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Apollo, grc, Ἀπόλλωνος, ''Apóllōnos'', label=genitive , ; ,
grc-dor, Ἀπέλλων, ''Apéllōn'', ; grc, Ἀπείλων, ''Apeílōn'', label=
Arcadocypriot Greek Arcadocypriot, or southern Achaean, was an ancient Greek dialect spoken in Arcadia in the central Peloponnese and in Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an islan ...
, ; grc-aeo, Ἄπλουν, ''Áploun'',
la, Apollō, la, Apollinis, label=genitive , ; , is one of the Olympian deities in
classical Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European family of languages, nati ...
and
Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ethnic religion of Ancient Rome that the ancient Romans, Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widel ...
and
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
and
Roman mythology Roman mythology is the body of myths of ancient Rome as represented in the Latin literature, literature and Roman art, visual arts of the Romans. One of a wide variety of genres of Roman folklore, ''Roman mythology'' may also refer to the moder ...
. The national divinity of the Greeks, Apollo has been recognized as a god of archery, music and dance, truth and prophecy, healing and diseases, the
Sun The Sun is the star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma (physics), plasma held together by its own gravity. The List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many othe ...

Sun
and light, poetry, and more. One of the most important and complex of the Greek gods, he is the son of
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
and
Leto In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A bel ...

Leto
, and the twin brother of
Artemis Artemis (; grc-gre, Ἄρτεμις Artemis, ) is the Greek goddess Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or ori ...

Artemis
, goddess of the hunt. Seen as the most beautiful god and the ideal of the ''
kouros , A kouros ( grc, κοῦρος, , plural kouroi) is the modern term given to free-standing ancient Greek sculptures that first appear in the Archaic period in Greece Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history The history of Greece enc ...

kouros
'' (ephebe, or a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo is considered to be the most Greek of all the gods. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced
Etruscan mythology Etruscan religion comprises a set of stories, beliefs, and religious Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of ...
as ''Apulu''. As the patron deity of
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
(''Apollo Pythios''), Apollo is an
oracular An oracle is a person or agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which go ...
god—the prophetic
deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polytheistic religion), or anything revered as divine. C. Scott Littleto ...

deity
of the
Delphic Oracle Pythia (; grc, Πυθία ) was the name of the ess of the at . She specifically served as its and was known as the Oracle of Delphi. Her title was also historically glossed in English as the Pythoness. The name ''Pythia'' is derived from ...

Delphic Oracle
. Apollo is the god who affords help and wards off evil; various epithets call him the "averter of evil". Delphic Apollo is the patron of seafarers, foreigners and the protector of fugitives and refugees. Medicine and healing are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son
Asclepius Asclepius (; grc-gre, Ἀσκληπιός ''Asklēpiós'' ; la, Aesculapius) or HepiusJohn Tzetzes John Tzetzes ( gr, Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Iōánnēs Tzétzēs; c. 1110, Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطين ...
. Apollo delivered people from epidemics, yet he is also a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague with his arrows. The invention of archery itself is credited to Apollo and his sister Artemis. Apollo is usually described as carrying a golden bow and a quiver of silver arrows. Apollo's capacity to make youths grow is one of the best attested facets of his panhellenic cult persona. As the protector of young (''kourotrophos''), Apollo is concerned with the health and education of children. He presided over their passage into adulthood. Long hair, which was the prerogative of boys, was cut at the coming of age (ephebeia) and dedicated to Apollo. Apollo is an important pastoral deity, and was the patron of herdsmen and shepherds. Protection of herds, flocks and crops from diseases, pests and predators were his primary duties. On the other hand, Apollo also encouraged founding new towns and establishment of civil constitution. He is associated with dominion over
colonists A settler is a person who has human migration, migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area. A settler who migrates to an area previously uninhabited or sparsely inhabited may be described as a p ...
. He was the giver of laws, and his oracles were consulted before setting laws in a city. As the god of ''mousike'' Apollo presides over all music, songs, dance and poetry. He is the inventor of string-music, and the frequent companion of the Muses, functioning as their chorus leader in celebrations. The lyre is a common
attribute of Apollo Attribute may refer to: * Attribute (philosophy), an extrinsic property of an object * Attribute (research), a characteristic of an object * Grammatical modifier, in natural languages * Attribute (computing), a specification that defines a propert ...
. In Hellenistic times, especially during the 5th century BCE, as ''Apollo Helios'' he became identified among Greeks with
Helios Helios; Homeric Greek Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the ''Iliad'' and ''Odyssey'' and in the Homeric Hymns. It is a literary dialect of Ancient Greek consisting mainly of Ionic Greek, Ionic and Aeol ...

Helios
, the personification of the sun. In Latin texts, however, there was no
conflation Flag of the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, a heraldic emblem which displays conflated or "con-joined" images. Conflation is the merging of two or more sets of information, texts, ideas, opinions, etc., into one, often in error. In logic, it ...
of Apollo with Sol among the classical Latin poets until 1st century CE. Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 5th century CE.


Etymology

Apollo (
Attic An attic (sometimes referred to as a ''loft 's Near West Side A loft is a building's upper storey or elevated area in a room directly under the roof (American usage), or just an attic: a storage space under the roof usually accessed by a lad ...
,
Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in ancient Greek and Latin poetry * Ionian mode, a musical mode or a diatonic scale Places and peoples * Ionian, of or from Ionia, an ancient region in western An ...
, and
Homeric Greek Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the ''Iliad'' and ''Odyssey'' and in the Homeric Hymns. It is a literary dialect of Ancient Greek consisting mainly of Ionic Greek, Ionic and Aeolic Greek, Aeolic, with a fe ...
: , ''Apollōn'' ( );
DoricDoric may refer to: * Doric, of or relating to the Dorians of ancient Greece ** Doric Greek, the dialects of the Dorians * Doric order, a style of ancient Greek architecture * Doric mode, a synonym of Dorian mode * Doric dialect (Scotland) * Doric C ...
: , ''Apellōn'';
Arcadocypriot Arcadocypriot, or southern Achaean, was an ancient Greek dialect spoken in Arcadia in the central Peloponnese The Peloponnese () or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnesos, ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsu ...
: , ''Apeilōn'';
Aeolic In linguistics, Aeolic Greek (), also known as Aeolian (), Lesbian or Lesbic dialect, is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia; in Thessaly; in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and in the Greek colonies of Aeolis in Anatolia ...
: , ''Aploun''; la, Apollō) The name ''Apollo''—unlike the related older name ''Paean''—is generally not found in the
Linear B Linear B is a syllabic script In the linguistic Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The tradition ...
(
Mycenean Greek Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European family of la ...
) texts, although there is a possible attestation in the
lacunose A lacuna ( lacunae or lacunas) is a gap in a manuscript, inscription, text, painting, or musical work. A manuscript, text, or section suffering from gaps is said to be "lacunose" or "lacunulose". Some books intentionally add lacunas to be fi ...
form '']pe-rjo- ' (Linear B: KN_E_842_tablet. The_ KN_E_842_tablet. The_etymology">Knossos.html"_;"title="_on_the_Knossos">KN_E_842_tablet. The_etymology_of_the_name_is_uncertain._The_spelling__(_in_Attic_Greek.html" ;"title="etymology.html" ;"title="Knossos.html" ;"title=" on the Knossos">KN E 842 tablet. The etymology">Knossos.html" ;"title=" on the Knossos">KN E 842 tablet. The etymology of the name is uncertain. The spelling ( in Attic Greek">Classical Attic) had almost superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era, but the Dorians, Doric form, ''Apellon'' (), is more archaic, as it is derived from an earlier . It probably is a cognate to the Doric month ''Apellaios'' (), and the offerings
apellaiaThe apellaia () were the offerings made at the initiation of a young man (kouros , c. 530 BC A kouros ( grc, κοῦρος, , plural kouroi) is the modern term given to free-standing ancient Greek sculptures that first appear in the Archaic period ...
() at the initiation of the young men during the family-festival
apellai Apellai ( grc-gre, ἀπέλλαι), was a three-day family-festival of the Northwest Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an and native to the and the regions, namely , , , , , and, to a lesser ext ...
(). According to some scholars, the words are derived from the Doric word ''apella'' (), which originally meant "wall," "fence for animals" and later "assembly within the limits of the square."The word usually appears in plural: Hesychius: (''apellai''), ("folds"), ("assemblies"), ("elections"): Nilsson, Vol. I, p. 556
Apella The Apella ( el, Ἀπέλλα) was the popular deliberative assembly in the Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta, corresponding to the ''ecclesia (ancient Athens), ecclesia'' in most other Greek city-states. Every Spartan male full ...
() is the name of the popular assembly in Sparta, corresponding to the ''
ecclesia Ecclesia (Ancient Greek, Greek: ἐκκλησία ''ekklēsia'') may refer to: Organizations *Ecclesia (ancient Athens) or Ekklēsia, the principal assembly of ancient Athens during its Golden Age * The Greek and Latin term for the Christian Chur ...
'' (). R. S. P. Beekes rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun ''apellai'' and suggested a
Pre-Greek The Pre-Greek substrate (or Pre-Greek substratum) consists of the unknown pre-Indo-European language(s) spoken in prehistoric Greece before the coming of the Proto-Greek language The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is ...
proto-form *''Apalyun''. Several instances of
popular etymology A false etymology (fake etymology, popular etymology, etymythology, pseudo-etymology, or par(a)etymology) is a popular but false belief about the origin or derivation of a specific word. It is sometimes called a folk etymology Folk etymology (al ...
are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most often associated Apollo's name with the Greek verb (''apollymi''), "to destroy".
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
in ''
Cratylus Cratylus ( ; grc, Κρατύλος, ''Kratylos'') was an History of Athens, ancient Athenian philosopher from the mid-late 5th century BCE, known mostly through his portrayal in Plato's Dialogues of Plato, dialogue ''Cratylus (dialogue), Cratylus'' ...
'' connects the name with (''apolysis''), "redemption", with (''apolousis''), "purification", and with ('' ploun''), "simple", in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, , and finally with (''aeiballon''), "ever-shooting". Hesychius connects the name Apollo with the Doric (''apella''), which means "assembly", so that Apollo would be the god of political life, and he also gives the explanation (''sekos''), "fold", in which case Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds. In the
ancient Macedonian language Ancient Macedonian, the language of the ancient Macedonians, either a Ancient Greek dialects, dialect of Ancient Greek, or a separate Hellenic languages, Hellenic language, was spoken in the kingdom of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonia durin ...
(''pella'') means "stone," and some
toponyms Toponymy, also toponymics or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''wikt:toponym, toponyms'' (proper names of places, also known as ''place name'' or ''geographic name''), their origins and meanings ...
may be derived from this word: (
Pella Pella ( el, Πέλλα) is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia Central Macedonia ( el, Κεντρική Μακεδονία, Kentrikí Makedonía, ) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, consisting of the central ...
, the capital of
ancient Macedonia Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by t ...
) and (''Pellēnē''/''''). A number of non-Greek etymologies have been suggested for the name, The
Hittite Hittite may refer to: * Hittites, ancient Anatolian people ** Hittite language, the earliest-attested Indo-European language ** Hittite grammar ** Hittite phonology ** Hittite cuneiform ** Hittite inscriptions ** Hittite laws ** Hittite religion ** ...
form ''
Apaliunas Apaliunas ( Hittite: 𒀀𒀊𒉺𒇷𒌋𒈾𒀸 ''Āppaliunāš'') is the name of a god, attested in a Hittite language Hittite (natively / "the language of Neša", or ''nešumnili'' / "the language of the people of Neša"), also known as ...
'' (''d'') is attested in the
Manapa-Tarhunta letterThe Manapa-Tarhunta letter (Hittite texts, CTH 191; KUB 19.5 + KBo 19.79) is a Hittite language, Hittite letter discovered in the 1980s. It was written by a client king called Manapa-Tarhunta to an unnamed Hittite king around 1295 BCE. The only data ...
, perhaps related to
Hurrian The Hurrians (; Cuneiform script, cuneiform: ; transliteration: ''Ḫu-ur-ri''; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Ancient Near East, Near East. They spoke a Hurro-Urartian language cal ...
(and certainly the
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...
) '' Aplu'', a god of plague, in turn likely from
AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages' ...

Akkadian
''Aplu Enlil'' meaning simply "the son of
Enlil Enlil, , "Lord Wind" later known as Elil, is an ancient Mesopotamian god associated with wind, air, earth, and storms. He is first attested as the chief deity of the Sumerian pantheon Sumerian religion was the religion Religion is a ...
", a title that was given to the god
Nergal Nergal, Nirgal, or Nirgali (Sumerian language, Sumerian: Dingir, d''KIŠ.UNU'' or ; ; Aramaic Language, Aramaic: ܢܸܪܓܲܠ; la, Nirgal) was a deity who was worshipped throughout ancient Mesopotamia (Akkadian Empire, Akkad, Assyria, and Babyl ...

Nergal
, who was linked to
Shamash Utu, later worshipped by the East Semitic Akkadian language, Akkadian-speaking Babylonians as Shamash, ''šmš'', syc, ܫܡܫܐ ''šemša'', he, שֶׁמֶשׁ ''šemeš'', ar, شمس ''šams'', Ashurian Aramaic: 𐣴𐣬𐣴 ''š'meš(ā)'' ...

Shamash
, Babylonian god of the sun.de Grummond, Nancy Thomson (2006) ''Etruscan Myth, Sacred History, and Legend''. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology); Mackenzie, Donald A. (2005) ''Myths of Babylonia and Assyria'' (Gutenberg) The role of Apollo as god of plague is evident in the invocation of Apollo Smintheus ("mouse Apollo") by Chryses, the Trojan priest of Apollo, with the purpose of sending a plague against the Greeks (the reasoning behind a god of the plague becoming a god of healing is
apotropaic Apotropaic magic (from Greek "to ward off" from "away" and "to turn") is a type of magic Magic or Magick may refer to: * Ceremonial magic, encompasses a wide variety of rituals of magic * Chaos magic#REDIRECT Chaos magic {{Redirect categor ...
, meaning that the god responsible for bringing the plague must be appeased in order to remove the plague). The
Hittite Hittite may refer to: * Hittites, ancient Anatolian people ** Hittite language, the earliest-attested Indo-European language ** Hittite grammar ** Hittite phonology ** Hittite cuneiform ** Hittite inscriptions ** Hittite laws ** Hittite religion ** ...
testimony reflects an early form ', which may also be surmised from comparison of Cypriot with Doric . The name of the Lydian god ''Qλdãns'' /kʷʎðãns/ may reflect an earlier /kʷalyán-/ before palatalization, syncope, and the pre-Lydian sound change *y ''>'' d. Note the labiovelar in place of the labial /p/ found in pre-Doric ''Ἀπέλjων'' and Hittite ''Apaliunas''. A
Luwian The Luwians were a group of Anatolian peoples who lived in central, western, and southern Anatolia, in present-day Turkey, in the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. They spoke the Luwian language, an Indo-European language of the Anatolian languages, ...
etymology suggested for ''Apaliunas'' makes Apollo "The One of Entrapment", perhaps in the sense of "Hunter".


