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American Jews or Jewish Americans are
Americans Americans are the citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recogn ...
who are
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jews
, whether by
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
,
ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancest ...

ethnicity
,
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...

culture
, or
nationality Nationality is a of a person in , establishing the person as a subject, a ''national'', of a . It affords the state jurisdiction over the person and affords the person the protection of the state against other states. Article 15 of the stat ...
. Today the Jewish community in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
consists primarily of
Ashkenazi Jews Ashkenazi Jews ( are a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in ...
, who descend from diaspora Jewish populations of
Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions and generalised locations * Central Africa, a region in the centre of Africa ...

Central
and
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical reg ...

Eastern Europe
and comprise about 90–95% of the American Jewish population. During the colonial era, prior to the mass immigration of Ashkenazim,
Spanish and Portuguese Jews Spanish and Portuguese Jews, also called Western Sephardim, Iberian Jews, or Peninsular Jews are a distinctive sub-group of Sephardic Jews who are largely descended from Jews who lived as New Christians in the Iberian Peninsula during the im ...
represented the bulk of America's then-small Jewish population, and while their descendants are a minority today, they, along with an array of other Jewish communities, represent the remainder of American Jews, including other more recent
Sephardi Jews Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews, ''Sephardim'',, Modern Hebrew: ''Sefaraddim'', Tiberian Hebrew, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm, also , ''Ye'hude Sepharad'', lit. "The Jews of Spain", es, Judíos sefardíes (or ), pt, Judeus sefarditas ...
,
Mizrahi Jews Mizrahi Jews ( he, יהודי המִזְרָח) or ''Mizrahim'' (), also sometimes referred to as Mizrachi (), Edot HaMizrach (; ) or Oriental Jews, are the descendants of the local Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO ...
, Beta Israel-Ethiopian Jews, various other ethnically Jewish communities, as well as a smaller number of
converts to Judaism Conversion to Judaism ( he, גיור, ''giyur'') is the process by which gentile, non-Jews adopt the Judaism, Jewish religion and become members of the Jewish ethnoreligion, ethnoreligious community. It thus resembles both religious conversion, ...
. The American Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, encompassing the full spectrum of Jewish religious observance. Depending on religious definitions and varying population data, the United States has the largest or second largest Jewish community in the world, after
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
. As of 2020, the American Jewish population is estimated at 7.6 million people, accounting for 2.4% of the total US population. This includes 4.9 million adults who identify their religion as Jewish, 1.2 million Jewish adults who identify with no religion, and 1.6 million Jewish children.


History

Jews were present in the
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
since the mid-17th century. However, they were small in number, with at most 200 to 300 having arrived by 1700.Atkin, Maurice, et al. (2007). "United States of America." ''Encyclopaedia Judaica''. 2nd Ed. Vol. 20. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 302–404; here p. 305. Those early arrivals were mostly
Sephardi Jewish Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews, ''Sephardim'',, Modern Hebrew: ''Sefaraddim'', Tiberian Hebrew, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm, also , ''Ye'hude Sepharad'', lit. "The Jews of Spain", es, Judíos sefardíes (or sefarditas), pt, Judeus se ...
immigrants, of Western Sephardic (also known as Spanish and Portuguese Jewish) ancestry, but by 1720
Ashkenazi Jews Ashkenazi Jews ( are a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in ...
from diaspora communities in Central and Eastern Europe predominated. The English
Plantation Act 1740 A plantation is a large-scale estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. The crops that are grown include cotton, coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar cane, opium, sisal, oil seeds, oil pa ...
for the first time permitted Jews to become British citizens and emigrate to . Despite some being denied the ability to vote or hold office in local jurisdictions, Sephardi Jews became active in community affairs in the 1790s, after achieving political equality in the five states where they were most numerous.Alexander DeConde,
Ethnicity, Race, and American Foreign Policy: A History
', p. 52
Until about 1830, Charleston, South Carolina had more Jews than anywhere else in North America. Large-scale Jewish immigration commenced in the 19th century, when, by mid-century, many
German Jews The history of the Jews in Germany goes back at least to the year 321, and continued through the Early Middle Ages (5th to 10th centuries CE) and High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the periodization, period o ...
had arrived, migrating to the United States in large numbers due to antisemitic laws and restrictions in their countries of birth. They primarily became merchants and shop-owners. Gradually early Jewish arrivals from the east coast would travel westward, and in the fall of 1819 the first Jewish religious services west of the Appalachian Range were conducted during the
High Holidays The High Holidays also known as the High Holy Days, or Days of Awe in Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-ori ...
in
Cincinnati Cincinnati ( ) is a city in the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the ...

Cincinnati
, the oldest Jewish community in the Midwest. Gradually the Cincinnati Jewish community would adopt novel practices under the leadership Rabbi
Isaac Meyer Wise Isaac Mayer Wise (29 March 1819, Steingrub (now Lomnička, Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is border ...
, the father of Reform Judaism in the United States, such as the inclusion of women in ''
minyan In , a ''minyan'' ( he, מניין \ מִנְיָן ''minyán'' , (noun) ''count, number''; pl. ''minyaním'' ) is the of ten Jewish adults required for certain s. In more traditional streams of Judaism, only males 13 and older may constitu ...
''.
Jewish Encyclopedia bibliography: * I. M. Wise, ''Reminiscences'', transl. from the German and ed. by David Philipson, Cincinnati, 1901; * ''Selected Writings of Isaac M. Wise'', with a biography by David Philipson and Louis Grossmann, ib. 1900; * ''
The American Israelite ''The American Israelite'' is an English-language Jewish newspaper published weekly in Cincinnati, Ohio. Founded in 1854 as ''The Israelite'' and assuming its present name in 1874, it is the longest-running English-language Jewish newspaper still ...
'', 1854–1900, , and the Jubilee number, 30 June 1904.
A large community grew in the region with the arrival of
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
and
Lithuanian Jews Lithuanian Jews or Litvaks are Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first ac ...
in the latter half of the 1800s, leading to the establishment of
Manischewitz Manischewitz (; he, מנישביץ) is a leading brand of kosher ''Kashrut'' (also ''kashruth'' or ''kashrus'', ) is a set of Food and drink prohibitions, dietary laws dealing with the foods that Jews are permitted to eat and how those food ...
, one of the largest producers of American Kosher products now based in New Jersey, and the oldest continuously published Jewish newspaper in the United States, and second-oldest continuous published in the world, ''
The American Israelite ''The American Israelite'' is an English-language Jewish newspaper published weekly in Cincinnati, Ohio. Founded in 1854 as ''The Israelite'' and assuming its present name in 1874, it is the longest-running English-language Jewish newspaper still ...
'', established in 1854 and still extant in Cincinnati. By 1880 there were approximately 250,000 Jews in the United States, many of them being the educated, and largely secular, German Jews, although a minority population of the older
Sephardi Jewish Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews, ''Sephardim'',, Modern Hebrew: ''Sefaraddim'', Tiberian Hebrew, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm, also , ''Ye'hude Sepharad'', lit. "The Jews of Spain", es, Judíos sefardíes (or sefarditas), pt, Judeus se ...
families remained influential. Jewish migration to the United States increased dramatically in the early 1880s, as a result of persecution and economic difficulties in parts of Eastern Europe. Most of these new immigrants were
Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic languages, Germanic family of languages (the others being the ...
-speaking Ashkenazi Jews, most of whom arrived from poor diaspora communities of the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
and the
Pale of Settlement The Pale of Settlement (russian: Черта́ осе́длости, '; yi, דער תּחום-המושבֿ, '; he, תְּחוּם הַמּוֹשָב, ') was a western region of the Russian Empire with varying borders that existed from 1791 to ...
, located in modern-day
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
,
Lithuania Lithuania (; lt, Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countr ...
,
Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk Minsk ( be, Мінск , russian: link=no, Минск) is the capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislach (Berezina), Svislach and the now subterranean Nyamiha, Niam ...

Belarus
,
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
and
Moldova Moldova (, ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to ...

Moldova
. During the same period, great numbers of Ashkenazic Jews also arrived from
Galicia Galicia may refer to: Geographic regions * Galicia (Spain), a region and autonomous community of northwestern Spain ** Gallaecia, a Roman province ** The post-Roman Kingdom of the Suebi, also called the Kingdom of Gallaecia ** The medieval Kingdom ...
, at that time the most impoverished region of the
Austro-Hungarian empire Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exer ...
with a heavy Jewish urban population, driven out mainly by economic reasons. Many Jews also emigrated from
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...
. Over 2,000,000 Jews landed between the late 19th century and 1924, when the
Immigration Act of 1924 The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson–Reed Act, including the Asian Exclusion Act and National Origins Act (), was a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of whic ...
restricted immigration. Most settled in the
New York metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area, also commonly referred to as the Tri-State area, is the largest metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In ...
, establishing the world's major concentrations of Jewish population. In 1915, the circulation of the daily
Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic languages, Germanic family of languages (the others being the ...
newspapers was half a million in New York City alone, and 600,000 nationally. In addition thousands more subscribed to the numerous weekly papers and the many magazines in Yiddish. At the beginning of the 20th century, these newly arrived Jews built support networks consisting of many small
synagogue A synagogue, ', 'house of assembly', or ', "house of prayer"; Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches ...

synagogue
s and ''
Landsmanshaft A landsmanshaft (also landsmanschaft; plural: landsmanshaftn) is a mutual aid society, benefit society, or hometown society of Jewish immigrants from the same European town or region. History The Landsmanshaft organizations aided immigrants' trans ...
en'' (German and Yiddish for "Countryman Associations") for Jews from the same town or village. American Jewish writers of the time urged assimilation and integration into the wider
American culture The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western culture, Western origin, but its influences include White Americans, European American, Asian Americans, Asian American, African Americans, African American, Latin Americans, ...
, and Jews quickly became part of American life. 500,000 American Jews (or half of all Jewish males between 18 and 50) fought in
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, and after the war younger families joined the new trend of
suburbanization pattern in the US Suburbanization is a population shift from central urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through ...
. There, Jews became increasingly assimilated and demonstrated rising intermarriage. The suburbs facilitated the formation of new centers, as Jewish school enrollment more than doubled between the end of World War II and the mid-1950s, while synagogue affiliation jumped from 20% in 1930 to 60% in 1960; the fastest growth came in Reform and, especially, Conservative congregations. More recent waves of Jewish emigration from Russia and other regions have largely joined the mainstream American Jewish community. Americans of Jewish descent have been successful in many fields and aspects over the years. The Jewish community in America has gone from being part of the lower class of society, with numerous employments barred to them, to being a group with a high concentrations in members of the academia and a per capita income higher than the average in the United States.


Self identity

Scholars debate whether the historical experience of Jews in the United States has been such a unique experience as to validate
American exceptionalism American exceptionalism is the theory that the United States is inherently different from other nations.racial definition of Jewishness in favor of one that embraced ethnicity. The key to understanding this transition from a racial self-definition to a cultural or ethnic one can be found in the ''
Menorah Journal ''The Menorah Journal'' (1915–1962) was a Jewish-American magazine, founded in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. ...
'' between 1915 and 1925. During this time contributors to the Menorah promoted a
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling diff ...

cultural
, rather than a racial, religious, or other view of Jewishness as a means to define Jews in a world that threatened to overwhelm and absorb Jewish uniqueness. The journal represented the ideals of the menorah movement established by Horace M. Kallen and others to promote a revival in Jewish cultural identity and combat the idea of race as a means to define or identify peoples. Siporin (1990) uses the family
folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psycholog ...

folklore
of
ethnic Jews "Who is a Jew?" ( he, מיהו יהודי ) is a basic question about Jewish identity up Ashkenazi Jews praying in the synagogue on Yom Kippur, showing traditional Jewish clothing and practice, including tallit, the Torah, and head coverings. ...
to their collective history and its transformation into an historical art form. They tell us how Jews have survived being uprooted and transformed. Many immigrant narratives bear a theme of the arbitrary nature of fate and the reduced state of immigrants in a new culture. By contrast, ethnic family narratives tend to show the ethnic more in charge of his life, and perhaps in danger of losing his Jewishness altogether. Some stories show how a family member successfully negotiated the conflict between ethnic and American identities. After 1960, memories of
the Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify wi ...
, together with the
Six-Day War The Six-Day War (; ar, النكسة, translit=an-Naksah, lit=The Setback or ), also known as the June War, the 1967 Arab–Israeli War or the Third Arab–Israeli War, was an armed conflict fought from 5 to 10 June 1967 between Israel and a ...
in 1967 had major impacts on fashioning Jewish
ethnic identity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousne ...
. Some have argued that the Holocaust highlighted for Jews the importance of their ethnic identity at a time when other minorities were asserting their own.


Politics

In New York City, while the German-Jewish community was well established 'uptown', the more numerous Jews who migrated from Eastern Europe faced tension 'downtown' with Irish and German Catholic neighbors, especially the Irish Catholics who controlled Democratic Party Politics
at the time "At the Time" is a single by American country music artist Jean Shepard. Released in February 1974, it was the first single from the album ''I'll Do Anything It Takes''. The song reached #13 on the ''Billboard (magazine), Billboard'' Hot Country S ...
. Jews successfully established themselves in the garment trades and in the needle unions in New York. By the 1930s they were a major political factor in New York, with strong support for the most liberal programs of the
New Deal The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations Regulation is the management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. In systems theory Systems theory is the interdisciplinar ...
. They continued as a major element of the
New Deal Coalition#REDIRECT New Deal coalition The New Deal Coalition was an American political coalition that supported the Democratic Party from 1932 until the late 1960s. The coalition is named after President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal programs and was c ...
, giving special support to the
Civil Rights Movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North ...
. By the mid-1960s, however, the
Black Power movement The Black Power movement was a social movement motivated by a desire for safety and self-sufficiency that was not available inside Redlining, redlined African American neighborhoods. Black Power activists founded African-American bookstores, ...
caused a growing separation between blacks and Jews, though both groups remained solidly in the Democratic camp. While earlier Jewish immigrants from Germany tended to be politically
conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aest ...
, the wave of Jews from Eastern Europe starting in the early 1880s were generally more liberal or
left-wing Left-wing politics support social equality Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social in ...
and became the political majority.
Hasia DinerHasia R. Diner is an American historian. Diner is the Paul S. and Sylvia Steinberg Professor of History of the Jews in the United States, American Jewish History; Professor of Hebrew and Judaic Studies, History; Director of the Goldstein-Goren Cent ...
, ''The Jews of the United States. 1654 to 2000'' (2004), ch 5
Many came to America with experience in the socialist,
anarchist Anarchism is a political philosophy and Political movement, movement that is sceptical of authority and rejects all involuntary, coercive forms of hierarchy. Anarchism calls for the abolition of the State (polity), state, which it holds to ...
and communist movements as well as the Labor Bund, emanating from Eastern Europe. Many Jews rose to leadership positions in the early 20th century American labor movement and helped to found unions that played a major role in left-wing politics and, after 1936, in
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
politics. Although American Jews generally leaned Republican in the second half of the 19th century, the majority has voted Democratic since at least 1916, when they voted 55% for
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
. With the election of
Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt (, ; January 30, 1882April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the De ...

