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Ampex is an
American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...

American
electronics company founded in 1944 by Alexander M. Poniatoff as a spin-off of Dalmo-Victor. The name AMPEX is a
portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the movement of people between distant ...

portmanteau
, created by its founder, which stands for Alexander M. Poniatoff Excellence.Abramso
The History of television, 1942 to 2000
– McFarland, 2003 – , page 286, Chapter 2, footnote 34 "1944 he founded Ampex (the name was created from his initials, AMP, plus "ex" for excellence)"
Today, Ampex operates as Ampex Data Systems Corporation, a subsidiary of Delta Information Systems, and consists of two business units. The Silicon Valley unit, known internally as Ampex Data Systems (ADS), manufactures digital data storage systems capable of functioning in harsh environments. The Colorado Springs, Colorado unit, referred to as Ampex Intelligent Systems (AIS), serves as a laboratory and hub for the company's line of industrial control systems, cyber security products and services and its artificial intelligence/
machine learning Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that can improve automatically through experience and by the use of data. It is seen as a part of artificial intelligence. Machine learning algorithms build a model based on sample data ...

machine learning
technology. Ampex's first great success was a line of
reel-to-reel tape recorder Reel-to-reel audio tape recording, also called open-reel recording, is Magnetic tape#Audio, magnetic tape audio recording in which the recording tape is spooled between reels. To prepare for use, the ''supply reel'' (or ''feed reel'') containin ...
s developed from the German wartime
Magnetophon Magnetophone, or simply Magnetophon, was the brand or model name of the pioneering reel-to-reel tape recorder developed by engineers of the German electronics company AEG in the 1930s, based on the magnetic tape invention by Fritz Pfleumer. AEG cr ...
system at the behest of
Bing Crosby Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby Jr. (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American singer, comedian and actor. The first multimedia star, Crosby was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He was a leader ...

Bing Crosby
. Ampex quickly became a leader in audio tape technology, developing many of the analog recording formats for both music and movies that remained in use into the 1990s. Starting in the 1950s, the company began developing
video tape recorder A video tape recorder (VTR) is a tape recorder An audio tape recorder, also known as a tape deck, tape player or tape machine or simply a tape recorder, is a sound recording and reproduction Sound recording and reproduction is an ...
s, and later introduced the
helical scan Helical scan is a method of recording high-frequency signals on magnetic tape Magnetic tape is a medium for , made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of . It was developed in Germany in 1928, based on . Devices that ...
concept that make home video players possible. They also introduced multi-track recording, slow-motion and instant playback television, and a host of other advances. Ampex's tape business was rendered obsolete during the 1990s, and the company turned to digital storage products. Ampex moved into digital storage for DoD Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) with the introduction of the first, true all digital flight test recorder. Ampex supports numerous major DoD programs with the US Air Force, US Army, US Marines, US Navy and other government entities (NASA, DHS and national labs). Ampex also works with all major DoD primes and integrators including
Boeing The Boeing Company () is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personal ...

Boeing
,
General Atomics General Atomics is an American energy and defense corporation headquartered in San Diego, California, specializing in research and technology development. This includes physics research in support of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion energy. The ...
,
LockheedLockheed (originally spelled Loughead) may refer to: Brands and enterprises * Lockheed Corporation, a former American aircraft manufacturer * Lockheed Martin, formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation and Martin Marietta ** Lockheed Mart ...

Lockheed
,
NorthropNorthrop may refer to: Businesses * Northrop Corporation, an American aircraft manufacturer formed in 1939 * Northrop Grumman, an American aircraft manufacturer formed in 1994 as a merger of the above company with Grumman Places United States * Nor ...

Northrop
,
Raytheon Raytheon Technologies Corporation is an American and headquartered in . It is one of the largest aerospace, intelligence services providers, and defense manufacturers in the world by revenue and market capitalization. Raytheon Technologies ...

Raytheon
and many others. Currently, Ampex is attempting to do more with the data stored on its network attached storage (NAS) devices. This includes adding encryption for secure data storage; algorithms focused on control system cyber security for infrastructure and aerospace platforms; and artificial intelligence/machine learning for automated entity identification and data analytics.


Origin

Russian-American inventor Alexander Matthew Poniatoff established the company in San Carlos,
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
, in 1944 as the Ampex Electric and Manufacturing Company. The company name came from his initials plus "ex" to avoid using the name AMP already in use (by Aircraft and Marine Products). During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Ampex was a subcontractor to Dalmo-Victor, manufacturing high quality electric motors and generators for radars that used
alnico Alnico is a family of s which in addition to iron are composed primarily of (Al), (Ni) and (Co), hence acronym ''al-ni-co''. They also include , and sometimes . Alnico alloys are , and are used to make s. Before the development of s in the 197 ...
5 magnets from
General Electric General Electric Company (GE) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate incorporated in New York State and headquartered in Boston. Until 2021, the company operated through GE Aviation, aviat ...
.The History of Magnetic Recording by Steven Schoenherr, University of San Diego, Nov 5, 2002
Ampex was initially set up in an abandoned loft-space above the Dalmo-Victor plant; eventually they would have offices at 1313 Laurel Street, San Carlos, California (at the intersection of Howard Avenue and Laurel Street). Near the end of the war, while serving in the U.S. Army Signal Corps, Major
Jack Mullin John Thomas Mullin (October 5, 1913 – June 24, 1999) was an American pioneer in the field of magnetic tape sound recording and made significant contributions to many other related fields. From his days at Santa Clara University to his death, ...
was assigned to investigate German radio and electronics experiments. He discovered the Magnetophons with AC biasing on a trip to Radio Frankfurt. The device produced much better fidelity than shellac records. The technological processes in tape recording and equipment developed by German companies before and during the 1939-45 War had copyrights which were effectively voided after Germany's 1945 surrender and defeat. Mullin acquired two
Magnetophon Magnetophone, or simply Magnetophon, was the brand or model name of the pioneering reel-to-reel tape recorder developed by engineers of the German electronics company AEG in the 1930s, based on the magnetic tape invention by Fritz Pfleumer. AEG cr ...
recorders and 50 reels of
BASF BASF SE is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovere ...