Greco-Roman epithets

Apollo's chief
epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, ...
was Phoebus ( ; , ''Phoibos'' ), literally "bright". It was very commonly used by both the Greeks and Romans for Apollo's role as the god of light. Like other Greek deities, he had a number of others applied to him, reflecting the variety of roles, duties, and aspects ascribed to the god. However, while Apollo has a great number of appellations in Greek myth, only a few occur in
Latin literature Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originall ...
.


Sun

*Aegletes ( ; Αἰγλήτης, ''Aiglētēs''), from , "light of the sun" *Helius ( ; , ''
Helios Helios; Homeric Greek Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the ''Iliad'' and ''Odyssey'' and in the Homeric Hymns. It is a literary dialect of Ancient Greek consisting mainly of Ionic Greek, Ionic and Aeol ...

Helios
''), literally "sun" * Lyceus ( ; , ''Lykeios'', from
Proto-Greek The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is the Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with t ...
*) "light". The meaning of the epithet "Lyceus" later became associated with Apollo's mother
Leto In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A bel ...

Leto
, who was the patron goddess of
Lycia Lycia ( Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 ''Trm̃mis''; el, Λυκία, ; tr, Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula ...
() and who was identified with the wolf (). *Phanaeus ( ; , ''Phanaios''), literally "giving or bringing light" *Phoebus ( ; , ''Phoibos''), literally "bright", his most commonly used epithet by both the Greeks and Romans * Sol (Roman) (), "sun" in Latin


Wolf

*Lycegenes ( ; , ''Lukēgenēs''), literally "born of a wolf" or "born of Lycia" *Lycoctonus ( ; , ''Lykoktonos''), from , "wolf", and , "to kill"


Origin and birth

Apollo's birthplace was Mount Cynthus on the island of
Delos The island of Delos (; el, Δήλος ; Attic Greek, Attic: , Doric Greek, Doric: ), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece. The excava ...

Delos
. *Cynthius ( ; , ''Kunthios''), literally "Cynthian" *Cynthogenes ( ; , ''Kynthogenēs''), literally "born of Cynthus" *Delius ( ; Δήλιος, ''Delios''), literally "Delian" *Didymaeus ( ; , ''Didymaios'') from δίδυμος, "twin") as
Artemis Artemis (; grc-gre, Ἄρτεμις Artemis, ) is the Greek goddess Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or ori ...

Artemis
' twin


Place of worship

Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
and
Actium Actium or Aktion ( grc, Ἄκτιον) was a town on a promontory in ancient Acarnania at the entrance of the Ambraciot Gulf off which Octavian Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor, reigning from ...

Actium
were his primary places of worship. *Acraephius ( ; , ''Akraiphios'', literally "Acraephian") or Acraephiaeus ( ; , ''Akraiphiaios''), "Acraephian", from the
Boeotia Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920 ...

Boeotia
n town of Acraephia (), reputedly founded by his son Acraepheus. *Actiacus ( ; , ''Aktiakos''), literally "Actian", after Actium () *Delphinius ( ; , ''Delphinios''), literally "Delphic", after Delphi (Δελφοί). An
etiology Etiology (pronounced ; alternatively: aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation or origination. The word is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ε ...
in the ''
Homeric Hymns The ''Homeric Hymns'' () are a collection of thirty-three anonymous ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), gener ...
'' associated this with dolphins. * Epactaeus, meaning "god worshipped on the coast", in
Samos Samos (, also ; el, Σάμος ) is a Greece, Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of western Turkey, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait. It is also a sep ...

Samos
. *Pythius ( ; , ''Puthios'', from Πυθώ, ''Pythō''), from the region around Delphi * Smintheus ( ; , ''Smintheus''), "Sminthian"—that is, "of the town of Sminthos or Sminthe". near the
Troad The Troad ( or ; el, Τρωάδα, ''Troáda'') or Troas (; grc, Τρῳάς, ''Trōiás'' or , ''Trōïás'') is a historical region in northwestern Anatolia. It corresponds with the Biga Peninsula (Turkish language, Turkish: ''Biga Yarımada ...
town of


Healing and disease

*Acesius ( ; , ''Akesios''), from , "healing". Acesius was the epithet of Apollo worshipped in
Elis Elis or Ilia ( el, Ηλεία, ''Ileia'') is a historic region in the western part of the Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula and geographic regions ...

Elis
, where he had a temple in the
agora Image:TyreAlMinaAgora.jpg, upAgora of Tyre, Lebanon, Tyre The agora (; grc, ἀγορά ''agorá'') was a central public space in ancient Ancient Greece, Greek polis, city-states. It is the best representation of a city-state's response to accom ...

agora
. At the Perseus Project. *
AcestorAcestor (Ancient Greek: ) was the name of several figures in Classical mythology and history: ''Mythological'' *Apollo Acestor, an epithet of the god Apollo in his role as healer or averter of evil. *Acestor, son of Ephippus (mythology), Ephippus, ...
( ; , ''Akestōr''), literally "healer" *Culicarius (Roman) ( ), from Latin ''culicārius'', "of midges" *Iatrus ( ; , ''Iātros''), literally "physician" *Medicus (Roman) ( ), "physician" in Latin. A
temple A temple (from the Latin ) is a building reserved for spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. Religions which erect temples include Christianity (whose temples are typically called church (building), churches), Hinduism (w ...
was dedicated to ''Apollo Medicus'' at Rome, probably next to the temple of Bellona. *
Paean A paean () is a song or lyric poem expressing triumph or thanksgiving. In classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and ...
( ; , ''Paiān''), physician, healer *Parnopius ( ; , ''Parnopios''), from , "locust"


Founder and protector

* Agyieus ( ; , ''Aguīeus''), from , "street", for his role in protecting roads and homes * Alexicacus ( ; , ''Alexikakos''), literally "warding off evil" *Apotropaeus ( ; , ''Apotropaios''), from , "to avert" * Archegetes ( ; , ''Arkhēgetēs''), literally "founder" *Averruncus (Roman) ( ; from Latin ''āverruncare''), "to avert" *Clarius ( ; , ''Klārios''), from
DoricDoric may refer to: * Doric, of or relating to the Dorians of ancient Greece ** Doric Greek, the dialects of the Dorians * Doric order, a style of ancient Greek architecture * Doric mode, a synonym of Dorian mode * Doric dialect (Scotland) * Doric C ...
, "allotted lot" *Epicurius ( ; , ''Epikourios''), from , "to aid" *Genetor ( ; , ''Genetōr''), literally "ancestor" *Nomius ( ; , ''Nomios''), literally "pastoral" *Nymphegetes ( ; , ''Numphēgetēs''), from , "Nymph", and , "leader", for his role as a protector of shepherds and pastoral life *Patroos from , "related to one's father," for his role as father of
Ion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ...
and founder of the
Ionians The Ionians (; el, Ἴωνες, ''Íōnes'', , ''Íōn'') were one of the four major s that the considered themselves to be divided into during the ; the other three being the , , and . The was one of the of the , together with the and ...
, as worshipped at the
Temple of Apollo PatroosThe Temple of Apollo Patroos (meaning "from the fathers") is a small ruined temple of Ionic order The Ionic order is one of the three canonic classical order, orders of classical architecture, the other two being the Doric order, Doric and the Cori ...

Temple of Apollo Patroos
in Athens * Sauroctunos, “lizard killer”, possibly a reference to his killing of
Python PYTHON was a Cold War contingency plan of the Government of the United Kingdom, British Government for the continuity of government in the event of Nuclear warfare, nuclear war. Background Following the report of the Strath Committee in 1955, the ...


Prophecy and truth

*Coelispex (Roman) ( ), from Latin ''coelum'', "sky", and ''specere'' "to look at" *Iatromantis ( ; , ''Iātromantis'',) from , "physician", and , "prophet", referring to his role as a god both of healing and of prophecy *Leschenorius ( ; , ''Leskhēnorios''), from , "converser" *Loxias ( ; , ''Loxias''), from , "to say", historically associated with , "ambiguous" *Manticus ( ; , ''Mantikos''), literally "prophetic"


Music and arts

*Musagetes ( ;
DoricDoric may refer to: * Doric, of or relating to the Dorians of ancient Greece ** Doric Greek, the dialects of the Dorians * Doric order, a style of ancient Greek architecture * Doric mode, a synonym of Dorian mode * Doric dialect (Scotland) * Doric C ...
, ''Mousāgetās''), from , "
Muse In ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and Cult (religious practice), cult practi ...

Muse
", and "leader" *Musegetes ( ; , ''Mousēgetēs''), as the preceding


Archery

*Aphetor ( ; , ''Aphētōr''), from , "to let loose" *Aphetorus ( ; , ''Aphētoros''), as the preceding *Arcitenens (Roman) ( ), literally "bow-carrying" *Argyrotoxus ( ; , ''Argyrotoxos''), literally "with silver bow" *Hecaërgus ( ; , ''Hekaergos''), literally "far-shooting" *Hecebolus ( ; , ''Hekēbolos''), "far-shooting" *Ismenius ( ; , ''Ismēnios''), literally "of Ismenus", after Ismenus, the son of
Amphion There are several characters named Amphion ( "native of two lands", derived from ἀμφί ''amphi'' "on both sides, in all directions, surrounding" as well as "around, about, near",, Latin ''Amphīon'',, adjective Amphionian) in Greek mythology ...

Amphion
and
Niobe In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A be ...

Niobe
, whom he struck with an arrow


Amazons

* (),
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
at the
Description of Greece Pausanias (; grc-gre, Παυσανίας ''Pausanías''; ) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast ...
writes that near Pyrrhichus there was a sanctuary of Apollo, called Amazonius ( grc, Ἀμαζόνιος) with image of the god said to have been dedicated by the
Amazons In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ancient Greek: Ἀμαζόνες ''Amazónes'', singular Ἀμαζών ''Amazōn'') are portrayed in a number of ancient Greek, ancient epic poems and legends, such as the Labours of Hercules, the ''Argonautica ...

Amazons
.


Celtic epithets and cult titles

Apollo was worshipped throughout the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
. In the traditionally
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
lands, he was most often seen as a healing and sun god. He was often equated with Celtic gods of similar character. * Apollo Atepomarus ("the great horseman" or "possessing a great horse"). Apollo was worshipped at (
Indre Indre (; oc, Endre) is a department in central France named after the river Indre. The inhabitants of the department are known as the ''Indriens'' (masculine; ) and ''Indriennes'' (feminine; ). Indre is part of the current administrative regi ...

Indre
). Horses were, in the Celtic world, closely linked to the sun. * Apollo Belenus ("bright" or "brilliant"). This epithet was given to Apollo in parts of
Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rat ...

Gaul
, Northern Italy and
Noricum Noricum () is the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
(part of modern Austria). Apollo Belenus was a healing and sun god. * Apollo Cunomaglus ("hound lord"). A title given to Apollo at a shrine at Nettleton Shrub, Wiltshire. May have been a god of healing. Cunomaglus himself may originally have been an independent healing god. * Apollo Grannus. Grannus was a healing spring god, later equated with Apollo.Divinites et sanctuaires de la Gaule, E. Thevonat, 1968, ParisLa religion des Celtes, J. de Vries, 1963, Paris * Apollo Maponus. A god known from inscriptions in Britain. This may be a local fusion of Apollo and Maponus. * Apollo Moritasgus ("masses of sea water"). An epithet for Apollo at Alesia, where he was worshipped as god of healing and, possibly, of physicians. * Apollo Vindonnus ("clear light"). Apollo Vindonnus had a temple at Essarois, near Châtillon-sur-Seine in present-day Burgundy. He was a god of healing, especially of the eyes. * Apollo Virotutis ("benefactor of mankind"). Apollo Virotutis was worshipped, among other places, at Fins d'Annecy (Haute-Savoie) and at Jublains (Maine-et-Loire).


Origins

The cult centers of Apollo in Greece,
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
and
Delos The island of Delos (; el, Δήλος ; Attic Greek, Attic: , Doric Greek, Doric: ), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece. The excava ...

Delos
, date from the 8th century BCE. The Delos sanctuary was primarily dedicated to
Artemis Artemis (; grc-gre, Ἄρτεμις Artemis, ) is the Greek goddess Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or ori ...

Artemis
, Apollo's twin sister. At Delphi, Apollo was venerated as the slayer of the monstrous serpent
Python PYTHON was a Cold War contingency plan of the Government of the United Kingdom, British Government for the continuity of government in the event of Nuclear warfare, nuclear war. Background Following the report of the Strath Committee in 1955, the ...
. For the Greeks, Apollo was the most Greek of all the gods, and through the centuries he acquired different functions. In Archaic Greece he was the prophet, the oracular god who in older times was connected with "healing". In Classical Greece he was the god of light and of music, but in popular religion he had a strong function to keep away evil. Walter Burkert discerned three components in the prehistory of Apollo worship, which he termed "a Dorian-northwest Greek component, a Cretan-Minoan component, and a Syro-Hittite component."


Healer and god-protector from evil

In classical times, his major function in popular religion was to keep away evil, and he was therefore called "apotropaios" (, "averting evil") and "alexikakos" ( "keeping off ill"; from verb, v. + noun, n. ). Apollo also had many epithets relating to his function as a healer. Some commonly-used examples are "paion" ( literally "healer" or "helper") "epikourios" (, "succouring"), "oulios" (, "healer, baleful") and "loimios" (, "of the plague"). In later writers, the word, "paion", usually spelled "Paean", becomes a mere epithet of Apollo in his capacity as a god of healing. Apollo in his aspect of "healer" has a connection to the primitive god
Paean A paean () is a song or lyric poem expressing triumph or thanksgiving. In classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and ...
(), who did not have a cult of his own. Paean serves as the healer of the gods in the ''Iliad'', and seems to have originated in a pre-Greek religion. It is suggested, though unconfirmed, that he is connected to the Mycenaean Greece, Mycenaean figure ''pa-ja-wo-ne'' (Linear B: ). At Google Books. Paean was the personification of holy songs sung by "seer-doctors" (), which were supposed to cure disease. Homer illustrated Paeon the god and the song both of
apotropaic Apotropaic magic (from Greek "to ward off" from "away" and "to turn") is a type of magic Magic or Magick may refer to: * Ceremonial magic, encompasses a wide variety of rituals of magic * Chaos magic#REDIRECT Chaos magic {{Redirect categor ...
thanksgiving or triumph. Such songs were originally addressed to Apollo and afterwards to other gods: to Dionysus, to Apollo
Helios Helios; Homeric Greek Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the ''Iliad'' and ''Odyssey'' and in the Homeric Hymns. It is a literary dialect of Ancient Greek consisting mainly of Ionic Greek, Ionic and Aeol ...

