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The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC; ) is an inter-governmental forum for 21 member
economies An economy (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 m ...

economies
in the
Pacific Rim The Pacific Rim comprises the lands around the rim of the Pacific Ocean. The ''Pacific Ocean, Pacific Basin'' includes the Pacific Rim and the islands in the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Rim roughly overlaps with the geologic Pacific Ring of Fire ...
that promotes
free trade Free trade is a trade policy A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a government's policy governing international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and service ...
throughout the
Asia-Pacific The Asia-Pacific is the part of the world In its most general sense, the term "world" refers to the totality of entities, to the whole of reality or to everything that is. The nature of the world has been conceptualized differently in dif ...

Asia-Pacific
region.Member Economies – Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Apec.org. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
Following the success of
ASEAN ASEAN; ( , ) officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is an economic union comprising 10 member states in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southe ...

ASEAN
's series of post-ministerial conferences launched in the mid-1980s, APEC started in 1989, in response to the growing interdependence of Asia-Pacific economies and the advent of regional
trade bloc A trade bloc is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states'') ...
s in other parts of the world; it aimed to establish new markets for agricultural products and raw materials beyond Europe. Headquartered in
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
, APEC is recognized as one of the highest-level multilateral blocs and oldest forums in the Asia-Pacific region, and exerts a significant global influence. The
heads of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administrati ...
of all APEC members except the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...

Republic of China
(which is represented by a ministerial-level official under the name
Chinese Taipei "Chinese Taipei" is the name used in some international organizations and competitions for Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic ...

Chinese Taipei
as ''economic leader'') attend an annual APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting. The location of the meeting rotates annually among the member economies, and a famous tradition, followed for most (but not all) summits, involves the attending leaders dressing in a
national costume A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, traditional garment, or traditional regalia) expresses an identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology ...
of the host country. APEC has three official observers: the
Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN; ( , ) officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is an economic union comprising 10 member states in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southe ...

Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Secretariat, the
Pacific Economic Cooperation Council The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) is a network of member committees composed of individuals and institutions dedicated to promoting cooperation across the Asia Pacific region, headquartered in Singapore Singapore (), officially ...
and the
Pacific Islands Forum The Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) is an inter-governmental organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, or an association – comp ...

Pacific Islands Forum
Secretariat. APEC's Host Economy of the Year is considered to be invited in the first place for geographical representation to attend
G20 The G20 or Group of Twenty is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries and the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located ...

G20
meetings following G20 guidelines.


History

The APEC was initially inspired when
ASEAN ASEAN; ( , ) officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is an economic union comprising 10 member states in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southe ...

ASEAN
’s series of post-ministerial conferences, launched in the mid-1980s, had demonstrated the feasibility and value of regular conferences among ministerial-level representatives of both developed and developing economies. By 1996, the post ministerial conferences had expanded to embrace 12 members (the then six members of ASEAN and its six dialogue partners). The developments led Australian Prime Minister
Bob Hawke Robert James Lee Hawke, (9 December 1929 – 16 May 2019) was an Australian politician who served as Prime Minister of Australia and Leader of the Labor Party from 1983 to 1991. He was the Member of Parliament A member of parliament ...

Bob Hawke
to believe the necessity of region-wide co-operation on economic matters. In January 1989, Bob Hawke called for more effective economic co-operation across the Pacific Rim region. This led to the first meeting of APEC in the Australian capital of
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices an ...

Canberra
in November, chaired by Australian Foreign Affairs Minister Gareth Evans. Attended by ministers from twelve countries, the meeting concluded with commitments for future annual meetings in Singapore and South Korea. Ten months later, 12 Asia-Pacific economies met in Canberra, Australia, to establish APEC. The APEC Secretariat, based in Singapore, was established to co-ordinate the activities of the organisation. During the meeting in 1994 in
Bogor Bogor ( Sundanese: ᮘᮧᮌᮧᮁ, Dutch: ''Buitenzorg'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science En ...

Bogor
, Indonesia, APEC leaders adopted the Bogor Goals that aim for free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific by 2010 for industrialised economies and by 2020 for developing economies. In 1995, APEC established a business advisory body named the APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC), composed of three business executives from each member's economy. In April 2001, the APEC, in collaboration with five other international organisations (Eurostat, IEA, OLADE, OPEC and the UNSD) launched the Joint Oil Data Exercise, which in 2005 became the
Joint Organisations Data Initiative The Joint Organisations Data Initiative (JODI) is an international collaboration to improve the availability and reliability of data on petroleum and natural gas. First named the "Joint Oil Data Exercise", the collaboration was launched in April ...
(JODI).


