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Amdahl Corporation was an information technology company which specialized in
IBM mainframe IBM mainframes are large computer systems produced by IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The com ...
-compatible computer products, some of which were regarded as
supercomputer upright=1.5, Computing power of the top 1 supercomputer each year, measured in FLOPS A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance as compared to a general-purpose computer. The performance of a supercomputer is commonly mea ...

supercomputer
s competing with those from
Cray Research Cray Inc., a subsidiary of Hewlett Packard Enterprise, is an American supercomputer manufacturer headquartered in Seattle, Washington. It also manufactures systems for data storage and analytics. Several Cray supercomputer systems are listed i ...
. Founded in 1970 by
Gene Amdahl Gene Myron Amdahl (November 16, 1922 – November 10, 2015) was an American computer architect and high-tech entrepreneur, chiefly known for his work on mainframe computer A mainframe computer, informally called a mainframe or big ir ...
, a former
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
computer engineer best known as chief architect of
System/360 The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer A mainframe computer, informally called a mainframe or big iron, is a computer used primarily by large organizations for critical applications like bulk data processing for t ...
, it has been a
wholly owned subsidiary A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company is a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal person, legal or a mixture o ...
of
Fujitsu is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational information and communications technology equipment and services corporation, established in 1935 and headquartered in Tokyo. Fujitsu is the world's sixth-largest Information technology, I ...

Fujitsu
since 1997. The company is located in
Sunnyvale, California Sunnyvale () is a city located in the Santa Clara Valley in northwest Santa Clara County, California, Santa Clara County, California. Sunnyvale lies along the historic El Camino Real (California), El Camino Real and U.S. Route 101 in Californ ...
. From its first machine in 1975, Amdahl's business was to provide
mainframe computer A mainframe computer, informally called a mainframe or big iron, is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform gener ...
s that were
plug-compatible Plug compatible refers to "Computer hardware, hardware that is designed to perform exactly like another vendor's product." The term PCM was originally applied to manufacturers who made replacements for IBM peripherals. Later this term was used to ...
with contemporary
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
mainframes, but offering higher reliability, running somewhat faster, and costing somewhat less. They often had additional practical advantages as well, in terms of size, power requirements, of being air-cooled instead of requiring a chilled water supply. This offered a price/performance ratio superior to the IBM lineup, and made Amdahl one of the few real competitors to "Big Blue" in the very high-margin computer market segment. The company won about 8% of the mainframe business worldwide, but was a market leader in some regions, most notably in the
Carolinas The Carolinas are the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North ...
. Proverbially, savvy IBM customers liked to have Amdahl coffee mugs visible in their offices when IBM salespeople came to visit. As the mainframe market began to change in the later 1980s, Amdahl was increasingly diversified, becoming a major supplier of
UNIX Unix (; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser Multi-user software is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast t ...

UNIX
and open systems software and
server Server may refer to: Computing *Server (computing) In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and dev ...
s,
data storage Data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quantity, quantitative variable (research), variables ...
subsystems,
data communication Data transmission and data reception or, more broadly, data communication or digital communications is the transfer and reception of data in the form of a Digital data, digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal over a Point-to-point (tele ...
s products,
application Application may refer to: Mathematics and computing * Application software, computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks ** Application layer, an abstraction layer that specifies protocols and interface methods used in a c ...
development software, and a variety of educational and consulting services.


Company origins

Amdahl launched its first product in 1975, the Amdahl 470/V6, which competed directly against high-end models in IBM's then-current
System/370 The IBM System/370 (S/370) is a model range of IBM mainframe computers announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the IBM System/360, System/360 family. The series mostly maintains backward compatibility with the S/360, allowing an easy ...
family. When IBM announced the introduction of Dynamic Address Translation (DAT), Amdahl announced the 470/V6 and dropped the 470/6. At the time of its introduction, the 470/V6 was less expensive but still faster than IBM's comparable offerings. The first two 470/V6 machines were delivered to
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
(Serial Number 00001) and the
University of Michigan , mottoeng = "Arts, Knowledge, Truth" , former_names = Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania (1817–1821) , budget = $8.99 billion (2018) , endowment = $17 billion (2021)As of October 25, 2021. ...