BASF
Type L tape, and brought them to America, where he produced modified versions. He demonstrated them to the Institute of Radio Engineers in San Francisco on May 16, 1946.
Bing Crosby Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby Jr. (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American singer, comedian and actor. The first multimedia star, Crosby was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He was a leader ...

Bing Crosby
, a big star on radio at the time, was receptive to the idea of pre-recording his radio programs. He disliked the regimentation of live broadcasts, and much preferred the relaxed atmosphere of the recording studio. He had already asked the
NBC The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), c ...
network to let him pre-record his 1944-45 series on transcription discs, but the network refused; so Crosby had withdrawn from live radio for a year and returned (this time to the recently created
ABC ABC are the first three letters of the Latin script known as the alphabet. ABC or abc may also refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Broadcasting * American Broadcasting Company, a commercial U.S. TV broadcaster ** Disney–ABC Television ...
) for the 1946-47 season, only reluctantly. In June 1947, Mullin, who was pitching the technology to the major Hollywood movie studios, got the chance to demonstrate his modified tape recorders to Crosby. When Crosby heard a demonstration of Mullin's tape recorders, he immediately saw the potential of the new technology and commissioned Mullin to prepare a test recording of his radio show. Ampex was finishing its prototype of the Model 200 tape recorder, and Mullin used the first two models as soon as they were built. After a successful test broadcast, ABC agreed to allow Crosby to pre-record his shows on tape. Crosby immediately appointed Mullin as his chief engineer and placed an order for $50,000 worth of the new recorders so that Ampex (then a small six-man concern) could develop a commercial production model from the prototypes. Crosby Enterprises was Ampex's West Coast representative until 1957.


Early tape recorders

The company's first tape recorder, the Ampex Model 200, was first shipped in April 1948. The first two units, serial numbers 1 and 2, were used to record Bing Crosby's show.History of The Early Days of Ampex Corporation As recalled by JOHN LESLIE and ROSS SNYDER, AES Historical Paper, Dec 17, 2010
/ref> The
American Broadcasting Company The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American multinational commercial broadcast television network A television network or broadcaster is a telecommunications network A telecommunications network is a group of nodes intercon ...
used these recorders along with Scotch 111 gamma ferric oxide coated acetate tape for the first-ever U.S. delayed
radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). They are generated by an electronic device ...

radio
broadcast of Bing Crosby's ''
Philco Radio Time ''Philco Radio Time'' was an old-time radio radio series starring entertainer Bing Crosby Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby Jr. (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American singer, comedian and actor. The first multimedia star, Crosby was o ...
''. Ampex tape recorders revolutionized the radio and recording industries because of their superior audio quality and ease of operation over audio disk cutting lathes. During the early 1950s, Ampex began marketing one- and two-track machines using tape. The line soon expanded into three- and four-track models using tape. In the early 1950s, Ampex moved to Redwood City, California. Ampex acquired Orradio Industries in 1959, which became the Ampex Magnetic Tape Division, headquartered in
Opelika, Alabama Opelika (pronounced ) is a city in and the county seat of Lee County, Alabama, Lee County in the east-central part of the U.S. state of Alabama. It is a principal city of the Auburn-Opelika Metropolitan Area. As of the 2010 United States Census ...
. This made Ampex a manufacturer of both recorders and tape. By the end of that decade Ampex products were much in demand by top
recording studio A recording studio is a specialized facility for Sound recording and reproduction, sound recording, Audio mixing (recorded music), mixing, and audio production of instrumental or vocal musical performances, spoken words, and other sounds. T ...

recording studio
s worldwide. In 1952, movie producer
Mike Todd Michael Todd (born Avrom Hirsch Goldbogen; June 22, 1909 – March 22, 1958) was an American theater and film producer, best known for his 1956 production of ''Around the World in 80 Days ''Around the World in Eighty Days'' (french: lin ...
asked Ampex to develop a high fidelity movie sound system using sound magnetically recorded on the film itself, as contrasted with the technology of the time, which used magnetic tracks on a separate celluloid base film (later commonly known as mag stock). The result of this development was the
CinemaScope CinemaScope is an anamorphic format, anamorphic lens series used, from 1953 to 1967, and less often later, for shooting widescreen films that, crucially, could be screened in theatres using existing equipment, albeit with a lens adapter. Its cre ...
/
Todd-AO Todd-AO is an American post-production company founded in 1953 by Mike Todd Michael Todd (born Avrom Hirsch Goldbogen; June 22, 1909 – March 22, 1958) was an American theater and film producer, best known for his 1956 production of ''A ...
motion picture sound system, which was first used in movies such as ''The Robe'' (1953) in 35mm and ''Oklahoma'' (1955) in 70mm (and also in 35mm). In 1960, the
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS, often pronounced ; also known as simply the Academy or the Motion Picture Academy) is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion ...
awarded Ampex an
Oscar Oscar, OSCAR, or The Oscar may refer to: People * Oscar (given name) Oscar or Oskar is a masculine given name of Irish origin. Etymology The name is derived from two elements in Irish: the first, ''os'', means "deer"; the second element, ' ...
for technical achievement as a result of this development.
Les Paul Lester William Polsfuss (June 9, 1915 – August 12, 2009), known as Les Paul, was an American jazz guitarist, jazz, country guitarist, country, and blues guitarist, songwriter, luthier, and inventor. He was one of the pioneers of the solid bod ...