Meeting locations

The location of the meeting is rotated annually among the members.


Member economies

APEC currently has 21 members. However, the criterion for membership is that the member is a separate ''economy'', rather than a state. As a result, APEC uses the term ''member economies'' rather than ''member countries'' to refer to its members. One result of this criterion is that membership of the forum includes Taiwan (officially the Republic of China, participating under the name "Chinese Taipei") alongside People's Republic of China (see
Cross-Strait relations Cross-Strait relations (sometimes called Mainland–Taiwan relations or Taiwan–China relations) refers to the relationship between the following two political entities A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...
), as well as Hong Kong, which entered APEC as a British colony but it is now a
Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of Provinces of China, provincial-level administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China directly under Central People's Government. As a region, they possess the highest degree ...
. APEC also includes three official observers:
ASEAN ASEAN; ( , ) officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is an economic union comprising 10 member states in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southe ...

ASEAN
, the
Pacific Islands Forum The Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) is an inter-governmental organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, or an association – comp ...

Pacific Islands Forum
and the
Pacific Economic Cooperation Council The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) is a network of member committees composed of individuals and institutions dedicated to promoting cooperation across the Asia Pacific region, headquartered in Singapore Singapore (), officially ...
.


Leaders


Possible enlargement

India has requested membership in APEC, and received initial support from the United States, Japan, Australia and Papua New Guinea. Officials have decided not to allow India to join for various reasons, including the fact that India does not border the Pacific Ocean, which all current members do. However, India was invited to be an observer for the first time in November 2011. Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka,
Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. Lond ...

Macau
, Mongolia, Laos, Cambodia, Costa Rica, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador, are among a dozen other economies that have applied for membership in APEC. Colombia applied for APEC's membership as early as in 1995, but its bid was halted as the organisation stopped accepting new members from 1993 to 1996, and the moratorium was further prolonged to 2007 due to the
1997 Asian Financial Crisis The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia and Southeast Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion. The crisis started in Thailand (kno ...
.
Guam Guam (; ch, Guåhan ) is an in the subregion of the western . It is the and territory of the United States (reckoned from the ); in , it is the largest and southernmost of the and the largest island in Micronesia. Guam's capital is , and t ...

Guam
has also been actively seeking a separate membership, citing the example of Hong Kong, but the request is opposed by the United States, which currently represents Guam.


Business facilitation

APEC has long been at the forefront of reform efforts in the area of business facilitation. Between 2002 and 2006 the costs of business transactions across the region was reduced by 6%, thanks to the APEC Trade Facilitation Action Plan (TFAPI). Between 2007 and 2010, APEC hopes to achieve an additional 5% reduction in business transaction costs. To this end, a new Trade Facilitation Action Plan has been endorsed. According to a 2008 research brief published by the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
as part of its Trade Costs and Facilitation Project, increasing transparency in the region's trading system is critical if APEC is to meet its Bogor Goal targets. The
APEC Business Travel Card The APEC Business Travel Card (ABTC) is a travel documentA travel document is an identity document issued by a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. ...
, a
travel document A travel document is an identity document issued by a government or international entity pursuant to international agreements to enable individuals to clear border control measures. Travel documents usually assure other governments that the bearer ...
for visa-free business travel within the region is one of the concrete measures to facilitate business. In May 2010 Russia joined the scheme, thus completing the circle.


Proposed FTAAP

APEC first formally started discussing the concept of a Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP) at its summit in 2006 in Hanoi. However, the proposal for such an area has been around since at least 1966 and Japanese economist 's proposal for a Pacific Free Trade agreement proposal. While it gained little traction, the idea led to the formation of
Pacific Trade and Development Conference The Pacific Trade and Development Conference (PAFTAD) is an informal private academic conference series that, since its origins in 1968, has developed into a driving force behind the development of thought on Pacific trade and development issues an ...
and then the
Pacific Economic Cooperation Council The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) is a network of member committees composed of individuals and institutions dedicated to promoting cooperation across the Asia Pacific region, headquartered in Singapore Singapore (), officially ...
in 1980 and then APEC in 1989. In the wake of the 2006 summit, economist C. Fred Bergsten advocated a Free Trade Agreement of Asia-Pacific, including the United States amongst the proposed parties to any agreement at that time. His ideas convinced the APEC Business Advisory Council to support this concept. Relatedly,
ASEAN ASEAN; ( , ) officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is an economic union comprising 10 member states in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southe ...

