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The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers were a
coalition The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more people, factions, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership to achieve a common goal. The word coalition connotes a co ...
of countries led by
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...
,
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...
and
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
against the
Central Powers The Central Powers, also known as the Central Empires,german: Mittelmächte; hu, Központi hatalmak; tr, İttifak Devletleri / ; bg, Централни сили, translit=Tsentralni sili was one of the two main coalitions that fought World W ...
of
Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas to the north, and the to the south; it covers an area of ...
,
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a and in between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the and was dissolved following its defeat in the . At its core was the which was a between th ...

Austria-Hungary
, the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
,
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...
and their colonies during the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...

First World War
(1914–1918). By the end of the first decade of the 20th century, the major European powers were divided between the
Triple Entente The Triple Entente (from French ''Entente (type of alliance), entente'' meaning "friendship, understanding, agreement") describes the informal understanding between the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic and the United Kingdom of Great B ...

Triple Entente
and the Triple Alliance. The Triple Entente was made up of France, Britain, and Russia. The Triple Alliance was originally composed of Germany, Austria–Hungary, and Italy, but Italy remained neutral in 1914. As the war progressed, each coalition added new members. Japan joined the Entente in 1914 and after proclaiming its neutrality at the beginning of the war, Italy also joined the Entente in 1915. The term "Allies" became more widely used than "Entente", although the Principal Allies of France, Britain, Russia, Italy, and Japan were sometimes known also as Quintuple Entente. The colonies and occupations of the countries that fought for the allies were also part of the Entente Powers such as
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...

British India
(
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
, Myanmar urma
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
),
French Indochina French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China; french: Indochine française; vi, Đông Dương thuộc Pháp, , lit. 'East Ocean under French Control; km, សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន), officially known as the Indochi ...
(
Laos , national_anthem = "Pheng Xat Lao") , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Vientiane , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages = Lao language, Lao , recognised_languages = , languages_type = Spoken langua ...
,
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...
and
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...
) and
Japanese Korea , , footnote_b = According to Korean Christians , footnote_c= Claim over the Liancourt Rocks. , demonym = , area_km2 = , area_rank = , GDP_PPP = , GDP_PPP_year ...
(
North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' is a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating Direction (geometry), direction or geography. Etymology The ...
and
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...
). The
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
joined in 1917 (the same year in which Russia withdrew from the conflict) as an "associated power" rather than an official ally. Other "associated members" included
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...
,
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
,
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in . It is located on the and is a part of the , sharing borders with to the northeast, to the north and west, to the east, to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea and to the ...
,
Asir The ʿAsir Region ( ar, عَسِيرٌ, ʿAsīr, lit=difficult) is a regions of Saudi Arabia, region of Saudi Arabia located in the southwest of the country that is named after the ʿAsīr tribe. It has an area of and an estimated population of ...
, Nejd and Hasa,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...
,
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...
,
Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic ...
,
Panama Panama ( , ; es, link=no, Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama ( es, República de Panamá), is a List of transcontinental countries#North America and South America, transcontinental country in Central America and South America, b ...

Panama
,
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...
,
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...
,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...
,
Siam ) , royal_anthem = '' Sansoen Phra Barami''( en, "Glorify His prestige") , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Bangkok Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai language, ...
(now
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
),
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...
,
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
,
Guatemala Guatemala ( ; ), officially the Republic of Guatemala ( es, República de Guatemala, links=no), is a country in Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Americas The Am ...

Guatemala
,
Nicaragua Nicaragua (; ), officially the Republic of Nicaragua (), is the largest Sovereign state, country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean Sea, Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and th ...

Nicaragua
,
Costa Rica Costa Rica (, ; ; literally "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( es, República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Amer ...
,
Haiti Haiti (; ht, Ayiti ; french: Haïti ), officially the Republic of Haiti (; ), and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, to the east of Cuba and J ...
,
Liberia Liberia (), officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape ...

Liberia
,
Bolivia Bolivia ; ay, Wuliwya ; Quechuan languages, Quechua: ''Puliwya'' , officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The constitutional capital is Sucre, while the seat of g ...
,
Ecuador Ecuador ( ; ; Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a ...