University of Michigan
(Serial Number 00002). For the next quarter-century Amdahl and IBM competed aggressively against one another in the high-end mainframe market. At its peak, Amdahl had a 24% market share. Amdahl owed some of its success to
antitrust Competition law is a law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environmen ...
settlements between IBM and the U.S. Department of Justice, which ensured that Amdahl's customers could license IBM's mainframe software under reasonable terms. Gene Amdahl was committed to expanding the capabilities of the uniprocessor mainframe during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Amdahl engineers, working with Fujitsu circuit designers, developed unique, air-cooled chips which were based on high-speed
emitter-coupled logic In electronics, emitter-coupled logic (ECL) is a high-speed integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit 200px, A circuit bu ...
(ECL) circuit macros. These chips were packaged in a
chip package Integrated circuits are put into protective semiconductor package, packages to allow easy handling and assembly onto printed circuit boards and to protect the devices from damage. A very large number of different types of package exist. Some packa ...
with a heat-dissipating cooling attachment (that looked like the heat-dissipating fins on a motorcycle engine) mounted directly on the top of the chip. This patented technology allowed the Amdahl mainframes of this era to be completely air-cooled, unlike IBM systems that required
chilled water Chilled water is a commodity often used to cool a building's air and equipment, especially in situations where many individual rooms must be controlled separately, such as a hotel. The chilled water can be supplied by a vendor, such as a public util ...
and its supporting infrastructure. In the 470 systems, the chips were mounted in a 6-by-7 array on multi-layer cards (up to 14 layers), which were then mounted in vertical columns. The cards had eight connectors that attached the micro-coaxial cables that interconnected the system components. A conventional backplane was not used in the central processing units. The card columns held at least three cards per side (two per column in rare exceptions, such as the processor's "C-Unit"). Each column had two large "Tarzan" fans (a "pusher" and a "puller") to move the considerable amount of air needed to cool the chips. Additional models of Amdahl uniprocessor systems included the 470/V5, V7 and V8 systems. The 470/V8, first shipped in 1980, incorporated high speed 64 KB cache memories to improve performance, and the first real hardware-based virtualization (known as the "Multiple Domain Facility"). Amdahl also pioneered a variable-speed feature - the '470 accelerator' - on the V5 and V7 systems that allowed the customer to run the CPUs at the higher level of performance of the V6 and V8 systems, respectively, when desired. The customer was charged by the number of hours used. Some at Amdahl thought this feature would anger customers, but it became quite popular as customer management could now control expenses while still having greater performance available when necessary. In the 580 systems, the chips were mounted in an 11-by-11 array on multi-layer boards called Multi-Chip Carriers (MCCs) that were positioned in high-airflow for cooling. The MCCs were mounted horizontally in a large rectangular frame. The MCCs slid into a complex physical connection system. The processor "side panels" interconnected the system, providing clock propagation delays that maintained race-free synchronous operation at relatively high clock frequencies (15–18  ns base clock cycles). This processor box was cooled by high-speed fans generating horizontal air flow across the MCCs. Gene Amdahl left the company he founded in August 1979 to start
Trilogy Systems Trilogy Systems Corporation was a computer systems company started in 1980. Originally called ACSYS, the company was founded by Gene Amdahl, his son Carl Amdahl and Clifford Madden. Flush with the success of his previous company, Amdahl Corporati ...
. With Gene Amdahl's departure, and increasing influence from
Fujitsu is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational information and communications technology equipment and services corporation, established in 1935 and headquartered in Tokyo. Fujitsu is the world's sixth-largest Information technology, I ...

Fujitsu
, Amdahl entered the large-scale multiprocessor market in the mid-1980s with the 5860, 5870 (attached processor) and 5880 (full multiprocessor) models. Along the way, Amdahl came to believe that its best bet at competing with IBM head-to-head was to "bulk up," in particular, executing a merger with a well-known vendor in the enterprise storage space. Most Amdahl mainframe customers would purchase storage devices (hard disk and tape drives) from IBM or its plug-compatible competitors. Amdahl first attempted a merger with one of the largest of these vendors, Memorex, in 1979. After this deal fell through, Amdahl went much further on a deal to merge with Colorado-based
Storage Technology Corporation Storage Technology Corporation (StorageTek or STK, earlier STC) was a Data storage device, data storage technology company headquartered in Louisville, Colorado. New products include data retention systems, which it calls "information lifecycle m ...
(STC). The deal was approved by the boards of both companies, and detailed plans were in place to implement the merger, when
Fujitsu is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational information and communications technology equipment and services corporation, established in 1935 and headquartered in Tokyo. Fujitsu is the world's sixth-largest Information technology, I ...