ASEAN
and existing
free trade agreementA free trade agreement (FTA) or treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but can sometimes include individ ...
(FTA) partners are negotiating as
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP ) is a free trade agreement between the Asia-Pacific nations of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising ...
(RCEP), not officially including Russia. The
Trans-Pacific Partnership The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), also called the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, was a proposed trade agreement A trade agreement (also known as trade pact) is a wide-ranging taxes, tariff and trade treaty that often includes invest ...
(TPP) without China or Russia involved has become the US-promoted trade negotiation in the region. At the APEC summit in Beijing in 2014, the three plans were all in discussion. President Obama hosted a TPP meeting at the US Embassy in Beijing in advance of the APEC gathering. The proposal for a FTAAP arose due to the lack of progress in the Doha round of
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through ...
negotiations, and as a way to overcome the "noodle bowl" effect created by overlapping and conflicting elements of the copious free trade agreements – there were approximately 60 free trade agreements in 2007, with an additional 117 in the process of negotiation in Southeast Asia and the Asia-Pacific region. In 2012, ASEAN+6 countries alone had 339 free trade agreements – many of which were bilateral. The FTAAP is more ambitious in scope than the Doha round, which limits itself to reducing trade restrictions. The FTAAP would create a free trade zone that would considerably expand commerce and economic growth in the region. No reference to numbers of FTAs. The economic expansion and growth in trade could exceed the expectations of other regional free trade areas such as the
ASEAN Plus Three ASEAN; ( , ) officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is an economic union comprising 10 member states in Southeast Asia, which promotes intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economy, econom ...
(
ASEAN ASEAN; ( , ) officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is an economic union comprising 10 member states in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southe ...

ASEAN
+ China, South Korea and Japan).Policy Briefs in International Economics
(PDF)
Some criticisms include that the diversion of trade within APEC members would create trade imbalances, market conflicts and complications with nations of other regions. The development of the FTAAP is expected to take many years, involving essential studies, evaluations and negotiations between member economies. It is also affected by the absence of political will and popular agitations and lobbying against free trade in domestic politics. At the 2014 APEC summit in
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
, APEC leaders agreed to launch "a collective strategic study" on the FTAAP and instruct officials to undertake the study, consult stakeholders and report the result by the end of 2016. APEC Executive Director Alan Bollard revealed in the Elite Talk show that FTAAP will be APEC's big goal out into the future. The
Trans-Pacific Partnership The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), also called the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, was a proposed trade agreement A trade agreement (also known as trade pact) is a wide-ranging taxes, tariff and trade treaty that often includes invest ...
includes 12 of the 21 APEC members and has provisions for the accession of other APEC members, five of which have expressed interest in membership.


APEC Study Centre Consortium

In 1993, APEC Leaders decided to establish a network of APEC Study Centres (APCs) among universities and research institutions in member economies. The purpose is to foster cooperation among tertiary and research institutes of member economies, thus having better academic collaboration on key regional economic challenges. To encourage independence from the APEC conference, the APCs are funded independently and choose their own research topics.APEC Study Center Contortium
As of December 2018, there are 70 APCs among the member economies. An annual conference is usually held in the host economy for that year.


APEC Business Advisory Council

The APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) was created by the APEC Economic Leaders in November 1995 with the aim of providing advice to the APEC Economic Leaders on ways to achieve the Bogor Goals and other specific business sector priorities, and to provide the business perspective on specific areas of co-operation. Each economy nominates up to three members from the private sector to ABAC. These business leaders represent a wide range of industry sectors. ABAC provides an annual report to APEC Economic Leaders containing recommendations to improve the business and investment environment in the Asia-Pacific region, and outlining business views about priority regional issues. ABAC is also the only non-governmental organisation that is on the official agenda of the APEC Economic Leader's Meeting.


Annual APEC economic leaders' meetings

Since its formation in 1989, APEC has held annual meetings with representatives from all member economies. The first four annual meetings were attended by ministerial-level officials. Beginning in 1993, the annual meetings are named APEC Economic Leaders' Meetings and are attended by the
heads of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administrati ...
from all member economies except Taiwan, which is represented by a ministerial-level official. Despite a similar nature, the annual Leaders' Meetings are not called
summits A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation The elevation of a geographic location (geography), location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth' ...
.