Helios
, to Apollo's son
Asclepius Asclepius (; grc-gre, Ἀσκληπιός ''Asklēpiós'' ; la, Aesculapius) or HepiusJohn Tzetzes John Tzetzes ( gr, Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Iōánnēs Tzétzēs; c. 1110, Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطين ...
the healer. About the 4th century BCE, the paean became merely a formula of adulation; its object was either to implore protection against disease and misfortune or to offer thanks after such protection had been rendered. It was in this way that Apollo had become recognized as the god of music. Apollo's role as the slayer of the
Python PYTHON was a Cold War contingency plan of the Government of the United Kingdom, British Government for the continuity of government in the event of Nuclear warfare, nuclear war. Background Following the report of the Strath Committee in 1955, the ...
led to his association with battle and victory; hence it became the Ancient Rome, Roman custom for a paean to be sung by an army on the march and before entering into battle, when a fleet left the harbour, and also after a victory had been won. In the ''Iliad'', Apollo is the healer under the gods, but he is also the bringer of disease and death with his arrows, similar to the function of the Vedic god of disease Rudra."The conception that the diseases come from invisible shots sent by magicians or supernatural beings is common in primitive people and also in European folklore. In North-Europe they speak of the "Elf-shots". In Sweden where the Lapps were called magicians, they speak of the "Lappen-shots". Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, p. 541 He sends a plague () to the Achaeans (Homer), Achaeans. Knowing that Apollo can prevent a recurrence of the plague he sent, they purify themselves in a ritual and offer him a large sacrifice of cows, called a hecatomb.


Dorian origin

The ''Homeric Hymns, Homeric Hymn to Apollo'' depicts Apollo as an intruder from the north. The connection with the northen-dwelling Dorians and their initiation festival ''
apellai Apellai ( grc-gre, ἀπέλλαι), was a three-day family-festival of the Northwest Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an and native to the and the regions, namely , , , , , and, to a lesser ext ...
'' is reinforced by the month ''Apellaios'' in northwest Greek calendars. The family-festival was dedicated to Apollo (Dorians, Doric: ). ''Apellaios'' is the month of these rites, and Apellon is the "megistos kouros" (the great Kouros). However it can explain only the Doric type of the name, which is connected with the Ancient Macedonian language, Ancient Macedonian word "pella" (
Pella Pella ( el, Πέλλα) is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia Central Macedonia ( el, Κεντρική Μακεδονία, Kentrikí Makedonía, ) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, consisting of the central ...
), ''stone''. Stones played an important part in the cult of the god, especially in the oracular shrine of Delphi (Omphalos).


Minoan origin

George Huxley regarded the identification of Apollo with the Minoan deity Paiawon, worshipped in Crete, to have originated at Delphi. In the ''Homeric Hymn'', Apollo appeared as a dolphin and carried Cretan priests to Delphi, where they evidently transferred their religious practices. ''Apollo Delphinios'' or ''Delphidios'' was a sea-god especially worshipped in Crete and in the islands. Apollo's sister
Artemis Artemis (; grc-gre, Ἄρτεμις Artemis, ) is the Greek goddess Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or ori ...

Artemis
, who was the Greek goddess of hunting, is identified with Britomartis (Diktynna), the Minoan "Mistress of the animals". In her earliest depictions she was accompanied by the "Master of the animals", a bow-wielding god of hunting whose name has been lost; aspects of this figure may have been absorbed into the more popular Apollo.. Martin Nilsson (1967), Vol I, pp. 499–500


Anatolian origin

A non-Greek origin of Apollo has long been assumed in scholarship. The name of Apollo's mother
Leto In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A bel ...

Leto
has Lydian origin, and she was worshipped on the coasts of Asia Minor. The inspiration oracular cult was probably introduced into Greece from Anatolia, which is the origin of Sibyl, and where some of the oldest oracular shrines originated. Omens, symbols, purifications, and exorcisms appear in old Assyria, Assyro-Babylonian texts. These rituals were spread into the empire of the Hittites, and from there into Greece.Martin P. Nilsson, Martin Nilsson. ''Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion Vol I'', pp. 563–564 Homer pictures Apollo on the side of the Troy, Trojans, fighting against the Achaeans (Homer), Achaeans, during the Trojan War. He is pictured as a terrible god, less trusted by the Greeks than other gods. The god seems to be related to ''Appaliunas'', a tutelary god of Wilusa (Troy) in Asia Minor, but the word is not complete. The stones found in front of the gates of Homeric Troy were the symbols of Apollo. A western Anatolian origin may also be bolstered by references to the parallel worship of ''Artimus'' (
Artemis Artemis (; grc-gre, Ἄρτεμις Artemis, ) is the Greek goddess Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or ori ...

Artemis
) and ''Qλdãns'', whose name may be cognate with the Hittite and Doric forms, in surviving Lydian language, Lydian texts''.'' However, recent scholars have cast doubt on the identification of ''Qλdãns'' with Apollo. The Greeks gave to him the name ''agyieus'' as the protector god of public places and houses who wards off evil and his symbol was a tapered stone or column. However, while usually Greek festivals were celebrated at the full moon, all the feasts of Apollo were celebrated at the seventh day of the month, and the emphasis given to that day (''sibutu'') indicates a Babylonian origin. The Late Bronze Age (from 1700 to 1200 BCE) Hittites, Hittite and
Hurrian The Hurrians (; Cuneiform script, cuneiform: ; transliteration: ''Ḫu-ur-ri''; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Ancient Near East, Near East. They spoke a Hurro-Urartian language cal ...
''Aplu'' was a god of plague, invoked during plague years. Here we have an apotrope, apotropaic situation, where a god originally bringing the plague was invoked to end it. Aplu, meaning ''the son of'', was a title given to the god
Nergal Nergal, Nirgal, or Nirgali (Sumerian language, Sumerian: Dingir, d''KIŠ.UNU'' or ; ; Aramaic Language, Aramaic: ܢܸܪܓܲܠ; la, Nirgal) was a deity who was worshipped throughout ancient Mesopotamia (Akkadian Empire, Akkad, Assyria, and Babyl ...

Nergal
, who was linked to the Babylonian god of the sun
Shamash Utu, later worshipped by the East Semitic Akkadian language, Akkadian-speaking Babylonians as Shamash, ''šmš'', syc, ܫܡܫܐ ''šemša'', he, שֶׁמֶשׁ ''šemeš'', ar, شمس ''šams'', Ashurian Aramaic: 𐣴𐣬𐣴 ''š'meš(ā)'' ...

Shamash
. Homer interprets Apollo as a terrible god () who brings death and disease with his arrows, but who can also heal, possessing a magic art that separates him from the other Greek gods. In ''Iliad'', his priest prays to ''Apollo Smintheus'', the mouse god who retains an older agricultural function as the protector from field rats. All these functions, including the function of the healer-god
Paean A paean () is a song or lyric poem expressing triumph or thanksgiving. In classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and ...
, who seems to have Mycenean origin, are fused in the cult of Apollo.


Proto-Indo-European

The Vedic Rudra has some similar functions with Apollo. The terrible god is called "the archer" and the bow is also an attribute of Shiva. Rudra could bring diseases with his arrows, but he was able to free people of them and his alternative Shiva is a healer physician god. However the Indo-European language, Indo-European component of Apollo does not explain his strong relation with omens, exorcisms, and with the oracular cult.


Oracular cult

Unusually among the Olympic deities, Apollo had two cult sites that had widespread influence:
Delos The island of Delos (; el, Δήλος ; Attic Greek, Attic: , Doric Greek, Doric: ), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece. The excava ...

Delos
and
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
. In cult practice, Delos, Delian Apollo and Pythian Apollo (the Apollo of Delphi) were so distinct that they might both have shrines in the same locality.
Lycia Lycia ( Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 ''Trm̃mis''; el, Λυκία, ; tr, Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula ...
was sacred to the god, for this Apollo was also called Lycian. Apollo's Cult (religion), cult was already fully established when written sources commenced, about 650 BCE. Apollo became extremely important to the Greek world as an oracular deity in the Archaic Greece, archaic period, and the frequency of theophoric names such as ''Apollodorus'' or ''Apollonios'' and cities named ''Apollonia'' testify to his popularity. Oracular sanctuaries to Apollo were established in other sites. In the 2nd and 3rd century CE, those at Didyma and Claros pronounced the so-called "theological oracles", in which Apollo confirms that all deities are aspects or servants of an Monism#Monism, pantheism, and panentheism, all-encompassing, highest deity. "In the 3rd century, Apollo fell silent. Julian the Apostate (359–361) tried to revive the Delphic oracle, but failed."


Oracular shrines

Apollo had a famous oracle in Delphi, and other notable ones in Claros and Didyma. His oracular shrine in Abae in Phocis, where he bore the toponymic epithet ''Abaeus'' (, ''Apollon Abaios''), was important enough to be consulted by Croesus. His oracular shrines include: * Abae in Phocis. * Bassae in the Peloponnese. * At Clarus, on the west coast of Asia Minor; as at Delphi a holy spring which gave off a ''pneuma'', from which the priests drank. * In Ancient Corinth, Corinth, the Oracle of Corinth came from the town of Tenea, from prisoners supposedly taken in the Trojan War. * At Khyrse, in
Troad The Troad ( or ; el, Τρωάδα, ''Troáda'') or Troas (; grc, Τρῳάς, ''Trōiás'' or , ''Trōïás'') is a historical region in northwestern Anatolia. It corresponds with the Biga Peninsula (Turkish language, Turkish: ''Biga Yarımada ...
, the temple was built for Apollo Smintheus. * In
Delos The island of Delos (; el, Δήλος ; Attic Greek, Attic: , Doric Greek, Doric: ), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece. The excava ...

Delos
, there was an oracle to the Delian Apollo, during summer. The Hieron (Sanctuary) of Apollo adjacent to the Sacred Lake, was the place where the god was said to have been born. * In
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
, the Pythia became filled with the ''pneuma'' of Apollo, said to come from a spring inside the Adyton. * In Didyma, an oracle on the coast of Anatolia, south west of Lydian (Luwian) Sardis, in which priests from the lineage of the Branchidae received inspiration by drinking from a healing spring located in the temple. Was believed to have been founded by Branchus, son or lover of Apollo. * In Manbij, Hierapolis Bambyce, Syria (modern Manbij), according to the treatise ''De Dea Syria'', the sanctuary of the Atargatis, Syrian Goddess contained a robed and bearded image of Apollo. Divination was based on spontaneous movements of this image. * At Patara (Lycia), Patara, in
Lycia Lycia ( Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 ''Trm̃mis''; el, Λυκία, ; tr, Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula ...
, there was a seasonal winter oracle of Apollo, said to have been the place where the god went from Delos. As at Delphi the oracle at Patara was a woman. * In Segesta in Sicily. Oracles were also given by sons of Apollo. * In Oropus, north of Athens, the oracle Amphiaraus, was said to be the son of Apollo; Oropus also had a sacred spring. * in Labadea, east of Delphi, Trophonius, another son of Apollo, killed his brother and fled to the cave where he was also afterwards consulted as an oracle.


Temples of Apollo

Many temples were dedicated to Apollo in Greece and the Greek colonies. They show the spread of the cult of Apollo and the evolution of the Greek architecture, which was mostly based on the rightness of form and on mathematical relations. Some of the earliest temples, especially in Crete, do not belong to any Greek order. It seems that the first peripteral temples were rectangular wooden structures. The different wooden elements were considered divinity, divine, and their forms were preserved in the marble or stone elements of the temples of Doric order. The Greeks used standard types because they believed that the world of objects was a series of typical forms which could be represented in several instances. The temples should be Canon (basic principle), canonic, and the architects were trying to achieve this esthetic perfection. From the earliest times there were certain rules strictly observed in rectangular peripteral and prostyle buildings. The first buildings were built narrowly in order to hold the roof, and when the dimensions changed some mathematical relations became necessary in order to keep the original forms. This probably influenced the theory of numbers of Pythagoras, who believed that behind the appearance of things there was the permanent principle of mathematics.C. M. Bowra (1957). ''The Greek experience'', p. 166. The Doric order dominated during the 6th and the 5th century BC but there was a mathematical problem regarding the position of the triglyphs, which couldn't be solved without changing the original forms. The order was almost abandoned for the Ionic order, but the Ionic capital also posed an insoluble problem at the corner of a temple. Both orders were abandoned for the Corinthian order gradually during the Hellenistic age and under Rome. The most important temples are:


Greek temples

*Thebes, Greece: The oldest temple probably dedicated to ''Apollo Ismenius'' was built in the 9th century B.C. It seems that it was a curvilinear building. The Doric order, Doric temple was built in the early 7th century B.C., but only some small parts have been found A festival called Daphnephoria was celebrated every ninth year in honour of Apollo Ismenius (or Galaxius). The people held laurel branches (daphnai), and at the head of the procession walked a youth (chosen priest of Apollo), who was called "daphnephoros".William Smith.'' A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities'', John Murray, London, 1875. p. 384 *Eretria: According to the Homeric hymn to Apollo, the god arrived to the plain, seeking for a location to establish its oracle. The first temple of ''Apollo Daphnephoros'', "Apollo, laurel-bearer", or "carrying off Daphne", is dated to 800 B.C. The temple was curvilinear ''hecatombedon'' (a hundred feet). In a smaller building were kept the bases of the laurel branches which were used for the first building. Another temple probably peripteral was built in the 7th century B.C., with an inner row of wooden columns over its Geometric predecessor. It was rebuilt peripteral around 510 B.C., with the stylobate measuring 21,00 x 43,00 m. The number of pteron column was 6 x 14. *Dreros (Crete). The temple of ''Apollo Delphinios'' dates from the 7th century B.C., or probably from the middle of the 8th century B.C. According to the legend, Apollo appeared as a dolphin, and carried Cretan priests to the port of
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
.Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, p. 529 The dimensions of the plan are 10,70 x 24,00 m and the building was not peripteral. It contains column-bases of the Minoan civilization, Minoan type, which may be considered as the predecessors of the Doric order, Doric columns. *Gortyn (Crete). A temple of ''Pythian Apollo'', was built in the 7th century B.C. The plan measured 19,00 x 16,70 m and it was not peripteral. The walls were solid, made from limestone, and there was single door on the east side. *Thermon (West Greece): The Doric order, Doric temple of ''Apollo Thermios'', was built in the middle of the 7th century B.C. It was built on an older curvilinear building dating perhaps from the 10th century B.C., on which a peristyle was added. The temple was narrow, and the number of pteron columns (probably wooden) was 5 x 15. There was a single row of inner columns. It measures 12.13 x 38.23 m at the stylobate, which was made from stones.Spivey, p. 112 *Corinth: A Doric order, Doric temple was built in the 6th century B.C. The temple's stylobate measures 21.36 x 53.30 m, and the number of pteron columns was 6 x 15. There was a double row of inner columns. The style is similar with the Temple of Alcmeonidae at
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
. The Corinthians were considered to be the inventors of the Doric order. *Napes (Lesbos): An Aeolic order, Aeolic temple probably of ''Apollo Napaios'' was built in the 7th century B.C. Some special capitals with floral ornament have been found, which are called Aeolic order, Aeolic, and it seems that they were borrowed from the East.D.S Robertson(1945):''A handbook of Greek and Roman architecture'', Cambridge University Press pp. 324-329 *Cyrene, Libya: The oldest Doric order, Doric temple of Apollo was built in c. 600 B.C. The number of pteron columns was 6 x 11, and it measures 16.75 x 30.05 m at the stylobate. There was a double row of sixteen inner columns on stylobates. The capitals were made from stone. *Naukratis: An Ionic order, Ionic temple was built in the early 6th century B.C. Only some fragments have been found and the earlier, made from limestone, are identified among the oldest of the Ionic order. *Syracuse, Sicily: A Doric order, Doric temple was built at the beginning of the 6th century B.C. The temple's stylobate measures 21.47 x 55.36 m and the number of pteron columns was 6 x 17. It was the first temple in Greek west built completely out of stone. A second row of columns were added, obtaining the effect of an inner porch. *Selinus (Sicily):The Doric order, Doric Temple C (Selinus), Temple C dates from 550 B.C., and it was probably dedicated to Apollo. The temple's stylobate measures 10.48 x 41.63 m and the number of pteron columns was 6 x 17. There was portico with a second row of columns, which is also attested for the temple at Syracuse, Sicily, Syracuse. *
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
: The first temple dedicated to Apollo, was built in the 7th century B.C. According to the legend, it was wooden made of laurel branches. The "Temple of Alcmeonidae" was built in c. 513 B.C. and it is the oldest Doric temple with significant marble elements. The temple's stylobate measures 21.65 x 58.00 m, and the number of pteron columns as 6 x 15. A fest similar with Apollo's fest at Thebes, Greece was celebrated every nine years. A boy was sent to the temple, who walked on the sacred road and returned carrying a laurel branch (''dopnephoros''). The maidens participated with joyful songs. *Chios: An Ionic order, Ionic temple of ''Apollo Phanaios'' was built at the end of the 6th century B.C. Only some small parts have been found and the capitals had floral ornament. *Abae (Phocis (ancient region), Phocis). The temple was destroyed by the Persians in the invasion of Xerxes I of Persia, Xerxes in 480 B.C., and later by the
Boeotia Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920 ...

Boeotia
ns. It was rebuilt by Hadrian. The oracle was in use from early Mycenaean times to the Roman period, and shows the continuity of Mycenaean and Classical Greek religion. *Bassae (Peloponnesus):A temple dedicated to ''Apollo Epikourios'' ("Apollo the helper"), was built in 430 B.C. and it was designed by Iktinos.It combined Doric order, Doric and Ionic order, Ionic elements, and the earliest use of column with a Corinthian order, Corinthian capital in the middle. The temple is of a relatively modest size, with the stylobate measuring 14.5 x 38.3 metresTemple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae
World Heritage Site.
containing a Doric order, Doric peristyle of 6 x 15 columns. The roof left a central space open to admit light and air. *
Delos The island of Delos (; el, Δήλος ; Attic Greek, Attic: , Doric Greek, Doric: ), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece. The excava ...

Delos
: A temple probably dedicated to Apollo and not peripteral, was built in the late 7th century B.C., with a plan measuring 10,00 x 15,60 m. The Doric order, Doric Great temple of Apollo, was built in c. 475 B.C. The temple's stylobate measures 13.72 x 29.78 m, and the number of pteron columns as 6 x 13. Marble was extensively used. *Ambracia: A Doric order, Doric peripteral temple dedicated to ''Apollo Pythios Sotir'' was built in 500 B.C., and It is lying at the centre of the Greek city Arta, Greece, Arta. Only some parts have been found, and it seems that the temple was built on earlier sanctuaries dedicated to Apollo. The temple measures 20,75 x 44,00 m at the stylobate. The foundation which supported the statue of the god, still exists. *Didyma (near Miletus): The gigantic Ionic order, Ionic temple of ''Apollo Didymaios'' started around 540 B.C. The construction ceased and then it was restarted in 330 B.C. The temple is dipteral, with an outer row of 10 x 21 columns, and it measures 28.90 x 80.75 m at the stylobate. *Clarus (near ancient Colophon (city), Colophon): According to the legend, the famous seer Calchas, on his return from Troy, came to Clarus. He challenged the seer Mopsus, and died when he lost. The Doric order, Doric temple of ''Apollo Clarius'' was probably built in the 3rd century B.C., and it was peripteral with 6 x 11 columns. It was reconstructed at the end of the Hellenistic period, and later from the emperor Hadrian but Pausanias claims that it was still incomplete in the 2nd century B.C. * (
Troad The Troad ( or ; el, Τρωάδα, ''Troáda'') or Troas (; grc, Τρῳάς, ''Trōiás'' or , ''Trōïás'') is a historical region in northwestern Anatolia. It corresponds with the Biga Peninsula (Turkish language, Turkish: ''Biga Yarımada ...
): In Iliad, Chryses the priest of Apollo, addresses the god with the epithet Smintheus (Lord of Mice), related with the god's ancient role as bringer of the disease (plague). Recent excavations indicate that the Hellenistic temple of ''Apollo Smintheus'' was constructed at 150–125 B.C., but the symbol of the mouse god was used on coinage probably from the 4th century B.C. The temple measures 40,00 x 23,00 m at the stylobate, and the number of pteron columns was 8 x 14. *Pythion ( grc, Πύθιον), this was the name of a shrine of Apollo at Athens near the Ilisos river. It was created by Peisistratos, and tripods placed there by those who had won in the cyclic chorus at the Thargelia. *Setae (Lydia): The temple of ''Apollo Aksyros'' located in the city. *Apollonia Pontica: There were two temples of Apollo Healer in the city. One from the Late Archaic period and the other from the Early Classical period.


Etruscan and Roman temples

*Veii (Etruria): The temple of Apollo was built in the late 6th century B.C. and it indicates the spread of Apollo's culture (Aplu) in Etruria. There was a prostyle porch, which is called Tuscan order, Tuscan, and a triple cella 18,50 m wide.Robertson pp. 200-201 *Falerii Veteres (Etruria): A temple of Apollo was built probably in the 4th-3rd century B.C. Parts of a teraccotta capital, and a teraccotta base have been found. It seems that the Etruscan columns were derived from the archaic Doric. A cult of Soranus (mythology), Apollo Soranus is attested by one inscription found near Falerii. *Pompeii (Italy): The cult of Apollo was widespread in the region of Campania since the 6th century B.C. The temple was built in 120 B.V, but its beginnings lie in the 6th century B.C. It was reconstructed after an earthquake in A.D. 63. It demonstrates a mixing of styles which formed the basis of Roman architecture. The columns in front of the cella formed a Tuscan order, Tuscan prostyle porch, and the cella is situated unusually far back. The peripteral colonnade of 48 Ionic order, Ionic columns was placed in such a way that the emphasis was given to the front side. * Rome: The temple of Apollo Sosianus and the ''temple of Apollo Medicus''. The first temple building dates to 431 B.C., and was dedicated to Apollo Medicus (the doctor), after a plague of 433 B.C. It was rebuilt by Gaius Sosius, probably in 34 B.C. Only three columns with Corinthian order, Corinthian capitals exist today. It seems that the cult of Apollo had existed in this area since at least to the mid-5th century B.C. *Rome:The temple of Apollo Palatinus was located on the Palatine hill within the sacred boundary of the city. It was dedicated by Augustus on 28 B.C. The façade of the original temple was Ionic order, Ionic and it was constructed from solid blocks of marble. Many famous statues by Greek masters were on display in and around the temple, including a marble statue of the god at the entrance and a statue of Apollo in the cella. *Melite (ancient city), Melite (modern Mdina, Malta): A Temple of Apollo (Melite), Temple of Apollo was built in the city in the 2nd century A.D. Its remains were discovered in the 18th century, and many of its architectural fragments were dispersed among private collections or reworked into new sculptures. Parts of the temple's podium were rediscovered in 2002.


Mythology

Apollo appears often in the myths, plays and hymns. As Zeus' favorite son, Apollo had direct access to the mind of Zeus and was willing to reveal this knowledge to humans. A divinity beyond human comprehension, he appears both as a beneficial and a wrathful god.


Birth

Apollo was the son of Zeus, the king of the gods, and Leto, his previous wife or one of his mistresses. Growing up, Apollo was nursed by the nymphs Korythalia and Aletheia (disambiguation), Aletheia, the personification of truth. When Zeus' wife Hera discovered that
Leto In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A bel ...

Leto
was pregnant, she banned Leto from giving birth on ''Solid Earth, terra firma''. Leto sought shelter in many lands, only to be rejected by them. Finally, the voice of unborn Apollo informed his mother about a floating island named
Delos The island of Delos (; el, Δήλος ; Attic Greek, Attic: , Doric Greek, Doric: ), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece. The excava ...

Delos
which had once been Asteria (Titaness), Asteria, Leto's own sister.Callimachus, ''Hymn to Delos'' Since it was neither a mainland nor an island, Leto was readily welcomed there and gave birth to her children under a palm tree. All the goddesses except Hera were present to witness the event. It is also stated that Hera kidnapped Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth, to prevent Leto from going into labor. The other gods tricked Hera into letting her go by offering her a necklace of amber 9 yards or 8.2 meters long. When Apollo was born, clutching a golden sword, everything on Delos turned into gold and the island was filled with ambrosial fragrance. Swans circled the island seven times and the nymphs sang in delight. He was washed clean by the goddesses who then covered him in white garment and fastened golden bands around him. Since Leto was unable to feed the him, Themis, the goddess of divine law, fed him with nectar, or ambrosia. Upon tasting the divine food, Apollo broke free of the bands fastened onto him and declared that he would be the master of lyre and archery, and interpret the will of Zeus to humankind.Homer, ''hymn to Apollo'' Zeus, who had calmed Hera by the time, came and adorned his son with a golden headband. Apollo's birth fixed the floating Delos to the earth. Leto promised that her son would be always favorable towards the Delians. According to some, Apollo secured Delos to the bottom of the ocean after some time. This island became sacred to Apollo and was one of the major cult centres of the god. Apollo was born on the seventh day (, ''hebdomagenes'') of the month Attic calendar#Festival calendar, Thargelion —according to Delian tradition—or of the month Hellenic calendars#Delphic, Bysios—according to Delphian tradition. The seventh and twentieth, the days of the new and full moon, were ever afterwards held sacred to him. Mythographers agree that
Artemis Artemis (; grc-gre, Ἄρτεμις Artemis, ) is the Greek goddess Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or ori ...

Artemis
was born first and subsequently assisted with the birth of Apollo, or that Artemis was born on the island of Ortygia and that she helped Leto cross the sea to Delos the next day to give birth to Apollo.


Hyperborea

Hyperborea, the mystical land of eternal spring, venerated Apollo above all the gods. The Hyperboreans always sang and danced in his honor and hosted Pythian games. There, a vast forest of beautiful trees was called "the garden of Apollo". Apollo spent the winter months among the Hyperboreans.Callimachus, ''Hymn to Apollo'' His absence from the world caused coldness and this was marked as his annual death. No prophecies were issued during this time.Joseph Eddy Fontenrose, ''Python: A Study of Delphic Myth and Its Origins'' He returned to the world during the beginning of the spring. The ''Theophania'' festival was held in
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
to celebrate his return. It is said that Leto came to Delos from Hyperborea accompanied by a pack of wolves. Henceforth, Hyperborea became Apollo's winter home and wolves became sacred to him. His intimate connection to wolves is evident from his epithet ''Lyceus'', meaning ''wolf-like''. But Apollo was also the wolf-slayer in his role as the god who protected flocks from predators. The Hyperborean worship of Apollo bears the strongest marks of Apollo being worshipped as the sun god. Shamanistic elements in Apollo's cult are often liked to his Hyperborean origin, and he is likewise speculated to have originated as a solar shaman. Shamans like Abaris and Aristeas were also the followers of Apollo, who hailed from Hyperborea. In myths, the tears of amber Apollo shed when his son Asclepius died became the waters of the river Eridanos, which surrounded Hyperborea. Apollo also buried in Hyperborea the arrow which he had used to kill the Cyclopes. He later gave this arrow to Abaris.


Childhood and youth

As a child, Apollo is said to have built a foundation and an altar on Delos using the horns of the goats that his sister Artemis hunted. Since he learnt the art of building when young, he later came to be known as Archegetes, ''the founder (of towns)'' and god who guided men to build new cities. From his father Zeus, Apollo had also received a golden chariot drawn by swans. In his early years when Apollo spent his time herding cows, he was reared by Thriae, the bee nymphs, who trained him and enhanced his prophetic skills. Apollo is also said to have invented the lyre, and along with Artemis, the art of archery. He then taught to the humans the art of healing and archery. Phoebe (mythological characters), Phoebe, his grandmother, gave the oracular shrine of
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
to Apollo as a birthday gift. Themis inspired him to be the oracular voice of Delphi thereon.