Les Paul
, a friend of Crosby and a regular guest on his shows, had already been experimenting with overdubbed recordings on disc. He received an early portable Ampex Model 200A from Crosby. Using this machine, Les Paul invented "Sound on Sound" recording technology. He placed an additional playback head, located before the conventional erase/record/playback heads. This allowed Paul to play along with a previously recorded track, both of which were mixed together on to a new track. This was a destructive process because the original recording was recorded over.


Professional 8-track recorders

Ampex built a handful of multitrack machines during the late 1950s that could record as many as eight tracks on tape. The project was overseen by Ross Snyder, Ampex manager of special products. To make the multitrack recorder work, Snyder invented the
Sel-SyncSel-Sync or Selective Synchronous recording is the process of selectively using audio tape record heads as play back heads so that new signals can be recorded on other tracks in perfect sync with the existing tracks. Sel-sync recording dramatically ...
process, which used some tracks on the head for playback and other tracks on the head for recording. This made the newly recorded material be in sync with the existing recorded tracks. The first of these machines cost $10,000 and was installed in
Les Paul Lester William Polsfuss (June 9, 1915 – August 12, 2009), known as Les Paul, was an American jazz guitarist, jazz, country guitarist, country, and blues guitarist, songwriter, luthier, and inventor. He was one of the pioneers of the solid bod ...

Les Paul
's
home recordingHome recording is the practice of recording sound in a private home instead of a professional recording studio. A studio set up for home recording is called a home studio or project studio. Home recording is widely practiced by voice actors, narrat ...
studio by
David SarserDavid Sarser (January 31, 1921 – June 6, 2013)
Nolan & Taylor-Howe Funeral Home, Northport, NY
was ...
. In 1967, Ampex responded to demand by stepping up production of their 8-track machines with the production model MM 1000. Like earlier 8-track machines of this era, it used 1 inch tape.


16 and 24-track recorders

In 1966, Ampex built their first 16-track recorder, the model AG-1000, at the request of Mirasound Studios in New York City. In 1967, Ampex introduced a 16-track version of the MM 1000 which was the world's first 16-track professional tape recorder put into mass-production. Both used a tape transport design adapted from the video recording division. The 16-track MM-1000 quickly became legendary for its tremendous flexibility, reliability and outstanding sound quality. This brought about the "golden age" of large format analog multitrack recorders which would last into the mid-1990s. MCI built the first 24-track recorder (using 2 inch tape) in 1968 which was installed at
TTG Studios TTG Studios was a recording studio in Los Angeles, California, established by Amnon "Ami" Hadani and Tom Hidley. The company was founded on June 8, 1965. Background "TTG" stood for " Tilhas Tizig Gesheften", the name of a Jewish Brigade formed a ...
in Los Angeles. Later machines built by Ampex starting in 1969 would have as many as 24 tracks on 2 inch tape. In addition to this, the introduction of
SMPTE time code SMPTE timecode ( or ) is a set of cooperating standards to label individual frames of video or film with a timecode. The system is defined by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers in the SMPTE 12M specification. SMPTE revised th ...
allowed studios to run multiple machines in perfect synchronization, making the number of available tracks virtually unlimited. By the 1970s, Ampex faced tough competition from the Swiss company
Studer Studer is a designer and manufacturer of audio equipment for recording studios and broadcasters. The company was founded in Zürich , neighboring_municipalities = Adliswil, Dübendorf, Fällanden, Kilchberg, Zurich, Kilchberg, Maur, Swi ...

Studer
and Japanese manufacturers such as Otari and Sony (who also purchased the MCI brand in 1982). In 1979, Ampex introduced their most advanced 24-track recorder, the model ATR-124. The ATR-124 was ruggedly constructed and had audio specifications that nearly rivaled the first digital recording machines. However, sales of the ATR-124 were slow due to the machine's high price tag. Ampex sold only about 50 or 60 ATR-124 machines, and withdrew from the professional audio tape recorder market entirely in 1983.


The 1990s

By the 1990s, Ampex focused more on video recorders, instrumentation recorders, and data recorders. In 1991, Ampex sold their professional audio recorder line to Sprague Magnetics. The Ampex Recording Media Corporation spun off in 1995 as Quantegy Inc.; that company has ceased producing recording tape. File:Ampex1250.JPG, Ampex Model 1250 tube stereo tape recorder c. 1962 – Designed for the high end consumer market File:VinAd60Ampex2.jpg, Ad for Ampex 970 Stereo quartertrack tape deck Circa 1960 – The Model 970 included a small 5 watt stereo tube playback amplifier and speakers. File:Ampexampb.JPG, The 5 watt Ampex tube stereo amplifier as it lay hidden inside the Model 970 shown in photo above.


Video technology


Video Processing

While AMPEX are well recognised for their contribution to magnetic tape recording, they also had a huge impact on developments the whole video signal chain. They did rebadge some specialist low-volume OEM products to complete the package, but their in-house teams developed industry leading products in the following categories...


Digital Optics

ADO - Ampex Digital Optics provided comprehensive frame manipulation in 2 and 3 dimensions. Adjusting the aspect, size, and rotation of the image was performed continuously in real-time. An optional digital ‘combiner’ was available to perform the foreground layering and priority switching - to reduce the burden on the vision mixer with multi-channel effects.


Video Switching & Effects

AVC - The AVC range of vision mixers ranged from small, single buss devices up to the high-end Century Series, with multiple Mix/Effect busses, infinite re-entry and powerful keying and control software.


Editing controllers

The product line evolved quickly from manual editing on the actual VTR’s themselves to incorporate SMPTE timecode providing advanced timeline control. The RA-4000 and EDM-1 were fully functional early products, but soon evolved to the extremely powerful ACE family to compete with CMX and other edit controller brands .


