguation ...
(CA). The CA is therefore subordinate to the CDF but is also directly responsible to the Minister for Defence. Although Australian soldiers have been involved in a number of minor and major conflicts throughout Australia's history, only during the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
has Australian territory come under direct attack. The history of the Australian Army can be divided into two periods, the 1901–47 period, when limits were set on the size of the regular Army, the vast majority of peacetime soldiers were in reserve units of the
Citizens Military Force The Australian Army Reserve is a collective name given to the military reserve force, reserve units of the Australian Army. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, the reserve military force has been known by many names, including the Citizens ...
(also known as the CMF or Militia), and expeditionary forces (the
First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
and
Second Australian Imperial Force The Second Australian Imperial Force (Second, or 2nd, AIF) was the name given to the volunteer personnel of the Australian Army in World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, ...
s) were formed to serve overseas. The second period, which was post-1947, when a standing peacetime regular
infantry at the Battle of the Somme The Battle of the Somme, also known as the Somme offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and French Third Republic against the German Empire. It took place bet ...

infantry
force was formed and the CMF (known as the Army Reserve after 1980) began to decline in importance. During its history the Australian Army has fought in a number of major wars, including:
Second Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire The Br ...
(1899–1902),
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a that began on 28 July 1914 and ended on 11 November 1918. It involved much of , as well as , the and , and was also fought ...
(1914–18), the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
(1939–45),
Korean War The Korean War (see § Names) was a war fought between North Korea North Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Chosŏn''; literally /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Pukchosŏn'', or /, Revised Romanization ...

Korean War
(1950–53),
Malayan Emergency The Malayan Emergency, also known as the Anti–British National Liberation War (1948–1960) was a guerrilla war fought in British Malaya The term "British Malaya" (; ms, Tanah Melayu British) loosely describes a set of states on the ...
(1948–60), Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation (1962–66),
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars and the Cold War , image = VNWarMontage.png , image_size = 300px , caption = Clockwise, from top left: U.S. ...
(1962–73), and more recently in
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; /: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a at the crossroads of and . Afghanistan is bordered by to the east and south; to the west; , , and to the north; and to the northeast. Occupyin ...
(2001 – present) and
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
(2003–09). Since 1947 the Australian Army has also been involved in many peacekeeping operations, usually under the auspices of the United Nations, however the non-United Nations sponsored
Multinational Force and Observers The Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) is an international peacekeeping force overseeing the terms of the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. The MFO generally operates in and around the Sinai peninsula. Background in the Red Sea. The ...
in the Sinai is a notable exception. Today it participates in multilateral and unilateral military exercises and provides emergency disaster relief and humanitarian aid in response to domestic and international crises.


History


Formation

Formed in March 1901, with the amalgamation of the six separate colonial military forces, following the
Federation of Australia The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies In the British Empire, a self-governing colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of fo ...
, the Australian Army consisted of the former
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
,
Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victorian decorative arts ** Victorian fashion ** Victorian literature ...
,
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the i ...

Queensland
,
Western Australian Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper ...

Western Australian
,
South Australian South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a in the southern central part of . It covers some of the most parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, and fifth-largest ...

South Australian
and
Tasmanian Tasmania (; abbreviated as Tas, nicknamed Tassie, xpz, Lutruwita; Palawa kani: ''Lutruwita'') is an island States and territories of Australia, state of Australia. It is located to the south of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland, ...
land components of their, disbanded, armed forces. Due to the Army being continuation of the colonial armies it became immediately embroiled in conflict, as during this period the
Second Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire The Br ...
was still being fought over and the former colonies had committed contingents to fight for the British in the South African colonies. The Army gained command of these contingents and even supplied federal units to reinforce their commitment at the request of the British government. The '' Defence Act of 1903,'' established the operation and command structure of the Australian Army. In 1911, the Universal Service Scheme was implemented, meaning that conscription was introduced for males aged 14–26 into cadet and CMF units; though it did not prescribe or allow overseas service outside the
states and territories of Australia The states and territories are federated administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar ...
. This restriction would be primarily and continually bypassed through the process of raising separate volunteer forces until the mid 20th century; this bypass was not without its drawbacks, with the solution usually causing logistical headaches.


World War I

After the declaration of war on the
Central Powers The Central Powers, also known as the Central Empires,german: Mittelmächte; hu, Központi hatalmak; tr, İttifak Devletleri / ; bg, Централни сили, translit=Tsentralni sili was one of the two main coalitions that fought World W ...
, the Australian Army raised the all volunteer First Australian Imperial Force (AIF) with an initial recruitment of 52,561 out of a promised 20,000 men. A smaller expeditionary force, the
Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force The Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (AN&MEF) was a small volunteer force of approximately 2,000 men, raised in Australia shortly after the outbreak of World War I to seize and destroy German wireless telegraphy, wireless station ...
(ANMEF) was created to deal with the German Pacific colonial holdings; with recruitment beginning on the 10 August 1914 and operations starting 10 days later. The first actions of the war by Australian personnel occurred on the 11 September with the landing at
Rabaul Rabaul () is a township in East New Britain East New Britain is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territo ...

