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An aqueduct is a
watercourse A watercourse is the channel Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path of a narrow body of water. Australia * Channel Cou ...

watercourse
constructed to carry water from a source to a distribution point far away. In modern engineering, the term ''aqueduct'' is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose. The term ''aqueduct'' also often refers specifically to a
bridge A bridge is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules t ...
carrying an artificial watercourse. Aqueducts were used in
ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
,
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
, and
ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who stud ...
. In modern times, the largest aqueducts of all have been built in the United States to supply large cities. The simplest aqueducts are small ditches cut into the earth. Much larger channels may be used in modern aqueducts. Aqueducts sometimes run for some or all of their path through tunnels constructed underground. Modern aqueducts may also use pipelines. Historically, agricultural societies have constructed aqueducts to irrigate crops and supply large cities with drinking water.


Etymology

The word is derived from the Latin (water) and (led, guided).


Ancient aqueducts

Although particularly associated with the Romans, aqueducts were devised much earlier in Greece, the
Near East The Near East ( ar, الشرق الأدنى, al-Sharq al-'Adnā, he, המזרח הקרוב, arc, ܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, fa, خاور نزدیک, Xāvar-e nazdik, tr, Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental ...
,
Nile Valley The Nile, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nubi ...

Nile Valley
, and Indian subcontinent, where peoples such as the
Egyptians Egyptians ( arz, المصريين, ; cop, ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, remenkhēmi) are an ethnic group of people originating from the country of Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning t ...

Egyptians
and built sophisticated irrigation systems. Roman-style aqueducts were used as early as the 7th century BC, when the
Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of We ...

Assyria
ns built an 80 km long limestone aqueduct, which included a 10 m high section to cross a 300 m wide valley, to carry water to their capital city,
Nineveh Nineveh (; ar, نَيْنَوَىٰ '; syr, ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ, Nīnwē; akk, ) was an ancient Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a n kingdom and of the that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th ...
.


India

The Indian subcontinent is believed to have some of the earliest aqueducts. Evidence can be found at the sites of present-day
Hampi, Karnataka Hampi or Hampe, also referred to as the Group of Monuments at Hampi, is a UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture ...

Hampi, Karnataka
. The massive aqueducts near river Tungabhadra supplying irrigation water were once long. The waterways supplied water to royal bath tubs.


Oman

In
Oman Oman ( ; ar, عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar, سلْطنةُ عُمان ), is a country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Formerly a maritime empire, Oman is the oldest continuously in ...

Oman
from the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
, in Salut, Bat, and other sites, a system of underground aqueducts called falaj or qanāts were constructed, a series of well-like vertical shafts, connected by gently sloping horizontal tunnels. There are three types of falaj: *Daudi (داوودية) with underground aqueducts *Ghaili (الغيلية ) requiring a dam to collect the water *Aini (العينية ) whose source is a water spring These enabled large scale agriculture to flourish in a dry land environment.


Persia

In
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
from early times a system of underground aqueducts called
qanāt A qanat or kariz, is a system for transporting water from an aquifer An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeability (Earth sciences), permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt). Groun ...
s were constructed, a series of well-like vertical shafts, connected by gently sloping tunnels. This technique: *taps into subterranean water in a manner that delivers water to the surface without need for pumping. The water drains relying on gravity, with the destination lower than the source, which is typically an upland aquifer. *allows water to be transported long distances in hot dry climates without losing a large proportion of the source water to seepage and evaporation.


Petra, Jordan

Throughout
Petra The Positron-Electron Tandem Ring Accelerator (PETRA) is one of the particle accelerator A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel electric charge, charged particles to very high speeds and energies, and to ...

Petra
, Jordan, the
Nabataean The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (; Nabataean Aramaic Nabataean Aramaic was the Western Aramaic The Western Aramaic languages represent a specific group of Aramaic languages, once spoken widely throughout the ancient Levant The Levant ...
engineers took advantage of every natural spring and every winter downpour to channel water where it was needed. They constructed aqueducts and piping systems that allowed water to flow across mountains, through gorges and into the temples, homes, and gardens of Petra's citizens. Walking through the
Siq The Siq ( ar, السيق, transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbo ...
, one can easily spot the remains of channels that directed water to the city center, as well as durable retention dams that kept powerful flood waters at bay.