Quadruplex Two-Inch tape

Starting in the early 1950s, RCA,
Bing Crosby Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby Jr. (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American singer, comedian and actor. The first multimedia star, Crosby was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He was a leader ...

Bing Crosby
and others tried to record
analog video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active d ...
on very fast-moving
magnetic tape Magnetic tape is a medium for , made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of . It was developed in Germany in 1928, based on . Devices that record and playback audio and video using magnetic tape are s and s respectively. A ...

magnetic tape
. As early as 1952, Ampex developed prototype video tape recorders that used a spinning head and relatively slow-moving tape. In early 1956, a team produced the first videotape recorder. A young, 19-year-old engineer
Ray Dolby Ray Milton Dolby (; January 18, 1933 – September 12, 2013) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United State ...
was also part of the team. Ampex demonstrated the VR-1000, which was the first of Ampex's line of
2 inch Quadruplex videotape 2-inch quadruplex videotape (also called 2″ quad video tape or quadraplex) was the first practical and commercially successful analog recording Analog or analogue may refer to: Computing and electronics * Analog signal, in which information i ...
recorders on April 14, 1956, at the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters in Chicago. The first magnetically recorded time-delayed
television network A television network or broadcaster is a telecommunications network A telecommunications network is a group of nodes In general, a node is a localized swelling (a "knot") or a point of intersection (a Vertex (graph theory), vertex). Node may ...
program using the new Ampex Quadruplex recording system was
CBS CBS is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S ...

CBS
's '' Douglas Edwards and the News'' on November 30, 1956. The "Quad" head assembly rotates at 14,400 rpm (
NTSC The National Television System Committee (NTSC)National Television System Committee (1951–1953), Report and Reports of Panel No. 11, 11-A, 12-19, with Some supplementary references cited in the Reports, and the Petition for adoption of transm ...
). The four head pieces (quad) are switched successively so that recorded stripes cross the video portion (most of the tape middle, audio is on one edge, control track is on the other) so that head to tape write speed is well in excess of the physical motion. They wrote the video vertically across the width of a tape that was wide and ran at per second. This allowed hour-long television programs to be recorded on one reel of tape. In 1956, one reel of tape cost $300; and Ampex advertised the cost of the recorder as $45,000. A version was released later, and this required a new, narrower headwheel. This vertical writing facilitated mechanical editing, once the control track was developed to display the pulse that indicates where a frame ends and the next one begins. Later, Ampex developed electronic editing. The
National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences The National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (NATAS) is an American professional Service club, service organization founded in 1955 for "the advancement of the arts and sciences of television and the promotion of Creative Leadership, cre ...
awarded Ampex its first Emmy in 1957 for this development. Ampex received a total of 12 Emmys for its technical video achievements. In 1959,
Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power o ...

Richard Nixon
, then Vice President, and
Nikita Khrushchev Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (– 11 September 1971) served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and as Premier of the Soviet Unio ...
held discussions at the Moscow Trade Fair, which became known as the "" because they were mostly held in the kitchen of a suburban model house. These discussions were recorded on an Ampex color videotape recorder, and during the debate Nixon pointed this out as one of the many American technological advances. In 1967, Ampex introduced the Ampex VR-3000 portable broadcast video recorder, which revolutionized the recording of
broadcast qualityBroadcast quality is a term stemming from quad videotape to denote the quality achieved by professional video cameras and time base correctors (TBC) used for broadcast television Broadcast Broadcasting is the distribution (business), distributi ...
television in the field without the need for long cables and large support vehicles. Broadcast quality images could now be shot anywhere, including from airplanes, helicopters and boats. The Quadruplex format dominated the broadcast industry for a quarter of a century. The format was licensed to
RCA The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919. It was initially a patent trust owned by General Electric General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinatio ...
for use in their "television tape recorders." Ampex's invention revolutionized the
television production A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set A television set or television receiver, more commonly called the television, TV, TV set, tube, telly, or tele, is a device that combines a ...
industry by eliminating the
kinescope Kinescope , shortened to kine , also known as telerecording in Britain, is a recording of a television program on motion picture film Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures A film, also calle ...
process of time-shifting television programs, which required the use of motion picture film. For archival purposes, the kinescope method continued to be used for some years; film was still preferred by archivists. The Ampex broadcast video tape recorder facilitated
time-zone A time zone is an area that observes a uniform standard time for legal, Commerce, commercial and social purposes. Time zones tend to follow the boundaries between Country, countries and their Administrative division, subdivisions instead of s ...
broadcast delay so that networks could air programming at the same hour in various time zones. Ampex had trademarked the name "
video tape Videotape is magnetic tape Magnetic tape is a medium for , made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of . It was developed in Germany in 1928, based on . Devices that record and playback audio and video using magnetic ta ...
", so competitor RCA called the medium "TV tape" or "television tape". The terms eventually became
genericized A generic trademark, also known as a genericized trademark or proprietary eponym, is a trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-markThe styling of ''trademark'' as a single word is predominantly used in the United States an ...
, and "videotape" is commonly used today. While the quadruplex recording system per se is no longer in use, the principle evolved into the helical scanning technique used in virtually all video tape machines, such as those using the consumer formats of
VHS VHS (Video Home System) is a for consumer-level on tape . From the 1950s, video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized s (VTRs). At that time, the expensive devices were used only i ...