Rabaul
by ANMEF, and by the end of October 1914 Germany had no outposts in the Pacific. During preparations to depart Australia by the AIF, the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
unleashed surprise attacks on Russian ships and joined the
Central Powers The Central Powers, also known as the Central Empires,german: Mittelmächte; hu, Központi hatalmak; tr, İttifak Devletleri / ; bg, Централни сили, translit=Tsentralni sili was one of the two main coalitions that fought World W ...
; thereby receiving declarations war from the Allies between the period of 2–5 November 1914. After initial recruitment and training, the AIF departed for Egypt where they underwent further preparations, and during this period the
Australian and New Zealand Army Corps The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) was a First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a that began on 28 July 1914 and ended on 11 Nov ...
(ANZAC) was founded. Their deployment, training and reorganisation in Egypt were undertaken as preparations for the start of the invasion of the Ottoman Empire via the
Gallipoli peninsula The Gallipoli peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is usually underst ...

Gallipoli peninsula
. The invasion began in early 1915, with the AIF landing on 25 April, in what is now known as
ANZAC Cove
ANZAC Cove
. It quickly devolved into trench warfare, with the ANZACs having little success, and a stalemate ensued. After eight months of fighting, the evacuation of Gallipoli commenced on 15 December 1915 and finished on 20 December 1915, with no casualties recorded. After some training in Egypt and further action against the Ottoman Empire, the AIF was primarily split between
Light Horse
Light Horse
and infantry units and further expanded. The later would go to the western front whereas the mounted units would stay in the Middle East to fight the Ottomans in Arabia. The AIF arrived in France with the
1st First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill, ...
, 2nd, 4th and 5th Divisions; which comprised, in part,
I ANZAC Corps The I ANZAC Corps (First Anzac Corps) was a combined Australian and New Zealand army corps Corps (; plural ''corps'' ; from French , from the Latin "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organization. A military innovation by ...
and, in full,
II ANZAC Corps The II ANZAC Corps (Second Anzac Corps) was an Australian and New Zealand First World War World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11& ...
. The 3rd Division would not arrive until November 1916 from England where it had been training since its transfer from Australia. The infantry units commenced operations on the Western Front with the
Battle of the Somme The Battle of the Somme, also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and French Third Republic against the German Empire. It took place between 1 July and 18 November 1916 ...
, and more specifically at
Fromelles Fromelles () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to ...
in July 1916. Soon after, the 1st, 2nd and 4th Divisions became tied down in the actions at Pozières and Mouquet Farm. In total, the operations cost the AIF 28,000 in casualties in around six weeks. Due to these losses and pressure from the British War Council to maintain the required, and agreed upon, levels of manpower, Prime Minister
Billy Hughes William Morris Hughes, (25 September 1862 – 28 October 1952), was an Australian politician who served as the List of prime ministers of Australia by time in office, 7th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1915 to 1923. He is best kn ...

Billy Hughes
introduced the first conscription plebiscite on 28 October 1916. It was defeated by a narrow margin and created a bitter divide on the issue of conscription throughout the 20th century. Following the withdrawal of the Germans to the
Hindenburg Line The Hindenburg Line (German: , Siegfried Position) was a German defensive position built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western FrontWestern Front or West Front may refer to: Military frontiers *Western Front (World War I), a milita ...
trench system in March 1917, which was better defended and eased manpower restraints, and the subsequent pursuit by Australian divisions, the first Australian assault on the Hindenburg Line occurred on 11 April 1917 with the First Battle of Bullecourt. On 20 September the Australian contingent joined the
Third Battle of Ypres The Third Battle of Ypres (german: Dritte Flandernschlacht; french: Troisième Bataille des Flandres; nl, Derde Slag om Ieper), also known as the Battle of Passchendaele (), was a campaign of the First World War World War I, often abb ...
with the
Battle of Menin Road A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force c ...
, with the 1st and 2nd Divisions advancing and the 4th and 5th in reserve. This divisions positions were swapped with the Battle of Polygon Wood, which began on 26 September 1917 and lasted until 3 October; in total, these tow operations cost roughly 11,000 in Australian casualties. Until 15 November 1917, multiple attacks against Broodsiende Ridge and Passchendaele failed to take their objectives following the start of the rain and subsequent muddying of the fields. On 21 March 1918, the Germans attempted to break out through the Michael Offensive, an operation which was part of the much larger
Spring Offensive The 1918 Spring Offensive, or '' Kaiserschlacht'' ("Kaiser's Battle"), also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War World War I or the First World War, often ...
; in total Australian casualties numbered 15,000. During this operation, Australian troops conducted a series of local defences and offensives to
hold Hold may refer to: Physical spaces * Hold (ship), interior cargo space * Baggage hold, cargo space on an airplane * Stronghold, a castle or other fortified place Arts, entertainment, and media * Hold (musical term), a pause, also called a Ferm ...
and retake Villers–Brettoneux over the period 4 to 25 April 1918. After the cessation of offensives by the German Army, the Australian Corps began participating in " Peaceful Penetration" operations, a strategy designed to harass and gain small tracts of territory through localised raids; it was successful enough that entire objectives of planned operations had been captured before an offensive had begun. On 4 July 1918, the
Battle of Hamel The Battle of Hamel (4 July 1918) was a successful attack by Australian Army The Australian Army is the military land force of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comp ...
commenced and was completed in 93 minutes, this was instead of the planned 90, and significant in that it was the first time that tanks were used successfully alongside Australians in an operation. Following this success, the Battle of Amiens was launched on 8 August 1918, in conjunction with the
Canadian Corps The Canadian Corps was a World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Gr ...
and the British III Corps, and concluded on 12 August 1918; it attracted comment from General
Erich Ludendorff Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a Imperial Germany, German general, politician and military theorist. He achieved fame during World War I for his central role in the German victories at Battle of Lièg ...