Franklin D. Roosevelt
, American Jews voted more solidly Democratic. They voted 90% for Roosevelt in the elections of 1940, and 1944, representing the highest of support, equaled only once since. In the election of 1948, Jewish support for Democrat
Harry S. Truman Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884December 26, 1972) was the 33rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the ...

Harry S. Truman
dropped to 75%, with 15% supporting the new
Progressive PartyProgressive Party may refer to: Active parties * Australian Progressives * Progressive Party (Chile) * Dominica Progressive Party * Progressive Party (Iceland) * Jordanian Progressive Party * Serbian Progressive Party in Macedonia * Sabah Progressi ...
. As a result of lobbying, and hoping to better compete for the Jewish vote, both major party platforms had included a pro-Zionist plank since 1944, and supported the creation of a Jewish state; it had little apparent effect however, with 90% still voting other-than-Republican. In every election since, except for 1980, no Democratic presidential candidate has won with less than 67% of the Jewish vote. (In 1980, Carter obtained 45% of the Jewish vote. See below.) During the 1952 and 1956 elections, Jewish voters cast 60% or more of their votes for Democrat Adlai Stevenson, while General Eisenhower garnered 40% of the Jewish vote for his reelection, the best showing to date for the Republicans since 's 43% in 1920. In 1960, 83% voted for Democrat
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
against
Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power o ...

Richard Nixon
, and in 1964, 90% of American Jews voted for
Lyndon Johnson Lyndon Baines Johnson (; August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American educator and politician who served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969. He had previously served as the ...

Lyndon Johnson
, over his Republican opponent, arch-conservative
Barry Goldwater Barry Morris Goldwater (January 2, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was an American politician, statesman, businessman, United States Air Force officer, and author who was a five-term United States Senate, Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–19 ...

Barry Goldwater
.
Hubert Humphrey Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr. (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was an American pharmacist and politician who served as the 38th vice president of the United States from 1965 to 1969. He twice served in the United States Senate, representing Mi ...
garnered 81% of the Jewish vote in the 1968 elections in his losing bid for president against
Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power o ...

Richard Nixon
. During the Nixon re-election campaign of 1972, Jewish voters were apprehensive about
George McGovern George Stanley McGovern (July 19, 1922 – October 21, 2012) was an American politician, historian, U.S. representative, U.S. senator, and the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 1972 presidential election. McGovern grew up ...
and only favored the Democrat by 65%, while Nixon more than doubled Republican Jewish support to 35%. In the election of 1976, Jewish voters supported Democrat
Jimmy Carter James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician, businessman, and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Par ...

Jimmy Carter
by 71% over incumbent president
Gerald Ford Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. ( ; born Leslie Lynch King Jr.; July 14, 1913December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state ...

Gerald Ford
's 27%, but during the Carter re-election campaign of 1980, Jewish voters greatly abandoned the Democrat, with only 45% support, while Republican winner
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of ...

Ronald Reagan
garnered 39%, and 14% went to independent (former Republican)
John AndersonJohn Anderson may refer to: Business *John Anderson (Scottish businessman) (1747–1820), Scottish merchant and founder of Fermoy, Ireland *John Byers Anderson (1817–1897), American educator, military officer and railroad executive, mentor of An ...

John Anderson
. During the Reagan re-election campaign of 1984, the Republican retained 31% of the Jewish vote, while 67% voted for Democrat
Walter Mondale Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (January 5, 1928 – April 19, 2021) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 42nd vice president of the United States The vice president of the United States (VPOTUS) is the second-highest offi ...
. The 1988 election saw Jewish voters favor Democrat
Michael Dukakis Michael Stanley Dukakis (; born November 3, 1933) is an American retired lawyer and politician who served as governor of Massachusetts The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the head of state and head of government of Massachus ...
by 64%, while
George H. W. Bush George Herbert Walker BushSince around 2000 he was usually called George H. W. Bush, Bush Senior, Bush 41 or Bush the Elder to distinguish him from his eldest son, George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American p ...

George H. W. Bush
polled a respectable 35%, but during Bush's re-election attempt in 1992, his Jewish support dropped to just 11%, with 80% voting for
Bill Clinton William Jefferson Clinton ('' né'' Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 42nd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and ...

Bill Clinton
and 9% going to independent
Ross Perot Henry Ross Perot (; June 27, 1930 – July 9, 2019) was an American business magnate, billionaire, politician and philanthropist. He was the founder and chief executive officer of Electronic Data Systems and Perot Systems. He ran an Indepe ...

Ross Perot
. Clinton's re-election campaign in 1996 maintained high Jewish support at 78%, with 16% supporting
Bob Dole Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) is an American politician and attorney who represented Kansas in the U.S. Senate from 1969 to 1996. He was the Republican Leader of the United States Senate during the final 11 years of his tenure, includ ...

Bob Dole
and 3% for Perot. In the 2000 presidential election,
Joe Lieberman Joseph Isadore Lieberman (; born February 24, 1942) is an American politician, lobbyist, and attorney who served as a United States Senator The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The Uni ...

Joe Lieberman
became the first American Jew to run for national office on a major-party ticket when he was chosen as Democratic presidential candidate
Al Gore Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th vice president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Gore was Bill Clinton's running mate in their Bill Clinton presidential ...

Al Gore
's vice-presidential nominee. The elections of 2000 and 2004 saw continued Jewish support for Democrats
Al Gore Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th vice president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Gore was Bill Clinton's running mate in their Bill Clinton presidential ...

Al Gore
and
John Kerry John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician and diplomat, currently serving as the first United States special presidential envoy for climate. He previously served as the List of Secretaries of State of the United S ...

John Kerry
, a Catholic, remain in the high- to mid-70% range, while Republican
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the Un ...

George W. Bush
's re-election in 2004 saw Jewish support rise from 19% to 24%. In the
2008 presidential election2008 presidential election may refer to: * 2008 Armenian presidential election * 2008 Azerbaijani presidential election * 2008 People's Republic of China presidential election * 2008 Cypriot presidential election * 2008 Czech presidential election * ...
, 78% of Jews voted for
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
, who became the first
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...
to be elected president. Additionally, 83% of Jews voted for Obama compared to just 34% of white Protestants and 47% of white Catholics, though 67% of those identifying with another religion and 71% identifying with no religion also voted Obama. In the February 2016 New Hampshire Democratic Primary,
Bernie Sanders Bernard Sanders (born September8, 1941) is an American politician who has served as the Seniority in the United States Senate, junior United States Senate, United States senator from Vermont since 2007 and as U.S. Representative for the sta ...

Bernie Sanders
became the first Jewish candidate to win a state's presidential primary election. As American Jews have progressed economically over time, some commentators have wondered why Jews remain so firmly Democratic and have not shifted political allegiances to the center or right in the way other groups who have advanced economically, such as
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and B ...
s and
Arab Americans Arab Americans ( ar, عَرَبٌ أَمْرِيكِا or ) are American citizens of Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronuncia ...
, have. For congressional and senate races, since 1968, American Jews have voted about 70–80% for Democrats; this support increased to 87% for Democratic House candidates during the 2006 elections. The first American Jew to serve in the Senate was
David Levy Yulee David Levy Yulee (born David Levy; June 12, 1810 – October 10, 1886) was an American politician and attorney. Born in St. Thomas, then under British control, he was of Sephardi Jewish ancestry: his father was from Morocco and his mother was fr ...
, who was Florida's first Senator, serving 1845–1851 and again 1855–1861. There were 19 Jews among the 435 U.S. Representatives at the start of the 112th Congress; 26 Democrats and one (
Eric Cantor Eric Ivan Cantor (born June 6, 1963) is an American former politician and lawyer who served as the United States Representative for Virginia's 7th congressional district from 2001 to 2014. As a member of the Republican Party (United States), Rep ...

Eric Cantor
) Republican. While many of these Members represented coastal cities and suburbs with significant Jewish populations, others did not (for instance, Kim Schrier of Seattle, Washington;
John Yarmuth John Allan Yarmuth ( ; born November 4, 1947) is an American politician and former newspaper editor serving as the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Representative for since 2007. His district encompasses the vast majority of the Louis ...

John Yarmuth
of Louisville, Kentucky; and David Kustoff and
Steve Cohen Steve, Steven or Stephen Cohen may refer to: Sportspeople *Steve Cohen (gymnast) (born 1946), American Olympic gymnast *Steve Cohen (judoka) (born 1955), American judoka and Olympian *Steve Cohen (wrestler) (born 1963), South African wrestler bette ...

Steve Cohen
of Memphis, Tennessee). The total number of Jews serving in the House of Representatives declined from 31 in the
111th Congress into law, January 29, 2009. The 111th United States Congress was a List of United States Congresses, meeting of the United States Congress, legislative branch of the United States federal government from January 3, 2009, until January 3, ...
.
John Adler John Herbert Adler (August 23, 1959April 4, 2011) was an American politician and a member of the Democratic Party who served for one term as the U.S. Representative for from 2009 until 2011. He lost his 2010 congressional election to former Ph ...
of New Jersey, Steve Kagan of Wisconsin,
Alan Grayson Alan Mark Grayson (born March 13, 1958) is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party who was the United States House of Representatives, United States Representative for from 2013 to 2017 and Flor ...

Alan Grayson
of Florida, and
Ron Klein Ronald Jason Klein ( ; born July 10, 1957) is an Americans, American politician and lawyer who is a former member of the United States House of Representatives for . He is a member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party and ch ...
of Florida all lost their re-election bids,
Rahm Emanuel Rahm Israel Emanuel (; born November 29, 1959) is an American politician who served as the 55th mayor of Chicago from 2011 to 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as the 23rd White House Chief of Staff from 2009 to 20 ...
resigned to become the President's Chief of Staff; and
Paul Hodes Paul William Hodes (born March 21, 1951) is an American lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with so ...
of New Hampshire did not run for re-election but instead (unsuccessfully) sought his state's open Senate seat.
David Cicilline David Nicola Cicilline (; born July 15, 1961) is an American lawyer and politician serving as the United States House of Representatives, U.S. representative for since 2011. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party, he ...
of Rhode Island was the only Jewish American who was newly elected to the 112th Congress; he had been the Mayor of
Providence Providence often refers to: * Providentia, the divine personification of foresight in ancient Roman religion * Divine providence, divinely ordained events and outcomes in Christianity * Providence, Rhode Island, the capital of Rhode Island in the ...

Providence
. The number declined when
Jane Harman Jane Margaret Lakes Harman (born June 28, 1945) is the former U.S. Representative for , serving from 1993 to 1999, and from 2001 to 2011; she is a member of the Democratic Party. Harman was the ranking Democrat on the House Intelligence Committe ...

Jane Harman
,
Anthony Weiner Anthony David Weiner (; born September 4, 1964) is an American former politician and convicted sex offender. He represented from January 1999 until June 2011, winning seven terms as a Democrat and never receiving less than 60% of the vote. Wei ...

Anthony Weiner
, and
Gabrielle Giffords Gabrielle Dee Giffords (born June 8, 1970) is an American politician and gun control Gun control (or firearms regulation) is the set of laws or policies that regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, or use of fi ...

Gabrielle Giffords
resigned during the 112th Congress. , there were five openly gay men serving in Congress and two are Jewish:
Jared Polis Jared Schutz Polis (; born May 12, 1975) is an American politician, entrepreneur, and philanthropist serving as the 43rd governor of Colorado since January 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, he served one term on the Colorado State Board ...
of Colorado and
David Cicilline David Nicola Cicilline (; born July 15, 1961) is an American lawyer and politician serving as the United States House of Representatives, U.S. representative for since 2011. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party, he ...
of Rhode Island. In November 2008, Cantor was elected as the
House Minority Whip Party leaders and whips of the United States House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, with the United States Senate, Senate being the upper house. Together they ...
, the first Jewish Republican to be selected for the position. In 2011, he became the first Jewish
House Majority Leader Party leaders and whips of the United States House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, with the United States Senate, Senate being the upper house. Together they ...
. He served as Majority Leader until 2014, when he resigned shortly after his loss in the Republican primary election for his House seat. In 2013, Pew found that 70% of American Jews identified with or leaned toward the
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
, with just 22% identifying with or leaning toward the
Republican Party Republican Party is a name used by many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about polit ...
. The included 9 Jews among 100 U.S. Senators: eight Democrats (
Michael Bennet Michael Farrand Bennet (born November 28, 1964) is an American businessman, lawyer, and politician who has served as the senior United States Senator The United States Senate is the Upper house, upper chamber of the United States Congres ...

Michael Bennet
,
Richard Blumenthal Richard Blumenthal (; born February 13, 1946) is an American attorney and politician serving as the senior United States Senator The United States Senate is the Upper house, upper chamber of the United States Congress, with the United Sta ...
,
Brian Schatz Brian Emanuel Schatz (; born October 20, 1972) is an American educator and politician serving as the senior United States Senator The United States Senate is the Upper house, upper chamber of the United States Congress, with the United S ...

Brian Schatz
,
Benjamin Cardin Benjamin Louis Cardin (born October 5, 1943) is an American lawyer and politician serving as the senior United States Senator The United States Senate is the Upper house, upper chamber of the United States Congress, with the United States ...
,
Dianne Feinstein Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein ( ; born Dianne Emiel Goldman; June 22, 1933) is an American politician who serves as the senior Senior (shortened as Sr.) means "the elder" in Latin and is often used Suffix (name)#Generational titles, as a suff ...

Dianne Feinstein
,
Jacky Rosen Jacklyn Sheryl Rosen (née Spektor; born August 2, 1957) is an American politician serving as the junior Junior or Juniors may refer to: Sport * Junior athletics, age-based athletic training and completion category * Instances of junior athle ...

Jacky Rosen
,
Charles Schumer Charles Ellis Schumer ( ; born November 23, 1950) is an American politician serving as Senate Majority Leader since January 20, 2021. A member of the Democratic Party, Schumer is the senior United States senator The United States Sena ...
,
Ron Wyden Ronald Lee Wyden (; born May 3, 1949) is an American politician who is currently serving as the senior United States Senator The United States Senate is the Upper house, upper chamber of the United States Congress, with the United State ...
), and
Bernie Sanders Bernard Sanders (born September8, 1941) is an American politician who has served as the Seniority in the United States Senate, junior United States Senate, United States senator from Vermont since 2007 and as U.S. Representative for the sta ...