VHS
, Sony
Betamax Betamax (also known as Beta, as in its logo) is a consumer-level analog-recording and cassette Cassette may refer to: Technology * Cassette tape (or ''musicassette'', ''audio cassette'', ''cassette tape'', or ''tape''), a worldwide standard f ...
and
Video 2000 Video 2000 (also known as V2000, with the tape standard Video Compact Cassette, or VCC) is a consumer A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, orders, or uses purchased goods, products, or Service (economics), services primarily ...
. Sony
Betacam Betacam is a family of half-inch professional videocassette Videotape is magnetic tape Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film Plastic ...
was successful as a professional format, but operated with a different recording system and faster tape speed than Betamax. One of the key engineers in the development of the Quadruplex video recorder for Ampex was Ray Dolby, who worked under Charlie Ginsburg and went on to form
Dolby Laboratories Dolby Laboratories, Inc. (often shortened to Dolby Labs and known simply as Dolby) is an American company specializing in Noise reduction#In audio, audio noise reduction, Audio data compression, audio encoding/compression and spatial audio. Do ...
, a pioneer in
audio noise reduction Noise reduction is the process of removing noise Noise is unwanted sound considered unpleasant, loud or disruptive to hearing. From a physics standpoint, noise is indistinguishable from desired sound, as both are vibrations through a medium, ...
systems. Dolby's contribution to the videotape system was limited to the mathematics behind the reactance tube FM modulator, as videotape then used FM modulation for the video portion. Another contributor designed the FM modulator itself. Dolby left Ampex to seek a PhD in physics in England, which is where Dolby Labs was later founded, before moving back to San Francisco. Dolby's brother Dale was also an engineer at Ampex.


VR-5000 and VR-8000

In 1961, Ampex introduced the first One-Inch
helical scan Helical scan is a method of recording high-frequency signals on magnetic tape Magnetic tape is a medium for , made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of . It was developed in Germany in 1928, based on . Devices that ...
video recorders, the Ampex 2 inch helical VTRs, which recorded video using helical scan recording technology on tape.


Ampex 2 inch helical VTR

Ampex 2 inch helical VTR
s were manufactured from 1963 to 1970. Model VR-1500 for home. The VR-660 for Broadcast television systems, industrial companies, educational institutions, and a few for In-flight entertainment. The VR-1500 and VR-660 found service at educational institutions especially due to their relatively low cost vs. quadruplex VTRs. These machines were simple to operate, reliable, small in size and produced, for their time, very good video without the complexity of the larger and much more complex 2" Quad machines.


HS-100 & HS-200 "slo-mo" disc recorder

In March 1967, Ampex introduced the HS-100 video disc recorder. The system was developed by Ampex at the request of the
American Broadcasting Company The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American multinational commercial broadcast television network A television network or broadcaster is a telecommunications network A telecommunications network is a group of nodes intercon ...
(ABC) for a variety of sports broadcast uses. It was first demonstrated on the air on March 18, 1967, when ABC's '' Wide World of Sports'' televised the "World Series of Skiing" from
Vail Vail is a Colorado municipalities#Home rule municipality, home rule municipality in Eagle County, Colorado, Eagle County, Colorado, United States. The population of the town was 5,305 in 2010. The town, home to Vail Ski Resort, the largest ski mo ...
,
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain West The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic ...

Colorado
. The video was recorded on analog magnetic disc. The disc weighed and rotated at 60rps, 3600rpm (50rps in
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). One
NTSC The National Television System Committee (NTSC)National Television System Committee (1951–1953), Report and Reports of Panel No. 11, 11-A, 12-19, with Some supplementary references cited in the Reports, and the Petition for adoption of transm ...
unit could record 30 seconds of video,
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units 36 seconds. The video could then be played back in slow motion, stop action to freeze frame. A more deluxe version, the HS-200, was introduced around 1971, and provided a large control console with variable speed playback. This made it ideal for
instant replay Instant replay or action replay is a video reproduction of something that recently occurred which was both shot and broadcast live TV, live. The video, having already been shown live, is replayed in order for viewers to see again and analyze what ...
for sports events and precise timing control in post production service.
CBS-TV CBS is an Television in the United States, American commercial broadcasting, commercial broadcast television network, television and radio network that serves as the Flagship (broadcasting), flagship property of the CBS Entertainment Group div ...
was the first to use the technique during live sportscasts, though it was quickly adopted by all American TV networks. The HS-200, which was an HS-100 connected to a control console when combined called the HS-200, had greater precise frame and timing control capability, lending itself to
post-production Post-production is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, audio production, and photography. Post-production includes all stages of production occurring after shooting or recording individual program segments. Traditional (analog ...
applications like
special effect Special effects (often abbreviated as SFX, SPFX, F/X or simply FX) are illusions or visual tricks used in the theatre, film, television, video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or inpu ...
s and titles. The HS-200 had a frame accurate timing computer that enabled frame-accurate cuts and dissolve transitions by way of a two-input video switcher. Slow-motion sequences could likewise be programmed and could be "triggered" to begin via an external control pulse such as might come from an external VTR editor like the Ampex VR-2000 VTR with Editec. The HS-200 was the first system capable of single-frame video animation recording, using magnetic discs as opposed to videotape. The HS-200 also provided a readout with specific frame numbers showing from the 900 frames available (NTSC version.) Sequences could be triggered to start from any of these 900 frames with frame-accurate repeatability for creative fine tuning of sequence start and end points.


Type A

1 inch type A videotape (designated Type A by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers,
SMPTE The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) (, rarely ), founded in 1916 as the Society of Motion Picture Engineers or SMPE, is a global professional association of engineers, technologists, and executives working in the m ...
) was an open-reel helical scan videotape format developed by Ampex in 1965, one of the first standardized open-reel videotape formats in the width; most others of that size at that time were proprietary.


Type C

1 inch type C videotape (designated Type C by SMPTE) was a professional open-reel videotape format co-developed and introduced by Ampex and
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
in 1976. It became the replacement in the professional video and television broadcast industries for the then-incumbent Quadruplex.