Python

Python PYTHON was a Cold War contingency plan of the Government of the United Kingdom, British Government for the continuity of government in the event of Nuclear warfare, nuclear war. Background Following the report of the Strath Committee in 1955, the ...
, a chthonic serpent-dragon, was a child of Gaia and the guardian of the Delphic Oracle, whose death was foretold by Apollo when he was still in Leto's womb. Python was the nurse of the giant Typhon. In most of the traditions, Apollo was still a child when he killed Python. Python was sent by Hera to hunt the pregnant Leto to death, and had assaulted her. To avenge the trouble given to his mother, Apollo went in search of Python and killed it in the sacred cave at Delphi with the bow and arrows that he had received from Hephaestus. The Delphian nymphs who were present encouraged Apollo during the battle with the cry "Hie Paean". After Apollo was victorious, they also brought him gifts and gave the Corycian cave to him. According to Homer, Apollo had encountered and killed the Python when he was looking for a place to establish his shrine. According to another version, when Leto was in Delphi, Python had attacked her. Apollo defended his mother and killed Python. Euripides in his ''Iphigenia in Aulis'' gives an account of his fight with Python and the events aftermath.
You killed him, o Phoebus, while still a baby, still leaping in the arms of your dear mother, and you entered the holy shrine, and sat on the golden tripod, on your truthful throne distributing prophecies from the gods to mortals.
A detailed account of Apollo's conflict with Gaia and Zeus' intervention on behalf of his young son is also given.
But when Apollo came and sent Themis, the child of Earth, away from the holy oracle of Pytho, Earth gave birth to dream visions of the night; and they told to the cities of men the present, and what will happen in the future, through dark beds of sleep on the ground; and so Earth took the office of prophecy away from Phoebus, in envy, because of her daughter. The lord made his swift way to Olympus and wound his baby hands around Zeus, asking him to take the wrath of the earth goddess from the Pythian home. Zeus smiled, that the child so quickly came to ask for worship that pays in gold. He shook his locks of hair, put an end to the night voices, and took away from mortals the truth that appears in darkness, and gave the privilege back again to Loxias.
Apollo also demanded that all other methods of divination be made inferior to his, a wish that Zeus granted him readily. Because of this, Athena, who had been practicing divination by throwing pebbles, cast her pebbles away in displeasure. However, Apollo had committed a blood murder and had to be purified. Because Python was a child of Gaia, Gaia wanted Apollo to be banished to Tartarus as a punishment. Zeus didn't agree and instead exiled his son from Mount Olympus, Olympus, and instructed him to get purified. Apollo had to serve as a slave for nine years. After the servitude was over, as per his father's order, he travelled to the Vale of Tempe to bath in waters of Pineios (Thessaly), Peneus. There Zeus himself performed purificatory rites on Apollo. Purified, Apollo was escorted by his half sister Athena to Delphi where the oracular shrine was finally handed over to him by Gaia. According to a variation, Apollo had also travelled to Crete, where Carmanor (of Crete), Carmanor purified him. Apollo later established the Pythian games to appropriate Gaia. Henceforth, Apollo became the god who cleansed himself from the sin of murder and, made men aware of their guilt and purified them. Soon after, Zeus instructed Apollo to go to Delphi and establish his law. But Apollo, disobeying his father, went to the land of Hyperborea and stayed there for a year. He returned only after the Delphians sang hymns to him and pleaded him to come back. Zeus, pleased with his son's integrity, gave Apollo the seat next to him on his right side. He also gave to Apollo various gifts, like a golden tripod, a golden bow and arrows, a golden chariot and the city of Delphi. Soon after his return, Apollo needed to recruit people to Delphi. So, when he spotted a ship sailing from Crete, he sprang aboard in the form of a dolphin. The crew was awed into submission and followed a course that led the ship to Delphi. There Apollo revealed himself as a god. Initiating them to his service, he instructed them to keep righteousness in their hearts. The Pythia was Apollo's high priestess and his mouthpiece through whom he gave prophecies. Pythia is arguably the constant favorite of Apollo among the mortals.


Tityos

Hera once again sent another giant, Tityos to rape Leto. This time Apollo shot him with his arrows and attacked him with his golden sword. According to other version, Artemis also aided him in protecting their mother by attacking Tityos with her arrows. After the battle Zeus finally relented his aid and hurled Tityos down to Tartarus. There, he was pegged to the rock floor, covering an area of , where a pair of vultures feasted daily on his liver.


Admetus

Admetus was the king of Pherae, who was known for his hospitality. When Apollo was exiled from Olympus for killing Python, he served as a herdsman under Admetus, who was then young and unmarried. Apollo is said to have shared a romantic relationship with Admetus during his stay.Callimachus:
Hymn to Apollo
'
After completing his years of servitude, Apollo went back to Olympus as a god. Because Admetus had treated Apollo well, the god conferred great benefits on him in return. Apollo's mere presence is said to have made the cattle give birth to twins. Apollo helped Admetus win the hand of Alcestis, the daughter of Pelias, King Pelias,Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus), Pseudo-Apollodorus
Bibliotheca
1.9.15
Hyginus
Fabulae
50-51
by taming a lion and a boar to draw Admetus' chariot. He was present during their wedding to give his blessings. When Admetus angered the goddess Artemis by forgetting to give her the due offerings, Apollo came to the rescue and calmed his sister. When Apollo learnt of Admetus' untimely death, he convinced or tricked the Moirai, Fates into letting Admetus live past his time. According to another version, or perhaps some years later, when Zeus struck down Apollo's son
Asclepius Asclepius (; grc-gre, Ἀσκληπιός ''Asklēpiós'' ; la, Aesculapius) or HepiusJohn Tzetzes John Tzetzes ( gr, Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Iōánnēs Tzétzēs; c. 1110, Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطين ...
with a lightning bolt for resurrecting the dead, Apollo in revenge killed the Cyclopes, who had fashioned the bolt for Zeus.Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus), Pseudo-Apollodorus,
Bibliotheca
' III.10.4.
Apollo would have been banished to Tartarus for this, but his mother
Leto In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A bel ...

Leto
intervened, and reminding Zeus of their old love, pleaded him not to kill their son. Zeus obliged and sentenced Apollo to one year of Penal labour, hard labor once again under Admetus. The love between Apollo and Admetus was a favored topic of Roman poets like Ovid and Maurus Servius Honoratus, Servius.


Niobe

The fate of
Niobe In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A be ...

Niobe
was prophesied by Apollo while he was still in Leto's womb. Niobe was the queen of Thebes (Greece), Thebes and wife of
Amphion There are several characters named Amphion ( "native of two lands", derived from ἀμφί ''amphi'' "on both sides, in all directions, surrounding" as well as "around, about, near",, Latin ''Amphīon'',, adjective Amphionian) in Greek mythology ...

Amphion
. She displayed hubris when she boasted that she was superior to Leto because she had fourteen children (Niobids), seven male and seven female, while Leto had only two. She further mocked Apollo's effeminate appearance and Artemis' manly appearance. Leto, insulted by this, told her children to punish Niobe. Accordingly, Apollo killed Niobe's sons, and Artemis her daughters. According to some versions of the myth, among the Niobids, Chloris and her brother Amyclas were not killed because they prayed to Leto. Amphion, at the sight of his dead sons, either killed himself or was killed by Apollo after swearing revenge. A devastated Niobe fled to Spil Mount, Mount Sipylos in Asia Minor and turned into stone as she wept. Her tears formed the river Achelous. Zeus had turned all the people of Thebes to stone and so no one buried the Niobids until the ninth day after their death, when the gods themselves entombed them. When Chloris married and had children, Apollo granted her son Nestor (mythology), Nestor the years he had taken away from the Niobids. Hence, Nestor was able to live for 3 generations.


Building the walls of Troy

Once Apollo and Poseidon served under the Trojan king Laomedon in accordance to Zeus' words. Apollodorus states that the gods willingly went to the king disguised as humans in order to check his hubris. Apollo guarded the cattle of Laomedon in the valleys of mount Ida, while Poseidon built the walls of Troy. Other versions make both Apollo and Poseidon the builders of the wall. In Ovid's account, Apollo completes his task by playing his tunes on his lyre. In Pindar's odes, the gods took a mortal named Aeacus as their assistant. When the work was completed, three snakes rushed against the wall, and though the two that attacked the sections of the wall built by the gods fell down dead, the third forced its way into the city through the portion of the wall built by Aeacus. Apollo immediately prophesied that Troy would fall at the hands of Aeacus's descendants, the Aeacidae (i.e. his son Telamon joined Heracles when he sieged the city during Laomedon's rule. Later, his great grandson Neoptolemus was present in the wooden horse that lead to the downfall of Troy). However, the king not only refused to give the gods the wages he had promised, but also threatened to bind their feet and hands, and sell them as slaves. Angered by the unpaid labour and the insults, Apollo infected the city with a pestilence and Posedion sent the sea monster Cetus (mythology), Cetus. To deliver the city from it, Laomedon had to sacrifice his daughter Hesione (who would later be saved by Heracles). During his stay in Troy, Apollo had a lover named Ourea, who was a nymph and daughter of Poseidon. Together they had a son named Ileus, whom Apollo loved dearly.


Trojan War

Apollo sided with the Trojans during the Trojan War waged by the Greeks against the Trojans. During the war, the Greek king Agamemnon captured Chryseis, the daughter of Apollo's priest Chryses, and refused to return her. Angered by this, Apollo shot arrows infected with the plague into the Greek encampment. He demanded that they return the girl, and the Achaeans (Greeks) complied, indirectly causing the ''Achilles and Patroclus#In the Iliad, anger of Achilles'', which is the theme of the ''Iliad''. Receiving the aegis from Zeus, Apollo entered the battlefield as per his father's command, causing great terror to the enemy with his war cry. He pushed the Greeks back and destroyed many of the soldiers. He is described as "the rouser of armies" because he rallied the Trojan army when they were falling apart. When Zeus allowed the other gods to get involved in the war, Apollo was provoked by Poseidon to a duel. However, Apollo declined to fight him, saying that he wouldn't fight his uncle for the sake of mortals. When the Greek hero Diomedes injured the Trojan hero Aeneas, Aphrodite tried to rescue him, but Diomedes injured her as well. Apollo then enveloped Aeneas in a cloud to protect him. He repelled the attacks Diomedes made on him and gave the hero a stern warning to abstain himself from attacking a god. Aeneas was then taken to Pergamos, a sacred spot in Troy, where he was healed. After the death of Sarpedon (Trojan War hero), Sarpedon, a son of Zeus, Apollo rescued the corpse from the battlefield as per his father's wish and cleaned it. He then gave it to Sleep (Hypnos) and Death (Thanatos). Apollo had also once convinced Athena to stop the war for that day, so that the warriors can relieve themselves for a while. The Trojan hero Hector (who, according to some, was the god's own son by Hecuba) was favored by Apollo. When he got severely injured, Apollo healed him and encouraged him to take up his arms. During a duel with Achilles, when Hector was about to lose, Apollo hid Hector in a cloud of mist to save him. When the Greek warrior Patroclus tried to get into the fort of Troy, he was stopped by Apollo. Encouraging Hector to attack Patroclus, Apollo stripped the armour of the Greek warrior and broke his weapons. Patroclus was eventually killed by Hector. At last, after Hector's fated death, Apollo protected his corpse from Achilles' attempt to mutilate it by creating a magical cloud over the corpse.
Apollo held a grudge against Achilles throughout the war because Achilles had murdered his son Tenes before the war began and brutally assassinated his son Troilus in his own temple. Not only did Apollo save Hector from Achilles, he also tricked Achilles by disguising himself as a Trojan warrior and driving him away from the gates. He foiled Achilles' attempt to mutilate Hector's dead body. Finally, Apollo caused Achilles' death by guiding an arrow shot by Paris (mythology), Paris into Achilles' heel. In some versions, Apollo himself killed Achilles by taking the disguise of Paris. Apollo helped many Trojan warriors, including Agenor, Polydamas (mythology), Polydamas, Glaucus in the battlefield. Though he greatly favored the Trojans, Apollo was bound to follow the orders of Zeus and served his father loyally during the war.


Heracles

After Heracles (then named Alcides) was struck with madness and killed his family, he sought to purify himself and consulted the oracle of Apollo. Apollo, through the Pythia, commanded him to serve king Eurystheus for twelve years and complete the ten tasks the king would give him. Only then would Alcides be absolved of his sin. Apollo also renamed him as Heracles. To complete his third task, Heracles had to capture the Ceryneian Hind, a hind sacred to Artemis, and bring it alive. He chased the hind for one year. When the animal eventually got tired and tried crossing the river Ladon, he captured it. While he was taking it back, he was confronted by Apollo and Artemis, who were angered at Heracles for this act. However, Heracles soothed the goddess and explained his situation to her. After much pleading, Artemis permitted him to take the hind and told him to return it later. After he was freed from his servitude to Eurystheus, Heracles fell in conflict with Iphytus, a prince of Oechalia, and murdered him. Soon after, he contracted a terrible disease. He consulted the oracle of Apollo once again, in hope of ridding himself of the disease. The Pythia, however, denied to give any prophesy. In anger, Heracles snatched the sacred tripod and started walking away, intending to start his own oracle. However, Apollo did not tolerate this and stopped Heracles; a duel ensued between them. Artemis rushed to support Apollo, while Athena supported Heracles. Soon, Zeus threw his thunderbolt between the fighting brothers and separated them. He reprimanded Heracles for this act of violation and asked Apollo to give a solution to Heracles. Apollo then ordered the hero to serve under Omphale, queen of Lydia for one year in order to purify himself.


Periphas

Periphas was an Attican king and a priest of Apollo. He was noble, just and rich. He did all his duties justly. Because of this people were very fond of him and started honouring him to the same extent as Zeus. At one point, they worshipped Periphas in place of Zeus and set up shrines and temples for him. This annoyed Zeus, who decided to annihilate the entire family of Periphas. But because he was a just king and a good devotee, Apollo intervened and requested his father to spare Periphas. Zeus considered Apollo's words and agreed to let him live. But he metamorphosed Periphas into an eagle and made the eagle the king of birds. When Periphas' wife requested Zeus to let her stay with her husband, Zeus turned her into a vulture and fulfilled her wish.


Plato's concept of soulmates

A long time ago, there were three kinds of human beings: male, descended from the sun; female, descended from the earth; and androgynous, descended from the moon. Each human being was completely round, with four arms and fours legs, two identical faces on opposite sides of a head with four ears, and all else to match. They were powerful and unruly. Aloadae, Otis and Aloadae, Ephialtes even dared to scale Mount Olympus. To check their insolence, Zeus devised a plan to humble them and improve their manners instead of completely destroying them. He cut them all in two and asked Apollo to make necessary repairs, giving humans the individual shape they still have now. Apollo turned their heads and necks around towards their wounds, he pulled together their skin at the abdomen, and sewed the skin together at the middle of it. This is what we call navel today. He smoothened the wrinkles and shaped the chest. But he made sure to leave a few wrinkles on the abdomen and around the navel so that they might be reminded of their punishment.
"As he [Zeus] cut them one after another, he bade Apollo give the face and the half of the neck a turn... Apollo was also bidden to heal their wounds and compose their forms. So Apollo gave a turn to the face and pulled the skin from the sides all over that which in our language is called the belly, like the purses which draw in, and he made one mouth at the centre [of the belly] which he fastened in a knot (the same which is called the navel); he also moulded the breast and took out most of the wrinkles, much as a shoemaker might smooth leather upon a last; he left a few wrinkles, however, in the region of the belly and navel, as a memorial of the primeval state.