Greece

On the island of
Samos Samos (, also ; el, Σάμος ) is a Greece, Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of western Turkey, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait. It is also a sep ...

Samos
, the was built during the reign of
Polycrates Polycrates (; grc, Πολυκράτης, in English usually Polycrates but sometimes Polykrates), son of Aeaces (father of Polycrates), Aeaces, was the tyrant of Samos from the 540s BC to 522 BC. He had a reputation as both a fierce warrior and an ...
(538-522 BC). It is considered an underground aqueduct and brought fresh water to
Pythagoreion The Pythagoreion is the archaeological site of the ancient town of Samos in Samos Samos (, also ; el, Σάμος ) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterr ...
for roughly a thousand years.


Roman

Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman
aqueducts were built in all parts of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
, from Germany to Africa, and especially in the city of Rome, where they totalled over . The aqueducts supplied fresh water to public baths and for drinking water, in large cities across the empire, and set a standard of engineering that was not surpassed for more than a thousand years. Bridges, built in stone with multiple arches, were a distinctive feature of Roman aqueducts and hence the term ''aqueduct'' is often applied specifically to a bridge for carrying water.


South America

Near the Peruvian town of Nazca, an ancient pre-Columbian system of aqueducts called
Puquios Puquios (from Quechua languages, Quechua ''pukyu'' meaning source, spring, or water well) are ancient systems of qanat, subterranean aqueducts which allow water to be transported over long distances in hot dry climates without loss of much ...
were built and are still in use today. They were made of intricately placed stones, a construction material widely used by the Nazca culture. The time period in which they were constructed is still debated, but some evidence supports circa A.D. 540–552, in response to drought periods in the region. The Guayabo National Monument of Costa Rica, a park covering the largest archaeological site in the country, contains a system of aqueducts. The complex network of uncovered and covered aqueducts still functions well. The aqueducts are constructed from rounded river stones, which are mostly made of
volcanic rock Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a formed from erupted from a . In other words, it differs from other by being of origin. Like all rock types, the concept of volcanic rock is artificial, and in nature vo ...

volcanic rock
. The civilization that constructed the aqueduct system remains a mystery to archaeologists; it is suspected that Guayabo's aqueducts sat at a point of ancient cultural confluence between Aztecs, Mayans, and Incas.


North America

When Europeans saw the
Aztec The Aztecs () were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521. The Aztec peoples included different Indigenous peoples of Mexico, ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those g ...

Aztec
capital Tenochtitlán, early in the 16th century, the city was watered by two aqueducts. One of these, Chapultepec Aqueduct, built circa 1420, was rebuilt by the Spanish almost three hundred years later. Originally tracing part of its path over now-gone
Lake Texcoco Lake Texcoco ( es, Lago de Texcoco) was a natural lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing toward ...
, only a fragment remains in
Mexico City Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX; nah, Āltepētl Mēxihco) is the capital city, capital and largest city of Mexico, as well as the List of North American cities by population, most populous city in North Americ ...

Mexico City
today.


Sri Lanka

Extensive usage of elaborate aqueducts have been found to have been used in ancient
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
. The best example is the or Jaya Ganga, an long water canal carrying excess water between two artificial reservoirs with a
gradient In vector calculus Vector calculus, or vector analysis, is concerned with differentiation Differentiation may refer to: Business * Differentiation (economics), the process of making a product different from other similar products * Prod ...
of 10 to 20 cm per kilometer during the fifth century AD. However, the ancient engineering methods in calculating the exact elevation between the two reservoirs and the exact gradient of the canal to such fine precision had been lost with the fall of the civilization in 13th Century.


Modern aqueducts

Modern aqueducts are a central part of many countries' water distribution infrastructure. The United States' aqueducts are some of the world's largest. The
Catskill Aqueduct The Catskill Aqueduct, part of the New York City water supply system, brings water from the Catskill Mountains to Yonkers where it connects to other parts of the system. History Construction commenced in 1907. The aqueduct proper was completed ...