Fujitsu
, an important partner and major shareholder of Amdahl at the time, objected to the deal which forced it to collapse. STC later tried to develop its own mainframe computer, the failure of which contributed to it filing for
Chapter 11 Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code ( Title 11 of the United States Code The Code of Laws of the United States of America (variously abbreviated to Code of Laws of the United States, United States Code, U.S. Code, U.S.C., or USC) ...
bankruptcy in 1984. Around that same time, Amdahl agreed to allow Fujitsu to acquire just under half of Amdahl, leading to its ultimate acquisition of all of Amdahl's shares some years later. In the 1980s, Amdahl entered the IBM-compatible peripherals business in
front-end processor A front end processor (FEP), or a communications processor, is a small-sized computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern com ...
s and storage products, shipping its first 4705 communications controller in August 1980 and its first 6000
DASD A direct-access storage device (DASD) (pronounced ) is a secondary storage A spindle of DVD-RW's. Computer data storage is a technology consisting of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences o ...
in August 1982. These products were very successful for a number of years with the support of Jack Lewis, the former CEO of Amdahl. The reliance upon a limited product line, restricted to containment within the complex business of mainframes and their highly valuable peripherals, constrained the company's hardware business when market forces shifted to x86-based processors. This had been foreseen, leading to an increasing emphasis on software and consulting services.


Market exit

By the early 1990s, Amdahl was suffering losses of several hundred million dollars per quarter as a result of declining mainframe sales. Management decided to lay off 900 employees in 1992, 1,100 in early 1993, and another 1,800 (out of the 7,400 remaining) later in that year, as well as canceling hardware development projects in favor of reselling computers from
Sun Microsystems Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun for short) was an American technology company that sold computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. M ...
. Amdahl perhaps enjoyed its best success during IBM's transition from bipolar to
CMOS Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS, pronounced "see-moss"), also known as complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor (COS-MOS), is a type of metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor The metal–oxide–se ...
technology in the early to mid-1990s. The first generations of IBM's CMOS mainframe processors, the
IBM 9672 The IBM System/390 is the discontinued fifth generation of the IBM System/360 architecture, System/360 instruction set architecture. The first ESA/390 computer was the Enterprise System/9000 (ES/9000) family, which were introduced in 199 ...
G3 and G4, could not perform as well as those from the Enterprise System/9000 family, which were based on bipolar technology, giving Amdahl a temporary advantage. However, IBM's CMOS strategy paid off in the long run, allowing IBM's
Poughkeepsie Poughkeepsie ( , officially the City of Poughkeepsie, separate from the Town of Poughkeepsie around it) is a city in the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al ju ...
factory to produce even faster mainframes at a lower cost as the technology matured. By the time IBM introduced its
64-bit In computer architecture, 64-bit Integer (computer science), integers, Memory address, memory addresses, or other Data#Uses%20of%20data%20in%20computing, data units are those that are 64 bits (8 Octet (computing), octets) wide. Also, 64-bit cent ...
zSeries 900 in 2000, Amdahl's hardware business could no longer compete with IBM with its Millennium and OmniFlex servers that only had
31-bit In computer architecture In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems. The architecture of a system refers to its structure in ...
-addressing. In late 2000, Fujitsu/Amdahl announced that the company had no plans to invest the estimated US $1 billion (or more) to create an IBM-compatible 64-bit system. Amdahl also failed in its effort to introduce its ObjectStar software (initially known as Huron) during this period and the product later became the object of a successful management buyout. ObjectStar was subsequently acquired by the integration software vendor
TIBCO TIBCO Software Inc. is an American business intelligence software company founded in 1997 in Palo Alto, California, Palo Alto, California. It has headquarters in Palo Alto, California, and offices in North America, Europe, Asia, the Middle Eas ...
in 2005.