D2

D2 is a digital video tape format created by Ampex and other manufacturers (through a standards group of SMPTE) and introduced at the 1988 NAB (
National Association of Broadcasters The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) is a trade association A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by businesses t ...
) convention as a lower-cost alternative to the D-1 format. Like D-1, D-2 video is uncompressed; however, it saves bandwidth and other costs by sampling a fully encoded NTSC or PAL
composite video Composite video is an analog video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electro ...

composite video
signal, and storing it directly to magnetic tape, rather than sampling component video. This is known as digital composite.


DCT & DST

Digital Component Technology (DCT) and Data Storage Technology (DST) are VTR and data storage devices respectively, created by Ampex in 1992. Both were similar to the D1 and D2 VTR formats, using a width, with the DCT format using DCT (
discrete cosine transform A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a finite sequence of data points In statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data Data (; ) are ...
)
video compression In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction is the process of encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation. Any particular compression is either Lossy compression, lossy or Lossless comp ...
, also its namesake. The DCT and DST formats yielded relatively high capacity and speed for data and video. Double-density DST data storage was introduced in 1996. The final generation of these products were quad density, introduced in 2000, resulting in a large cartridge holding 660GB of data.


Milestones

* In 1948, the first tape-delayed U.S. radio program was broadcast by using an Ampex Model 200 tape recorder. * In May 1949 Model 300 introduced improvements in audio head, tape drive and tape path. * In 1950, Model 400 introduced lower cost professional quality audio recorder, soon to be replaced by the Model 400A, which was the logical precursor of the Model 350. * In 1950, Ampex introduced the first "dedicated" instrumentation recorder, Model 500, built for the
U.S. Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = " Anchors Aweigh" ...
. * In April 1953 Model 350 introduced audio recorder to replace the Model 400/Model 400A. The Model 350 had more simplicity and durability. Ampex released the 35mm four-track
CinemaScope CinemaScope is an anamorphic format, anamorphic lens series used, from 1953 to 1967, and less often later, for shooting widescreen films that, crucially, could be screened in theatres using existing equipment, albeit with a lens adapter. Its cre ...
stereo reproduction system. * In May 1954 Model 600 introduced mastering quality audio portable recorder. Models 3200-3300 high-speed duplicators also introduced. * In 1954, in a recording studio equipped with an Ampex
reel-to-reel audio tape recording Reel-to-reel audio tape recording, also called open-reel recording, is magnetic tape audio recording in which the recording tape is spooled between reel A reel is an object around which lengths of another material (usually long and flexible ...
machine, an unknown truck driver named
Elvis Presley Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer and actor. Dubbed the " King of Rock and Roll", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century. His energized interpreta ...

Elvis Presley
recorded his historic first single, "That's All Right" at Sun Studios in Memphis. Also that year, Ampex introduced the first multi-track audio recorder derived from multi-track data recording technology. * In 1955, Ampex released the 70mm/35mm six-track/four-track
Todd-AO Todd-AO is an American post-production company founded in 1953 by Mike Todd Michael Todd (born Avrom Hirsch Goldbogen; June 22, 1909 – March 22, 1958) was an American theater and film producer, best known for his 1956 production of ''A ...
system, and an improved 35mm four-track system. * On March 14, 1956, The Ampex VRX-1000 (later renamed the Mark IV) videotape recorder is introduced at the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters in Chicago. This is the first practical videotape recorder and is hailed as a major technological breakthrough. CBS goes on air with the first videotape delayed broadcast, Douglas Edwards and The News, on November 30, 1956, from Los Angeles, California, using the Ampex Mark IV. * In March 1957, Ampex won an Emmy award for the invention of the Video Tape Recorder (VTR). * In 1958, NASA selected Ampex data recorders and magnetic tape. It has been used for virtually all U.S. space missions since. * In 1959, the Nixon-Khrushchev was recorded on Ampex videotape. The fact that the debate was being videotaped was mentioned by Nixon as an example of American technological development. * In 1960, The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented Ampex with an Oscar for technical achievement. * January 1961 Helical scan recording was invented by Ampex. The technology behind the worldwide consumer video revolution; it is used in all home Video Tape Recorders today. * In 1963, Ampex technology was used to show replays of the live assassination of Lee Harvey Oswald. * In 1963, Ampex introduced EDITEC, electronic video editing, allowing broadcast television editors frame-by-frame recording control, simplifying tape editing and the ability to make animation effects possible. This was the basis for all subsequent editing systems. * On December 7, 1963 – Instant Replay is used for the first time during the live transmission of the Army Navy Game by its inventor, director, Tony Verna. * In April 1964, Ampex introduced the VR-2000 high band videotape recorder, the first ever to be capable of color fidelity required for high quality color broadcasting. * February 1965 introduced VR-303\VR-7000 closed-circuit video tape recorder. * May 1965 introduced AG-350 first all-transistorized audio recorder. * July 1965 introduced VR-660B VTR advanced version of VR-660; replaces VR-660/1500. * November 1965 introduced VR-7000 compact portable closed circuit video tape recorder. * During 1966–1967, Ampex FR-900 drives were used to videotape the first images of the
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

Earth
from the
Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its plane ...

Moon
, as part of the
Lunar Orbiter program The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned space mission, unmanned Moon, lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States from 1966 through 1967. Intended to help select Apollo program, Apollo landing sites by mapping the Moon's su ...
. , two drives are being refurbished to recover the images as part of the
Lunar Orbiter Image Recovery Project The Lunar Orbiter Image Recovery Project (LOIRP) is a project to digitize the original analog data tapes from the five Lunar Orbiter spacecraft that were sent to the Moon in 1966 and 1967; it is funded by NASA, SkyCorp, SpaceRef Interactive, and ...
(LOIRP). * In 1967, ABC used the Ampex HS-100 disk recorder for
slow-motion Slow motion (commonly abbreviated as slo-mo or slow-mo) is an effect in film-making whereby time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparently irreversible process, ...
playback of downhill skiing on the program ''World Series of Skiing'' in
Vail Vail is a Colorado municipalities#Home rule municipality, home rule municipality in Eagle County, Colorado, Eagle County, Colorado, United States. The population of the town was 5,305 in 2010. The town, home to Vail Ski Resort, the largest ski mo ...
,
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain West The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic ...