Meeting developments

In 1997, the APEC meeting was held in
Vancouver Vancouver ( ) is a major city in , located in the region of . As the in the province, the recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011. The area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the . Vancouver has the highe ...

Vancouver
. Controversy arose after officers of the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; french: Gendarmerie royale du Canada; french: GRC, label=none), often known as the Mounties, are the federal and national police service of Canada, providing law enforcement at the federal level. The ...

Royal Canadian Mounted Police
used
pepper spray Pepper spray, oleoresin capsicum spray, OC spray, capsaicin spray, or capsicum spray is a lachrymatory agent Tear gas, also known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin ''lacrima'' meaning "tears, tear"), sometimes colloquia ...
against protesters. The protesters objected to the presence of
autocratic Autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power over a State (polity), state is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (exc ...
leaders such as Indonesian president
Suharto Suharto (; ; 8 June 1921 – 27 January 2008) was an Indonesian Army officer Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Ind ...
. At the 2001 Leaders' Meeting in Shanghai, APEC leaders pushed for a new round of trade negotiations and support for a program of trade capacity-building assistance, leading to the launch of the Doha Development Agenda a few weeks later. The meeting also endorsed the Shanghai Accord proposed by the United States, emphasising the implementation of open markets, structural reform, and
capacity building Capacity building (or capacity development) is the process by which individuals and organizations obtain, improve, and retain the skills, knowledge, tools, equipment, and other resources needed to do their jobs competently. It allows individuals ...

capacity building
. As part of the accord, the meeting committed to develop and implement APEC transparency standards, reduce trade
transaction cost In economics and related disciplines, a transaction cost is a cost in making any economic trade when participating in a Market (economics), market. Oliver E. Williamson defines transaction costs as the costs of running an economic system of companie ...
s in the Asia-Pacific region by 5 percent over 5 years, and pursue trade liberalisation policies relating to information technology goods and services. In 2003,
Jemaah Islamiah Jemaah Islamiyah ( ar, الجماعة الإسلامية, ''al-Jamāʿah al-Islāmiyyah'', meaning "Islamic Congregation", frequently abbreviated JI) is a Southeast Asian militant extremist Islamist terrorist group dedicated to the establishme ...
leader
Riduan Isamuddin Riduan Isamuddin also transliterated as Riduan Isamudin, Riduan Isomuddin, and Riduan Isomudin, better known by the '' nom de guerre'' Hambali, born as Encep Nurjaman (April 4, 1964) is the former military leader of the Indonesian terrorist orga ...

Riduan Isamuddin
had planned to attack the APEC Leaders Meeting to be held in
Bangkok Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern ...

Bangkok
in October. He was captured in the city of Ayutthaya, Thailand by Thai police on 11 August 2003, before he could finish planning the attack. Chile became the first South American nation to host the Leaders' Meeting in 2004. The agenda of that year was focused on terrorism and commerce,
small and medium enterpriseSmall and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits. The abbreviation "SME" is used by international organizations such as the World Bank, the European ...
development, and contemplation of free agreements and regional trade agreements. The 2005 Leaders' Meeting was held in
Busan Busan (), formerly romanized as Pusan and now officially known as is South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and shar ...

Busan
, South Korea. The meeting focused on the Doha round of
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through ...
(WTO) negotiations, leading up to the
WTO Ministerial Conference of 2005 The Sixth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization, also known as the WTO Hong Kong Ministerial Conference and abbreviated as MC6, was held at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, Wan Chai Wan Chai is a metropolit ...
held in Hong Kong in December. Weeks earlier, trade negotiations in Paris were held between several WTO members, including the United States and the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
, centred on reducing agricultural
trade barrier Trade barriers are government-induced restrictions on international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories because there is a need or want of goods or services ...
s. APEC leaders at the summit urged the European Union to agree to reduce farm subsidies. In a continuation of the climate information sharing initiative established by the APEC Climate Network working group, it was decided by the leaders to install the APEC Climate Center in
Busan Busan (), formerly romanized as Pusan and now officially known as is South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and shar ...