Amdahl customer options

z/OS z/OS is a 64-bit In computer architecture, 64-bit Integer (computer science), integers, Memory address, memory addresses, or other Data#Uses%20of%20data%20in%20computing, data units are those that are 64 bits (8 Octet (computing), octet ...
1.5 is the last release of IBM's flagship operating system still able to run on 31-bit mainframes, including Amdahl and older IBM systems. IBM effectively ended support for z/OS 1.5 on March 29, 2007. In May 2006, IBM announced that the next version of
z/VSE z/VSE (''Virtual Storage Extended'') is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) ...
, Version 4, would require a 64-bit system, signaling the end to 31-bit support for that operating system.
z/TPF Transaction Processing Facility (TPF) is an IBM real-time operating system for IBM mainframe, mainframe computers descended from the IBM System/360 family, including IBM System z, zSeries and IBM System z, System z9. TPF delivers fast, high-volum ...
, which became available in December 2005, also requires a 64-bit system. The 31-bit Linux distributions will survive as long as the
open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized softwa ...
community and distributors have an interest. So while there is still some potential life for Amdahl's hardware, the transition to 64-bit systems is essentially complete. Some companies and governments still had Amdahl systems performing useful work into mid-2006, and Fujitsu/Amdahl promised support to those customers with replacement parts and other services through March 31, 2009. Arguably IBM did not have a suitable replacement model for many Amdahl customers until the May 2004 introduction of the zSeries 890. The previous zSeries 800 also became an attractive replacement for Amdahl machines by late 2005 as that model's typical used price fell below $100,000 and continued to fall. The
System z9 IBM System z9 is a line of IBM mainframe computers. The first models were available on September 16, 2005. The System z9 also marks the end of the previously used eServer zSeries naming convention. It was also the last mainframe computer t ...
BC model, introduced in May 2006, increased IBM's attractiveness yet again, and the BC drove z800 and z890 prices down even more. The late 2008 introduction of the
IBM System z10 IBM System z10 is a line of IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, found ...

IBM System z10
BC yet again made IBM's equipment more enticing. In fact, Fujitsu/Amdahl now sells used IBM mainframes and offers services to migrate customers to the IBM machines (This migration is straightforward and comparable to upgrading from one IBM model to a newer IBM model). The IBM z13 is the last z Systems server to support running an operating system in
ESA/390 The IBM System/390 is the discontinued fifth generation of the IBM System/360 architecture, System/360 instruction set architecture. The first ESA/390 computer was the Enterprise System/9000 (ES/9000) family, which were introduced in 199 ...
architecture mode; z14, and future machines will support only
64-bit In computer architecture, 64-bit Integer (computer science), integers, Memory address, memory addresses, or other Data#Uses%20of%20data%20in%20computing, data units are those that are 64 bits (8 Octet (computing), octets) wide. Also, 64-bit cent ...
operating systems. Other, generally less attractive options include running without support, rewriting applications, or possibly running applications under FLEX-ES. FLEX-ES is a mainframe instruction set emulator that supports ESA/390 and, in some cases,
z/Architecture z/Architecture, initially and briefly called ESA/390, ESA Modal Extensions (ESAME), is IBM's 64-bit computing, 64-bit complex instruction set computer (CISC) instruction set architecture, implemented by its mainframe computers. IBM introduced ...
operating systems and software. The vestiges of Amdahl's ESA/390 emulation project were resurrected under a new name: Platform Solutions Inc. Using capital from Intel, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft, and other major investors they designed a line of
Itanium Itanium ( ) is a discontinued family of 64-bit In computer architecture, 64-bit Integer (computer science), integers, Memory address, memory addresses, or other Data#Uses%20of%20data%20in%20computing, data units are those that are 64 bits (8 ...

Itanium
-based computers and software to emulate z/Architecture machines so that they could run zSeries operating systems, with zSeries channels for attaching real IBM equipment as well as virtual simulators for most hardware to minimize the need for IBM’s peripheral equipment. Its
LPAR A logical partition (LPAR) is a subset of a computer's hardware resources, virtualized In computing, virtualization or virtualisation (sometimes abbreviated v12n, a numeronym) is the act of creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of som ...
s hosted not only IBM operating systems but 64-bit Intel
Itanium Itanium ( ) is a discontinued family of 64-bit In computer architecture, 64-bit Integer (computer science), integers, Memory address, memory addresses, or other Data#Uses%20of%20data%20in%20computing, data units are those that are 64 bits (8 ...