Erich Ludendorff
of the German Army, who described it as "the black day of the German Army". Subsequent territorial advances and pursuits of the enemy, led to the attack on Pèronne on 29 August 1918 and the capture of Mont St Quentin from 31 August 1918 to 1 September 1918. Another operation was planned for 18 September 1918 to retake the British trench lines and if possible to take the Hindenburg's Outpost Line; when the fighting wrapped up later that night, they achieved their most ambitious target of taking part of the Hindenburg line. The Australian mounted units, composed of the ANZAC Mounted Division and eventually the
Australian Mounted Division The Australian Mounted Division originally formed as the Imperial Mounted Division in January 1917, was a mounted infantry Mounted infantry were infantry who rode horses instead of marching. The original dragoons were essentially mounted infantry. ...
, participated in the Middle Eastern Campaign. They were originally stationed there to protect the Suez Canal from the Turks, and following the threat of its capture passing, they started offensive operations and helped in the re-conquest of the Sinai Desert. This was followed by the Battles of Gaza, wherein on the 31 October 1917 the 4th and 12th
Light Horse
Light Horse
took
Beersheba Beersheba (; he, בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע ' , ar, بئر السبع, lit. ''Well of the Oath'') is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel. Often referred to as the "Capital of the Negev", it is the center of the fourth-most po ...

Beersheba
through the last charge of the Light Horse. They continued on to capture
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusałē ...

Jerusalem
on 10 December 1917 and then eventually
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
on 1 October 1918 whereby, a few days later on 10 October 1918, the Ottoman Empire surrendered.


Interwar years

Repatriation efforts were implemented following the war and finished by the end of 1919, which occurred after the disbandment of the Australian Imperial Force. In 1921, a decision was made to renumber the Citizens Military Forces units to that of the AIF, to perpetuate the honours and numerical identities of the units involved in WW1. During this period there was a complacency towards matters of defence, due to the devastating effects of the previous war on the Australian psyche. Following the election of
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
James Scullin James Henry Scullin (18 September 1876 – 28 January 1953) was an Australian Labor Party politician and the ninth Prime Minister of Australia. Scullin led Labor to government at the 1929 election. The Wall Street Crash of 1929 The Wa ...
in 1929, two events occurred that substantially affected the armed forces: conscription was abolished and the economic effects of the Great Depression started to be felt in Australia. The economic ramifications of the depression led to a decrease in defence expenditure and manpower for the army and since conscription was repealed, to reflect the new volunteer nature of the Citizen Forces, the CMF was renamed to the Militia.


World War II

Following the declaration of war on Germany and her allies by Britain, and the subsequent confirmation by Prime Minister Robert E. Menzies on 3 September 1939, the Australian Army raised the Second Australian Imperial Force, a 20,000-strong volunteer expeditionary force, which initially consisted of the 6th Division; later increased to include the 7th and 9th Divisions, alongside the 8th Division which was sent to Singapore. As part of efforts to ready Australia, compulsory military training recommenced in October 1939 for unmarried males aged 21, who had to complete a period of three months of training. The initial force commenced its first operations in North Africa, and the war, with the
Operation Compass Operation Compass (also it, Battaglia della Marmarica) was the first large military operation of the (1940–1943) during the . British Empire forces attacked forces of the (Marshal ) in western and , the eastern province of , from Decembe ...
offensive; beginning with the
Battle of Bardia The Battle of Bardia was fought between 3 and 5 January 1941, as part of Operation Compass Operation Compass (also ) was the first large British military operation of the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) during the Second World War ...
. This was followed by the supply of Australian units to Greece to defend against an , which ultimately failed and a fighting withdrawal was issued. Australian troops landed in Crete after the evacuation of Greece to , which was more successful but still failed and another withdrawal was ordered. During this period the Allies were pushed back to Egypt and Tobruk came under siege by the Germans, with the primary defence personnel being Australians of the 9th Division; they lasted for 241 days before Tobruk was freed, however the Australians were relieved earlier than this. Also, in June and July 1941, the AIF participated in the invasion of Syria, a Vichy French mandate, in response to German air forces being stationed there. The 9th Division fought in actions in El Alamein before also being shipped home to fight the Japanese. Following the entrance and announcement of war by
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the south. Japan is a part of the , and spans of coveri ...

Japan
in December 1941, alongside its subsequent victories that conquered most of South East Asia by the end of March 1942, the militia was mobilised and the AIF was requested to return to Australia. This haste was increased when Singapore fell, in which the 8th Division was captured, and was the impetus for the relief of Australian troops at Tobruk, with the 6th and 7th Divisions immediately being sent to Australia to reinforce the defensive positions of New Guinea. General conscription was also reintroduced, with service again being limited to Australia's territorial possessions, namely New Guinea, but was extended to cover the adjacent islands in 1943. There were continued tensions between personnel of the AIF and Militia due to the latter's perceived inferior fighting ability which led to their nickname of "chocos", short for chocolate soldiers; this was in the belief that they would melt in the heat of combat. The naval engagement of the
Imperial Japanese Navy The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai are the traditional forms of kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese language, Japanese syllabic ...
by the
Royal Australian Navy The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the navy, naval force of Australia. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate Colonial navies of Australia, colonial navies were integrated into a national force, ca ...
and
US Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = "Anchors Aweigh" , mascot = , equipment = List of equipment of the United St ...
in the
Battle of the Coral Sea The Battle of the Coral Sea, from 4 to 8 May 1942, was a major between the (IJN) and naval and air forces of the United States and Australia. Taking place in the of , the battle is historically significant as the first action in which s e ...