Bernie Sanders
, who became a Democrat to run for President but returned to the Senate as an Independent. In the 116th Congress, there were 28 Jewish U.S. Representatives. 26 are Democrats and 2 are Republicans. All 8 Jewish Senators are Democrats. Keeping the tradition of former presidents, Jews are well represented in 46th president
Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of th ...

Joe Biden
's cabinet. In 2021, Democrat
Jon Ossoff Thomas Jonathan Ossoff ( ; born February 16, 1987) is an American politician serving as the Seniority in the United States Senate, senior United States Senate, United States senator from Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia since 2021. A member of the ...

Jon Ossoff
became the first Jewish member of the Senate to represent Georgia and the first Jewish senator from the Deep South since Benjamin F. Jonas of Louisiana, who was elected in 1879.


Participation in civil rights movements

Members of the American Jewish community have included prominent participants in
civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', ...
movements. In the mid-20th century, there were American Jews who were among the most active participants in the
Civil Rights Movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North ...
and
feminist Feminism is a range of social movements and ideology, ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social gender equality, equality of the sexes. Feminism incorporates the position that societies priori ...

feminist
movements. A number of American Jews have also been active figures in the struggle for gay rights in America.
Joachim Prinz Joachim Prinz (May 10, 1902 – September 30, 1988) was a German people, German-American people, American rabbi who was outspoken against Nazism and became a Zionist leader. As a young rabbi in Berlin, he was forced to confront the rise of Nazi ...
, president of the
American Jewish Congress The American Jewish Congress (AJCongress or AJC) is an association of American Jews organized to defend Jewish interests at home and abroad through public policy advocacy, using diplomacy, legislation, and the courts. History The American Jewis ...
, stated the following when he spoke from the podium at the Lincoln Memorial during the famous
March on Washington The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, also known as simply the March on Washington or The Great March on Washington, was held in Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise ...

March on Washington
on August 28, 1963: "As Jews we bring to this great demonstration, in which thousands of us proudly participate, a twofold experience—one of the spirit and one of our history.... From our Jewish historic experience of three and a half thousand years we say: Our ancient history began with
slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
and the yearning for freedom. During the Middle Ages my people lived for a thousand years in the ghettos of Europe.... It is for these reasons that it is not merely sympathy and compassion for the black people of America that motivates us. It is, above all and beyond all such sympathies and emotions, a sense of complete identification and solidarity born of our own painful historic experience."


The Holocaust

During the
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
period, the American Jewish community was bitterly and deeply divided and as a result, it was unable to form a united front. Most Jews who had previously emigrated to the United States from Eastern Europe supported
Zionism Zionism ( he, צִיּוֹנוּת ''Tsiyyonut'' after ''Zion Zion ( he, צִיּוֹן ''Ṣīyyōn'', , also variously ''Sion'', ''Tzion'', ''Tsion'', ''Tsiyyon'') is a placename in the used as a synonym for as well as for the as ...
, because they believed that a return to their ancestral homeland was the only solution to the
persecution Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another individual or group. The most common forms are religious persecution Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or a group of individua ...
and the
genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish t ...
which were then occurring across Europe. One important development was the sudden conversion of many American Jewish leaders to Zionism late in the war.
The Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify wi ...
was largely ignored by American media as it was happening. Reporters and editors largely did not believe the stories of atrocities coming out of Europe.
The Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify wi ...
had a profound impact on the Jewish community in the United States, especially after 1960 as Holocaust education improved, as Jews tried to comprehend what had happened during it, and especially as they tried to commemorate it and grapple with it when they looked to the future.
Abraham Joshua Heschel Abraham Joshua Heschel (January 11, 1907 – December 23, 1972) was a Polish-born American rabbi and one of the leading Judaism, Jewish theologians and Jewish philosophers of the 20th century. Heschel, a professor of Jewish mysticism at the ...
summarized this dilemma when he attempted to understand
Auschwitz The Auschwitz concentration camp () was a complex of over 40 concentration In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture. Several types of mathematical description can be distinguishe ...

Auschwitz
: "To try to answer is to commit a supreme blasphemy. Israel enables us to bear the agony of Auschwitz without radical despair, to sense a ray God's radiance in the jungles of history."


International affairs

Zionism Zionism ( he, צִיּוֹנוּת ''Tsiyyonut'' after ''Zion Zion ( he, צִיּוֹן ''Ṣīyyōn'', , also variously ''Sion'', ''Tzion'', ''Tsion'', ''Tsiyyon'') is a placename in the used as a synonym for as well as for the as ...
became a well-organized movement in the U.S. with the involvement of leaders such as
Louis Brandeis Louis Dembitz Brandeis (; November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American lawyer and associate justice Associate justice or associate judge is the title for a member of a judicial panel who is not the chief justice The chief jus ...
and the promise of a reconstituted homeland in the
Balfour Declaration of 1917 The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government in 1917 during the First World War announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine (region), Palestine, then an ...
. Jewish Americans organized large-scale boycotts of German merchandise during the 1930s to protest
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
.
Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt (, ; January 30, 1882April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the De ...

Franklin D. Roosevelt
's leftist domestic policies received strong Jewish support in the 1930s and 1940s, as did his anti-Nazi foreign policy and his promotion of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
. Support for political Zionism in this period, although growing in influence, remained a distinctly minority opinion among Jews in the United States until about 1944–45, when the early rumors and reports of the systematic mass murder of the Jews in
Nazi-occupied countries German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were wholly or partly military occupation, occupied and civil-occupied (including puppet governments) by the military forces and the government of Nazi Germany at various tim ...
became publicly known with the liberation of the
Nazi concentration camps From 1933 to 1945, Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater ...
and
extermination camp Nazi Germany used six extermination camps (german: Vernichtungslager), also called death camps (''Todeslager''), or killing centers (''Tötungszentren''), in Central Europe during World War II to systematically murder over 2.7 million peoplem ...
s. The founding of the modern State of
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
in 1948 and recognition thereof by the American government (following objections by American isolationists) was an indication of both its intrinsic support and its response to learning the horrors of the Holocaust. This attention was based on a natural affinity toward and support for Israel in the Jewish community. The attention is also because of the ensuing and unresolved conflicts regarding the founding of Israel and the role for the Zionist movement going forward. A lively internal debate commenced, following the
Six-Day War The Six-Day War (; ar, النكسة, translit=an-Naksah, lit=The Setback or ), also known as the June War, the 1967 Arab–Israeli War or the Third Arab–Israeli War, was an armed conflict fought from 5 to 10 June 1967 between Israel and a ...
. The American Jewish community was divided over whether or not they agreed with the Israeli response; the great majority came to accept the war as necessary. Similar tensions were aroused by the 1977 election of
Menachem Begin Menachem Begin ( ''Menaḥem Begin'' (); pl, Menachem Begin (Polish documents, 1931–1937); ''Menakhem Volfovich Begin''; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the List of Prime Ministers of Israel, ...

Menachem Begin
and the rise of Revisionist policies, the
1982 Lebanon War The 1982 Lebanon War, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee ( he, מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג ''Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil'' or ''Mivtsa Sheleg'') by the Israeli government, later known in Israel as the Lebanon War or the First Le ...
and the continuing administrative governance of portions of the
West Bank The West Bank ( ar, الضفة الغربية '; he, הגדה המערבית ' or ') is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, bordered by Jordan and the Dead Sea to the east and by Israel to the south, west a ...
territory. Disagreement over Israel's 1993 acceptance of the
Oslo Accords The Oslo Accords are a pair of agreements between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; this mirrored a similar split among Israelis and led to a parallel rift within the pro-Israel lobby, and even ultimately to the United States for its "blind" support of Israel. Abandoning any pretense of unity, both segments began to develop separate advocacy and lobbying organizations. The liberal supporters of the
Oslo Accord The Oslo I Accord or Oslo I, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or short Declaration of Principles (DOP), was an attempt in 1993 to set up a framework that would lead to the resolution of the ...
worked through
Americans for Peace Now Americans for Peace Now (APN) is a nonprofit organization based in the United States whose stated aim is to help achieve a comprehensive political settlement to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Founded in 1981 as the sister organization to Isr ...
(APN),
Israel Policy Forum The Israel Policy Forum is an American Jewish organization that works for a negotiated two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that ...
(IPF) and other groups friendly to the Labour government in Israel. They tried to assure Congress that American Jewry was behind the Accord and defended the efforts of the administration to help the fledgling
Palestinian Authority The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; ar, السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية ') is the interim self-government body that exercises partial civil control over the Gaza Strip and West Bank bantustans, 167 islands in the Wes ...

Palestinian Authority
(PA), including promises of financial aid. In a battle for public opinion, IPF commissioned a number of polls showing widespread support for Oslo among the community. In opposition to Oslo, an alliance of conservative groups, such as the
Zionist Organization of America The Zionist Organization of America (ZOA) () is an American non-profit pro-Israel organization. Founded in 1897, as the Federation of American Zionists, it was the first official Zionist organization in the United States. Early in the 20th centur ...
(ZOA), Americans For a Safe Israel (AFSI), and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) tried to counterbalance the power of the liberal Jews. On October 10, 1993, the opponents of the Palestinian-Israeli accord organized at the American Leadership Conference for a Safe Israel, where they warned that Israel was prostrating itself before "an armed thug", and predicted and that the "thirteenth of September is a date that will live in infamy". Some Zionists also criticized, often in harsh language, Prime Minister
Yitzhak Rabin Yitzhak Rabin (; he, יִצְחָק רַבִּין, ; 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general. He was the fifth Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms in office, 1974–77, and from 1992 until h ...

Yitzhak Rabin
and
Shimon Peres Shimon Peres (; he, שמעון פרס ; born Szymon Perski; 2 August 1923 – 28 September 2016) was an Israeli politician who served as the List of Presidents of Israel, ninth President of Israel from 2007 to 2014 and as the eighth Prime Minis ...

Shimon Peres
, his foreign minister and chief architect of the peace accord. With the community so strongly divided, AIPAC and the Presidents Conference, which was tasked with representing the national Jewish consensus, struggled to keep the increasingly antagonistic discourse civil. Reflecting these tensions,
Abraham Foxman Abraham Henry Foxman (born May 1, 1940) is an American lawyer and activist. He served as the National Director of the Anti-Defamation League from 1987 to 2015, and is currently the League's National Director Emeritus. In March 2016, he became Vice ...

Abraham Foxman
from the
Anti-Defamation League The Anti-Defamation League (ADL), formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, is an international Jews, Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States. It was founded in late September 1913 by the Independent ...
was asked by the conference to apologize for bad mouthing ZOA's Morton Klein. The conference, which under its organizational guidelines was in charge of moderating communal discourse, reluctantly censured some Orthodox spokespeople for attacking
Colette Avital Colette Avital ( he, קולט אביטל, born 1 May 1940) is a Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It s ...

Colette Avital
, the Labor-appointed Israeli
Consul General A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the ...
in New York and an ardent supporter of that version of a peace process.


Demographics

As of 2020, the American Jewish population is, depending on the method of identification , either the largest in the world, or the second-largest in the world (after
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
). Precise population figures vary depending on whether Jews are accounted for based on
halakhic ''Halakha'' (; he, הֲלָכָה, ; also transliterated as ''halacha'', ''halakhah'', ''halachah'', or ''halocho''; ) is the collective body of Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people ...
considerations, or secular,
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...

political
and ancestral identification factors. There were about four million adherents of Judaism in the U.S. as of 2001, approximately 1.4% of the US population. According to the
Jewish Agency (HaSochnut HaYehudit L'Eretz Yisra'el) , native_name_lang = HE , founded = , headquarters = Jerusalem , coordinates = , tax_id = 23-7254561 , status = 501(c)(3) A 501(c)(3) organization is a corporation, trust, unincorporated association, ...
, for the year 2017 Israel was home to 6.5 million Jews (49.3% of the world's Jewish population), while the United States contained 5.3 million (40.2%). According to Gallup and Pew Research Center findings, "at maximum 2.2% of the U.S. adult population has some basis for Jewish self-identification." In 2020, it was estimated by demographers
Arnold Dashefsky Arnold Dashefsky, born in 1942, is a professor at the University of Connecticut The University of Connecticut (UConn, sometimes stylized as UCONN) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individua ...
& Ira M. Sheskin in the American Jewish Yearbook that the American Jewish population totalled 7.15 million, making up 2.17% of the country's 329.5 million inhabitants. In 2012, demographers estimated the core American Jewish population (including religious and non-religious) to be 5,425,000 (or 1.73% of the US population in 2012), citing methodological failures in the previous higher estimates.Sergio DellaPergola. "World Jewish Population, 2012." The American Jewish Year Book (2012) (Dordrecht: Springer) pp. 212–283 Other sources say the number is around 6.5 million. The ''American Jewish Yearbook population survey'' had placed the number of American Jews at 6.4 million, or approximately 2.1% of the total population. This figure is significantly higher than the previous large scale survey estimate, conducted by the 2000–2001 National Jewish Population estimates, which estimated 5.2 million Jews. A 2007 study released by the Steinhardt Social Research Institute (SSRI) at
Brandeis University , mottoeng = Truth even unto its innermost parts , established = , type = Private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singe ...
presents evidence to suggest that both these figures may be underestimations with a potential 7.0–7.4 million Americans of Jewish descent. Those higher estimates were however arrived at by including all non-Jewish family members and household members, rather than surveyed individuals. In a 2019 study by Jews of Color Initiative it was found that approximately 12-15% of Jews in the United States, about 1,000,000 of 7,200,000 identify as multiracial and Jews of color. The population of Americans of Jewish descent is demographically characterized by an aging population composition and low fertility rates significantly below generational replacement. The National Jewish Population Survey of 1990 asked 4.5 million adult Jews to identify their denomination. The national total showed 38% were affiliated with the Reform tradition, 35% were
Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aest ...
, 6% were
Orthodox Orthodox, Orthodoxy, or Orthodoxism may refer to: Religion * Orthodoxy, adherence to accepted norms, more specifically adherence to creeds, especially within Christianity and Judaism, but also less commonly in non-Abrahamic religions like Neo-paga ...
, 1% were Reconstructionists, 10% linked themselves to some other tradition, and 10% said they are "just Jewish." In 2013, Pew Research's Jewish population survey found that 35% of American Jews identified as Reform, 18% as Conservative, 10% as Orthodox, 6% who identified with other sects, and 30% did not identify with a denomination. A follow up survey in 2013 showed that 14% of all Jews were actually affiliated with Reform communities, 11% with Conservative, 10% with orthodox communities and 3% with other communities. The Ashkenazi Jews, who are 90-95% of American Jews, settled first in and around
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
; in recent decades many have moved to
South Florida South Florida is the southernmost region of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily loca ...
,
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be u ...