Ecuador
,
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; whi ...

Uruguay
and
Honduras Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras, is a country in Central America. The republic of Honduras is bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean ...

Honduras
. The treaties signed at the
Paris Peace Conference, 1919 Paris () is the capital and most populous city of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Ov ...
recognized the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan and the United States as the 'principal Allied powers'.


Background

When the war began in 1914, the
Central Powers The Central Powers, also known as the Central Empires,german: Mittelmächte; hu, Központi hatalmak; tr, İttifak Devletleri / ; bg, Централни сили, translit=Tsentralni sili was one of the two main coalitions that fought World W ...
were opposed by the
Triple Entente The Triple Entente (from French ''Entente (type of alliance), entente'' meaning "friendship, understanding, agreement") describes the informal understanding between the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic and the United Kingdom of Great B ...

Triple Entente
, formed in 1907 by the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
, the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
and the
French Third Republic The French Third Republic (french: Troisième République, sometimes written as ) was the system of government adopted in History of France, France from 4 September 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, ...
. Fighting commenced when Austria invaded
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...
on 28 July 1914, purportedly in response to the
assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo Sarajevo ( ; , ; ''see Names of European cities ...
, heir to Emperor
Franz Joseph en, Francis Joseph Charles , mother = Princess Sophie of Bavaria Princess Sophie of Bavaria (Sophie Friederike Dorothea Wilhelmine; 27 January 1805 – 28 May 1872) was born to King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria and his second wife Ca ...

Franz Joseph
; this brought Serbia's ally
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in . It is located on the and is a part of the , sharing borders with to the northeast, to the north and west, to the east, to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea and to the ...
into the war on 8 August and it attacked the Austrian naval base at
Cattaro
Cattaro
, modern Kotor. At the same time, German troops entered neutral
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
and
Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a landlocked ...

Luxembourg
as dictated by the
Schlieffen Plan The Schlieffen Plan (german: Schlieffen-Plan, ) was a name given after the First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war that began on 28 July ...

Schlieffen Plan
; over 95% of Belgium was occupied but the Belgian Army held their lines on the
Yser Front The Yser Front (french: Front de l'Yser, nl, Front aan de IJzer or ), sometimes termed the West Flemish Front in British writing, was a section of the Western Front during World War I held by Belgian troops from October 1914 until 1918. The front r ...
throughout the war. This allowed Belgium to be treated as an Ally, in contrast to Luxembourg which retained control over domestic affairs but was occupied by the German military. In the East, between 7 and 9 August the Russians entered German
East Prussia East Prussia (german: Ostpreußen, ; pl, Prusy Wschodnie; lt, Rytų Prūsija; la, Borussia orientalis; russian: Восточная Пруссия, Vostóchnaya Prússiya) was a of the from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom ...
on 7 August, Austrian
Eastern Galicia 250px, Eastern and Western Galicia in the late 20th century Eastern Galicia, or Eastern Halychyna ( uk, Східна Галичина) is a geographical region in Western Ukraine (present day oblasts of Lviv Oblast, Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, I ...
.
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
joined the Entente by declaring war on Germany on 23 August, then Austria on 25 August. On 2 September, Japanese forces surrounded the German
Treaty Port Treaty ports (; ja, 条約港) were the port cities in China and Japan that were opened to foreign trade mainly by the Unequal treaty, unequal treaties forced upon them by Western world, Western powers, as well as cities in Korea opened up simila ...
of
Tsingtao Qingdao (; Comparison of Chinese transcription systems, also spelled Tsingtao; ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Provinces of China, Province. Located on China's Yellow Sea coast, it is a major nodal city of the Belt and Road Initiative, O ...