Busan
. Peaceful protests against APEC were staged in Busan, but the meeting schedule was not affected. At the Leaders' Meeting held on 19 November 2006 in
Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , population_demonym = Hanoian , population_density_km2 = auto , population_urban = 3,962,310 , population_density_urban_km2 = 14708.8 , popula ...

Hanoi
, APEC leaders called for a new start to global free-trade negotiations while condemning terrorism and other threats to security. APEC also criticised North Korea for conducting a
nuclear test Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine nuclear weapons' effectiveness, yield Yield may refer to: Measures of output/function Computer science * Yield (multithreading) is an action that occurs in a computer program duri ...

nuclear test
and a missile test launch that year, urging the country to take "concrete and effective" steps toward
nuclear disarmament Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapon A nuclear weapon (also known as an atom bomb, atomic bomb, nuclear bomb or nuclear warhead, and colloquially as an A-bomb or nuke) is an explosive device that deriv ...
. Concerns about
nuclear proliferation Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons A nuclear weapon (also known as an atom bomb, atomic bomb, nuclear bomb or nuclear warhead, and colloquially as an A-bomb or nuke) is an explosive device that derives its destructiv ...

nuclear proliferation
in the region was discussed in addition to economic topics. The United States and Russia signed an agreement as part of Russia's bid to join the World Trade Organization. The
APEC Australia 2007 APEC Australia 2007 was a series of political meetings held around Australia between the 21 member economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation during 2007. Various meetings were held across Australia from January to August 2007, with the eve ...
Leaders' Meeting was held in Sydney from 2–9 September 2007. The political leaders agreed to an "aspirational goal" of a 25% reduction of energy intensity correlative with economic development. Extreme security measures including airborne sharpshooters and extensive steel-and-concrete barricades were deployed against anticipated protesters and potential terrorists. However, protest activities were peaceful and the security envelope was penetrated with ease by a spoof diplomatic motorcade manned by members of the Australian television program ''
The Chaser The Chaser are an Australian satirical comedy group. They are known for their television programmes on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation channel. The group take their name from their The Chaser (newspaper), satirical newspaper, a publicat ...
'', one of whom was dressed to resemble the
Al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (; ar, القاعدة ', , translation: "The Base", "The Foundation", alternatively spelled al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national terrorist organization founded in 1988. by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah ...
leader
Osama bin Laden Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, ') (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), also transliterated as Usama bin Ladin, was a Saudi Arabian terrorist and founder of the Pan-Islamic militant organization . The group is designated as a List of des ...

Osama bin Laden
. The APEC Chile 2019, originally to be held 16–17 November 2019 in
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
, was cancelled due to ongoing protests by sections of its population over inequality, the cost of living and police repression.


APEC leaders' group photo

At the end of the APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting, the leaders gather for the official APEC Leaders' Family Photo. A tradition has the leaders dressing to reflect the culture of the host member. The tradition dates to the first such meeting in 1993 when then-U.S. President
Bill Clinton William Jefferson Clinton ('' né'' Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 42nd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and ...

Bill Clinton
insisted on informal attire and gave the leaders leather bomber jackets. At the 2010 meeting, Japan had the leaders dress in smart casual rather than the traditional
kimono The is a traditional Japanese garment and the national dress of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the ...