Battle of the Coral Sea
, and subsequent denial of the Japanese achieving their objective, was the impetus for the overland invasion to capture Port Moresby via the Owen Stanley mountain range. This invasion, which occurred on 21 July 1942 when the Japanese landed at Gona, alongside Australian defensive actions, represented the Kokoda campaign. Australian forces tried to slow the advancing Japanese with operations across the
Kokoda track The Kokoda Track or Trail is a single-file foot thoroughfare that runs overland – in a straight line – through the Owen Stanley Range in Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini; tcs ...

Kokoda track
and eventually succeeded, with the resultant operations concluded with the Japanese being driven out of New Guinea entirely. In parallel with the Kokoda campaign being waged, another
landing of Ryanair Ryanair is an Irish ultra low-cost airline founded in 1984. It is headquartered in Swords, Dublin, with its primary operational bases at Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ir ...
took place at
Milne Bay Milne Bay is a large bay in Milne Bay Province Milne Bay is a province of Papua New Guinea. Its capital is Alotau. The province covers 14,345 km² of land and 252,990 km² of sea, within the province there are more than 600 islands, abo ...

Milne Bay
on 25 August 1942 with fighting lasting until 7 September 1942 when the Japanese were repulsed; this is widely considered to be the first significant reversal of the Japanese forces for the war. The Kokoda Track Campaign ended after the Japanese withdrawal in November 1942, with subsequent advances leading to the Battle of Buna–Gona on 16 November 1942; this battle continued until 2 January 1943. In early 1943, the Australian Army started offensive actions to recapture
Lae Lae () is the capital of Morobe Province Morobe Province is a province on the northern coast of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini; tcs, Op Deudai), officially the Independent State of Pa ...

Lae
and
Salamaua Salamaua () was a small town situated on the northeastern coastline of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bi ...

Salamaua
, where the Japanese had been entrenched since 8 March 1942. This culminated in the capture of Lae in early September 1943, by a successful combined
amphibious landing Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach. Through history the operations were conduct ...
and airborne offensive; the latter, aimed to secure the airfield at
Nadzab Nadzab Village is in the Markham Valley, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea on the Highlands Highway. Administratively, it is located in Gabsongkeg ward of Wampar Rural LLG. The Lae Nadzab Airport, Nadzab Airport is located East of Nadzab Village ...
. Additionally, Salamaua was taken days later on 11 September 1943, which was achieved by a separate joint Australian and US attack. The capture of Lae was part of the
Huon Peninsula campaign The Huon Peninsula campaign was a series of battles fought in north-eastern Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini; tcs, Op Deudai), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( t ...
, which planned to retake the Huon Gulf. In mid 1944, Australian forces took over the garrisoning of Torokina from the US with this changeover giving Australian command responsibility over the
Bougainville Campaign The Bougainville campaign was a series of land and naval battles of the Pacific campaign of World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to ...
. Soon after arriving in November of the same year, the commander of II Corps, Lieutenant–General
Stanley Savige Lieutenant General Lieutenant general or lieutenant-general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a Three-star rank, three-star military rank (NATO code OF-9) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of l ...
, began an offensive to retake the island with the 3rd Division alongside the 11th and 23rd independent brigades. The campaign lasted until the Japanese surrender, and was controversial as it made no apparent difference to the conclusion of the war and incurred a large number of casualties; with the Bougainville campaign being one of the most costliest campaigns for Australians in the Second World War. In October 1944, Australian participation in the
Aitape–Wewak Campaign The Aitape–Wewak campaign was one of the final campaigns of the Pacific War, Pacific Theatre of World War II. Between November 1944 and the end of the war in August 1945, the 6th Division (Australia), Australian 6th Division, with air and nava ...
began with the garrisoning of
Aitape Aitape is a small town of about 18,000 people on the north coast of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilo ...

Aitape
—which was captured by US forces earlier that year from the Japanese, who held it since 1942—and continued with the advance east to
Wewak Wewak is the capital of the East Sepik province of Papua New Guinea. It is located on the northern coast of the island of New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu: ''Niu Gini''; id, Papua, historically ) is the List of islands by area, world's ...

Wewak
. The Borneo Campaign began with the Battle of Tarakan, with the subsequent invasion of
Brunei Bay Brunei Bay ( ms, Teluk Brunei) is on the northwestern coast of Borneo Borneo (; id, ) is the third- and the largest in . At the geographic centre of , in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of , west of , and east of ...
occurring six weeks after, and continued with the Battle of Balikpapan. The entire campaign lasted between 1 May to 15 August 1945.


Cold War


Postwar

After the surrender of Japan, the Australian provided a contingent to the
British Commonwealth Occupation Force The British Commonwealth Occupation Force (BCOF) was the British Commonwealth British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain ...
(BCOF), with mainly volunteers from the 2nd AIF. The units that comprised the brigade would eventually become the nucleus of the regular army, with the battalions and brigade being renumbered to reflect this change. Following the start of the
Korean War The Korean War (see § Names) was a war fought between North Korea North Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Chosŏn''; literally /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Pukchosŏn'', or /, Revised Romanization ...