Los Angeles
and other large metropolitan areas in the South and West. The metropolitan areas of New York City, Los Angeles, and Miami contain nearly one quarter of the world's Jews.


By State

According to a study published by demographers and sociologists Ira M. Sheskin and
Arnold Dashefsky Arnold Dashefsky, born in 1942, is a professor at the University of Connecticut The University of Connecticut (UConn, sometimes stylized as UCONN) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individua ...
in the American Jewish Yearbook, the distribution of the Jewish population in 2020 was as follows:


Significant Jewish population centers

Although the
New York City metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area, also commonly referred to as the Tri-State area, is the largest metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surro ...
is the second-largest Jewish population center in the world (after the
Tel Aviv metropolitan area Gush Dan ( he, גּוּשׁ דָּן, ''lit.'' "Dan bloc") is a conurbation in Israel, located along Israeli coastal plain, the country's Mediterranean coastline. There is no single formal definition of Gush Dan, though the term is in frequent use ...
in Israel), the
Miami metropolitan area The Miami metropolitan area is the seventh-largest metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative ...
has a slightly greater Jewish population on a per-capita basis (9.9% compared to metropolitan New York's 9.3%). Several other major cities have large Jewish communities, including
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be u ...

Los Angeles
,
Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city prop ...
,
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
,
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
,
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
and
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...

Philadelphia
. In many metropolitan areas, the majority of Jewish families live in suburban areas. The Greater Phoenix area was home to about 83,000 Jews in 2002, and has been rapidly growing. The greatest Jewish population on a per-capita basis for incorporated areas in the U.S. are
Kiryas Joel Kiryas Joel ( yi, , ''Kiryas Yoyel'', ; often locally abbreviated as KJ) is a village A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet (place), hamlet but smaller than a town (although the word is often used ...

Kiryas Joel
Village, New York (greater than 93% based on language spoken in home), City of
Beverly Hills, California Beverly Hills is a city in Los Angeles County, California Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, and sometimes abbreviated as L.A. County, is the List of the most populous counties in the United States, most populous coun ...
(61%), and Lakewood Township, New Jersey (59%), with two of the incorporated areas, Kiryas Joel and Lakewood, having a high concentration of ultra-Orthodox Jews, and one incorporated area, Beverly Hills, having a high concentration of non-Orthodox Jews. The phenomenon of Israeli migration to the U.S. is often termed ''
Yerida Yerida ( he, ירידה ''yerida'', "descent") is emigration by Israeli Jews from the Israel, State of Israel (or in religious texts, Land of Israel). Yerida is the opposite of aliyah (, lit. "ascent"), which is immigration to Israel. Zionists are ...
''. The Israeli immigrant community in America is less widespread. The significant Israeli immigrant communities in the United States are in the New York City metropolitan area, Los Angeles, Miami, and Chicago. * The
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to st ...

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
calculated an 'expatriate rate' of 2.9 persons per thousand, putting Israel in the mid-range of expatriate rates among the 175
OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to st ...

OECD
countries examined in 2005. According to the 2001 undertaking of the National Jewish Population Survey, 4.3 million American Jews have some sort of strong connection to the Jewish community, whether religious or cultural.


Distribution of Jewish Americans

According to the North American Jewish Data Bank the 104 counties and independent cities with the largest Jewish communities, as a percentage of population, were:


Assimilation and population changes

These parallel themes have facilitated the extraordinary economic, political, and social success of the American Jewish community, but also have contributed to widespread
cultural assimilation Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group A minority group, by its original definition, refers to a group of people whose practices, race, religion, ethnicity, or other characteristics are fewer in numbers than the main gro ...
. More recently however, the propriety and degree of assimilation has also become a significant and controversial issue within the modern American Jewish community, with both
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...
and religious skeptics. While not all Jews disapprove of intermarriage, many members of the Jewish community have become concerned that the high rate of
interfaith marriage Interfaith marriage, sometimes called a "mixed marriage", is marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouse A religious marriage. A sp ...
will result in the eventual disappearance of the American Jewish community. Intermarriage rates have risen from roughly 6% in 1950 and 25% in 1974, to approximately 40–50% in the year 2000. By 2013, the intermarriage rate had risen to 71% for non-Orthodox Jews. This, in combination with the comparatively low birthrate in the Jewish community, has led to a 5% decline in the Jewish population of the United States in the 1990s. In addition to this, when compared with the general American population, the American Jewish community is slightly older. A third of intermarried couples provide their children with a Jewish upbringing, and doing so is more common among intermarried families raising their children in areas with high Jewish populations. The Boston area, for example, is exceptional in that an estimated 60% of children of intermarriages are being raised Jewish, meaning that intermarriage would actually be contributing to a net ''increase'' in the number of Jews. As well, some children raised through intermarriage rediscover and embrace their Jewish roots when they themselves marry and have children. In contrast to the ongoing trends of assimilation, some communities within American Jewry, such as
Orthodox Jews Orthodox Judaism is the collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism. Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Written and Oral, as literally revealed by God to Moses Moses he, מֹש ...
, have significantly higher birth rates and lower intermarriage rates, and are growing rapidly. The proportion of Jewish synagogue members who were Orthodox rose from 11% in 1971 to 21% in 2000, while the overall Jewish community declined in number.  In 2000, there were 360,000 so-called "ultra-orthodox" (
Haredi Haredi Judaism ( he, יהדות חֲרֵדִית ', ; also spelled ''Charedi'' in English; plural ''Haredim'' or ''Charedim'') consists of groups within Orthodox Judaism Orthodox Judaism is the collective term for the traditionalist branche ...
) Jews in USA (7.2%). The figure for 2006 is estimated at 468,000 (9.4%). Data from the Pew Center shows that, as of 2013, 27% of American Jews under the age of 18 live in Orthodox households, a dramatic increase from Jews aged 18 to 29, only 11% of whom are Orthodox. The UJA-Federation of New York reports that 60% of Jewish children in the New York City area live in Orthodox homes. In addition to economizing and sharing, many Ultra Orthodox communities depend on government aid to support their high birth rate and large families. The Hasidic village of New Square, New York receives Section8 housing subsidies at a higher rate than the rest of the region, and half of the population in the Hasidic village of
Kiryas Joel, New York Kiryas Joel ( yi, , ''Kiryas Yoyel'', ; often locally abbreviated as KJ) is a village A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet (place), hamlet but smaller than a town (although the word is often used ...
receive food stamps, while a third receive Medicaid. About half of the American Jews are considered to be religious. Out of this 2,831,000 religious Jewish population, 92% are
non-Hispanic white Non-Hispanic Whites (also referred to as Anglo-Americans)Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief ''Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary'' Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1994--Merriam-Webster See original definition (definition #1) of ''Anglo'' ...
, 5%
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and B ...
(Most commonly from Argentina, Venezuela, or Cuba), 1%
Asian Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asi ...
(Mostly and
Persian Jews Persian Jews or Iranian Jews ( fa, یهودیان ایرانی, ''yahudiān-e-Irāni''; he, יהודים פרסים) are the descendants of Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ...
), 1%
black Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rout ...
and 1%
Other Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), a 1971 horror novel by Tom Tryon * ''The Other'' (short story), a 1972 short st ...
(mixed race etc.). Almost this many non-religious Jews exist in United States.


Subgroups


American Jews and race

Some American Jews identify themselves as being both Jewish and
white White is the lightest color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the Unite ...
, while other American Jews solely identify themselves as being
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...
. Several commentators have observed that "many American Jews retain a feeling of ambivalence about whiteness". Karen Brodkin explains this ambivalence as rooted in anxieties about the potential loss of
Jewish identity up Ashkenazi Jews praying in the synagogue on Yom Kippur, showing traditional Jewish clothing and practice, including tallit, the Torah, and head coverings. (1878 painting by Maurice Gottlieb) Jewish identity is the objective or subjective state ...
, especially outside of intellectual elites. Similarly, Kenneth Marcus observes a number of ambivalent cultural phenomena which have also been noted by other scholars, and he concludes that "the veneer of whiteness has not established conclusively the racial construction of American Jews". The relationship between American Jews and white majority identity continues to be described as "complicated". Many American white nationalists view Jews as non-white. In 2013, the
Pew Research Center The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan Nonpartisanism is a lack of affiliation with, and a lack of bias toward, a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's ...

Pew Research Center
's ''Portrait of Jewish Americans'' found that more than 90% of Jews who responded to its survey described themselves as being
non-Hispanic whites Non-Hispanic Whites (also referred to as Anglo-Americans)Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief ''Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary'' Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1994--Merriam-Webster See original definition (definition #1) of ''Anglo'' ...
, 2% described themselves as being
black Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rout ...
, 3% described themselves as being
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and B ...
, and 2% described themselves as having other racial or ethnic backgrounds.


African American Jews

The American Jewish community includes African American Jews and other American Jews who are also of African descent, a definition which excludes North African Jewish Americans, who are currently classified by the U.S. Census as being
white White is the lightest color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the Unite ...
(although a new category was recommended by the Census Bureau for the 2020 census). Estimates of the number of American Jews of African descent in the United States range from 20,000 to 200,000. Jews of African descent belong to all American
Jewish denominations Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "Religious denomination, denominations", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times. Today, the main division is between the "traditional" branches of Judaism (Orthodox ...
. Like their other Jewish counterparts, some black Jews are
atheists Atheism, in the broadest sense, is an absence of belief in the existence of Deity, deities. Less broadly, atheism is a rejection of the belief that any deities exist. In an even narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that the ...
. Notable African-American Jews include
Drake Drake may refer to: Animals * A male duck People and fictional characters * Drake (surname), a list of people and fictional characters with the family name * Drake (given name), a list of people and fictional characters with the given name * ...
,
Lenny Kravitz Leonard Albert Kravitz (born May 26, 1964) is an American singer-songwriter, record producer, multi-instrumentalist, and actor. His style incorporates elements of Rock music, rock, blues, Soul music, soul, Contemporary R&B, R&B, funk, jazz, reg ...

Lenny Kravitz
,
Lisa Bonet Lilakoi Moon (born Lisa Michelle Bonet; November 16, 1967) (), commonly known by her birth name, is an American actress, who is known for playing Denise Huxtable Denise Huxtable Kendall is a fictional character who appears on the American sit ...
,
Sammy Davis Jr. Samuel George Davis Jr. (December 8, 1925 – May 16, 1990) was an American singer, dancer, actor, vaudevillian and comedian whom critic Randy Blaser called "the greatest entertainer ever to grace a stage in these United States". At age th ...
,
Rashida Jones Rashida Leah Jones (; born February 25, 1976) is an American actress, director, writer, and producer. Jones appeared as Louisa Fenn on the Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox drama series ''Boston Public'' (2000–2002), as Karen Filippelli (fictional ...

Rashida Jones
,
Yaphet Kotto Yaphet Frederick Kotto (November 15, 1939 – March 15, 2021) was an American actor known for numerous film roles, as well as starring in the NBC television series '' Homicide: Life on the Street'' (1993–1999) as Lieutenant Al Giardello. His ...
,
Jordan Farmar Jordan Robert Farmar (born November 30, 1986) is an American former professional basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular Basketball court, court, co ...

Jordan Farmar
,
Taylor Mays Taylor Mays (born February 7, 1988) is a former American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rec ...
,
Daveed Diggs Daveed Daniele Diggs (born January 24, 1982) is an American actor, rapper, singer-songwriter, screenwriter, and film producer. He is the vocalist of the experimental hip hop Alternative hip hop (also known as alternative rap) is a subgenre o ...
,
Tiffany Haddish Tiffany Sara Cornilia Haddish (born December 3, 1979) is an American actress, comedian, singer, and author. After guest-starring on several television series, she gained prominence for her role as Nekeisha Williams on the NBC sitcom ''The Carmic ...
,
Alicia Garza Alicia Garza (born January 4, 1981) is an American civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' political freedom, freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individ ...

Alicia Garza
and rabbis Capers Funnye and Alysa Stanton. Relations between American Jews of African descent and other Jewish Americans are generally cordial. There are, however, disagreements with a specific minority of Black Hebrew Israelites community from among African-Americans who consider themselves, but not other Jews, to be the true descendants of the ancient
Israelites The Israelites (; ) were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the history of ancient Israel and Judah, tribal and monarchic peri ...

Israelites
. Black Hebrew Israelites are generally not considered members of the mainstream Jewish community, because they have not formally
converted to Judaism Conversion to Judaism ( he, גיור, ''giyur'') is the process by which gentile, non-Jews adopt the Judaism, Jewish religion and become members of the Jewish ethnoreligion, ethnoreligious community. It thus resembles both religious conversion, ...
, and they are not ethnically related to other Jews. One such group, the African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem, emigrated to Israel and was granted
permanent residency Permanent residency is a person's legal residency (domicile), resident status in a country or territory of which such person is not a citizenship, citizen but where they have the right to reside on a permanent basis. This is usually for a perma ...
status there.