kimono
. Similarly, when Honolulu was selected in 2009 as the site for the 2011 APEC meeting, U.S. President
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
joked that he looked forward to seeing the leaders dressed in "flowered shirts and grass skirts". After viewing previous photos, and concerned that having the leaders dress in
aloha shirt The Aloha shirt, also referred to as a Hawaiian shirt, is a style of dress shirt originating in Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, in the Pacific Ocean about 2,000 miles (3,200 km) from th ...
s might give the wrong impression during a period of economic austerity, Obama instead decided it might be time to end the tradition. Leaders were given a specially designed aloha shirt as a gift but were not expected to wear it for the photo. Leaders in Bali, Indonesia at the 2013 conference wore a batik outfit; in China 2014 Tang suit jackets; in the Philippines 2015 Barong Tagalogs; in Peru 2016 vicuna wool shawls; in 2017 Vietnamese silk shirts. File:Vladimir Putin at APEC Summit in Brunei 15-16 November-9.jpg, APEC Brunei 2000 File:Vladimir Putin at APEC Summit in China 19-21 October 2001-14.jpg, APEC China 2001 File:Vladimir Putin at APEC Summit in Thailand 19-21 October 2003-16.jpg, APEC Thailand 2003 File:Vladimir Putin at APEC Summit in Chile 20-21 November 2004-3.jpg, APEC Chile 2004 File:Vladimir Putin at APEC Summit in South Korea 18-19 November 2005-8.jpg, APEC South Korea 2005 File:Vladimir Putin at APEC Summit in Vietnam 18-19 November 2006-11.jpg, APEC Vietnam 2006 File:Vladimir Putin at APEC Summit in Australia 7-9 September 2007-3.jpg, APEC Australia 2007 File:Dmitry Medvedev at APEC Summit in Peru 22-23 November 2008-2.jpg, APEC Peru 2008 File:Singapore APEC 2009 leaders.jpg, APEC Singapore 2009 File:13.11.2010 Gira a Asia.jpg, APEC Japan 2010 File:APEC Hawaii.jpg, APEC United States 2011 File:APEC Russia 2012.jpg, APEC Russia 2012 File:Apec 2013.jpg, APEC Indonesia 2013 File:APEC Summit China 2014.jpg, APEC China 2014 File:APEC Philippines 2015 delegates.jpg, APEC Philippines 2015 File:Foto Oficial APEC 2016 (LIMA PERU).jpg, APEC Peru 2016 File:2017 APEC Vietnam Leaders Group Photo.jpg, APEC Vietnam 2017 File:APEC Leaders Photo - Papua New Guinea 2018.jpg,
APEC Papua New Guinea 2018 APEC Papua New Guinea 2018 was the year-long hosting of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meetings in Papua New Guinea. It was the first time Papua New Guinea hosted the APEC meetings. Australia provided a quarter to a third of the cost t ...


Criticism

APEC has been criticised for promoting free trade agreements that would impose restrictions on national and local laws, which regulate and ensure labour rights, environmental protection and safe and affordable access to medicine. According to the organisation, it is "the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region" established to "further enhance economic growth and prosperity for the region and to strengthen the Asia-Pacific community". The effectiveness and fairness of its role has been questioned, especially from the viewpoints of European countries that cannot take part in APEC and Pacific Island nations that cannot participate but stand to be affected by its decisions.


See also

*
ASEAN Free Trade Area The ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) is a trade bloc agreement by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN; ( , ) officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is an economic union comprising 10 member states in Southeast Asia, ...
* Asia-Europe Meeting * Asia-Pacific Trade Agreements Database *
East Asia Economic CaucusThe East Asia Economic Caucus (EAEC) or East Asia Economic Group (EAEG) was a regional free trade zone (FTA) proposed in 1997 by Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad ( ms, محضير بن محمد, ...
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East Asia Summit The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a regional forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeas ...

East Asia Summit
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Pacific Alliance The Pacific Alliance ( es, link=no, Alianza del Pacífico) is a Latin American trade bloc, formed by Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which all border the Pacific Ocean. The alliance was formed with the express purpose of improving regional in ...

Pacific Alliance
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Pacific Economic Cooperation Council The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) is a network of member committees composed of individuals and institutions dedicated to promoting cooperation across the Asia Pacific region, headquartered in Singapore Singapore (), officially ...
* List of country groupings *
List of multilateral free-trade agreements This is a list of multilateral free-trade agreements, between several countries all treated equally. For agreements between two countries, between a bloc and a country, or between two blocs, see list of bilateral free-trade agreements; these are ...
; Other organisations of coastal states * Bay of Bengal Initiative *
Black Sea Economic Cooperation The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) is a regional international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, interna ...
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Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), formerly known as the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative and the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC), is an international organisation consisting of 23 states bordering the Indian Ocean. ...
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Union for the Mediterranean The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM; french: Union pour la Méditerranée, ar, الإتحاد من أجل المتوسط ''Al-Ittiḥād min ajl al-Mutawassaṭ'') is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) o ...

Union for the Mediterranean


Notes


References


Further reading

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External links


Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding APEC
{{Authority control International economic organizations International political organizations International trade organizations
International organizations based in AsiaInternational organizations by continent, Asia Politics of Asia Organizations based in Asia by subject ...
International organizations based in Oceania International organizations based in the Americas Organizations based in North America Organizations based in South America Asia-Pacific Trade blocs Business organisations based in Singapore International organisations based in Singapore Organizations established in 1989 1989 establishments in Asia 1989 establishments in Oceania 1989 establishments in North America 1989 establishments in South America Articles containing video clips