Korean War
, the Australian Army committed troops to fight against the North Korean forces; the units came from the Australian contribution to BCOF. The (3RAR) arrived in
Pusan Busan (), formerly romanized as Pusan and now officially known as is South Korea South Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, Revised Romanization of Korean, RR: ''Hanguk''; literally /, Revised Romanization of Korean, RR: ''Namhan'', ...
on 28 September 1950. Australian troop numbers would increase and continue to be deployed up until the armistice, with 3RAR being eventually joined by the
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (1 RAR) is a regular motorised infantry battalion of the Australian Army The Australian Army is the military land force of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a ...
(1RAR). For a brief period, between 1951 and 1959, the
Menzies Government Menzies is a Scottish surname. It is probably derived, like its Gaelic form Méinnearach, from the Norman name Mesnières from the town of Mesnières-en-Bray in Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old Fre ...
reinstituted conscription and compulsory military training with the National Service Scheme, which required all males of eighteen years of age to serve for specified period in either the Australian Regular Army (ARA) or CMF.


Irregular warfare

The Australian Army committed the
2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment The 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (2 RAR) is an amphibious light infantry battalion of the Australian Army part of the 1st Division (Australia), 1st Division Amphibious Task Group based at Lavarack Barracks in Townsville, Queensland, ...
(2RAR) in the
Malayan Emergency The Malayan Emergency, also known as the Anti–British National Liberation War (1948–1960) was a guerrilla war fought in British Malaya The term "British Malaya" (; ms, Tanah Melayu British) loosely describes a set of states on the ...
, a guerrilla conflict between communist forces and
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
allies over ethnic Chinese citizenship, in October 1955. The operations consisted of primarily patrolling actions and guarding infrastructure; they rarely saw combat and by the time of their deployment, the confrontation was in its final stage. 2RAR rotated out with 3RAR and consequently 1RAR, with 2RAR completing another tour before the end of Australian Operations. The end of deployments of Australian troops occurred in August 1963, 3 years after the official ending of the emergency. The Indonesian (or Borneo) Confrontation was the result of Indonesia's opposition to the formation of
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographically south of C ...

Malaysia
, with Australian support in the conflict beginning and extending primarily with the training and supply of Malaysian troops. The initial combat unit deployed was 3RAR, with the deployment of
4th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment The 4th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (4 RAR) was an Australian Army The Australian Army is the military land force of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comp ...
(4RAR) following after.


Vietnam War

The Australian Army commenced its involvement in the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars and the Cold War , image = VNWarMontage.png , image_size = 300px , caption = Clockwise, from top left: U.S. ...
by sending military advisors in 1962. This was then increased by bringing in combat troops, the 1RAR, on 27 May 1965. Just before the official start of hostilities, the Australian Army was augmented with the reintroduction of conscription, which was based on a 'birthday ballot' selection process for all male 20 year olds who had registered. These men were required to register, unless they gave a legitimate reason for their exemption, and this would prove to be one of the most controversial implementations of conscription in Australia, with large protests against its adoption. In March 1966, the Australian Army increased its commitment again with the replacement of 1RAR with the
1st Australian Task Force The 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF) was a brigade A brigade is a major tactical military unit, military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements. It is roughly equivalent to an enlarged ...
; a force in which all nine battalions of the Royal Australian Regiment would serve. One of heaviest actions occurred in August 1966, the
Battle of Long Tan The Battle of Long Tan (18 August 1966) took place in a rubber plantation near Long Tân, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Long Tân, in Phước Tuy Province, South Vietnam, during the Vietnam War. The action was fought between Viet Cong (VC) and People's Army ...
, wherein D Company, 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (6RAR) successfully fended off an enemy force, estimated at 2,000 men, for four hours. Australian forces, in 1968, defended against the
Tet Offensive The Tet Offensive ( vi, Sự kiện Tết Mậu Thân 1968, "Tet offensive of 1968", also , "General offensive and uprising of Tet Mau Than") was a major escalation and one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War. It was launched ...
and repulsed them with few casualties. The contribution of personnel to the war was gradually wound down, which started in late 1970 and ended in 1972; while the official declaration of the end of Australia's involvement in the war happened on 11 January 1973.


Recent history (1990–present)

Following the invasion of
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar, الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar, دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regi ...

Kuwait
by
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
in August 1990, a coalition of countries sponsored by the
Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the Organs of the United Nations, six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international security, international peace and security, recommending the admission ...

Security Council
, of which Australia was a part, gave a deadline for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait of the 15 January 1991. Iraq refused to retreat and thus full conflict and the
Gulf War The Gulf War was a war waged by Coalition of the Gulf War, coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Ba'athist Iraq, Iraq in response to Iraq's Invasion of Kuwait, invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pr ...
began two days later on 17 January 1991. In January 1993, the Australian Army deployed 26 personnel on an ongoing rotational basis to the
Multinational Force and Observers The Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) is an international peacekeeping force overseeing the terms of the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. The MFO generally operates in and around the Sinai peninsula. Background in the Red Sea. The ...
(MFO), as part of a non-United Nations peacekeeping organisation that observes and enforces the peace treaty between Israel and Egypt. Australia's largest peacekeeping deployment began in 1999 in
East Timor East Timor () or Timor-Leste (; tet, Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste ( pt, República Democrática de Timor-Leste, tet, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is an island country in Southeast Asia. It co ...
, while other ongoing operations include peacekeeping in the Sinai (as part of MFO), and the
United Nations Truce Supervision Organization The United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) is an organization founded on 29 May 1948 UN Security Council Resolution 73 for peacekeeping in the Middle East. Established amidst the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, its primary task was init ...
(as part of Operation Paladin since 1956). Humanitarian relief after the in
Aceh Aceh () is the westernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision ...
Province,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of over List of islands of I ...