Socioeconomics

Education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...
plays a major role as a part of Jewish identity; as Jewish culture puts a special premium on it and stresses the importance of cultivation of intellectual pursuits, scholarship and learning, American Jews as a group tend to be better educated and earn more than Americans as a whole. Jewish Americans also have an average of 14.7 years of schooling making them the most highly educated of all major religious groups in the United States. Forty-four percent (55% of
Reform Jews Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and belief in a continuous rev ...
) report family incomes of over $100,000 compared to 19% of all Americans, with the next highest group being
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
s at 43%. And while 27% of Americans have a four-year university or
postgraduate education Postgraduate education (graduate education in ) involves learning and studying for or s, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or generally is required, and it is n ...
, fifty-nine percent (66% of
Reform Jews Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and belief in a continuous rev ...
) of American Jews have, the second highest of any ethnic groups after Indian-Americans . 75% of American Jews have achieved some form of
post-secondary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, be ...
if two-year vocational and community college diplomas and certificates are also included. 31% of American Jews hold a
graduate degree Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, u ...
; this figure is compared with the general American population where 11% of Americans hold a graduate degree. White collar professional jobs have been attractive to Jews and much of the community tend to take up professional white collar careers requiring tertiary education involving formal credentials where the respectability and reputability of professional jobs is highly prized within Jewish culture. While 46% of Americans work in professional and managerial jobs, 61% of American Jews work as professionals, many of whom are highly educated, salaried professionals whose work is largely self-directed in such as engineering, science, medicine, investment banking, finance, law, and academia. Much of the Jewish American community lead middle class lifestyles. While the median household net worth of the typical American family is $99,500, among American Jews the figure is $443,000. In addition, the median Jewish American income is estimated to be in the range of $97,000 to $98,000, nearly twice as high the American national median. Either of these two statistics may be by the fact that the Jewish population is on average older than other religious groups in the country, with 51% of polled adults over the age of 50 compared to 41% nationally. Older people tend to both have higher income and be more highly educated. By 2016, Modern Orthodox Jews had a median household income of $158,000, while Open Orthodox Jews had a median household income at $185,000 (compared to the American median household income of $59,000 for 2016).5 key takeaways, some surprising, from new survey of US Modern Orthodox Jews
By BEN SALES 30 September 2017, JTA
As a whole, American and Canadian Jews donate more than $9billion a year to
charity Charity may refer to: Giving * Charitable organization or charity, a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being * Charity (practice), the practice of being benevolent, giving and sharing * Charity (virtu ...
. This reflects Jewish traditions of supporting social services as a way of living out the dictates of Jewish law. Most of the charities that benefit are not specifically Jewish organizations. While the median income of Jewish Americans is high, there are still small pockets of poverty. In the New York area, there are approximately 560,000 Jews living in poor or near-poor households, representing about 20% of the New York metropolitan Jewish community. Most affected are children, the elderly, immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Orthodox families. According to analysis by Gallup, American Jews have the highest
well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''quality of life'', refers to what is intrinsically valuable relative ''to'' someone. So the well-being of a person is what is ultimately good ''for'' this person, what is in the ...

well-being
of any ethnic or religious group in America. The great majority of school-age Jewish students attend public schools, although Jewish day schools and yeshivas are to be found throughout the country. Jewish cultural studies and
Hebrew language Hebrew (, , or ) is a of the . Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the and their longest-surviving descendants: the and . It was largely preserved throughout history as the main of (post-) and . Hebrew is the ...
instruction is also commonly offered at synagogues in the form of supplementary Hebrew schools or Sunday schools. From the early 1900s until the 1950s, quota systems were imposed at elite colleges and universities particularly in the Northeast, as a response to the growing number of children of recent Jewish immigrants; these limited the number of Jewish students accepted, and greatly reduced their previous attendance. Jewish enrollment at Cornell's School of Medicine fell from 40% to 4% between the world wars, and Harvard's fell from 30% to 4%. Before 1945, only a few Jewish professors were permitted as instructors at elite universities. In 1941, for example, antisemitism drove
Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (; July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and c ...

Milton Friedman
from a non-tenured assistant professorship at the
University of Wisconsin–Madison The University of Wisconsin–Madison (University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of i ...
.Milton Friedman and Rose D. Friedman, ''Two Lucky People: Memoirs'' (1998) p. 5
online
/ref>
Harry LevinHarry Tuchman Levin (July 18, 1912 – May 29, 1994) was an American literary critic and scholar of modernism and comparative literature. Life and career Levin was born in Minneapolis, the son of Beatrice Hirshler (née Tuchman) and Isadore Henry Le ...
became the first Jewish full professor in the
Harvard Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard
English department in 1943, but the Economics department decided not to hire
Paul Samuelson Paul may refer to: *Paul (given name), a given name (includes a list of people with that name) *Paul (surname), a list of people People Christianity *Paul the Apostle (AD 5–67), also known as Saul of Tarsus or Saint Paul, early Christian mis ...

Paul Samuelson
in 1948. Harvard hired its first Jewish biochemists in 1954. According to
Clark Kerr Clark Kerr (May 17, 1911 – December 1, 2003) was an American professor of economics and academic administrator. He was the first chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Be ...
,
Martin Meyerson Martin Meyerson (November 14, 1922 – June 2, 2007) was an American city planner and academic leader best known for serving as the President of the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) from 1970 to 1981. Meyerson, through his research, mentorship, ...
in 1965 became the first Jew to serve, albeit temporarily, as the leader of a major American
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in v ...
. That year, Meyerson served as acting chancellor of the
University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...

University of California, Berkeley
, but was unable to obtain a permanent appointment as a result of a combination of tactical errors on his part and antisemitism on the UC Board of Regents. Meyerson served as the president of the
University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a in , Pennsylvania. The university, established as the College of Philadelphia in 1740, is one of the nine chartered prior to the . , Penn's founder and first president, advocated an edu ...

University of Pennsylvania
from 1970 to 1981. By 1986, a third of the presidents of the elite undergraduate final clubs at Harvard were Jewish.
Rick Levin Richard Charles Levin (born April 7, 1947) is an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from econ ...
was president of Yale University from 1993 to 2013,
Judith Rodin Judith Rodin (born Judith Seitz; September 9, 1944) is a philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Philanthropy contrasts with business initiatives, w ...
was president of the University of Pennsylvania from 1994 to 2004 (and is currently president of the
Rockefeller Foundation '' The Rockefeller Foundation is an American private foundation A private foundation is a charitable organization that, while serving a good cause, might or might not qualify as a public charity by government standards. The Bill & Melinda Gates ...
), Paul Samuelson's nephew,
Lawrence Summers Lawrence Henry Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts f ...
, was president of
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
from 2001 until 2006, and Harold Shapiro was president of
Princeton University Princeton University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Princeton University
from 1992 until 2000.


American Jews at American higher education institutions


Religion

Jewishness in the United States is considered an
ethnic identity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousne ...
as well as a religious one. See
Ethnoreligious group An ethnoreligious group (or an ethno-religious group), or simply an ethnoreligion, is a grouping of people who are unified by a common Religion, religious and ethnic group, ethnic background. Furthermore, the term ethno-religious group, along wi ...
.


Observances and engagement

Jewish religious practice in America is quite varied. Among the 4.3 million American Jews described as "strongly connected" to Judaism, over 80% report some sort of active engagement with Judaism, ranging from attending at daily prayer services on one end of the spectrum, to as little as attending only Passover Seders or lighting
Hanukkah or English translation: 'Establishing' or 'Dedication' (of the Temple in Jerusalem The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome o ...

Hanukkah
candles on the other. A 2003
Harris Poll The Harris Poll (legal name, Harris Insights and Analytics), is an American market research Market research is an organized effort to gather information about target markets and customers: know about them, starting with who they are. It is a very ...

Harris Poll
found that 16% of American Jews go to the synagogue at least once a month, 42% go less frequently but at least once a year, and 42% go less frequently than once a year. The survey found that of the 4.3 million strongly connected Jews, 46% belong to a synagogue. Among those households who belong to a synagogue, 38% are members of
Reform Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word in this way emerges in the late 18th century and is believed to originate from Christopher Wyvill's Association movement ...
synagogues, 33%
Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aest ...
, 22%
Orthodox Orthodox, Orthodoxy, or Orthodoxism may refer to: Religion * Orthodoxy, adherence to accepted norms, more specifically adherence to creeds, especially within Christianity and Judaism, but also less commonly in non-Abrahamic religions like Neo-paga ...
, 2% Reconstructionist, and 5% other types. Traditionally,
Sephardi Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews, ''Sephardim'',, Modern Hebrew: ''Sefaraddim'', Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm, also , ''Ye'hude Sepharad'', lit. "The Jews of Spain", es, Judíos sefardíes (or ), pt, Judeus sefarditas or Hispanic Jew ...
and
Mizrahi Jews Mizrahi Jews ( he, יהודי המִזְרָח) or ''Mizrahim'' (), also sometimes referred to as Mizrachi (), Edot HaMizrach (; ) or Oriental Jews, are the descendants of the local Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO ...
do not have different branches (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, etc.) but usually remain observant and religious. The survey discovered that Jews in the
Northeast The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity ...
and
Midwest The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the Midwest or the American Midwest, is one of four Census Bureau Region, census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2"). It occupies the northern central part of ...
are generally more observant than Jews in the South or West. Reflecting a trend also observed among other religious groups, Jews in the Northwestern United States are typically the least observant. In recent years, there has been a noticeable trend of secular American Jews returning to a more observant, in most cases, Orthodox, lifestyle. Such Jews are called
baalei teshuva In Judaism, a ''ba'al teshuvah'' ( he, בעל תשובה; for a woman, , or ; plural, , , "master of return
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...
) is a Jew from a secular background who becomes religiously observant. Originally, the term referred to a Jew who transgressed t ...
("returners", see also
Repentance in Judaism Repentance ( he, תשובה, literally, "return", pronounced ''tshuva'' or ''teshuva'') is one element of atoning for sin in Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of Judah, Judah", ...
). The 2008
American Religious Identification Survey The Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture (ISSSC) is located at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut Hartford is the List of capitals in the United States, capital city of the U.S. state of Connecticut. It was the s ...
found that around 3.4 million American Jews call themselves
religious Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
– out of a general Jewish population of about 5.4 million. The number of Jews who identify themselves as only culturally Jewish has risen from 20% in 1990 to 37% in 2008, according to the study. In the same period, the number of all US adults who said they had no religion rose from 8% to 15%. Jews are more likely to be secular than Americans in general, the researchers said. About half of all US Jews – including those who consider themselves religiously observant – claim in the survey that they have a secular worldview and see no contradiction between that outlook and their faith, according to the study's authors. Researchers attribute the trends among American Jews to the high rate of intermarriage and "disaffection from Judaism" in the United States. About one-sixth of American Jews maintain
kosher ''Kashrut'' (also ''kashruth'' or ''kashrus'', ) is a set of dietary laws Some people do not eat various specific foods and beverages in conformity with various religious, cultural, legal or other societal prohibitions. Many of these prohibition ...

kosher
dietary standards.


Religious beliefs

American Jews are more likely to be
atheist Atheism, in the broadest sense, is an absence of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psy ...

atheist
or
agnostic Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divinity, divine or the supernatural is unknown or Uncertainty, unknowable. (page 56 in 1967 edition) Another definition provided is the view that "human reason is incapable of providing ...

agnostic
than most Americans, especially so compared with
Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church, errors in the Catholic Church. Protestants originating in the Ref ...
or
Catholics The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholics
. A 2003 poll found that while 79% of Americans believe in God, only 48% of American Jews do, compared with 79% and 90% for Catholics and Protestants respectively. While 66% of Americans said they were "absolutely certain" of God's existence, 24% of American Jews said the same. And though 9% of Americans believe there is (8%
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
and 4%
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
), 19% of American Jews believe God does not exist. A 2009 Harris Poll showed American Jews as the religious group most accepting of
evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...

evolution
, with 80% believing in evolution, compared to 51% for Catholics, 32% for Protestants, and 16% of born-again Christians. They were also less likely to believe in supernatural phenomena such as
miracle A miracle is a supernatural event that seems inexplicable by physical laws, natural or scientific laws. In various religions, a phenomenon that is characterized as miraculous is often attributed to the actions of a supernatural being, (especiall ...

miracle
s,
angel An angel is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also includes claimed abilities embodied in or provided by such ...

angel
s, or
heaven Heaven or the heavens, is a common religious cosmological or transcendent supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also ...

heaven
. A 2013 Pew Research Center report found that 1.7 million American Jewish adults, 1.6 million of whom were raised in Jewish homes or had Jewish ancestry, identified as
Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of ...

Christians
or
Messianic Jews Messianic Judaism is a modern Syncretism, syncretic Christianity, Christian New religious movement, religious movement that incorporates some elements of Rabbinic Judaism, Judaism and Jewish culture, Jewish tradition with Evangelicalism, Evangeli ...
but also consider themselves ethnically Jewish. Another 700,000 American Christian adults considered themselves "Jews by affinity" or "grafted-in" Jews.


Buddhism

Jews are overrepresented in American Buddhism specifically among those whose parents are not
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, an ...

Buddhist
, and without Buddhist heritage, with between one fifth and 30% of all American Buddhists identifying as Jewish though only 2% of Americans are Jewish. Nicknamed ''Jubu''s, an increasing number of American Jews have begun adopting Buddhist spiritual practice, while at the same time continuing to identify with and practice Judaism. Notable American Jewish Buddhists include:
Robert Downey Jr. Robert John Downey Jr. (born April 4, 1965) is an American actor and producer. His career has been characterized by critical and popular success in his youth, followed by a period of substance abuse and legal troubles, before a resurgence of co ...
Allen Ginsberg Irwin Allen Ginsberg (; June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet and writer. As a student at Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is ...

Allen Ginsberg
,
Linda Pritzker Linda Pritzker (born September 1953) also known by the name Lama Tsomo is an American lama in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. She is a spiritual teacher, author, philanthropist, and co-founder of the Namchak Foundation and Namchak Retreat Ranch i ...
,Forbes: The World's Billionaires - Linda Pritzker
July 2018
Jonathan F.P. Rose,IN PERSON; Developer With Eye To Profits For Society" By TINA KELLEY
April 11, 2004
Goldie Hawn Goldie Jeanne Hawn (born November 21, 1945) is an American actress, producer, and singer. She rose to fame on the NBC The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English-language commercial terrestrial radio Radio is the te ...

Goldie Hawn
and daughter
Kate Hudson Kate Garry Hudson (born April 19, 1979) is an American actress. She rose to prominence for her performance in the film ''Almost Famous'' (2000), for which she won a Golden Globe and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actr ...
,
Steven Seagal Steven Frederic Seagal (; born April 10, 1952) is an American actor, screenwriter, producer, martial artist, and musician. Seagal was born in Lansing, Michigan Lansing () is the capital of the U.S. state of Michigan Michigan () is a ...
,
Adam Yauch Adam Nathaniel Yauch (pronounced ; August 5, 1964 – May 4, 2012), better known under the stage name MCA, was an American rapper, bass player, filmmaker and a founding member of the hip hop Hip hop or hip-hop is a culture Culture () is ...

Adam Yauch
of the rap group
The Beastie Boys ''The'' () is a grammatical Article (grammar), article in English language, English, denoting persons or things already mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners, readers or speakers. It is the definite art ...
, and
Garry Shandling Garry Emmanuel Shandling (November 29, 1949 – March 24, 2016) was an American actor, comedian, director, producer and writer. Two of his best-known works were ''It's Garry Shandling's Show'' and ''The Larry Sanders Show''. Shandling began his ...
. Film makers the
Coen Brothers Joel Daniel Coen (born November 29, 1954) and Ethan Jesse Coen (born September 21, 1957),State of Minnesota. ''Minnesota Birth Index, 1935–2002''. Minnesota Department of Health. popularly known as the Coen Brothers (), are American filmmake ...
have been influenced by Buddhism as well for a time.