Catskill Aqueduct
carries water to New York City over a distance of 120 miles (190 km), but is dwarfed by aqueducts in the far west of the country, most notably the 242-mile (389-km)
Colorado River Aqueduct The Colorado River Aqueduct, or CRA, is a water conveyance in Southern California in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States ...
, which supplies the Los Angeles area with water from the Colorado River nearly 250 miles to the east and the
California Aqueduct The Governor Edmund G. Brown California Aqueduct is a system of canals, tunnels, and pipelines that conveys water collected from the Sierra Nevada Mountains and valleys of Northern and Central California to Southern California Southern Califo ...
, which runs from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta to
Lake Perris Lake Perris is an artificial lake A reservoir (; from French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République fra ...
. The
Central Arizona Project The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is a 336 mi (541 km) diversion canal in Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States The United States of ...
is the largest and most expensive aqueduct constructed in the United States. It stretches 336 miles from its source near
Parker, Arizona Parker (Mojave Mojave or Mohave most often refers to: *Mojave Desert *Mojave River *Mohave people Mojave or Mohave may also refer to: Places * Fort Mojave Indian Reservation * Mohave County, Arizona * Mohave Valley, a valley in Arizona * Mohave ...
to the metropolitan areas of and
Tucson Tucson (; es, Tucsón; O'odham The O'odham peoples, including the Tohono O'odham, the Pima Pima or PIMA may refer to: Places * Pima, Arizona, a town in Graham County * Pima County, Arizona * Pima Canyon, in the Santa Catalina Mountains * Pim ...
. An aqueduct in New Zealand, "the Oamaru Borough Race", was constructed in the late 19th century to deliver water (and water-power) about 50 km from the Waitaki River at Kurow to the coastal town of
Oamaru Oamaru (; mi, Te Oha-a-Maru) is the largest town in North Otago, in the South Island of New Zealand, it is the main town in the Waitaki District. It is south of Timaru and north of Dunedin on the Pacific Ocean, Pacific coast; State Highway 1 ( ...

Oamaru
. In Spain, the Tagus-Segura Water Transfer system of aqueducts opened in 1979 and transports water from north to south. In China, the South–North Water Transfer Project aims to connect the
Yangtze The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
River basin to Beijing through three separate systems. The project will reuse part of the
Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese people, Chinese as the Jing–Hang Grand Canal (, or more commonly, as the「大運河」("Grand Canal")), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest canal or artificial river in the world. Starting in Beij ...
.


Design


Open channels

The simplest aqueducts are small
ditch A ditch is a small to moderate divot created to channel water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the mai ...

ditch
es cut into the earth. Much larger channels may be used in modern aqueducts, for instance the
Central Arizona Project The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is a 336 mi (541 km) diversion canal in Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States The United States of ...
uses wide channels. A major factor in the design of all open channels is its gradient. A higher gradient allows a smaller channel to carry the same amount of water as a larger channel with a lower gradient, but increases the potential of the water to damage the aqueduct's structure. A typical Roman aqueduct had a gradient of about 1:4800.


Artificial rills

A constructed functional rill is a small canal or aqueduct of stone, brick, concrete, or other lining material, usually
rectilinear Rectilinear means related to a straight line; it may refer to: * Rectilinear grid, a tessellation of the Euclidean plane * Rectilinear lens, a photographic lens * Rectilinear locomotion, a form of animal locomotion * Rectilinear polygon, a polygon ...
in
cross section Cross section may refer to: * Cross section (geometry), the intersection of a 3-dimensional body with a plane * Cross section (electronics), a common sample preparation technique in electronics * Cross section (geology), the intersection of a 3-dim ...
, for water transportation from a source such as a river, spring, reservoir,
qanat A qanat or kariz, is a system for transporting water from an aquifer An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeability (Earth sciences), permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt). Groun ...

qanat
, or aqueduct for domestic consumption or agricultural irrigation of crop land uses. Rills were traditionally used in
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
ern and
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
cultures of ancient and historical eras; and other climates and continents worldwide. They are distinguished from a 'water
ditch A ditch is a small to moderate divot created to channel water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the mai ...

ditch
' by being lined to reduce absorption losses and to increase durability. The ''Falaj'' irrigation system at the
Al Ain Al Ain ( ar, ٱلْعَيْن, , literally ''The Spring'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Scien ...