Indonesia
,
Operation Sumatra Assist Operation Sumatra Assist was the Australian Defence Force's (ADFs) contribution to disaster relief in Indonesia following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. ADF personnel were deployed within hours of the earthquake. They served mainly in Aceh. Med ...
, ended on 24 March 2005. Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre, Australia promised troops to any military operations that the US commenced in response to the attacks. Subsequently, the Australian Army committed combat troops to Afghanistan in
Operation Slipper The Australian contribution to the war in Afghanistan has been known as Operation Slipper (2001–2014) and Operation Highroad (from 2015). Australian Defence Force (ADF) operations and the size of the forces deployed have varied and ADF involv ...
. This combat role continued until the end of 2013 when it was replaced by a training contingent operating under Operation Highroad. After the Gulf War the UN imposed heavy restrictions on Iraq to stop them producing weapons of mass destruction. The US accused Iraq of possessing these weapons and presented evidence of this from unsubstantiated reports and requested that the UN invade the country to seize them, a motion which Australia supported. This was denied, however, it did not stop a coalition led by the US, and joined by Australia, invading the country; thus starting the
Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring to the Gulf War as the first Iraq war. The p ...
on 19 March 2003. Between April 2015 and June 2020, the Army deployed a 300-strong element to Iraq, designated as Task Group Taji, as part of
Operation Okra Operation Okra is the Australian Defence Force Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction ...
. In support of a capacity building mission, Task Group Taji's main role was to provide training to Iraqi forces, during which Australian troops have served alongside counterparts from New Zealand.


Organisation

The 1st Division comprises a deployable headquarters, while
2nd Division 2nd Division may refer to the following military units: Infantry divisions *2nd Division (Australia) *2nd Canadian Division *2nd Canadian Infantry Division *2nd Division (Colombia) *2nd Infantry Division (France) *2nd Moroccan Infantry Division ( ...
under the command of Forces Command is the main home-defence formation, containing Army Reserve units. The 2nd Division's headquarters only performs administrative functions. The Australian Army has not deployed a divisional-sized formation since 1945 and does not expect to do so in the future.


1st Division

1st Division carries out high-level training activities and deploys to command large-scale ground operations. It has few combat units permanently assigned to it, although it does currently command the
2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment The 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (2 RAR) is an amphibious light infantry battalion of the Australian Army part of the 1st Division (Australia), 1st Division Amphibious Task Group based at Lavarack Barracks in Townsville, Queensland, ...
as part of Australia's amphibious task group.


Forces Command

Forces Command controls for administrative purposes all non- assets of the Australian Army. It is neither an operational nor a deployable command. Forces Command comprises: * 1 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Darwin and Adelaide. * 3 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Townsville. * 6 Brigade (CS&ISTAR) – Mixed brigade based in Sydney. * 7 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Brisbane. * 16 Aviation Brigade – Army Aviation brigade based in Enoggera, Brisbane. * 17 Sustainment Brigade – Logistic brigade based in Sydney. *
2nd Division 2nd Division may refer to the following military units: Infantry divisions *2nd Division (Australia) *2nd Canadian Division *2nd Canadian Infantry Division *2nd Division (Colombia) *2nd Infantry Division (France) *2nd Moroccan Infantry Division ( ...
administers the reserve forces from its headquarters located in Sydney. ** 4 Brigade – based in Victoria. ** 5 Brigade – based in New South Wales. ** 8 Brigade – training brigade with units around Australia ** 9 Brigade – based in South Australia and Tasmania. ** 11 Brigade – based in Queensland. ** 13 Brigade – based in Western Australia. Additionally, Forces Command includes the following training establishments: * Army Recruit Training Centre at Kapooka, NSW; *
Royal Military College, Duntroon lit: Learning promotes strength , established = , type = Military college A military academy or service academy is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps. It normally provides ed ...
in the ACT; * Combined Arms Training Centre at
Puckapunyal Puckapunyal (more formally the Puckapunyal Military Area, but also known as the Puckapunyal Camp or Puckapunyal Army Base, and colloquially as "Pucka") is an Australian Army The Australian Army is the military land force of Australia ...
, Vic; * Army Logistic Training Centre at Bonegilla, Vic and Bandiana, Vic; and * Army Aviation Training Centre at Oakey, QLD.


Special Forces

Special Operations Command comprises a command formation of equal status to the other commands in the ADF. It includes all of Army's
special forces Special forces and special operations forces (SOF) are military units trained to conduct special operations. NATO has defined special operations as "military activities conducted by specially designated, organized, trained, and equipped forces ...

special forces
assets.


Colours, standards and guidons

Infantry, and some other combat units of the Australian Army carry flags called the Queen's Colour and the Regimental Colour, known as "the Colours". Armoured units carry Standards and Guidons – flags smaller than Colours and traditionally carried by Cavalry, Lancer, Light Horse and Mounted Infantry units. The 1st Armoured Regiment is the only unit in the Australian Army to carry a Standard, in the tradition of heavy armoured units. Artillery units' guns are considered to be their Colours, and on parade are provided with the same respect. Non-combat units (combat service support corps) do not have Colours, as Colours are battle flags and so are only available to combat units. As a substitute, many have Standards or Banners. Units awarded
battle honours A battle honour is an award of a right by a government or sovereign to a military unit to emblazon the name of a battle or Military operation, operation on its flags ("colours"), uniforms or other accessories where ornamentation is possible. In ...
have them emblazoned on their Colours, Standards and Guidons. They are a link to the unit's past and a memorial to the fallen. Artillery do not have Battle Honours – their single Honour is "Ubique" which means "Everywhere" – although they can receive Honour Titles. The Army is the guardian of the
National Flag A national flag is a flag A flag is a piece of fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production o ...