Contemporary politics

Today, American Jews are a distinctive and influential group in the nation's politics. Jeffrey S. Helmreich writes that the ability of American Jews to effect this through political or financial clout is overestimated, that the primary influence lies in the group's voting patterns. "Jews have devoted themselves to politics with almost religious fervor," writes Mitchell Bard, who adds that Jews have the highest percentage
voter turnout In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such ...

voter turnout
of any ethnic group (84% reported being registered to vote). Though the majority (60–70%) of the country's Jews identify as Democratic, Jews span the political spectrum, with those at higher levels of observance being far more likely to vote Republican than their less observant and secular counterparts. Owing to high Democratic identification in the
2008 United States Presidential Election The 2008 United States presidential election was the 56th quadrennial United States presidential election, presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. The Democratic Party (United States), Democratic ticket of Barack Obama, the ...
, 78% of Jews voted for Democrat
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
versus 21% for Republican
John McCain John Sidney McCain III (August 29, 1936 – August 25, 2018) was an American politician, statesman, and United States Navy officer who served as a United States Senator for Arizona from 1987 until his death in 2018. He previously served ...

John McCain
, despite Republican attempts to connect Obama to Muslim and pro-Palestinian causes. It has been suggested that running mate
Sarah Palin Sarah Louise Palin (; née Heath; born February 11, 1964) is an American politician, commentator, author, and reality television personality, who served as the List of Governors of Alaska, ninth governor of Alaska from 2006 until Resignation o ...

Sarah Palin
's conservative views on social issues may have nudged Jews away from the McCain–Palin ticket. In the 2012 United States presidential election, 69% of Jews voted for the Democratic incumbent President Obama. In 2019, after the 2016 election of
Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective reci ...

Donald Trump
, poll data from the Jewish Electorate Institute showed that 73% of Jewish voters felt less secure as Jews than before, 71% disapproved of Trump's handling of anti-Semitism (54% strongly disapprove), 59% felt that he bears "at least some responsibility" for the
Pittsburgh synagogue shooting The Pittsburgh synagogue shooting was a mass shooting A mass shooting is an incident involving multiple victims of gun violence. There is no widely accepted definition of the term ''mass shooting''. The United States The United States o ...
and
Poway synagogue shooting The Poway synagogue shooting occurred on April 27, 2019, when a gunman armed with an AR-15 style rifle fired shots inside the Chabad of Poway synagogue in Poway, California Poway is a city in San Diego County, California San Diego Coun ...
, and 38% were concerned that Trump was encouraging right-wing extremism. Views of the Democratic and Republican parties were milder: 28% were concerned that Republicans were making alliances with white nationalists and tolerating anti-Semitism within their ranks, while 27% were concerned that Democrats were tolerating
anti-Semitism Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and ...
within their ranks.


Foreign policy

American Jews have displayed a very strong interest in
foreign affairs ''Foreign Affairs'' is an American magazine of international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader ...
, especially regarding
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
in the 1930s, and
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
since 1945. Both major parties have made strong commitments in support of Israel. Dr. Eric Uslaner of the
University of Maryland The University of Maryland, College Park (University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an org ...

University of Maryland
argues, with regard to the 2004 election: "Only 15% of Jews said that Israel was a key voting issue. Among those voters, 55% voted for Kerry (compared to 83% of Jewish voters not concerned with Israel)." Uslander goes on to point out that negative views of
Evangelical Christians Evangelicalism (), evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestant Christianity that maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel Gospel originally meant the Chr ...
had a distinctly negative impact for Republicans among Jewish voters, while
Orthodox Jews Orthodox Judaism is the collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism. Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Written and Oral, as literally revealed by God to Moses Moses he, מֹש ...
, traditionally more conservative in outlook as to social issues, favored the Republican Party. A ''New York Times'' article suggests that the Jewish movement to the Republican party is focused heavily on faith-based issues, similar to the Catholic vote, which is credited for helping taking Florida in 2004. However, Natan Guttman, ''
The Forward ''The Forward'' ( yi, פֿאָרווערטס, Forverts), formerly known as ''The Jewish Daily Forward'', is an American news media organization for a Jewish American American Jews or Jewish Americans are Americans Americans are the C ...
''s Washington bureau chief, dismisses this notion, writing in '' Moment'' that while " is true that Republicans are making small and steady strides into the Jewish community... a look at the past three decades of
exit polls An election exit poll is a poll of voters taken immediately after they have exited the polling stations. A similar poll conducted before actual voters have voted is called an entrance poll. Pollsters – usually private companies working for ...
, which are more reliable than pre-election polls, and the numbers are clear: Jews vote overwhelmingly Democratic," an assertion confirmed by the most recent presidential election results. Though some
racist Racism is the belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding to inherited attributes and can be divided based on the superiority Superior may refer to: *Superior (hierarchy), something which is higher in a hi ...

racist
claim charged that Jewish interests were partially responsible for the push to war with Iraq, Jewish Americans were actually more strongly opposed to the
Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring to the Gulf War as the first Iraq war. The p ...
from its onset than any other ethnic group, or even most Americans. The greater opposition to the war was not simply a result of high Democratic identification among Jewish Americans, as Jewish Americans of all political persuasions were more likely to oppose the war than non-Jews who shared the same political leanings.


Domestic issues

A 2013 Pew Research Center survey suggests that American Jews' views on domestic politics are intertwined with the community's self-definition as a persecuted minority who benefited from the liberties and societal shifts in the United States and feel obligated to help other minorities enjoy the same benefits. American Jews across age and gender lines tend to vote for and support politicians and policies supported by the
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
. On the other hand, Orthodox American Jews have domestic political views that are more similar to their religious Christian neighbors. American Jews are largely supportive of
LGBT rights Rights affecting lesbian A lesbian is a Homosexuality, homosexual woman.Zimmerman, p. 453. The word ''lesbian'' is also used for women in relation to their sexual identity or sexual behavior, regardless of sexual orientation, or a ...
with 79% responding in a 2011 Pew poll that homosexuality should be "accepted by society", while the overall average in the same 2011 poll among Americans of all demographic groups was that 50%. A split on homosexuality exists by level of observance.
Reform Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word in this way emerges in the late 18th century and is believed to originate from Christopher Wyvill's Association movement ...
rabbis in America perform same-sex marriages as a matter of routine, and there are fifteen LGBT Jewish congregations in North America. Reform, Reconstructionist and, increasingly,
Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aest ...
, Jews are far more supportive on issues like gay marriage than
Orthodox Jews Orthodox Judaism is the collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism. Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Written and Oral, as literally revealed by God to Moses Moses he, מֹש ...
are. A 2007 survey of Conservative Jewish leaders and activists showed that an overwhelming majority supported gay rabbinical ordination and same-sex marriage. Accordingly, 78% of Jewish voters rejected Prop8, the bill that banned gay marriage in California. No other ethnic or religious group voted as strongly against it. In considering the trade-off between the economy and environmental protection, American Jews were significantly more likely than other religious groups (excepting Buddhism) to favor stronger environmental protection. Jews in America also overwhelmingly oppose current United States marijuana policy. In 2009, eighty-six percent of Jewish Americans opposed arresting nonviolent marijuana smokers, compared to 61% for the population at large and 68% of all Democrats. Additionally, 85% of Jews in the United States opposed using federal law enforcement to close patient cooperatives for medical marijuana in states where medical marijuana is legal, compared to 67% of the population at large and 73% of Democrats. A 2014 Pew Research survey titled "How Americans Feel About Religious Groups", found that Jews were viewed the most favorably of all other groups, with a rating of 63 out of 100. Jews were viewed most positively by fellow Jews, followed by white Evangelicals. Sixty percent of the 3,200 persons surveyed said they had ever met a Jew.


Jewish American culture

Since the time of the last major wave of Jewish immigration to America (over 2,000,000 Jews from Eastern Europe who arrived between 1890 and 1924), Jewish secular culture in the United States has become integrated in almost every important way with the broader American culture. Many aspects of Jewish American culture have, in turn, become part of the wider culture of the United States.


Language

Most American Jews today are native
English speakers English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading language of international discourse in the 21st centu ...

English speakers
. A variety of other languages are still spoken within some American Jewish communities, communities that are representative of the various
Jewish ethnic divisions Jewish ethnic divisions refer to many distinctive communities within the world's Ethnicity, ethnically Jewish population. Although considered a Cultural identity, self-identifying ethnicity, there are distinct ethnic subdivisions among Jews, most ...
from around the world that have come together to make up America's Jewish population. Many of America's
Hasidic Jews Hasidism, sometimes spelled Chassidism, and also known as Hasidic Judaism ( he, חסידות, Ḥăsīdut, ; originally, "piety"), is a subgroup of Haredi Judaism Haredi Judaism ( he, חֲרֵדִי ', ; also spelled ''Charedi'', plural ''Hare ...
, being exclusively of
Ashkenazi Ashkenazi Jews ( are a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in ...
descent, are raised speaking
Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic languages, Germanic family of languages (the others being the ...
. Yiddish was once spoken as the primary language by most of the several million Ashkenazi Jews who migrated to the United States. It was, in fact, the original language in which ''
The Forward ''The Forward'' ( yi, פֿאָרווערטס, Forverts), formerly known as ''The Jewish Daily Forward'', is an American news media organization for a Jewish American American Jews or Jewish Americans are Americans Americans are the C ...
'' was published. Yiddish has had an influence on
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the m ...
, and words borrowed from it include ''
chutzpah Chutzpah () is the quality of audacity, for good or for bad. It derives from the Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, ...
'' ("effrontery", "gall"), ''nosh'' ("snack"), ''schlep'' ("drag"), ''schmuck'' ("an obnoxious, contemptible person", euphemism for "penis"), and, depending on
idiolect Idiolect is an individual's unique use of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-Eu ...
, hundreds of other terms. (See also
Yinglish Yiddish words used in the English language include both words that have been Language shift, assimilated into English language, English - used by both Yiddish and English speakers - and many that have not. An English sentence that uses either may ...
.) The
Persian Jewish Persian Jews or Iranian Jews ( fa, یهودیان ایرانی, ''yahudiān-e-Irāni''; he, יהודים פרסים) are Jews historically associated with the Persian Empire, whose successor state is Iran. The biblical Book of Esther contains ...
community in the United States, notably the large community in and around Los Angeles and
Beverly Hills, California Beverly Hills is a city in Los Angeles County, California Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, and sometimes abbreviated as L.A. County, is the List of the most populous counties in the United States, most populous coun ...
, primarily speak
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
(see also
Judeo-Persian Judeo-Persian refers to both a group of Jewish dialects spoken by the Jews living in Iran and Judeo-Persian texts (written in Hebrew alphabet). As a collective term, Judeo-Persian refers to a number of Judeo-Iranian languages spoken by Jewish comm ...
) in the home and synagogue. They also support their own Persian language newspapers. Persian Jews also reside in eastern parts of New York such as
Kew Gardens Kew Gardens is a botanical garden, botanic garden in southwest London that houses the "largest and most diverse botany, botanical and mycology, mycological collections in the world". Founded in 1840, from the exotic garden at Kew Park, its li ...
and
Great Neck, Long Island Great Neck is a region on Long Island, New York, that covers a peninsula on the North Shore (Long Island), North Shore and includes nine villages, among them Great Neck (village), New York, Great Neck, Great Neck Estates, New York, Great Neck Est ...
. Many recent Jewish immigrants from the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
speak primarily Russian at home, and there are several notable communities where public life and business are carried out mainly in Russian, such as in
Brighton Beach Brighton Beach is a neighborhood in the southern portion of the New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With an estimated ...

Brighton Beach
in New York City and
Sunny Isles Beach Sunny Isles Beach (SIB, officially the City of Sunny Isles Beach) is a city located on a barrier island in northeast Miami-Dade County, Florida Florida (, ) is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern regi ...

Sunny Isles Beach
in Florida. 2010 estimates of the number of Jewish Russian-speaking households in the New York city area are around 92,000, and the number of individuals are somewhere between 223,000 and 350,000. Another high population of Russian Jews can be found in the Richmond District of San Francisco where Russian markets stand alongside the numerous Asian businesses. American
Bukharan Jews Bukharan Jews, also called Bukharian Jews (Tajik language, Tajik and Bukhori Cyrillic: Яҳудиёни Бухоро, ''Yahudiyoni Buxoro'', Bukhori Hebrew Script: יהודי בוכארא; Uzbek language, Uzbek: ''Buxoro yahudiylari''; he, יהו ...

Bukharan Jews
speak
Bukhori Bukhori ( Tajiki: бухорӣ – ''buxorī'', Hebrew script: בוכארי, ''buxori''), also known as Bukharian, is a Jewish dialect of the Tajik branch of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym Farsi (, ', ), is a W ...
, a dialect of Tajik Persian. They publish their own newspapers such as the ''Bukharian Times'' and a large portion live in
Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by po ...

Queens
, New York. Forest Hills in the New York City borough of Queens is home to 108th Street, which is called by some "Bukharian Broadway", a reference to the many stores and restaurants found on and around the street that have Bukharian influences. Many Bukharians are also represented in parts of
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States, Southwestern region of the United States. It is also usually considered part of the Mountain States, Mountain states. It is th ...

Arizona
, Miami, Florida, and areas of
Southern California Southern California (sometimes known as SoCal; es, Sur de California) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the southern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a in the . With over 39.3million resi ...

Southern California
such as San Diego.
Classical Hebrew Biblical Hebrew ( ''Ivrit Miqra'it'' or ''Leshon ha-Miqra''), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasi ...
is the language of most Jewish religious literature, such as the
Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, ...
(Bible) and
Siddur Siddur ( he, סִדּוּר , ; plural siddurim , ) is a term for a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards ...
(prayerbook).
Modern Hebrew Modern Hebrew ( he, עברית חדשה, ''ʿivrít ḥadašá ', , ''Literal translation, lit.'' "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), also known as Israeli Hebrew or Israeli, and generally referred to by speakers simply as Hebrew ( ), is the ...
is also the primary official language of the modern State of
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
, which further encourages many to learn it as a second language. Some recent Israeli immigrants to America speak Hebrew as their primary language. There are a diversity of Hispanic Jews living in America. The oldest community is that of the Sephardi Jews of New Netherland. Their ancestors had fled Spain or Portugal during the Inquisition for the Netherlands, and then came to New Netherland. Though there is dispute over whether they should be considered Hispanic. Some Hispanic Jews, particularly in Miami and Los Angeles, immigrated from Latin America. The largest groups are those that fled Cuba after the communist revolution (known as Jewbans), Argentine Jews, and more recently, Venezuelan Jews. Argentina is the Latin American country with the largest Jewish population. There are a large number of synagogues in the Miami area that give services in Spanish. The last Hispanic Jewish community would be those that recently came from Portugal or Spain, after Spain and Portugal granted citizenship to the descendants of Jews who fled during the Inquisition. All the above listed Hispanic Jewish groups speak either Spanish or Ladino.