Al Ain
Oasis In geography, an oasis (, plural oases, ) is a fertile land in a desert or semi-desert environment.
, in present-day Abu Dhabi Emirate, uses rills as part of its
qanat A qanat or kariz, is a system for transporting water from an aquifer An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeability (Earth sciences), permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt). Groun ...

qanat
water system. Sometimes in the
Spanish language Spanish ( or , ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of inform ...

Spanish language
they are called ''
Acequia An acequia () or séquia () is a community-operated watercourse used in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de Españ ...

Acequia
s''. Rills are also used for aesthetic purposes in landscape design. Rills are used as narrow channels of water inset into the pavement of a
garden A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the cultivation, display, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The single feature identifying even the wildest wild garden A wildlife garden (or wild garden) is an Bioph ...

garden
, as linear
water feature in the park of Château de Bagatelle, Bagatelle, France. Image:GaylordNationalComputerizedMusicalWaterFeature.jpg, upComputerized musical water feature in National Harbor, MD In landscape architecture and garden design, a water feature is one or ...
s, and often tiled and part of a fountain design. The historical origins are from
paradise garden The paradise garden is a form of garden of History of Iran, Old Iranian origin, specifically Achaemenid Empire, Achaemenid which is formal, symmetrical and most often, enclosed. The most traditional form is a rectangular garden split into four qu ...

paradise garden
religious images that first translated into ancient
Persian Gardens is a famous historic Persian garden in Shiraz Shiraz (; fa, شیراز, Šîrâz ) is the List of Iranian cities by population, fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province, which is also known as Pars (Sasanian province), ...
. Rills were later exceptionally developed in the
Moorish '' of Alfonso X, c. 1285 The term Moor is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors in ...
(Spanish) Gardens of , such as at the
Alhambra The Alhambra (, ; ar, الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrāʾ, , ) is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the provi ...

Alhambra
in
Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the ...

Granada
; and also in other
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
ic gardens, cultures, and countries. Early 20th century examples are in the gardens in Seville, Spain; and at the Casa del Herrero gardens in
Montecito, California Montecito (Spanish language, Spanish for "Little mountain") is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Santa Barbara County, California, located east of the Santa Barbara, California, City of Santa Barbara.McCormack, Don (1999). ...
.


Tunnels

Aqueducts sometimes run for some or all of their path through tunnels constructed underground. A version of this common in North Africa and Central Asia that has vertical wells at regular intervals is called a qanat. One historic example found in Syria, the Qanat Firaun, extends over 100 kilometers.


Pipes

Modern aqueducts may also make extensive use of pipelines. Pipelines are useful for transporting water over long distances when it needs to move over hills, or where open channels are poor choices due to considerations of
evaporation Evaporation is a type of vaporization Vaporization (or vaporisation) of an element or compound is a phase transition from the liquid phase to vapor. There are two types of vaporization: evaporation and boiling. Evaporation is a surface phe ...

evaporation
, freezing, pollution, or environmental impact. They can also be used to carry .


Uses

Historically, agricultural societies have constructed aqueducts to irrigate crops.
Archimedes Archimedes of Syracuse (; grc, ; ; ) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...

Archimedes
invented the
water screw Image:Screwpump.gif, upPrinciple of screw pump (Saugseite = intake, Druckseite = outflow) A screw pump, also known as a water screw, is a positive-displacement (PD) pump that use one or several screws to move Granular material, fluid solids or liqu ...
to raise water for use in irrigation of croplands. Another use for aqueducts is to supply large cities with drinking water. It also help drought prone areas with
water supply Water supply is the provision of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for ...
. Some of the Roman aqueducts still supply water to Rome today. In
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
, United States, three large aqueducts supply water over hundreds of miles to the Los Angeles area. Two are from the
Owens River The Owens River is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without ...
area, and a third is from the Colorado River. In modern
civil engineering Civil engineering is a professional engineering Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public and to defin ...
projects, detailed study and analysis of
open-channel flow Open-channel flow, a branch of hydraulics Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids. At a very ba ...
is commonly required to support flood control, irrigation systems, and large water supply systems when an aqueduct rather than a pipeline is the preferred solution. In the past, aqueducts often had channels made of earth or other porous materials but significant amounts of water are lost through such unlined aqueducts. As water gets increasingly scarce, these canals are being lined with concrete,
polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much", may refer to: Businesses * China Poly Group Corporation, a Chinese business group, and its subsidiaries: ** Poly Property, a Hong Kong inc ...

polymer
s, or impermeable soil. In some cases, a new aqueduct is built alongside the old one because it cannot be shut down during construction.