Colorado
. This was the first use of slow-motion instant replay in sporting events. * In 1968, the introduction of the Ampex VR-3000 revolutionizes video recording: the first truly portable VTR. It is used at the '68 Summer Olympics in Mexico City to follow the world's cross-country runners for the first time in Broadcast history. * In 1969, Ampex introduced Videofile, still in use today at
Scotland Yard Scotland Yard (officially New Scotland Yard) is a metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept. Etymology The words ''metonymy'' ...

Scotland Yard
for the electronic storage and retrieval of fingerprints. * In 1972, Ampex introduced the ACR-25, the first automated robotic library system for the recording and playback of
television commercial A television advertisement (also called a television commercial, commercial, advert, TV advert or simply an ad) is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization. It conveys a message promoting, and aiming to market, ...
s. Each commercial was recorded on an individual cartridge. These cartridges were then loaded into a large rotating carousel. Using sophisticated mechanics and vacuum pneumatics, the "carts" were loaded into and extracted from the machine with an 8-second cycle time for spots under 61 seconds. This freed TV stations from loading individual machines with spots in real time, or preparing spot reels in advance of a broadcast. The TV newsroom also began to use the ACR-25 to run news stories because of its random access capability. The ACR-25 used AVR-1 signal, servo, and timebase systems, and a machine-programming control bay designed by Ampex engineer E. Stanley Busby. Both machines had a lockup time of 200 milliseconds, as distinct from the industry standard 5 second pre-roll. This was accomplished with optical-vacuum reel servos providing the vacuum capstan negligible inertial mass to control, and predictive digital servos that could re-frame vertically at horizontal rate, as well as timebase correction with a window exceeding 64 microseconds (compared to the VR-2000's window of less than 5 microseconds). * Also in 1970, Ampex started its own record label, Ampex Records. Its biggest hit was "We Gotta Get You A Woman" by
Todd Rundgren Todd Harry Rundgren (born June 22, 1948) is an American multi-instrumentalist, singer, songwriter, and record producer who has performed a diverse range of styles as a solo artist and as a member of the band Utopia. He is known for his sophisti ...

Todd Rundgren
(as "Runt"), reaching #20 on the charts in 1970. * In 1978, the Ampex Video Art (AVA) video graphics system is used by artist
LeRoy Neiman LeRoy Neiman (born LeRoy Leslie Runquist, June 8, 1921 – June 20, 2012) was an American artist known for his brilliantly colored, expressionist paintings and screenprints of athletes, musicians, and sporting events. Early life Neiman was ...

LeRoy Neiman
on air during
Super Bowl XII Super Bowl XII was an American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular American football field, fie ...
. AVA, the first video paint system, allows the graphic artist, using an electronic pen, to illustrate in a new medium, video. This innovation paved the way for today's high quality electronic graphics, such as those used in video games. * In 1983, Ampex introduced the DCRS digital cassette recorder, offering compact cassette storage with the equivalent of 16 digital or 8 DDR instrumentation reels on one cassette. Also, Partial Response Maximum Likelihood (PRML) data decoding technology has its first use in Ampex's DCRsi recorders. This technology is now commonly used in high performance computer disk drives and other high density magnetic data storage devices. * In 1982, Ampex introduced DST (high-performance computer mass storage products able to store half the Library of Congress in of floor space) and DCT, the first digital component post production system using image compression technology to produce high quality images. * In 1985, Ampex introduced the DIS 120i and DIS 160i dual port, data/instrumentation recorders. These made it possible for the first time to capture real time instrumentation data and then utilize the same recorder to process the data in a computer environment through its second port using SCSI-2 protocol. * In 2005, Ampex received its 12th Emmy award for its invention of slow-motion color recording and playback. Also honored with Lifetime Achievement Awards were the members of the engineering team that created the videotape recorder when they worked for Ampex: Charles Andersen,
Ray Dolby Ray Milton Dolby (; January 18, 1933 – September 12, 2013) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United State ...
, Shelby Henderson, Fred Pfost, and the late
Charles Ginsburg Charles Paulson Ginsburg (July 27, 1920 – April 9, 1992) was an American engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structu ...
and Alex Maxey.


Sticky-shed syndrome

Some master tapes and other recordings predominantly from the 1970s and 1980s have degraded due to the so-called
sticky-shed syndromeImage:Magtape1.jpg, 200px, Reel of magnetic audiotape Sticky-shed syndrome is a condition created by the deterioration of the binders in a magnetic tape, which hold the ferric oxide magnetizable coating to its plastic carrier, or which hold the thin ...
. When sticky-shed syndrome occurs, the binding agent deteriorates, resulting in the magnetic coating coming off the base and either sticking to the backing of the tape layer wound on top of it (resulting in dropout), or being scraped off and deposited on the tape heads while lifting the head off the tape, degrading the treble. The problem has been reported on a number of makes of tape (usually back-coated tapes), including Ampex tapes. Ampex filed for a baking process ("A typical temperature used is and a typical time is 16 hours") to attempt to recover such tapes, allowing them to be played once more and the recordings transferred to new media. The problems have been reported on tapes of type 406/407, 456/457, 2020/373.