Nurturer of the young

Apollo ''Kourotrophos'' is the god who nurtures and protects children and the young, especially boys. He oversees their education and their passage into adulthood. Education is said to have originated from Apollo and the Muses. Many myths have him train his children. It was a custom for boys to cut and dedicate their long hair to Apollo after reaching adulthood. Chiron, the abandoned centaur, was fostered by Apollo, who instructed him in medicine, prophecy, archery and more. Chiron would later become a great teacher himself.
Asclepius Asclepius (; grc-gre, Ἀσκληπιός ''Asklēpiós'' ; la, Aesculapius) or HepiusJohn Tzetzes John Tzetzes ( gr, Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Iōánnēs Tzétzēs; c. 1110, Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطين ...
in his childhood gained much knowledge pertaining to medicinal arts by his father. However, he was later entrusted to Chiron for further education. Anius, Apollo's son by Rhoeo, was abandoned by his mother soon after his birth. Apollo brought him up and educated him in mantic arts. Anius later became the priest of Apollo and the king of Delos. Iamus was the son of Apollo and Evadne. When Evadne went into labour, Apollo sent the Moirai to assist his lover. After the child was born, Apollo sent snakes to feed the child some honey. When Iamus reached the age of education, Apollo took him to Olympia and taught him many arts, including the ability to understand and explain the languages of birds. Idmon was educated by Apollo to be a seer. Even though he foresaw his death that would happen in his journey with the Argonauts, he embraced his destiny and died a brave death. To commemorate his son's bravery, Apollo commanded Boetians to build a town around the tomb of the hero, and to honor him. Apollo adopted Carnus, the abandoned son of Zeus and Europa (consort of Zeus), Europa. He reared the child with the help of his mother Leto and educated him to be a seer. When his son Melaneus of Oechalia, Melaneus reached the age of marriage, Apollo asked the princess Stratonice (mythology), Stratonice to be his son's bride and carried her away from her home when she agreed. Apollo saved a shepherd boy (name unknown) from death in a large deep cave, by the means of vultures. To thank him, the shepherd built Apollo a temple under the name Vulturius.


God of music

Immediately after his birth, Apollo demanded a lyre and invented the paean, thus becoming the god of music. As the divine singer, he is the patron of poets, singers and musicians. The invention of string music is attributed to him.
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
said that the innate ability of humans to take delight in music, rhythm and harmony is the gift of Apollo and the Muses. According to Socrates, ancient Greeks believed that Apollo is the god who directs the harmony and makes all things move together, both for the gods and the humans. For this reason, he was called ''Homopolon'' before the ''Homo'' was replaced by ''A''. Apollo's harmonious music delivered people from their pain, and hence, like Dionysus, he is also called the liberator.Callimachus, ''Hymn to Apollo'' The swans, which were considered to be the most musical among the birds, were believed to be the "singers of Apollo". They are Apollo's sacred birds and acted as his vehicle during his travel to Hyperborea. Claudius Aelianus, Aelian says that when the singers would sing hymns to Apollo, the swans would join the chant in unison. Among the Pythagoreanism, Pythagoreans, the study of mathematics and music were connected to the worship of Apollo, their principal deity. Their belief was that the music purifies the soul, just as medicine purifies the body. They also believed that music was delegated to the same mathematical laws of harmony as the mechanics of the cosmos, evolving into an idea known as the music of the spheres. Apollo appears as the companion of the Muses, and as Musagetes ("leader of Muses") he leads them in dance. They spend their time on Parnassus, which is one of their sacred places. Apollo is also the lover of the Muses and by them he became the father of famous musicians like Orpheus and Linus of Thrace, Linus. Apollo is often found delighting the immortal gods with his songs and music on the lyre. In his role as the god of banquets, he was always present to play music in weddings of the gods, like the marriage of Eros and Cupid and Psyche, Psyche, Peleus and Thetis. He is a frequent guest of the Bacchanalia, and many ancient ceramics depict him being at ease amidst the maenads and satyrs. Apollo also participated in musical contests when challenged by others. He was the victor in all those contests, but he tended to punish his opponents severely for their hubris.


Apollo's lyre

The invention of lyre is attributed either to Hermes or to Apollo himself. Distinctions have been made that Hermes invented lyre made of tortoise shell, whereas the lyre Apollo invented was a regular lyre. Myths tell that the infant Hermes stole a number of Apollo's cows and took them to a cave in the woods near Pylos, covering their tracks. In the cave, he found a tortoise and killed it, then removed the insides. He used one of the cow's intestines and the tortoise shell and made his lyre. Upon discovering the theft, Apollo confronted Hermes and asked him to return his cattle. When Hermes acted innocent, Apollo took the matter to Zeus. Zeus, having seen the events, sided with Apollo, and ordered Hermes to return the cattle. Hermes then began to play music on the lyre he had invented. Apollo fell in love with the instrument and offered to exchange the cattle for the lyre. Hence, Apollo then became the master of the lyre. According to other versions, Apollo had invented the lyre himself, whose strings he tore in repenting of the excess punishment he had given to Marsyas. Hermes' lyre, therefore, would be a reinvention.


Contest with Pan

Once Pan (mythology), Pan had the audacity to compare his music with that of Apollo and to challenge the god of music to a contest. The mountain-god Tmolus was chosen to umpire. Pan blew on his pipes, and with his rustic melody gave great satisfaction to himself and his faithful follower, Midas, who happened to be present. Then, Apollo struck the strings of his lyre. It was so beautiful that Tmolus at once awarded the victory to Apollo, and everyone was pleased with the judgement. Only Midas dissented and questioned the justice of the award. Apollo did not want to suffer such a depraved pair of ears any longer, and caused them to become the ears of a donkey.


Contest with Marsyas

Marsyas was a satyr who was punished by Apollo for his hubris. He had found an aulos on the ground, tossed away after being invented by Athena because it made her cheeks puffy. Athena had also placed a curse upon the instrument, that whoever would pick it up would be severely punished. When Marsyas played the flute, everyone became frenzied with joy. This led Marsyas to think that he was better than Apollo, and he challenged the god to a musical contest. The contest was judged by the
Muse In ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and Cult (religious practice), cult practi ...

Muse
s, or the nymphs of Nysa (mythology), Nysa. Athena was also present to witness the contest. Marsyas taunted Apollo for "wearing his hair long, for having a fair face and smooth body, for his skill in so many arts".Apuleius, ''Florida'' 3.2 He also further said,
'His [Apollo] hair is smooth and made into tufts and curls that fall about his brow and hang before his face. His body is fair from head to foot, his limbs shine bright, his tongue gives oracles, and he is equally eloquent in prose or verse, propose which you will. What of his robes so fine in texture, so soft to the touch, aglow with purple? What of his lyre that flashes gold, gleams white with ivory, and shimmers with rainbow gems? What of his song, so cunning and so sweet? Nay, all these allurements suit with naught save luxury. To virtue they bring shame alone!'
The Muses and Athena sniggered at this comment. The contestants agreed to take turns displaying their skills and the rule was that the victor could "do whatever he wanted" to the loser. According to one account, after the first round, they both were deemed equal by the Nysiads. But in the next round, Apollo decided to play on his lyre and add his melodious voice to his performance. Marsyas argued against this, saying that Apollo would have an advantage and accused Apollo of cheating. But Apollo replied that since Marsyas played the flute, which needed air blown from the throat, it was similar to singing, and that either they both should get an equal chance to combine their skills or none of them should use their mouths at all. The nymphs decided that Apollo's argument was just. Apollo then played his lyre and sang at the same time, mesmerising the audience. Marsyas could not do this. Apollo was declared the winner and, angered with Marsyas' haughtiness and his accusations, decided to flay the satyr.Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 75. 3 According to another account, Marsyas played his flute out of tune at one point and accepted his defeat. Out of shame, he assigned to himself the punishment of being skinned for a wine sack. Another variation is that Apollo played his instrument upside down. Marsyas could not do this with his instrument. So the Muses who were the judges declared Apollo the winner. Apollo hung Marsyas from a tree to flay him. Apollo flaying, flayed the limbs of Marsyas alive in a cave near Celaenae in Phrygia for his hubris to challenge a god. He then gave the rest of his body for proper burial and nailed Marsyas' flayed skin to a nearby pine-tree as a lesson to the others. Marsyas' blood turned into the river Marsyas. But Apollo soon repented and being distressed at what he had done, he tore the strings of his lyre and threw it away. The lyre was later discovered by the Muses and Apollo's sons Linus of Thrace, Linus and Orpheus. The Muses fixed the middle string, Linus the string struck with the forefinger, and Orpheus the lowest string and the one next to it. They took it back to Apollo, but the god, who had decided to stay away from music for a while, laid away both the lyre and the pipes at Delphi and joined Cybele in her wanderings to as far as Hyperborea.


Contest with Cinyras

Cinyras was a ruler of Cyprus, who was a friend of Agamemnon. Cinyras promised to assist Agamemnon in the Trojan war, but did not keep his promise. Agamemnon cursed Cinyras. He invoked Apollo and asked the god to avenge the broken promise. Apollo then had a lyre-playing contest with Cinyras, and defeated him. Either Cinyras committed suicide when he lost, or was killed by Apollo.


Patron of sailors

Apollo functions as the patron and protector of sailors, one of the duties he shares with Poseidon. In the myths, he is seen helping heroes who pray to him for safe journey. When Apollo spotted a ship of Cretan sailors that was caught in a storm, he quickly assumed the shape of a dolphin and guided their ship safely to Delphi. When the Argonauts faced a terrible storm, Jason prayed to his patron, Apollo, to help them. Apollo used his bow and golden arrow to shed light upon an island, where the Argonauts soon took shelter. This island was renamed "Anafi, Anaphe", which means "He revealed it". Apollo helped the Greek hero Diomedes, to escape from a great tempest during his journey homeward. As a token of gratitude, Diomedes built a temple in honor of Apollo under the epithet Epibaterius ("the embarker"). During the Trojan War, Odysseus came to the Trojan camp to return Chriseis, the daughter of Apollo's priest Chryses, and brought many offerings to Apollo. Pleased with this, Apollo sent gentle breezes that helped Odysseus return safely to the Greek camp. Arion was a poet who was kidnapped by some sailors for the rich prizes he possessed. Arion requested them to let him sing for the last time, to which the sailors consented. Arion began singing a song in praise of Apollo, seeking the god's help. Consequently, numerous dolphins surrounded the ship and when Arion jumped into the water, the dolphins carried him away safely.


Wars


Titanomachy

Once Hera, out of spite, aroused the Titans to war against
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
and take away his throne. Accordingly, when the Titans tried to climb Mount Olympus, Zeus with the help of Apollo,
Artemis Artemis (; grc-gre, Ἄρτεμις Artemis, ) is the Greek goddess Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or ori ...

Artemis
and Athena, defeated them and cast them into tartarus.


Trojan War

Apollo played a pivotal role in the entire Trojan War. He sided with the Trojans, and sent a terrible plague to the Greek camp, which indirectly led to the conflict between Achilles and Agamemnon. He killed the Greek heroes Patroclus, Achilles, and numerous Greek soldiers. He also helped many Trojan heroes, the most important one being Hector. After the end of the war, Apollo and Poseidon together cleaned the remains of the city and the camps.


Telegony war

A war broke out between the Brygoi and the Thesprotians, who had the support of Odysseus. The gods Athena and Ares came to the battlefield and took sides. Athena helped the hero Odysseus while Ares fought alongside of the Brygoi. When Odysseus lost, Athena and Ares came into a direct duel. To stop the battling gods and the terror created by their battle, Apollo intervened and stopped the duel between them .


Indian war

When Zeus suggested that Dionysus defeat the Indians in order to earn a place among the gods, Dionysus declared war against the Indians and travelled to India along with his army of Bacchantes and satyrs. Among the warriors was Aristaeus, Apollo's son. Apollo armed his son with his own hands and gave him a bow and arrows and fitted a strong shield to his arm. After Zeus urged Apollo to join the war, he went to the battlefield. Seeing several of his nymphs and Aristaeus drowning in a river, he took them to safety and healed them. He taught Aristaeus more useful healing arts and sent him back to help the army of Dionysus.


Theban war

During the war between the sons of Oedipus, Apollo favored Amphiaraus, a seer and one of the leaders in the war. Though saddened that the seer was fated to be doomed in the war, Apollo made Amphiaraus' last hours glorious by "lighting his shield and his helm with starry gleam". When Hypseus tried to kill the hero by a spear, Apollo directed the spear towards the charioteer of Amphiaraus instead. Then Apollo himself replaced the charioteer and took the reins in his hands. He deflected many spears and arrows away them. He also killed many of the enemy warriors like Melaneus (mythology), Melaneus, Antiphus, Aetion, Polites and Lampus. At last when the moment of departure came, Apollo expressed his grief with tears in his eyes and bid farewell to Amphiaraus, who was soon engulfed by the Earth.


Slaying of giants

Apollo killed the giants Python and Tityos, who had assaulted his mother Leto.


Gigantomachy

During the gigantomachy, Apollo killed the giant Ephialtes (disambiguation), Ephialtes by shooting him in his eyes. He also killed Porphyrion, the king of giants, using his bow and arrows.


Aloadae

Otis and Ephialtes, the twin giants were together called the Aloadae. These giants are said to have grown every year by one cubit in breadth and three cubits in height. They once threatened to wage a war on gods and attempted to storm Mt. Olympus by piling up mountains. They also threatened to change land into sea and sea into land. Some say they even dared to seek the hand of Hera and Artemis in marriage. Angered by this, Apollo killed them by shooting arrows at them. According to another tale, Apollo killed them with a trick. He sent a deer between them. As they tried to kill it with their javelins, they accidentally stabbed each other and died.


Phorbas

Phorbas was a savage giant king of Phlegyas (Boeotia), Phlegyas who was described as having swine like features. He wished to plunder Delphi for its wealth. He seized the roads to Delphi and started harassing the pilgrims. He captured the old people and children and sent them to his army to hold them for ransom. And he challenged the young and sturdy men to a match of boxing, only to cut their heads off when they would get defeated by him. He hung the chopped off heads to an oak tree. Finally, Apollo came to put an end to this cruelty. He entered a boxing contest with Phorbas and killed him with a single blow.


Other stories

In the first Olympic games, Apollo defeated Ares and became the victor in wrestling. He outran Hermes in the race and won first place. Apollo divides months into summer and winter. He rides on the back of a swan to the land of the Hyperboreans during the winter months, and the absence of warmth in winters is due to his departure. During his absence, Delphi was under the care of Dionysus, and no prophecies were given during winters.


Molpadia and Parthenos

Molpadia and Parthenos were the sisters of Rhoeo, a former lover of Apollo. One day, they were put in charge of watching their father's ancestral wine jar but they fell asleep while performing this duty. While they were asleep, the wine jar was broken by the swines their family kept. When the sisters woke up and saw what had happened, they threw themselves off a cliff in fear of their father's wrath. Apollo, who was passing by, caught them and carried them to two different cities in Chersonesus, Molpadia to Castabus and Parthenos to Bubastus. He turned them into goddesses and they both received divine honors. Molpadia's name was changed to Hemithea (mythology), Hemithea upon her deification.


Prometheus

Prometheus was the titan who was punished by Zeus for stealing fire. He was bound to a rock, where each day an eagle was sent to eat Prometheus' liver, which would then grow back overnight to be eaten again the next day. Seeing his plight, Apollo pleaded Zeus to release the kind Titan, while Artemis and Leto stood behind him with tears in their eyes. Zeus, moved by Apollo's words and the tears of the goddesses, finally sent Heracles to free Prometheus.