Notable aqueducts


Ancient Greek aqueducts

*The
Eupalinian aqueduct The Tunnel of Eupalinos or Eupalinian aqueduct ( el, Ευπαλίνιον όρυγμα, translit=Efpalinion orygma) is a tunnel A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entra ...

Eupalinian aqueduct
on the Greek island of
Samos Samos (, also ; el, Σάμος ) is a Greece, Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of western Turkey, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait. It is also a sep ...

Samos


Roman aqueducts

*The
Pont du Gard The Pont du Gard is an ancient bridge built in the first century AD to carry water over to the of ''Nemausus'' (). It crosses the river near the town of in . The Pont du Gard is the highest of all Roman , as well as one of the best preser ...

Pont du Gard
, constructed in the 1st century, in southern France. *The
Aqueduct of Segovia The Aqueduct of Segovia (; more accurately, the aqueduct bridge) is a Roman aqueduct Aerial footage of a Roman provincial aqueduct at Mória ( Lesbos) The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Republic A republic ( la, res publica, ...

Aqueduct of Segovia
, an aqueduct bridge is one of the most significant and best-preserved ancient monuments left on the Iberian Peninsula, Segovia, Spain *The . a Roman aqueduct in the Eastern Roman capital of Constantinople, now Istanbul, Turkey.


Other aqueducts

*Ponte Mantible Aqueduct in
Santiago de Compostela Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the S ...

Santiago de Compostela
, Spain, 12th century. *The Jerwan Aqueduct built by the
Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of We ...

Assyria
n king
Sennacherib Sennacherib (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_Press_. ...

Sennacherib
dated to 688 BC, as part of the water supply system to the city of
Nineveh Nineveh (; ar, نَيْنَوَىٰ '; syr, ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ, Nīnwē; akk, ) was an ancient Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a n kingdom and of the that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th ...
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Wignacourt Aqueduct The Wignacourt Aqueduct ( mt, L-Akwedott ta' Wignacourt) is a 17th-century aqueduct Aqueduct may refer to: Bridges *Aqueduct (bridge), a bridge to convey water over an obstacle, such as a ravine or valley *Navigable aqueduct, or water bridge, ...
,
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies south of Italy, east of Tunisi ...

Malta
; built in the 17th century to transport water from
Dingli Dingli ( mt, Ħad-Dingli) is a village in the Northern RegionNorthern Region may refer to: *Northern Region, Ghana *Northern Region, Eastern Cape, South Africa *Northern Region, Malawi *Northern Region, Malta *Northern Region, Manitoba, Canada ...

Dingli
and
Rabat Rabat (, also , ; ar, الرباط, ar-ribāṭ; ber, ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ, aṛṛbaṭ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in large ...
to the new capital city
Valletta Valletta (, mt, il-Belt Valletta, ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the gover ...

Valletta
; today, most of its arches still survive in the localities of
Attard Attard ( mt, Ħ'Attard) is a town in the Central Region of Malta. Together with Balzan and Lija it forms part of "Three villages of Malta, the Three Villages" and has been inhabited since the Classical antiquity, Classical Period. It has a pop ...
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Balzan Balzan ( mt, Ħal Balzan) is a municipality in the Central Region of Malta Malta (, ; in Maltese: ; Italian: ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta) and formerly Melita, is a Southern Europe Southern ...

Balzan
,
Birkirkara Birkirkara (abbreviated as B'Kara) is a town in the central region of Malta. It is the second most populous on the Malta (island), island, with 24,356 inhabitants as of 2020. The town consists of five autonomous parishes: Saint Helen, Saint Josep ...