Branding

* In 1959, Ampex acquired Orradio Industries and it became the Ampex Magnetic Tape Division. * In 1995, Ampex divested this division, then called the Ampex Recording Media Corporation. This became Quantegy, Inc., which later changed its name to the current
QuantegyImage:Quantegy-logo.jpg, right Quantegy Inc. was a manufacturer of magnetic tape and professional external hard drives based in Opelika, Alabama. Their tape products were primarily used in analog audio and video recording studios, but they also have ...
Recording Solutions. * In January 2005, having previously filed for bankruptcy protection, Quantegy closed its manufacturing facility in Opelika. * In October 2014, Ampex Data Systems Corporation was sold to Delta Information Systems, but retains the rights to the Ampex name. *In 2017, Ampex established a second business unit, Ampex Intelligent Systems (AIS), in Colorado Springs Colorado, and branded its Silicon Valley business unit Ampex Data Systems (ADS).


Record labels

Ampex Records started in 1970. Its biggest hit was "We Gotta Get You A Woman" by Todd Rundgren (as "Runt"), reaching #20 on the ''Billboard'' Hot 100 charts in 1970. Ampex also originated three subsidiary labels: Bearsville, Big Tree, and Lizard. Ampex Records ceased around
1973 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day since the day mar ...
and Bearsville and Big Tree switched distribution to Warner Bros. Records and
Bell Records Bell Records was an American record label founded in 1952 in New York City by Arthur Shimkin, the owner of the children's record label Golden Records, and initially a unit of Pocket Books, after the rights to the name were acquired from Benny ...
, respectively with Lizard becoming an independent entity. Later on, Big Tree was picked up by
Atlantic Records Atlantic Recording Corporation (simply known as Atlantic Records) is an American record label A record label, or record company, is a brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good ...
.


Legal history

In 2005, iNEXTV, a wholly owned subsidiary of respondent Ampex Corporation, brought a defamation lawsuit against a poster on an Internet message board who posted messages critical of them (Ampex Corp. v. Cargle (2005), Cal.App.4th ). The poster, a former employee, responded with an anti-
SLAPP A strategic lawsuit against public participation (SLAPP), SLAPP suit, or intimidation lawsuit is intended to censor Censor may refer to: People with the name *Cato the Elder Marcus Porcius Cato (; 234–149 BC), also known as Cato the Cen ...
suit and eventually recovered his attorney fees. The case was unique in that it involved the legality of speech in an electronic public forum.


Current situation

After being sold to Delta Information Systems in 2014, two former subsidiaries of Ampex Corporation continue business as part of the Ampex legacy.  Ampex Data Systems Corporation (ADSC) headquartered in Silicon Valley, and Ampex Japan Ltd.  These are the only two Ampex businesses that still exist as more than "in name only" entities.  ADSC has two business units.  The Silicon Valley unit, Ampex Data Systems (ADS), continues the Ampex tradition in the storage industry by manufacturing ruggedized, high-capacity, high-performance digital data storage systems. The Colorado Springs, Colorado unit, Ampex Intelligent Systems (AIS), is the center for company's line of industrial control system cyber security products and services and its artificial intelligence/machine learning technology which is available in all of the products. The Ampex video system is now obsolete, but many thousands of quadruplex videotape recordings remain. Machines that survive are used to transfer archival recordings to modern digital video formats. Ampex Corporation supported the Ampex Museum of Magnetic Recording, started by Peter Hammar in 1982. "The Ampex Museum of Magnetic Recording" by curator Peter Hammar. "Electronic Servicing & Technology" magazine 1982 June. The contents of that museum were donated to Stanford in 2001. A project is now underway to curate Ampex artifacts in physical and digital form. This project will find a permanent home in Redwood City for the Ampex Museum and digital artifacts will be curated at AmpexMuseum.org"AmpexMuseum.org"
by Hammar, Wilson, Parker
This project is being funded by contributions from former Ampex employees.


Photo gallery

image:Ampex VR 1000-B.JPG, The VR 1000-B model (1961) image:Ampex-Am-Tech-Color-Tech-Proc-Amp.jpg, Ampex VR2000 Amtec, Colortec, and Procamp image:Ampex VR-2000 20131126.jpg, Ampex VR-2000 2-inch Quadruplex VTR (1960) image:Ampex-AVR-2-Quad-TVR.jpg , Ampex AVR-2 2-inch Quad VTR image:Ampex-avr3.jpg , Ampex AVR-3 Quad VTR image:Ampex-VR8800-VTR-Type-A.jpg , Ampex VR8800 VTR, Type-A image:Ampex_portable_reel_tape_recorder.JPG, Ampex portable reel tape recorder image:HS-100-slo-mo-ampex.jpg , Ampex HS-100 slow-mo unit image:Ampex VPR6.jpg , Ampex VPR6 VTR image:Sun Studio's Ampex Reel to Reel.jpg, Ampex 350 Reel to Reel image:Ampex_model_300_½"_3tr_(Sun_Studio).jpg, Ampex Reel to Reel, model 300-3 " tape image:Ampex_model_300_preamps_(Sun_Studio).jpg, Ampex model 300 preamps and Sel-Sync unit image:AMPEX_1_ZOLL_A_VPR_1.jpg, Ampex VTR, VPR 1, Type A VTR image:Ampex video tape, National Museum of American History.jpg, Ampex video tape at the
National Museum of American History The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects, preserves, and displays the heritage of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or Ame ...

National Museum of American History


See also

* Ampex Golden Reel Award * Erhard Kietz


References


Further reading


Ampex Corporation Records, ca. 1944–1999
(c.577 linear ft.) are housed in th

a
Stanford University Libraries
* FindLaw Ampex Corp v. Cargle (200


External links

* {{Authority control Video storage Companies based in Hayward, California Electronics companies of the United States Defunct record labels of the United States Electronics companies established in 1944 American companies established in 1944 1944 establishments in California Record labels established in 1970 Record labels disestablished in 1973 Companies that filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2008 Video equipment manufacturers 2014 mergers and acquisitions