National Flag
and as such, unlike the
Royal Australian Air Force "Through Adversity to the Stars" , colours = , colours_label = , march = Royal Australian Air Force March Past , mascot = , anniversaries ...
, does not have a flag or Colours. The Army, instead, has a banner, known as the Army Banner. To commemorate the centenary of the Army, the Governor General Sir William Deane, presented the Army with a new Banner at a parade in front of the
Australian War Memorial . File:Towards entrance of dome, Australian War Memorial.JPG, Towards the entrance of the Hall of Memory, from within. The Australian War Memorial is Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign s ...

Australian War Memorial
on 10 March 2001. The Banner was presented to the Regimental Sergeant Major of the Army (RSM-A), Warrant Officer Peter Rosemond. The Army Banner bears the on the obverse, with the dates "1901–2001" in gold in the upper hoist. The reverse bears the "rising sun" badge of the Australian Army, flanked by seven campaign honours on small gold-edged scrolls:
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities ...
,
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
,
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
,
Korea Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1945, it has been divided between two countries at or near the 38th parallel north, 38th parallel, North Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and South Korea (the Republic of Korea). Korea co ...

Korea
, Malaya-Borneo,
South Vietnam South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN; vi, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa; french: République du Viêt Nam), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam , image_map ...
, and Peacekeeping. The banner is trimmed with gold fringe, has gold and crimson cords and tassels, and is mounted on a pike with the usual British royal crest finial.


Personnel


Strength

As of June 2018 the Army had a strength of 47,338 personnel: 29,994 permanent (regular) and 17,346 active reservists (part-time); whom of which are all volunteers. In addition, the Standby Reserve has another 12,496 members (as of 2009). As of 2018, women make up 14.3% of the Army – well on track to reach its current goal of 15% by 2023. The number of
women in the Australian military Women currently make up 19.2% of the ADF workforce. Women have served in Australian armed forces since 1899. Until World War II women were restricted to the Australian Army Nursing Service. This role expanded in 1941–42 when the Royal Austral ...
has increased dramatically since 2011 (10%), with the announcement that women would be allowed to serve in frontline combat roles by 2016.


Rank and insignia

The ranks of the Australian Army are based on the ranks of the
British Army The British Army is the principal of the , a part of the . , the British Army comprises 80,040 regular full-time personnel and 30,020 personnel. The modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the that was created duri ...
, and carry mostly the same actual
insignia An insignia () is a sign or mark distinguishing a group, grade, rank, or function. It can be a symbol of personal power or that of an official group or governing body. On its own, an insignia is a sign of a specific or general authority and is ...
. For
officers An officer is a person who has a position of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It ...
the ranks are identical except for the shoulder title "Australia". The
Non-Commissioned Officer A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is a military officer who has not pursued a Commission (document), commission. Non-commissioned officers usually earn their position of authority by promotion through the enlisted ranks. (Non-officers, which inclu ...
insignia An insignia () is a sign or mark distinguishing a group, grade, rank, or function. It can be a symbol of personal power or that of an official group or governing body. On its own, an insignia is a sign of a specific or general authority and is ...
are the same up until
Warrant Officer Warrant officer (WO) is a rank Rank is the relative position, value, worth, complexity, power, importance, authority, level, etc. of a person or object within a ranking, such as: Level or position in a hierarchical organization * Academic rank * ...
, where they are stylised for Australia (for example, using the Australian, rather than the British coat of arms). The ranks of the Australian Army are as follows:


Uniforms

The Australian Army uniforms are grouped into nine categories, with additional variants of the uniform having alphabetical suffixes in descending order, which each ranges from ceremonial dress to general service and battle dress. The Slouch hat is the regular service and general duties hat, while the field hat is for use near combat scenarios. The summarised categories are as follows: * No 1 – Ceremonial Service Dress * No 2 – Ceremonial Parade Dress/General Duty Dress * No 3 – Ceremonial Safari Suit * No 4 – Multicam Dress * No 5 – Crewman Dress * No 6 – Mess Dress * No 7 – Working Dress * No 8 – Maternity Dress * No 9 – Aircrew Dress


Equipment


Firearms and artillery


Vehicles


Support


Aircraft

File:Australian and US Army helicopter medical rescue exercise in 2011 110712-M-PM709-051.jpg, Australian Army Sikorsky S-70 Black Hawk File:Australian Army (A40-003) NHI MRH-90 arriving at Wagga Wagga Airport.jpg, An Australian Army MRH-90 File:Australian Army (A38-017) Eurocopter Tiger ARH display at the 2015 Australian International Airshow.jpg, Australian Army Tiger ARH


Bases

The Army's operational headquarters, Forces Command, is located at Victoria Barracks in Sydney. The Australian Army's three regular brigades are based at
Robertson Barracks :''For the Robertson Barracks, Norfolk, England see Robertson Barracks, Norfolk Robertson Barracks is military installation near Swanton Morley in Norfolk. It is home to 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards. History The barracks, which are named after ...
near
Darwin Darwin most often refers to: * Charles Darwin (1809–1882), English naturalist and writer, best known as the originator of the theory of biological evolution by natural selection * Darwin, Northern Territory, a capital city in Australia * Darwin ( ...
,
Lavarack Barracks Lavarack Barracks is a major Australian Army The Australian Army is the military land force of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Aus ...
in
Townsville Townsville is a city on the north-eastern coast of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is borde ...