Birkirkara
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Fleur-de-Lys The fleur-de-lis, also spelled fleur-de-lys (plural ''fleurs-de-lis'' or ''fleurs-de-lys''), is an iris (in French, and mean 'flower' and 'lily' respectively) that is used as a decorative design or symbol. The fleur-de-lis has been used in t ...
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Santa Venera Santa Venera is a town in the Central Region, Malta, Central Region of Malta, with a population of around 6,932 (March 2014). It is located between the towns of Birkirkara and Ħamrun, and it also borders Qormi and Msida. History The Old Churc ...

Santa Venera
* St-Clément Aqueduct,
Montpellier Montpellier (, , ; oc, Montpelhièr , it, Mompellieri ) is a city in southern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental coun ...

Montpellier
, France, 17th century * Bar Aqueduct,
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...

Montenegro
, 16th century * Águas Livres Aqueduct, in Lisbon, Portugal (built 1731–1748) * Havana, Cuba. (Inaugurated 22 January 1893) *Óbidos Aqueduct, in Óbidos, Portugal (built 1570) *Setúbal Aqueduct in Setúbal, Portugal (built 1696) *Pegões Aqueduct in Tomar, Portugal (built 1593) *Água de Prata Aqueduct, in Évora, Portugal (built 1531–1537) *Santa Clara Aqueduct, in Vila do Conde, Portugal *Carioca Aqueduct in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (built 1744–1750) *Teruel Aqueduct, Spain *Roquefavour Aqueduct, France, built between 1842 and 1847 *Greater Winnipeg Water District Aqueduct, Manitoba, Canada, built between 1915 and 1919 *Canal de l'Aqueduc, Quebec, Canada *Päijänne Water Tunnel, a 120-kilometer long underground aqueduct (continuous tunnel) connecting lake Päijänne to Greater Helsinki *Wan Mat Saman Aqueduct, Kedah, Malaysia, built between 1900 and 1909 *Surviving Spanish aqueducts in Mexico: **Aqueduct of Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico, built between 1726 and 1738, 1.3 km long and featuring 74 arches **Aqueduct of Morelia, Michoacán, built between 1735 and 1738 **Aqueduct of Acámbaro, Guanajuato, built in 1528Mexico – Travel
/ref> **Chapultepec aqueduct, Mexico D.F. *Kavala aqueduct, 16th-century Ottoman aqueduct in Kavala, Greece *Levadas, of 17th century aqueducts on the Portugal, Portuguese island of Madeira *Skopje Aqueduct is located 2 km from the capital of North Macedonia. *Mission San Francisco de la Espada, Espada Aqueduct, built 1735, in San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States *Quabbin Aqueduct, long tunnel, in Massachusetts, United States *Chicopee Valley Aqueduct, long, in Massachusetts, United States *Central Arizona Project Aqueduct *
California Aqueduct The Governor Edmund G. Brown California Aqueduct is a system of canals, tunnels, and pipelines that conveys water collected from the Sierra Nevada Mountains and valleys of Northern and Central California to Southern California Southern Califo ...
, a 715 mi (1,151 km) combination of canals, pipelines, and tunnels, United States * Aqueducts in the New York City New York City water supply system, water supply system (all in New York State): ** Croton Aqueduct, a large and complex water distribution system constructed between 1837 and 1842. Decommissioned in 1955 following improvements in the city's water system. ** New Croton Aqueduct, built largely parallel to the original Croton Aqueduct and opened in 1890, supplementing the original Croton Aqueduct. Supplies about 10% of the city's water today. **
Catskill Aqueduct The Catskill Aqueduct, part of the New York City water supply system, brings water from the Catskill Mountains to Yonkers where it connects to other parts of the system. History Construction commenced in 1907. The aqueduct proper was completed ...