The rock of Leukas

Leukatas was believed to be a white colored rock jutting out from the island of Lefkada, Leukas into the sea. It was present in the sanctuary of Apollo Leukates. A leap from this rock was believed to have put an end to the longings of love.Strabo, ''Geography'' 10. 2. 8 Once, Aphrodite fell deeply in love with Adonis, a young man of great beauty who was later accidentally killed by a boar. Heartbroken, Aphrodite wandered looking for the rock of Leukas. When she reached the sanctuary of Apollo in Argos, she confided in him her love and sorrow. Apollo then brought her to the rock of Leukas and asked her to throw herself from the top of the rock. She did so and was freed from her love. When she sought for the reason behind this, Apollo told her that Zeus, before taking another lover, would sit on this rock to free himself from his love to Hera.Ptolemy Hephaestion, ''New History Book'' 7 Another tale relates that a man named Nireus, who fell in love with the cult statue of Athena, came to the rock and jumped in order relieve himself. After jumping, he fell into the net of a fisherman in which, when he was pulled out, he found a box filled with gold. He fought with the fisherman and took the gold, but Apollo appeared to him in the night in a dream and warned him not to appropriate gold which belonged to others. It was an ancestral custom among the Leukadians to fling a criminal from this rock every year at the sacrifice performed in honor of Apollo for the sake of averting evil. However, a number of men would be stationed all around below rock to catch the criminal and take him out of the borders in order to exile him from the island. This was the same rock from which, according to a legend, Sappho took her suicidal leap.


Female lovers

Love affairs ascribed to Apollo are a late development in Greek mythology. Their vivid anecdotal qualities have made some of them favorites of painters since the Renaissance, the result being that they stand out more prominently in the modern imagination. Daphne was a nymph whose parentage varies. She scorned Apollo's advances and ran away from him. When Apollo chased her in order to persuade her, she changed herself into a laurel tree. According to other versions, she cried for help during the chase, and Gaia helped her by taking her in and placing a laurel tree in her place. According to Roman poet Ovid, the chase was brought about by Cupid, who hit Apollo with golden arrow of love and Daphne with leaden arrow of hatred. The myth explains the origin of the Bay Laurel, laurel and connection of Apollo with the laurel and its leaves, which his priestess employed at
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
. The leaves became the symbol of victory and laurel wreaths were given to the victors of the Pythian games. Apollo is said to have been the lover of all nine Muses, and not being able to choose one of them, decided to remain unwed. He fathered the Corybantes by the Muse Thalia (Muse), Thalia, Orpheus by Calliope, Linus (Thracian), Linus of Thrace by Calliope or Urania and Hymenaios (Hymen) by either Terpsichore or Clio or Calliope. Cyrene (mythology), Cyrene, was a Thessalian princess whom Apollo loved. In her honor, he built the city Cyrene and made her its ruler. She was later granted longevity by Apollo who turned her into a nymph. The couple had two sons, Aristaeus, and Idmon. Evadne was a nymph daughter of Poseidon and a lover of Apollo. She bore him a son, Iamos. During the time of the childbirth, Apollo sent Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth to assist her. Rhoeo, a princess of the island of Naxos was loved by Apollo. Out of affection for her, Apollo turned her sisters into goddesses. On the island Delos she bore Apollo a son named Anius. Not wanting to have the child, she entrusted the infant to Apollo and left. Apollo raised and educated the child on his own. Ourea, a daughter of Poseidon, fell in love with Apollo when he and Poseidon were serving the Trojan king Laomedon. They both united on the day the walls of Troy were built. She bore to Apollo a son, whom Apollo named Ileus, after the city of his birth, Ilion (Troy). Ileus was very dear to Apollo. Thero (mythology), Thero, daughter of Phylas, a maiden as beautiful as the moonbeams, was loved by the radiant Apollo, and she loved him in return. By their union, she became mother of Chaeron, who was famed as "the tamer of horses". He later built the city Chaeronea. Hyrie or Thyrie was the mother of Cycnus (son of Apollo), Cycnus. Apollo turned both the mother and son into swans when they jumped into a lake and tried to kill themselves. Hecuba was the wife of King Priam of Troy, and Apollo had a son with her named Troilus. An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated as long as Troilus reached the age of twenty alive. He was ambushed and killed by Achilleus, and Apollo avenged his death by killing Achilles. After the sack of Troy, Hecuba was taken to Lycia by Apollo. Coronis (Greek mythology), Coronis, was daughter of Phlegyas, King of the Lapiths. While pregnant with
Asclepius Asclepius (; grc-gre, Ἀσκληπιός ''Asklēpiós'' ; la, Aesculapius) or HepiusJohn Tzetzes John Tzetzes ( gr, Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Iōánnēs Tzétzēs; c. 1110, Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطين ...
, Coronis fell in love with Ischys, son of Elatus and slept with him. When Apollo found out about her infidelity through his prophetic powers, he sent his sister, Artemis, to kill Coronis. Apollo rescued the baby by cutting open Koronis' belly and gave it to the centaur Chiron to raise. Dryope (daughter of Dryops), Dryope, the daughter of Dryops, was impregnated by Apollo in the form of a snake. She gave birth to a son named Amphissus. In Euripides' play ''Ion (play), Ion'', Apollo fathered
Ion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ...
by Creusa (daughter of Erechtheus), Creusa, wife of Xuthus. He used his powers to conceal her pregnancy from her father. Later, when Creusa left Ion to die in the wild, Apollo asked Hermes to save the child and bring him to the oracle at
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
, where he was raised by a priestess.


Male lovers

Hyacinth (mythology), Hyacinth or Hyacinthus was one of Apollo's favorite lovers. He was a Spartan prince, beautiful and athletic. The pair was practicing throwing the Discus throw, discus when a discus thrown by Apollo was blown off course by the jealous Zephyrus and struck Hyacinthus in the head, killing him instantly. Apollo is said to be filled with grief. Out of Hyacinthus' blood, Apollo created a hyacinth (plant), flower named after him as a memorial to his death, and his tears stained the flower petals with the interjection , meaning ''alas''. He was later resurrected and taken to heaven. The festival Hyacinthia was a national celebration of Sparta, which commemorated the death and rebirth of Hyacinthus. Another male lover was Cyparissus, a descendant of Heracles. Apollo gave him a tame deer as a companion but Cyparissus accidentally killed it with a Pilum, javelin as it lay asleep in the undergrowth. Cyparissus was so saddened by its death that he asked Apollo to let his tears fall forever. Apollo granted the request by turning him into the Cupressaceae, Cypress named after him, which was said to be a sad tree because the sap forms droplets like tears on the trunk. Admetus, the king of Pherae, was also Apollo's lover.Plutarch, ''Life of Numa'', 4. 5. During his exile, which lasted either for one year or nine years, Apollo served Admetus as a herdsman. The romantic nature of their relationship was first described by Callimachus of Alexandria, who wrote that Apollo was "fired with love" for Admetus. Plutarch lists Admetus as one of Apollo's lovers and says that Apollo served Admetus because he doted upon him. Latin poet Ovid in his Ars Amatoria said that even though he was a god, Apollo forsook his pride and stayed in as a servant for the sake of Admetus. Tibullus desrcibes Apollo's love to the king as ''servitium amoris'' (slavery of love) and asserts that Apollo became his servant not by force but by choice. He would also make cheese and serve it to Admetus. His domestic actions caused embarrassment to his family. When Admetus wanted to marry princess Alcestis, Apollo provided a chariot pulled by a lion and a boar he had tamed. This satisfied Alcestis' father and he let Admetus marry his daughter. Further, Apollo saved the king from Artemis' wrath and also convinced the Moirai to postpone Admetus' death once. Branchus, a shepherd, one day came across Apollo in the woods. Captivated by the god's beauty, he kissed Apollo. Apollo requited his affections and wanting to reward him, bestowed prophetic skills on him. His descendants, the Branchides, were an influential clan of prophets. Other male lovers of Apollo include: *Adonis, who is said to have been the lover of both Apollo and Aphrodite. He behaved as a man with Aphrodite and as a woman with Apollo.Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Book 4 (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 190) *Atymnius,Nonnus, ''Dionysiaca'', 11. 258; 19. 181. otherwise known as a beloved of Sarpedon (brother of Minos), Sarpedon *Boreas (god), Boreas, the god of North winds *Helenus, the son of Priam and a Trojan Prince, was a lover of Apollo and received from him an ivory bow with which he later wounded Achilles in the hand. * Hippolytus of Sicyon (not the same as Hippolytus (mythology), Hippolytus, the son of Theseus) *Hymenaios, the son of Magnes (son of Argos), MagnesAntoninus Liberalis, ''Metamorphoses'', 23. *Iapis, to whom Apollo taught the art of healing *Phorbas, the dragon slayer (probably the son of Triopas)Plutarch, ''Life of Numa'', 4. 5, cf. also Hyginus, ''Poetical Astronomy'', 2. 14.


Children

Apollo sired many children, from mortal women and nymphs as well as the goddesses. His children grew up to be physicians, musicians, poets, seers or archers. Many of his sons founded new cities and became kings. They were all usually very beautiful.
Asclepius Asclepius (; grc-gre, Ἀσκληπιός ''Asklēpiós'' ; la, Aesculapius) or HepiusJohn Tzetzes John Tzetzes ( gr, Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Iōánnēs Tzétzēs; c. 1110, Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطين ...
is the most famous son of Apollo. His skills as a physician surpassed that of Apollo's. Zeus killed him for bringing back the dead, but upon Apollo's request, he was resurrected as a god. Aristaeus was placed under the care of Chiron after his birth. He became the god of beekeeping, cheese making, animal husbandry and more. He was ultimately given immortality for the benefits he bestowed upon the humanity. The Corybantes were spear-clashing, dancing demigods. The sons of Apollo who participated in the Trojan War include the Trojan princes Hector and Troilus, as well as Tenes, the king of Tenedos, all three of whom were killed by Achilles over the course of the war. Apollo's children who became musicians and bards include Orpheus, Linus (mythology), Linus, Ialemus, Hymen (god), Hymenaeus, Philammon, Eumolpus and Eleuther. Apollo fathered 3 daughters, Apollonis, Borysthenis and Cephisso, who formed a group of minor Muses, the "Musa Apollonides". They were nicknamed Nete, Mese and Hypate after the highest, middle and lowest strings of his lyre. Phemonoe was a seer and a poetess who was the inventor of Hexameter. Apis (Greek mythology), Apis, Idmon, Iamus, Tenerus (son of Apollo), Tenerus, Mopsus, Themisto (disambiguation), Galeus, Telmessus and others were gifted seers. Anius, Pythaeus and Ismenus lived as high priests. Most of them were trained by Apollo himself. Arabius (mythology), Arabus, Delphos (mythology), Delphos, Dryops (mythology), Dryops, Miletos, Tenes, Epidaurus (mythology), Epidaurus, Ceos, Lycorus, Lycoras, Syrus, Pisus, Marathus, Megarus, Patarus, Acraepheus, Cicon, Chaeron and many other sons of Apollo, under the guidance of his words, founded eponymous cities. He also had a son named Chrysorrhoas who was a mechanic artist. His other daughters include Eurynome, Chariclo wife of Chiron, Eurydice the wife of Orpheus, Eriopis, famous for her beautiful hair, Melite (heroine), Melite the heroine, Pamphile the silk weaver, Parthenos, and by some accounts, Phoebe, Hilyra and Scylla. Apollo turned Parthenos into a constellation after her early death. Additionally, Apollo fostered and educated Chiron, the centaur who later became the greatest teacher and educated many demigods, including Apollo's sons. Apollo also fostered Carnus, the son of
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
and Europa (consort of Zeus), Europa.


Failed love attempts

Marpessa was kidnapped by Idas but was loved by Apollo as well.
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
made her choose between them, and she chose Idas on the grounds that Apollo, being immortal, would tire of her when she grew old. Sinope (mythology), Sinope, a nymph, was approached by the amorous Apollo. She made him promise that he would grant to her whatever she would ask for, and then cleverly asked him to let her stay a virgin. Apollo kept his promise and went back. Bolina was admired by Apollo but she refused him and jumped into the sea. To avoid her death, Apollo turned her into a nymph and let her go. Castalia was a nymph whom Apollo loved. She fled from him and dove into the castalian Spring, spring at Delphi, at the base of Mt. Parnassos, which was then named after her. Water from this spring was sacred; it was used to clean the Delphian temples and inspire the priestesses. Cassandra, was a daughter of Hecuba and Priam. Apollo wished to court her. Cassandra promised to return his love on one condition - he should give her the power to see the future. Apollo fulfilled her wish, but she went back on her word and rejected him soon after. Angered that she broke her promise, Apollo cursed her that even though she would see the future, no one would ever believe her prophecies. Hestia, the goddess of the hearth, rejected both Apollo's and Poseidon's marriage proposals and swore that she would always stay unmarried.


Consorts and children: extended list


Female counterparts


Artemis

Artemis as the sister of Apollo, is ''thea apollousa'', that is, she as a female divinity represented the same idea that Apollo did as a male divinity. In the pre-Hellenic period, their relationship was described as the one between husband and wife, and there seems to have been a tradition which actually described Artemis as the wife of Apollo. However, this relationship was never sexual but spiritual, which is why they both are seen being unmarried in the Hellenic period. Artemis, like her brother, is armed with a bow and arrows. She is the cause of sudden deaths of women. She also is the protector of the young, especially girls. Though she has nothing to do with oracles, music or poetry, she sometimes led the female chorus on Olympus while Apollo sang. The laurel (''daphne'') was sacred to both. ''Artemis Daphnaia'' had her temple among the Lacedemonians, at a place called Hypsoi. ''Apollo Daphnephoros'' had a temple in Eretria, a "place where the citizens are to take the oaths". In later times when Apollo was regarded as identical with the sun or
Helios Helios; Homeric Greek Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the ''Iliad'' and ''Odyssey'' and in the Homeric Hymns. It is a literary dialect of Ancient Greek consisting mainly of Ionic Greek, Ionic and Aeol ...

Helios
, Artemis was naturally regarded as Selene or the moon.


Hecate

Hecate, the goddess of witchcraft and magic, is the chthonic counterpart of Apollo. They both are cousins, since their mothers -
Leto In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A bel ...