Jewish American literature

Although American Jews have contributed greatly to American arts overall, there remains a distinctly Jewish American literature. Jewish American literature often explores the experience of being a Jew in America, and the conflicting pulls of secular society and history.


Popular culture

Yiddish theater was very well attended, and provided a training ground for performers and producers who moved to Hollywood in the 1920s. Many of the early Hollywood moguls and pioneers were Jewish. They played roles in the development of radio and television networks, typified by William S. Paley who ran
CBS CBS is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S ...

CBS
. Stephen J. Whitfield states that "The Sarnoff family was long dominant at NBC." Many individual Jews have made significant contributions to American popular culture. There have been many Jewish American actors and performers, ranging from early 1900s actors, to classic Hollywood film stars, and culminating in many currently known actors. The field of American comedy includes many Jews. The legacy also includes songwriters and authors, for example the author of the song "Viva Las Vegas"
Doc Pomus Jerome Solon Felder (June 27, 1925 – March 14, 1991), known professionally as Doc Pomus, was an American blues Blues is a music genre and musical form which was originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1860s by African ...
, or ''
Billy the Kid Billy the Kid (born Henry McCarty; September 17 or November 23, 1859July 14, 1881), also known by the pseudonym William H. Bonney, was an Irish-American outlaw and gunfighter of the American Old West who killed eight men before he was shot an ...
'' composer
Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (, ; November 14, 1900December 2, 1990) was an American composer, composition teacher, writer, and later a conductor of his own and other American music. Copland was referred to by his peers and critics as "the Dean of American Com ...
. Many Jews have been at the forefront of women's issues. There were 110 Jewish players in
Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system. It is played in baseball league, leag ...
between 1870 and 1881. The first generation of Jewish Americans who immigrated during the 1880–1924 peak period were not interested in baseball, and in some cases tried to prevent their children from watching or participating in baseball-related activities. Most were focused on making sure they and their children took advantage of education and employment opportunities. Despite the efforts of parents, Jewish children became interested in baseball quickly since it was already embedded in the broader American culture. The second generation of immigrants saw baseball as a means to celebrate American culture without abandoning their broader religious community. After 1924, many Yiddish newspapers began covering baseball, which they had not done previously.


Government and military

Since 1845, a total of 34 Jews have served in the Senate, including the 14 present-day senators noted above. Judah P. Benjamin was the first practicing Jewish Senator, and would later serve as
Confederate Confederacy may refer to: A confederation, an association of sovereign states or communities. Examples include: * Battle of the Trench, Confederate tribes * Confederate States of America, a confederation of secessionist American states that existed ...

Confederate
Secretary of War The secretary of war was a member of the U.S. president The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foak ...
and Secretary of State during the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
.
Rahm Emanuel Rahm Israel Emanuel (; born November 29, 1959) is an American politician who served as the 55th mayor of Chicago from 2011 to 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as the 23rd White House Chief of Staff from 2009 to 20 ...
served as Chief of Staff to President Barack Obama. The number of Jews elected to the House rose to an all-time high of 30. Eight Jews have been appointed to the
United States Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the Federal judiciary of the United States, federal judiciary of the United States of America. It has ultimate and largely Procedures of the Supreme Court of the United ...

United States Supreme Court
, of which two (
Stephen Breyer Stephen Gerald Breyer ( ; born August 15, 1938) is an American lawyer, jurist, and legal scholar who is serving as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States An associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United Stat ...

Stephen Breyer
and
Elena Kagan Elena Kagan (; born April 28, 1960) is an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. She was nominated by President Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorn ...
) are currently serving. Had
Merrick Garland Merrick Brian Garland (born November 13, 1952) is an American attorney and jurist serving as the 86th United States Attorney General, United States attorney general since March 2021. He served as a United States federal judge, United States circ ...

Merrick Garland
's 2016 nomination been accepted, that number would have risen to four out of nine since
Ruth Bader Ginsburg Joan Ruth Bader Ginsburg ( ; née Bader; March 15, 1933September 18, 2020) was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United St ...

Ruth Bader Ginsburg
was also serving at that time. The Civil War marked a transition for American Jews. It killed off the antisemitic canard, widespread in Europe, to the effect that Jews are cowardly, preferring to run from war rather than serve alongside their fellow citizens in battle. At least twenty eight American Jews have been awarded the
Medal of Honor The Medal of Honor (MOH) is the United States government's highest and most prestigious military decoration Military awards and decorations are distinctions given as a mark of honor for military heroism, meritorious or outstanding service o ...

Medal of Honor
.


World War II

More than 550,000 Jews served in the
U.S. military The United States Armed Forces are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between ...
during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
; about 11,000 were killed and more than 40,000 were wounded. There were three recipients of the Medal of Honor; 157 recipients of the
Army Distinguished Service Medal The Distinguished Service Medal (DSM) is a Awards and decorations of the United States military, military decoration of the United States Army that is presented to soldiers who have distinguished themselves by exceptionally meritorious service to ...
,
Navy Distinguished Service Medal The Navy Distinguished Service Medal is a military decoration Military awards and decorations are distinctions given as a mark of honor for military heroism, meritorious or outstanding service or achievement.United States Department of Defense ...
,
Distinguished Service CrossThe Distinguished Service Cross (D.S.C.) is a military decoration for courage. Different versions exist for different countries. *Distinguished Service Cross (Australia) *Distinguished Service Cross (United Kingdom) *Distinguished Service Cross (Un ...
, or
Navy Cross The Navy Cross is the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps' second-highest military decoration Military awards and decorations are distinctions given as a mark of honor for military heroism, meritorious or outstanding service or ...
; and about 1600 recipients of the
Silver Star The Silver Star Medal (SSM) is the United States Armed Forces The United States Armed Forces are the Military, military forces of the United States of America. The armed forces consists of six Military branch, service branches: the Uni ...

Silver Star
. About 50,000 other decorations and awards were given to Jewish military personnel, for a total of 52,000 decorations. During this period, Jews were approximately 3.3 percent of the total U.S. population but constituted about 4.23 percent of the U.S. armed forces. About 60 percent of all Jewish physicians in the United States under 45 years of age were in service as military physicians and
medic A medic is a person involved in medicine such as a medical doctor A physician (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the E ...

medic
s. Many Jewish
physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at leas ...

physicist
s, including project lead J. Robert Oppenheimer, were involved in the
Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development Research and development (R&D, R+D), known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), is the set of innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in ...
, the secret World War II effort to develop the
atomic bomb A nuclear weapon (also known as an atom bomb, atomic bomb, nuclear bomb or nuclear warhead, and colloquially as an A-bomb or nuke) is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either nuclear fission, fiss ...
. Many of these physicists were refugees from
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
or they were refugees from
antisemitic Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an i ...
persecution which was occurring elsewhere in Europe.


American folk music

Jews have been involved in the American folk music scene since the late 19th century; these tended to be refugees from Central and Eastern Europe, and significantly more economically disadvantaged than their established Western European Sephardic coreligionists. Historians see it as a legacy of the secular Yiddish theater, cantorial traditions and a desire to assimilate. By the 1940s Jews had become established in the American folk music scene. Examples of the major impact Jews have had in the American folk music arena include, but are not limited to:
Moe Asch Moe, MOE, MoE or m.o.e. may refer to: In arts and entertainment Characters * Moe Szyslak Moe Szyslak is a recurring character from the animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In tra ...
the first to record and release much of the music of
Woody Guthrie Woodrow Wilson Guthrie (; July 14, 1912 – October 3, 1967) was an American singer-songwriter, who is considered to be one of the most significant figures in American folk music. His music, including songs such as " This Land Is Your Land" ...

Woody Guthrie
, including "
This Land is Your Land 261px, Woody Guthrie in March 1943 "This Land Is Your Land" is one of the United States' most famous folk songs. Its lyrics were written by American folk singer Woody Guthrie Woodrow Wilson Guthrie (; July 14, 1912 – October 3, 1967) ...
" (see The Asch Recordings) in response to
Irving Berlin Irving Berlin (born Israel Beilin; yi, ישראל ביילין; May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989) was a Russian American composer and lyricist, widely considered one of the greatest songwriters in history. His music forms a great part of th ...
's "God Bless America", and Guthrie wrote Jewish songs. Guthrie married a
Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...
and their son Arlo became influential in his own right. Asch's one-man corporation Folkways Records also released much of the music of Leadbelly and Pete Seeger from the '40s and '50s. Asch's large music catalog was voluntarily donated to the . Jews have also thrived in Jazz music and contributed to its popularization. Three of the four creators of the
Newport Folk Festival Newport Folk Festival is an annual American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as ...

Newport Folk Festival
, Wein, Bikel and Grossman (Seeger is not) were Jewish. Albert Grossman put together
Peter, Paul and Mary Peter, Paul and Mary were an American Contemporary folk music, folk group formed in New York City in 1961, during the American folk music revival phenomenon. The trio was composed of tenor Peter Yarrow, baritone Paul Stookey, Noel Paul Stookey an ...
, of which Yarrow is Jewish.
Oscar Brand Oscar Brand (February 7, 1920 – September 30, 2016) was a Canadian-born American American folk music, folk singer-songwriter and author. In his career, spanning 70 years, he composed at least 300 songs and released nearly 100 albums, among t ...
, from a Canadian Jewish family, has the longest running radio program "Oscar Brand's Folksong Festival" which has been on air consecutively since 1945 from New York City. And is the first American broadcast where the host himself will answer any personal correspondence. The influential group
The Weavers The Weavers were an American folk music Folk music includes #Traditional folk music, traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditiona ...

The Weavers
, successor to the Almanac Singers, led by Pete Seeger, had a Jewish manager, and two of the four members of the group were Jewish (Gilbert and Hellerman). The B-side of "Good Night Irene" had the Hebrew folk song personally chosen for the record by Pete Seeger " Tzena, Tzena, Tzena". The influential folk music magazine ''Sing Out!'' was co-founded and edited by
Irwin Silber Irwin Silber (October 17, 1925 – September 8, 2010) was an American Communism, Communist, Editing, editor, publisher, and activism, political activist. Biography Early years Irwin Silber was born October 17, 1925 in New York City, to Jewish pa ...
in 1951, and edited by him until 1967, when the magazine stopped publication for decades. ''Rolling Stone'' magazine's first music critic
Jon Landau Jon Landau (born May 14, 1947) is an American music critic, manager, and record producer. He has worked with Bruce Springsteen Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen (born September 23, 1949) is an American singer, songwriter, and musician ...
is of German Jewish descent. Izzy Young who created the legendary Folklore Center in New York, and currently the Folklore Centrum near Mariatorget in Södermalm, Sweden, which relates to American and Swedish folk music. Dave Van Ronk observed that the behind the scenes 1950s folk scene "was at the very least 50 percent Jewish, and they adopted the music as part of their assimilation into the Anglo-American tradition which itself was largely an artificial construct but none the less provided us with some common ground". Nobel Prize winner
Bob Dylan Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman; May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author and visual artist. Often regarded as one of the greatest songwriters of all time, Dylan has been a major figure in for more than 50 years. Much of ...

Bob Dylan
is also Jewish.


Finance and law

Jews have been involved in financial services since the colonial era. They received rights to trade fur, from the Dutch and Swedish colonies. British governors honored these rights after taking over. During the Revolutionary War, Haym Solomon helped create America's first semi-central bank, and advised Alexander Hamilton on the building of America's financial system. American Jews in the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries played a major role in developing America's financial services industry, both at investment banks and with investment funds. German Jewish bankers began to assume a major role in American finance in the 1830s when government and private borrowing to pay for canals, railroads and other
internal improvements Internal improvements is the term used historically in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North Ame ...
increased rapidly and significantly. Men such as
August Belmont August Belmont Sr. (December 8, 1813November 24, 1890) was a German-American politician, financier, foreign diplomat, and party chairman of the Democratic National Committee The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the governing body of the ...
(Rothschild's agent in New York and a leading Democrat), Philip Speyer,
Jacob Schiff Jacob Henry Schiff (born Jakob Heinrich Schiff; January 10, 1847 – September 25, 1920) was a German-born Jewish American banker, businessman, and philanthropist. Among many other things, he helped finance the expansion of American railroads, and ...
(at Kuhn, Loeb & Company),
Joseph Seligman Joseph Seligman (November 22, 1819 – April 25, 1880) was an American banker and businessman who founded J. & W. Seligman & Co. He was the patriarch of what became known as the Seligman family in USA and was subsequently related to the wealthy Gugg ...
,
Philip Lehman Philip Lehman (November 9, 1861 – March 21, 1947) was an American investment banker An investment bank is a financial services Financial services are the Service (economics), economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompass ...
(of
Lehman Brothers Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. () was a global financial services firm founded in 1847. Before filing for bankruptcy in 2008, Lehman was the fourth-largest investment bank Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in val ...

Lehman Brothers
),
Jules Bache Jules Semon Bache (November 9, 1861 – March 24, 1944) was an American banker, art collector and philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Philan ...

Jules Bache
, and
Marcus Goldman Marcus Goldman (December 9, 1821 – July 20, 1904) was a German investment banker, businessman, and financier. He was born in Trappstadt, Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially th ...

Marcus Goldman
(of
Goldman Sachs The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. () is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City. It offers services in investment management, securities, asset management, prime brokerage Prime ...

Goldman Sachs
) illustrate this financial elite. As was true of their non-Jewish counterparts, family, personal, and business connections, a reputation for honesty and integrity, ability, and a willingness to take calculated risks were essential to recruit capital from widely scattered sources. The families and the firms which they controlled were bound together by religious and social factors, and by the prevalence of intermarriage. These personal ties fulfilled real business functions before the advent of institutional organization in the 20th century. Antisemitic elements often falsely targeted them as key players in a supposed Jewish cabal conspiring to dominate the world. Since the late 20th century, Jews have played a major role in the hedge fund industry, according to Zuckerman (2009). Thus SAC Capital Advisors,
Soros Fund Management Soros Fund Management, LLC is a private American investment management firm. It is currently structured as a family office, but formerly as a hedge fund A hedge fund is a pooled investment fund that trades in relatively liquid A liquid i ...
,
Och-Ziff Capital Management Sculptor Capital Management (formerly Och-Ziff Capital Management Group) is a global diversified alternative asset management firm. They are one of the largest institutional alternative asset managers in the world. The firm operates multiple invest ...
, GLG Partners
Renaissance Technologies Renaissance Technologies LLC, also known as RenTech or RenTec, is an American hedge fund based in East Setauket, New York, on Long Island, which specializes in systematic trading using Quantitative analysis (finance), quantitative models derive ...