Catskill Aqueduct
, considerably larger than either Croton Aqueduct; built between 1907 and 1916, with construction on related infrastructure lasting through 1924. Carries water from watersheds in the Catskill Mountains, today supplying about 40% of the city's water. ** Delaware Aqueduct, built between 1939 and 1945 to carry water from three reservoirs in the Delaware River watershed and one in the Hudson River watershed, supplying about half of the city's water. At 85 miles (137 km) long, it is the world's longest continuous tunnel. *Sooke Flowline located on Vancouver Island, Canada, is a 44 kilometres long, gravity-fed concrete pipe which provided water to the Victoria, British Columbia, City of Victoria for 55 years *Boothtown Aqueduct, in Sydney, Australia, completed in 1888 *National Water Carrier of Israel located in Israel, is a 130 km long system of giant pipes, open canals, tunnels, reservoirs, and large scale pumping stations to transfer water from the Sea of Galilee in the north of the country to the highly populated center and arid south, built between 1953 and 1964 *Kamares Aqueduct, Kamares, Larnaca, Cyprus *Apulia Aqueduct, Apulia, Italy


Gallery

File:Roman aqueduct from Pools of Solomon to Jerusalem.jpg, View from inside a Roman aqueduct from the Pools of Solomon to Jerusalem File:Puquios aqueduct Nazca Peru.JPG, An entrance to the ancient Puquios, near Nazca File:Albear Aqueduct in Habana, Cuba.png, Albear Aqueduct, Havana, Cuba.


See also

*
Acequia An acequia () or séquia () is a community-operated watercourse used in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de Españ ...

Acequia
*Earthquake engineering *Goldfields Water Supply Scheme *Leat *List of aqueducts *List of canal aqueducts in the United Kingdom *List of Roman bridges#Aqueduct bridges, List of Roman aqueduct bridges *Navigable aqueduct *Pipeline transport, Pipeline – some used to carry water *Roman architecture *Roman engineering *Sanitation in Ancient Rome *Water resources


Notes


References

*Sextus Julius Frontinus,
De Aquaeductu Urbis Romae
' (''On the water management of the city of Rome''), Translated by R. H. Rodgers, 2003, University of Vermont
Aqueduct entry
from Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition *Chanson, H. (2002)
Certains Aspects de la Conception hydrauliques des Aqueducs Romains. ('Some Aspect on the Hydraulic Design of Roman Aqueducts.')
Journal La Houille Blanche, No. 6/7, pp. 43–57 (ISSN 0018-6368) *Chanson, H. (2008)
"The Hydraulics of Roman Aqueducts: What do we know? Why should we learn?"
in Proceedings of World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2008 Ahupua'a, ASCE-EWRI Education, Research and History Symposium, Hawaii, USA, Invited Keynote lecture, 13–16 May, R.W. Badcock Jr and R. Walton Eds., 16 pages ()


Further reading

*Aicher, Peter J. 1995. ''Guide to the aqueducts of ancient Rome.'' Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci. *Beltrán Lloris, Francisco. 2006. "An irrigation decree from Roman Spain: The ''Lex Rivi Hiberiensis''." ''Journal of Roman Studies'' 96: 147–97. *Bruun, Christer. 1991. ''The water supply of ancient Rome: A study of Roman imperial administration.'' Helsinki: Societas Scientiarum Fennica. *Coulton, J. J. 1987. "Roman aqueducts in Asia Minor." In ''Roman architecture in the Greek world.'' Edited by Sarah Macready and Frederick Hugh Thompson, 72–84. London: Society of Antiquaries. *Frankel, R. 2002. "The Hellenistic aqueduct of Akko-Ptolemais." ''Journal of Roman Archaeology (Supplementary Studies)'' 46: 82–87. *Grewe, Klaus. 2008. "Tunnels and canals." In ''The Oxford handbook of engineering and technology in the classical world.'' Edited by John Peter Oleson, 319–36. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. *Hodge, A. Trevor. 1992. ''Roman aqueducts and water supply.'' London: Duckworth. *Lewis, Michael Jonathan Taunton. 2001. ''Surveying instruments of Greece and Rome.'' Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. *Wilson, Andrew I. 1999. "Deliveries ''extra urbem'': Aqueducts and the countryside." ''Journal of Roman Archaeology'' 12: 314–32. *--. 2008. "Hydraulic engineering and water supply." In ''The Oxford handbook of engineering and technology in the classical world.'' Edited by John Peter Oleson, 337–68. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.


External links


Waterhistory.org: Imperial Rome Water SystemsRomanaqueducts.info: 600 Roman aqueducts, with 25 descriptions in detail
{{Authority control Aqueducts, Canals, * Water supply infrastructure, * Buildings and structures by type Routes Water supply Ancient inventions