Townsville
, and
Gallipoli Barracks Enoggera Barracks (also known as Gallipoli Barracks) is an Australian Army base in the northwestern Brisbane suburb of Enoggera, Queensland, Enoggera in Queensland. It was officially established in the early 20th century when the area was used ...
in
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Brisbane
. The Deployable Joint Force Headquarters is also located at Gallipoli Barracks. Other important Army bases include the Army Aviation Centre near
Oakey, Queensland Oakey is a rural town and locality in the Toowoomba Region, Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. ...
,
Holsworthy Barracks Holsworthy Barracks is an Australian Army Barracks, military barracks, located in the Heathcote National Park in Holsworthy, New South Wales, Holsworthy approximately from the Sydney central business district, central business district, in sout ...
near Sydney,
Lone Pine Barracks Lone Pine Barracks is an Australian Army base located in New South Wales, south of Singleton, New South Wales, Singleton. The barracks is home to the Australian Army School of Infantry, Special Forces Training Centre, Defence Support Group Singlet ...
in
Singleton, New South Wales Singleton is a town on the banks of the Hunter River in New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders Queensland ...
and
Woodside Barracks Woodside Barracks is an Australian Army base located in Woodside, South Australia, Woodside in South Australia. History The base was established in 1927, and known as ''Woodside Camp''. It consisted of 162 hectares and was located east of Adela ...
near
Adelaide Adelaide ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices and me ...

Adelaide
, South Australia. The
SASR The Special Air Service Regiment, officially abbreviated SASR though commonly known as the SAS, is a special forces unit of the Australian Army. Formed in 1957, it was modelled on the Special Air Service, British SAS sharing the motto, "Who ...
is based at
Campbell Barracks Campbell Barracks, circa 1945 Campbell Barracks, in Heidelberg, Germany, was home to Headquarters, United States Army Europe (USAREUR) from 1948 to 2013. It was also home to Headquarters, V Corps and Headquarters, Allied Force Command Heidelbe ...
Swanbourne Swanbourne is a village and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the unitary authority area of Buckinghamshire, England. It lies about two miles (3.2 km) east of Winslow, Buckinghamshire, Winslow and three miles (4.8 km) west of ...
, a suburb of
Perth Perth () is the and largest city of the n state of (WA). It is Australia's , with a population of 2.1 million living in in 2020. Perth is part of the of Western Australia, with most of the metropolitan area on the between the and the . ...

Perth
, Western Australia.
Puckapunyal Puckapunyal (more formally the Puckapunyal Military Area, but also known as the Puckapunyal Camp or Puckapunyal Army Base, and colloquially as "Pucka") is an Australian Army The Australian Army is the military land force of Australia ...
, north of
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller l ...

Melbourne
, houses the Australian Army's Combined Arms Training Centre, Land Warfare Development Centre, and three of the five principal Combat Arms schools. Further barracks include Steele Barracks in Sydney,
Keswick Barracks Keswick Barracks is a barracks of the Australian Army in Keswick, South Australia. The barracks are located on Anzac Highway, Adelaide, Anzac Highway adjacent to the Royal Adelaide Showgrounds. The base is separated from the Showgrounds by the Se ...
in Adelaide, and
Irwin Barracks Irwin Barracks is an Australian Army military base located in , a suburb of , Western Australia. It occupies a site on the western side of the Fremantle railway line. It was previously known as Karrakatta Camp and Irwin Training Centre. Histor ...
at Karrakatta in Perth. Dozens of
Australian Army Reserve The Australian Army Reserve is a collective name given to the military reserve force, reserve units of the Australian Army. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, the reserve military force has been known by many names, including the Citizens ...
depots are located across Australia.


Australian Army Journal

Since June 1948, the Australian Army has published its own journal titled the ''Australian Army Journal''. The journal's first editor was Colonel Eustace Keogh, and initially, it was intended to assume the role that the ''Army Training Memoranda'' had filled during the Second World War, although its focus, purpose, and format has shifted over time. Covering a broad range of topics including essays, book reviews and editorials, with submissions from serving members as well as professional authors, the journal's stated goal is to provide "...the primary forum for Army's professional discourse... nd to facilitate.. debate within the Australian Army ... nd raise...the quality and intellectual rigor of that debate by adhering to a strict and demanding standard of quality". In 1976, the journal was placed on hiatus as the ''Defence Force Journal'' began publication; however, publishing of the ''Australian Army Journal'' began again in 1999 and since then the journal has been published largely on a quarterly basis, with only minimal interruptions.


See also

*
Australian Defence Force ranks and insignia The Australian Defence Force, Australian Defence Force's (ADF) ranks of Officer (armed forces), officers and enlisted personnel in each of its three service branches of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Australian Army, and the Royal Australian A ...
* Australian military slang * Battle and theatre honours of the Australian Army *
Conscription in Australia Conscription in Australia, or mandatory military service also known as National Service, has a controversial history dating back to the first years of nationhood. Australia currently only has provisions for conscription during times of war when ...
* List of Australian military memorials


Citations


References

* * * * * * *


Further reading

* * *


External links


Australian Army website
{{Authority control 1901 establishments in Australia Cold War history of Australia