Itanium
Linux, HP-UX, Solaris, and potentially other operating systems. Platform Solutions started shipping its machines in the first quarter of 2007. This action precipitated a lawsuit from IBM, citing patent infringement and PSI's failure to negotiate a z/Architecture license, and IBM refused to license its operating systems and software on PSI's machines. Platform Solutions countered that by “ tying” the sale of its software to the sale of its hardware, IBM was in violation of its prior anti-trust agreement with the U.S. Justice Dept. In July 2008, IBM acquired PSI, and both companies dropped their lawsuits against each other. PSI's machines are no longer available. Fujitsu continues to sell its "GlobalServer" (GS21) mainframe models in the Japanese domestic market.FUJITSU Japan - Server GS21
/ref> The GS21 machines are essentially ESA/390 (31-bit) instruction set processors largely based on Amdahl-designed technologies but are only compatible with Fujitsu's domestic market operating systems: OSIV/MSP-EX and OSIV/XSP.
MSP MSP may refer to: Businesses and organizations * LoanSphere MSP, a mortgage servicing platform application provided by Black Knight Financial Services * Managed Service Provider, a company that is outsourced to take care of business's IT servic ...
is most similar to classic IBM
MVS/ESA Multiple Virtual Storage, more commonly called MVS, was the most commonly used operating system on the System/370 and System/390 IBM mainframes, IBM mainframe computers. IBM developed MVS, along with OS/VS1 and OS/VS2 (SVS), SVS, as a successor ...
, and XSP is most similar to classic IBM VSE/ESA. Fujitsu GS21 mainframe hardware would most closely correspond to the late 1990s IBM G5 or G6 mainframes in terms of their instruction set support. Fujitsu has stated the company has no intention to license or implement
z/Architecture z/Architecture, initially and briefly called ESA/390, ESA Modal Extensions (ESAME), is IBM's 64-bit computing, 64-bit complex instruction set computer (CISC) instruction set architecture, implemented by its mainframe computers. IBM introduced ...
(64-bit).


See also

*
Amdahl UTS UTS is a discontinued implementation of the UNIX Unix (; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser Multi-user software is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that ...
*
IBM ESA/390 The IBM System/390 is the discontinued fifth generation of the IBM System/360 architecture, System/360 instruction set architecture. The first ESA/390 computer was the Enterprise System/9000 (ES/9000) family, which were introduced in 199 ...
*
Magnuson Computer Systems Magnuson Computer Systems was a manufacturer of plug-compatible computers compatible with IBM mainframes. The Magnuson M80 range was available from the late 1970s and was successful when IBM struggled to ship machines. The company declared bankrupt ...
*
Trilogy Systems Trilogy Systems Corporation was a computer systems company started in 1980. Originally called ACSYS, the company was founded by Gene Amdahl, his son Carl Amdahl and Clifford Madden. Flush with the success of his previous company, Amdahl Corporati ...


References


External links


Amdahl 470 V-6 Machine Reference
50 pages, 1975, PDF/A, 7.8MB.
Amdahl 470 V-6-II Machine Reference Manual
50 pages, March 1978, PDF/A, 9.4MB.
Amdahl 470V/8 Computing System Machine Reference Manual
April 1981, PDF/A, 3.8MB. * Severa
Amdahl publications
are available online as PDFs from Bitsavers.org. * Amdahl 470V/6, P2 is in storage at the Computer History Museum
catalog X436.84A

Photographs of an Amdahl 470V/6
at the
Computer History Museum The Computer History Museum (CHM) is a museum of computer history, located in Mountain View, California. The museum presents stories and artifacts of Silicon Valley and the information age, and explores the computing revolution and its impact on s ...
, Mountain View, California.
Photographs of an Amdahl 470V/6
at the University of Michigan.

at the University of Newcastle, 1984-1992.
Oral history interview with Gene Amdahl
Charles Babbage Institute The Charles Babbage Institute is a research center at the University of Minnesota The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (the U of M or Minnesota) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in the Mi ...
, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
Amdahl Amdahl may refer to: People *Douglas K. Amdahl (1919–2010), American lawyer and judge from Minnesota *Gene Amdahl (1922–2015), formulator of Amdahl's law of parallel computing and founder of Amdahl Corporation Companies

*Amdahl Corporation ...
discusses his graduate work at the University of Wisconsin, his role in the design of several computers for IBM including the STRETCH,
IBM 701 The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New ...
, 701A, and
IBM 704 The IBM 704, introduced by IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founde ...
. He discusses his work with
Nathaniel Rochester Nathaniel Rochester (February 21, 1752 – May 17, 1831) was an American American Revolution, Revolutionary War soldier, and Speculation, land speculator, most noted for founding the settlement which would become Rochester, New York. Early l ...
.
Fujitsu GS21
– System/390 Compatible Servers, former Amdahl.

{{Authority control Defunct computer hardware companies Defunct computer companies of the United States Defunct companies based in the San Francisco Bay Area Computer companies established in 1970
Companies based in Sunnyvale, CaliforniaCompanies based in Sunnyvale, California, Sunnyvale, a city in Santa Clara County, California that is also part of Silicon Valley. Companies based in Silicon Valley, Sunnyvale Companies based in Santa Clara County, California, Sunnyvale Companies b ...
Computer companies disestablished in 1997 1997 mergers and acquisitions 1970 establishments in California 1997 disestablishments in California Fujitsu subsidiaries American subsidiaries of foreign companies