Leto
and Asteria (Titaness), Asteria - are sisters. One of Apollo's epithets, ''Hecatos'', is the masculine form of Hecate, and both the names mean "working from afar". While Apollo presided over the prophetic powers and magic of light and heaven, Hecate presided over the prophetic powers and magic of night and chthonian darkness. If Hecate is the "gate-keeper", Apollo ''Agyieus'' is the "door-keeper". Hecate is the goddess of crossroads and Apollo is the god and protector of streets.Carol M. Mooney, B.A., ''Hekate : Her Role And Character In Greek Literature From Before The Fifth Century B.C.'' The oldest evidence found for Hecate's worship is at Apollo's temple in Miletos. There, Hecate was taken to be Apollo's sister counterpart in the absence of Artemis. Hecate's lunar nature makes her the goddess of the waning moon and contrasts and complements, at the same time, Apollo's solar nature.


Athena

As a deity of knowledge and great power, Apollo was seen being the male counterpart of Athena. Being Zeus' favorite children, they were given more powers and duties. Apollo and Athena often took up the role as protectors of cities, and were patrons of some of the important cities. Athena was the principle goddess of Athens, Apollo was the principle god of Sparta. As patrons of arts, Apollo and Athena were companions of the Muses, the former a much more frequent companion than the latter. Apollo was sometimes called the son of Athena and Hephaestus due to his wise and artistic nature. In the Trojan war, as Zeus' executive, Apollo is seen holding the aegis like Athena usually does. Apollo's decisions were usually approved by his sister Athena, and they both worked to establish the law and order set forth by Zeus.


Apollo in the ''Oresteia''

In Aeschylus' ''Oresteia'' trilogy, Clytemnestra kills her husband, King Agamemnon because he had sacrificed their daughter Iphigenia to proceed forward with the Trojan war. Apollo gives an order through the Oracle at Delphi that Agamemnon's son, Orestes, is to kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus, her lover. Orestes and Pylades carry out the revenge, and consequently Orestes is pursued by the Erinyes or Furies (female personifications of revenge, vengeance). Apollo and the Furies argue about whether the matricide was justified; Apollo holds that the bond of marriage is sacred and Orestes was avenging his father, whereas the Erinyes say that the bond of blood between mother and son is more meaningful than the bond of marriage. They invade his temple, and he drives them away. He says that the matter should be brought before Athena. Apollo promises to protect Orestes, as Orestes has become Apollo's Supplication, supplicant. Apollo advocates Orestes at the trial, and ultimately Athena rules in favor of Apollo.


Roman Apollo

The Roman worship of Apollo was adopted from the Greeks. As a quintessentially List of Greek mythological figures, Greek god, Apollo had no direct Roman equivalent, although later Roman poets often referred to him as Phoebus. There was a tradition that the Delphic oracle was consulted as early as the period of the Roman Kingdom, kings of Rome during the reign of Tarquinius Superbus. On the occasion of a pestilence in the 430s BCE, Apollo's Temple of Apollo Sosianus, first temple at Rome was established in the Flaminian fields, replacing an older cult site there known as the "Apollinare". During the Second Punic War in 212 BCE, the ''Ludi Apollinares'' ("Apollonian Games") were instituted in his honor, on the instructions of a prophecy attributed to one Marcius. In the time of Augustus, who considered himself under the special protection of Apollo and was even said to be his son, his worship developed and he became one of the chief gods of Rome. After the battle of Actium, which was fought near a sanctuary of Apollo, Augustus enlarged Apollo's temple, dedicated a portion of the spoils to him, and instituted quinquennial games in his honour. He also erected Temple of Apollo (Palatine), a new temple to the god on the Palatine Hill, Palatine hill. Sacrifices and prayers on the Palatine to Apollo and Diana (mythology), Diana formed the culmination of the Secular Games, held in 17 BCE to celebrate the dawn of a new era.


Festivals

The chief Apollonian festival was the Pythian Games held every four years at Delphi and was one of the four great Panhellenic Games. Also of major importance was the Delia (festival), Delia held every four years on Delos. Athenian annual festivals included the Boedromia, Metageitnia, Pyanepsia, and Thargelia. Spartan annual festivals were the Carneia and the Hyacinthia. Thebes, Greece, Thebes every nine years held the Daphnephoria.


Attributes and symbols

Apollo's most common attributes were the bow and arrow. Other attributes of his included the kithara (an advanced version of the common lyre), the plectrum and the sword. Another common emblem was the sacrificial tripod, representing his prophetic powers. The Pythian Games were held in Apollo's honor every four years at
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
. The bay laurel plant was used in expiatory sacrifices and in making the laurel wreath, crown of victory at these games. The palm tree was also sacred to Apollo because he had been born under one in
Delos The island of Delos (; el, Δήλος ; Attic Greek, Attic: , Doric Greek, Doric: ), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece. The excava ...

Delos
. Animals sacred to Apollo included wolf, wolves, dolphins, roe deer, swans, cicadas (symbolizing music and song), ravens, hawks, Corvus (genus), crows (Apollo had hawks and crows as his messengers), snakes (referencing Apollo's function as the god of prophecy), mice and griffins, mythical eagle–lion hybrids of Eastern origin. Homer and Porphyry (philosopher), Porphyry wrote that Apollo had a hawk as his messenger.Porphyry, ''De abstinentia'', 3.5
/ref> In many myths Apollo is transformed into a hawk. In addition, Claudius Aelianus wrote that in Egyptians, Ancient Egypt people believed that hawks were sacred to the god and that according to the ministers of Apollo in Egypt there were certain men called "hawk-keepers" (ἱερακοβοσκοί) who fed and tended the hawks belonging to the god. Eusebius wrote that the second appearance of the moon is held sacred in the city of Apollo in Egypt and that the city's symbol is a man with a hawklike face (Horus). Claudius Aelianus wrote that Egyptians called Apollo Horus in their own language.Aelian, ''Characteristics of Animals'', 10.14
/ref> As god of colonization, Apollo gave oracular guidance on colonies, especially during the height of colonization, 750–550 BCE. According to Greek tradition, he helped Crete, Cretan or Arcadia (ancient region), Arcadian colonists found the city of Troy. However, this story may reflect a cultural influence which had the reverse direction: Hittites, Hittite Cuneiform script, cuneiform texts mention an Asia Minor god called ''Appaliunas'' or ''Apalunas'' in connection with the city of Wilusa attested in Hittite inscriptions, which is now generally regarded as being identical with the Greek Troy, Ilion by most scholars. In this interpretation, Apollo's title of ''Lykegenes'' can simply be read as "born in Lycia", which effectively severs the god's supposed link with wolves (possibly a folk etymology). In literary contexts, Apollo represents harmony, order, and reason—characteristics contrasted with those of Dionysus, god of wine, who represents ecstasy and disorder. The contrast between the roles of these gods is reflected in the adjectives Apollonian and Dionysian. However, the Greeks thought of the two qualities as complementary: the two gods are brothers, and when Apollo at winter left for Hyperborea, he would leave the Delphic oracle to Dionysus. This contrast appears to be shown on the two sides of the Borghese Vase. Apollo is often associated with the Golden mean (philosophy), Golden Mean. This is the Greek Ideal (ethics), ideal of moderation and a virtue that opposes gluttony.


Apollo in the arts

Apollo is a common theme in Greek and Roman art and also in the art of the Renaissance. The earliest Greek word for a statue is "delight" (, ''agalma''), and the sculptors tried to create forms which would inspire such guiding vision. Greek art puts into Apollo the highest degree of power and beauty that can be imagined. The sculptors derived this from observations on human beings, but they also embodied in concrete form, issues beyond the reach of ordinary thought. The naked bodies of the statues are associated with the cult of the body that was essentially a religious activity. The muscular frames and limbs combined with slim waists indicate the Greek desire for health, and the physical capacity which was necessary in the hard Greek environment. The statues of Apollo embody beauty, balance and inspire awe before the beauty of the world.


Archaic sculpture

Numerous free-standing statues of male youths from Archaic Greece exist, and were once thought to be representations of Apollo, though later discoveries indicated that many represented mortals. In 1895, V. I. Leonardos proposed the term Kouros, ''kouros'' ("male youth") to refer to those from Keratea; this usage was later expanded by Henri Lechat in 1904 to cover all statues of this format. The earliest examples of life-sized statues of Apollo may be two figures from the Ionians, Ionic sanctuary on the island of
Delos The island of Delos (; el, Δήλος ; Attic Greek, Attic: , Doric Greek, Doric: ), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece. The excava ...

Delos
. Such statues were found across the Greek speaking world, the preponderance of these were found at the sanctuaries of Apollo with more than one hundred from the sanctuary of ''Apollo Ptoios'',
Boeotia Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920 ...

Boeotia
alone. Significantly more rare are the life-sized bronze statues. One of the few originals which survived into the present day–so rare that its discovery in 1959 was described as "a miracle" by Ernst Homann-Wedeking–is the masterpiece bronze, Piraeus Apollo, ''Piraeus Apollo''. It was found in Piraeus, a port city close to Athens, and is believed to have come from north-eastern Peloponnesus. It is the only surviving large-scale Peloponnesian statue.


Classical sculpture

The famous Apollo of Mantua and its variants are early forms of the Apollo Citharoedus statue type, in which the god holds the cithara, a sophisticated seven-stringed variant of the lyre, in his left arm. While none of the Greek originals have survived, several Roman copies from approximately the late 1st or early 2nd century exist. Other notable forms are the Apollo Citharoedus and the Apollo Barberini.


Hellenistic Greece-Rome

Apollo as a handsome beardless young man, is often depicted with a cithara (as Apollo Citharoedus) or bow in his hand, or reclining on a tree (the Apollo Lykeios and Apollo Sauroctonos types). The Apollo Belvedere is a marble sculpture that was rediscovered in the late 15th century; for centuries it epitomized the ideals of Classical Antiquity for Europeans, from the Renaissance through the 19th century. The marble is a Hellenistic Greece, Hellenistic or Roman copy of a bronze original by the Greek sculptor Leochares, made between 350 and 325 BCE. The life-size so-called "Adonis" found in 1780 on the site of a ''Roman villa, villa suburbana'' near the Via Labicana in the Roman suburb of Centocelle is identified as an Apollo by modern scholars. In the late 2nd century CE floor mosaic from El Djem, Roman ''Thysdrus'', he is identifiable as Helios, Apollo Helios by his effulgent Halo (religious iconography), halo, though now even a god's divine nudity, nakedness is concealed by his cloak, a mark of increasing conventions of modesty in the later Roman Empire, Empire. Another haloed Apollo in mosaic, from Hadrumentum, is in the museum at Sousse. The conventions of this representation, head tilted, lips slightly parted, large-eyed, curling Hairstyle, hair cut in locks grazing the neck, were developed in the 3rd century BCE to depict Alexander the Great. Some time after this mosaic was executed, the earliest depictions of Christ would also be beardless and haloed.


Modern reception

Apollo has often featured in postclassical art and literature. Percy Bysshe Shelley composed a "Hymn of Apollo" (1820), and the god's instruction of the Muses formed the subject of Igor Stravinsky's ''Apollon musagète'' (1927–1928). In 1978, the Canadian band Rush (band), Rush released Hemispheres (Rush album), an album with songs Cygnus X-1 Book II, "Apollo: Bringer of Wisdom"/"Dionysus: Bringer of Love". In discussion of the arts, a distinction is sometimes made between the Apollonian and Dionysian impulses where the former is concerned with imposing intellectual order and the latter with chaotic creativity. Friedrich Nietzsche argued that a fusion of the two was most desirable. Carl Jung's Apollo archetype represents what he saw as the disposition in people to over-intellectualise and maintain emotional distance. Charles Handy, in ''Gods of Management'' (1978) uses Greek gods as a metaphor to portray various types of organizational culture, organisational culture. Apollo represents a 'role' culture where order, reason, and bureaucracy prevail.British Library: Management and Business Studies Portal
Charles Handy
, accessed 12 November 2016
In spaceflight, the 1960s and 1970s NASA program for orbiting and landing astronauts on the Moon was named Apollo program, Apollo.


Genealogy


See also

*Dryad *Epirus *Pasiphaë *Phoebus (disambiguation) *Sibylline oracles *Tegyra *Temple of Apollo (disambiguation)


Notes


References


Primary sources

* Hesiod, ''Theogony'', in ''The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White'', Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914
Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
* Homer, ''The Iliad with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PhD in two volumes''. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924
Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
* Homer; ''The Odyssey with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes''. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919
Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
* Sophocles, ''Oedipus Rex'' * Palaephatus, ''On Unbelievable Tales'' 46. Hyacinthus (330 BCE) * Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus), Apollodorus, ''Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes.'' Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921
Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
* Ovid, ''Metamorphoses'' 10. 162–219 (1–8 CE) *
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
, ''Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes.'' Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1918
Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
* Philostratus the Elder, ''Images'' i.24 Hyacinthus (170–245 CE) * Philostratus the Younger, ''Images'' 14. Hyacinthus (170–245 CE) * Lucian, ''Dialogues of the Gods'' 14 (170 CE) * First Vatican Mythographer, 197. Thamyris et Musae


Secondary sources

* M. Bieber, 1964. ''Alexander the Great in Greek and Roman Art''. Chicago. * Hugh Bowden, 2005. ''Classical Athens and the Delphic Oracle: Divination and Democracy''. Cambridge University Press. * Walter Burkert, 1985. ''Greek Religion'' (Harvard University Press) III.2.5 ''passim'' * * Gantz, Timothy, ''Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources'', Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: (Vol. 1), (Vol. 2). * * Robert Graves, 1960. ''The Greek Myths'', revised edition. Penguin. * Miranda J. Green, 1997. ''Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend'', Thames and Hudson. * Karl Kerenyi, 1953. ''Apollon: Studien über Antiken Religion und Humanität'' revised edition. * Karl Kerenyi, 1951. ''The Gods of the Greeks'' * Mertens, Dieter; Schutzenberger, Margareta. ''Città e monumenti dei Greci d'Occidente: dalla colonizzazione alla crisi di fine V secolo a.C.''. Roma L'Erma di Bretschneider, 2006. . * Martin Nilsson, 1955. ''Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion'', vol. I. C.H. Beck. * Pauly–Wissowa, ''Realencyclopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft'': II, "Apollon". The best repertory of cult sites (Burkert). * Pfeiff, K.A., 1943. ''Apollon: Wandlung seines Bildes in der griechischen Kunst''. Traces the changing iconography of Apollo. * D.S.Robertson (1945) ''A handbook of Greek and Roman Architecture'' Cambridge University Press * William Smith (lexicographer), Smith, William; ''Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology'', London (1873)
"Apollo"
* *Spivey Nigel (1997) ''Greek art'' Phaedon Press Ltd.


External links



at the Greek Mythology Link, by Carlos Parada
The Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca 1650 images of Apollo
{{Authority control Apollo, Beauty gods Deities in the Iliad Divine twins Dragonslayers Greek Muses Health gods Homosexuality and bisexuality deities Knowledge gods LGBT themes in Greek mythology Light deities Maintenance deities Metamorphoses characters Music and singing gods Mythological Greek archers Mythological rapists Oracular gods Roman gods Solar gods