Renaissance Technologies
and
Elliott Management Corporation Elliott Management Corporation is an American investment management firm. It is also one of the largest activist funds in the world. It is the management affiliate of American hedge funds Elliott Associates L.P. and Elliott International Lim ...
are large hedge funds cofounded by Jews. They have also played a pivotal role in the private equity industry, co-founding some of the largest firms in the United States, such as Blackstone,
Cerberus Capital Management Cerberus Capital Management, L.P. is an American private equity firm,Leaders Magazine"Providing Economic Opportunity: An Interview with The Honorable Dan Quayle, Chairman, Cerberus Global Investments, LLC". specializing in distressed investing. ...
,
TPG Capital TPG Capital, previously known as Texas Pacific Group, is an American investment company An investment company is a financial institution principally engaged in investing in security (finance), securities. These companies in the United States ...
,"TPG Sells Shares of Indian Company – Win-win for Everybody!" By Orna Taub
Jewish Business News ''Jewish Business News'' is an online newspaper published in English,{{cite web , title=Jewish Business News , website=Crunchbase , url=https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/jewish-business-news , access-date=2018-01-26 which primarily cover ...
, March 26, 2013
BlackRock BlackRock, Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...
,
Carlyle Group The Carlyle Group is an American , alternative and corporation. It specializes in , , and . In 2015, Carlyle was the world's largest private equity firm by capital raised over the previous five years, according to the index, though by 2020 i ...
,
Warburg Pincus Warburg Pincus LLC is a New York City, New York-based private equity firm with offices in the United States, Europe, Brazil, China, Southeast Asia and India. It has been a private equity investor since 1966. The firm currently has approximately $6 ...
, and KKR. Very few Jewish lawyers were hired by
White Anglo-Saxon Protestant In the United States, White Anglo-Saxon Protestants or WASPs are the white White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue). It is the color of snow, chalk, and milk, and is the opposite of black. White objects fully diffuse ...
("WASP") upscale white-shoe law firms, but they started their own. The WASP dominance in law ended when a number of major Jewish law firms attained elite status in dealing with top-ranked corporations. As late as 1950 there was not a single large Jewish law firm in New York City. However, by 1965 six of the 20 largest firms were Jewish; by 1980 four of the ten largest were Jewish.


Federal Reserve

Paul Warburg Paul Moritz Warburg (August 10, 1868 – January 24, 1932) was an American investment banker An investment bank is a financial services Financial services are the Service (economics), economic services provided by the finance industry, which enco ...
, one of the leading advocates of the establishment of a
central bank A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages the and of a or formal monetary union, and oversees their . In contrast to a , a central bank possesses a on increasing the . Most central banks also have ...

central bank
in the United States and one of the first governors of the newly established
Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central bank A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages the and of a or formal monetary union, and ove ...
, came from a prominent Jewish family in Germany. Since then, several Jews have served as chairmen of the Fed, including Eugene Meyer, Arthur F. Burns,
Alan Greenspan Alan Greenspan (; born March 6, 1926) is an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from economi ...

Alan Greenspan
,
Ben Bernanke Ben Shalom Bernanke ( ; born December 13, 1953) is an American economist at the Brookings Institution The Brookings Institution, often referred to simply as Brookings, is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, ...

Ben Bernanke
and
Janet Yellen Janet Louise Yellen (born August 13, 1946) is an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from ...
.


Science, business, and academia

With the Jewish penchant to be drawn to white collar professional jobs and having excelled at intellectual pursuits, many Jews have also become been remarkably successful as an entrepreneurial and professional minority in the United States. Many Jewish
family business A family business is a commercial organization Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or en ...

family business
es that are passed down from one generation to the next serve as an
asset In financial accounting Financial accounting is the field of accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entity, economic entities such a ...
, source of income and layer a strong financial groundwork for the family's overall socioeconomic prosperity. Within the Jewish American cultural sphere, Jewish Americans have also developed a strong culture of entrepreneurship, for excellence in entrepreneurship and engagement in business and commerce is highly prized in Jewish culture. American Jews have also been drawn to various disciplines within academia such as physics, sociology, economics, psychology, mathematics, philosophy and linguistics (see
Secular Jewish culture Jewish culture is the culture of the Jewish people Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2International Organization for Standardization, ISO 259 is a series of international standards for the romanization of Hebrew, romanization of ...

Secular Jewish culture
for some of the causes), and have played a disproportionate role in numerous academic domains. Jewish American intellectuals such as
Saul Bellow Saul Bellow (born Solomon Bellows; 10 June 1915 – 5 April 2005) was a Canadian-American writer. For his literary work, Bellow was awarded the Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online ...

Saul Bellow
,
Ayn Rand Ayn Rand (; born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum;,  – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher. She is known for her two best-selling novels, '' The Fountainhead'' and '' Atlas Shrugged'', and for developing a philosoph ...

Ayn Rand
,
Noam Chomsky Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gesture ...

Noam Chomsky
,
Thomas Friedman Thomas Loren Friedman (; born July 20, 1953) is an American political commentator and author. He is a three-time Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and mus ...
, and
Elie Wiesel Elie Wiesel (, born Eliezer Wiesel ''ʾÉlīʿezer Vīzel''; September 30, 1928 – July 2, 2016) was a Romanian-born American writer, professor, political activist, Nobel laureate Nobel laureates of 2012 Alvin E. Roth, Brian Kobilka, Robe ...

Elie Wiesel
have made a major impact within mainstream American public life. Of the United States' top 200 most influential intellectuals, 50% are fully Jewish with 76% of Jewish Americans overall having at least one Jewish parent. Of American Nobel Prize winners, 37 percent have been Jewish Americans (18 times the percentage of Jews in the population), as have been 61 percent of the
John Bates Clark MedalThe John Bates Clark Medal is awarded by the American Economic Association The American Economic Association (AEA) is a learned society in the field of economics. Its aim is to stimulate high-quality economic research and debate via its own speciali ...
in economics recipients (thirty-five times the Jewish percentage). In the business world, it was found in 1995 that while Jewish Americans constituted less than 2.5 percent of the U.S. population, they occupied 7.7 percent of board seats at various U.S.
corporations A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capa ...

corporations
. American Jews also have a strong presence in
NBA The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a professional basketball Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, m ...
ownership. Of the 30 teams in the NBA, there are 14 Jewish principal owners. Several Jews have served as NBA commissioners including prior NBA commissioner
David Stern David Joel Stern (September 22, 1942 – January 1, 2020) was an American lawyer and business executive who was the commissioner A commissioner is, in principle, a member of a Regulatory agency, commission or an individual who has been given a ...

David Stern
and current commissioner
Adam Silver Adam Silver (born April 25, 1962) is an American lawyer and sports business executive, executive who is the fifth and current Commissioner of the NBA, commissioner of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He joined the NBA in 1992 and has ...
. Since many careers in science, business, and academia generally pay well, Jewish Americans also tend to have a somewhat higher average income than most Americans. The 2000–2001 National Jewish Population Survey shows that the median income of a Jewish family is $54,000 a year ($5,000 more than the average family) and 34% of Jewish households report income over $75,000 a year.


Notable people


See also

*
American Jewish cuisine American Jewish cuisine comprises the food, cooking, and dining customs associated with American Jews American Jews or Jewish Americans are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationalit ...
*
Israeli Americans Israeli Americans ( he, אָמֵרִיקָאִים יִשׂרָאֵליִם lit. ''Ameriqaim Yisra'elim'') are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United ...
* Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America * List of Jewish political milestones in the United States * National Museum of American Jewish Military History


Notes


References


Bibliography

* American Jewish Committee. ''American Jewish Yearbook: The Annual Record of Jewish Civilization'' (annual, 1899–2012+
complete text online 1899–2007
long sophisticated essays on status of Jews in U.S. and worldwide; the standard primary source used by historians * Norwood, Stephen H., and Eunice G. Pollack, eds. ''Encyclopedia of American Jewish history'' (2 vol 2007), 775pp; comprehenisive coverage by experts
excerpt and text search vol 1
* Etengoff, C., (2011). An Exploration of religious gender differences amongst Jewish-American emerging adults of different socio-religious subgroups, Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 33, 371–391. * ''The Jewish People in America'' 5 vol 1992 ** Faber, Eli. ''A Time for Planting: The First Migration, 1654–1820'' (Volume 1) (1992
excerpt and text search
** Diner, Hasia R. ''A Time for Gathering: The Second Migration, 1820–1880'' (Volume 2) (1992
excerpt and text search
** Sorin, Gerald. ''A Time for Building: The Third Migration, 1880–1920'' (1992
excerpt and text search
** Feingold, Henry L. ''A Time for Searching: Entering the Mainstream, 1920–1945'' (Volume 4) (1992
excerpt and text search
** Shapiro, Edward S. ''A Time for Healing: American Jewry since World War II'', (Volume 5) (1992
excerpt and text search
* Antler, Joyce., ed. ''Talking Back: Images of Jewish Women in American Popular Culture.'' 1998. * Barnett, Michael N. 2016.
The Star and the Stripes: A History of the Foreign Policies of American Jews
'. Princeton University Press. *Cohen, Naomi. ''Jews in Christian America: The Pursuit of Religious Equality.'' 1992. * Cutler, Irving. ''The Jews of Chicago: From Shtetl to Suburb.'' 1995 * Diner, Hasia et al. ''Her works praise her: a history of Jewish women in America from colonial times to the present'' (2002) * Diner, Hasia. ''The Jews of the United States, 1654 to 2000'
(2004) online
* Dinnerstein, Leonard. ''Antisemitism in America.'' 1994. * Dollinger, Marc. ''Quest for Inclusion: Jews and Liberalism in Modern America.'' 2000. * Eisen, Arnold M. ''The Chosen People in America: A Study in Jewish Religious Ideology.'' 1983. * Feingold, Henry L. ''American Jewish Political Culture and the Liberal Persuasion'' (Syracuse University Press; 2014) 384 pages; traces the history, dominance, and motivations of liberalism in the American Jewish political culture, and look at concerns about Israel and memories of the Holocaust. * Glazer, Nathan. ''American Judaism''. 2nd ed., 1989. * Goren, Arthur. ''The Politics and Public Culture of American Jews.'' 1999. * Howe, Irving. ''World of our Fathers: The journey of the East European Jews to America and the life they found and made'' (1976) * Gurock, Jeffrey S. ''From Fluidity to Rigidity: The Religious Worlds of Conservative and Orthodox Jews in Twentieth Century America.'' Jean and Samuel Frankel Center for Judaic Studies, 1998. * Hyman, Paula, and
Deborah Dash MooreDeborah Dash Moore (born 1946, in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2019 population of 8,336,817 distr ...
, eds. ''Jewish Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia.'' 1997 * Kobrin, Rebecca, ed. ''Chosen Capital: The Jewish Encounter With American Capitalism'' (Rutgers University Press; 2012) 311 pages; scholarly essays on the liquor, real-estate, and scrap-metal industries, and Jews as union organizers. * Lederhendler, Eli. ''New York Jews and the Decline of Urban Ethnicity, 1950–1970.'' 2001 * Lederhendler, Eli. ''American Jewry: A New History'' (Cambridge UP, 2017). 331 pp. * Marcus, Jacob Rader. ''United States Jewry 1776–1985. Vol. 1: The Sephardic Period''; ''United States Jewry 1776–1985. Vol. 2: The Germanic Period.''; ''United States Jewry 1776–1985. Vol. 3: The Germanic Period, Part 2.''; ''United States Jewry 1776–1985. Vol. 4: The East European Period: The Emergence of the American Jew; Epilogue.'' (Wayne State University Press, 1989–1993) 3119pp. * Moore, Deborah Dash. '' To the Golden Cities: Pursuing the American Jewish Dream in Miami and L. A.'' 1994 * Moore, Deborah Dash. ''GI Jews: How World War II Changed a Generation'' (2006) * Novick, Peter. ''The Holocaust in American Life.'' 1999. * Raphael, Marc Lee. ''Judaism in America''. Columbia U. Press, 2003. 234 pp. * Sarna, Jonathan D. ''American Judaism'' Yale University Press, 2004. . 512 pp

* Sorin, Gerald. ''Tradition Transformed: The Jewish Experience in America.'' 1997. * Svonkin, Stuart. ''Jews against Prejudice: American Jews and the Fight for Civil Liberties.'' 1997 * Waxman, Chaim I. "What We Don't Know about the Judaism of America's Jews." ''Contemporary Jewry'' (2002) 23: 72–95. Uses survey data to map the religious beliefs of American Jews, 1973–2002. * Jack Wertheimer, Wertheimer, Jack, ed. ''The American Synagogue: A Sanctuary Transformed.'' 1987.


Historiography

* Appel, John J. "Hansen's Third-Generation" Law" and the Origins of the American Jewish Historical Society." ''Jewish Social Studies'' (1961): 3–20
in JSTOR
* Butler, Jon. "Jacob Rader Marcus and the Revival of Early American History, 1930–1960." ''American Jewish Archives'' 50#1/2 (1998): 28–39
online
* Fried, Lewis, et al., eds. ''Handbook of American-Jewish literature: an analytical guide to topics, themes, and sources'' (Greenwood Press, 1988) * * Gurock, Jeffrey S. ''American Jewish orthodoxy in historical perspective'' (KTAV Publishing House, Inc., 1996) * Handlin, Oscar. "A Twenty Year Retrospect of American Jewish Historiography." ''American Jewish Historical Quarterly'' (1976): 295–309
in JSTOR
* Kaufman, David. ''Shul with a Pool: The" synagogue-center" in American Jewish History'' (University Press of New England, 1999.) * Robinson, Ira. "The Invention of American Jewish History." ''American Jewish History'' (1994): 309–320
in JSTOR
* Sussman, Lance J. "'Historian of the Jewish People': A Historiographical Reevaluation of the Writings of Jacob R. Marcus." ''American Jewish Archives'' 50.1/2 (1998): 10–21
online
* Whitfield, Stephen J. ''In Search of American Jewish Culture.'' 1999 * Yerushalmi, Yosef Hayim. '' Zakhor: Jewish History and Jewish Memory'' (University of Washington Press, 2012)


Primary sources

* Marcus, Jacob Rader, ed. ''The American Jewish Woman, A Documentary History'' (Ktav 1981). * Schappes, Morris Urman, ed. ''A documentary history of the Jews in the United States, 1654–1875'' (Citadel Press, 1952). * Staub, Michael E. ed. ''The Jewish 1960s: An American Sourcebook'' University Press of New England, 2004; 371 pp. 
online review


External links


American Jewish Historical Society

American Jewish Archives

American Jewish Congress

American Jewish World Service

Jewish Federations of North America

My Jewish Learning: American Jewish Life

Jewish population growth in the United States – ''The Literary Digest'' (1922)The Berman Jewish Databank @ The Jewish Federations of North America
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Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...
Multiracial ethnic groups in the United States Ethnic groups in the United States