Tsingtao
(now Qingdao) in China and occupied German colonies in the Pacific, including the Mariana, Caroline, and
Marshall Islands The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands ( mh, Aolepān Aorōkin Ṃajeḷ), is an independent near the in the , slightly west of the . Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of . The countr ...
. Despite its membership of the Triple Alliance,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...
remained neutral until 23 May 1915 when it joined the Entente, declaring war on Austria but not Germany. On 17 January 1916,
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in . It is located on the and is a part of the , sharing borders with to the northeast, to the north and west, to the east, to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea and to the ...
capitulated and left the Entente; this was offset when Germany declared war on
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...
in March 1916, while
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...
commenced hostilities against Austria on 27 August. On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war as a co-belligerent, along with the associated allies of
Liberia Liberia (), officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape ...

Liberia
,
Siam ) , royal_anthem = '' Sansoen Phra Barami''( en, "Glorify His prestige") , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Bangkok Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai language, ...
and
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...
. After the 1917
October Revolution The October Revolution,. officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. under the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence ...

October Revolution
, Russia left the Entente and agreed to a separate peace with the Central Powers with the signing of the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (also known as the Peace of Brest in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and depende ...
on 3 March 1918. Romania was forced to do the same in the May 1918
Treaty of BucharestTreaty of Bucharest may refer to the following treaties signed in Bucharest: * Treaty of Bucharest (1812), between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire ending the 1806–1812 Russo-Turkish war * Treaty of Bucharest (1886), between Serbia and Bu ...
but on 10 November, it repudiated the Treaty and once more declared war on the Central Powers. These changes meant the Allies who negotiated the
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles (french: Traité de Versailles; german: Versailler Vertrag, ) was the most important of the peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government ...
in 1919 included France, Britain, Italy, Japan and the US; Part One of the Treaty agreed to the establishment of the
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
on 25 January 1919. This came into being on 16 January 1920 with Britain, France, Italy and Japan as permanent members of the Executive Council; the
US Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the ...
voted against ratification of the
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles (french: Traité de Versailles; german: Versailler Vertrag, ) was the most important of the peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government ...
on 19 March, thus preventing the USA from joining the League.


Statistics


Principal powers


British Empire

For much of the 19th century, Britain sought to maintain the European balance of power without formal alliances, a policy known as splendid isolation. This left it dangerously exposed as Europe divided into opposing power blocs and the 1895–1905 Conservative government negotiated first the 1902
Anglo-Japanese Alliance The first was an alliance between United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Britain and Empire of Japan, Japan, signed in January 1902. The alliance was signed in London at Lansdowne House on 30 January 1902 by Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th ...
, then the 1904 Entente Cordiale with France. The first tangible result of this shift was British support for France against Germany in the 1905 Moroccan Crisis. The 1905–1915 Liberal government continued this re-alignment with the 1907
Anglo-Russian Convention The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 (russian: Англо-Русская Конвенция 1907 г., translit=Anglo-Russkaya Konventsiya 1907 g.), or Convention between the United Kingdom and Russia relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet (К ...
. Like the Anglo-Japanese and Entente agreements, it focused on settling colonial disputes but by doing so paved the way for wider co-operation and allowed Britain to refocus resources in response to German naval expansion. Since control of Belgium allowed an opponent to threaten invasion or blockade British trade, preventing it was a long-standing British strategic interest. Under Article VII of the 1839 Treaty of London, Britain guaranteed Belgian neutrality against aggression by any other state, by force if required. Chancellor
Bethmann Hollweg
Bethmann Hollweg
later dismissed this as a 'scrap of paper,' but British law officers routinely confirmed it as a binding legal obligation and its importance was well understood by Germany. The 1911
Agadir Crisis The Agadir Crisis, Agadir Incident or Second Moroccan Crisis (also known as the ''Panthersprung'' in German) was a brief international crisis sparked by the deployment of a substantial force of French troops in the interior of Morocco ) , ...
led to secret discussions between France and Britain in case of war with Germany. These agreed that within two weeks of its outbreak, a British Expeditionary Force of 100,000 men would be landed in France; in addition, the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
would be responsible for the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
, the
Channel Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path of a narrow body of water. Australia * Channel Country, region of outback Austr ...

Channel
and protecting Northern France, with the French navy concentrated in the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
. Britain was committed to support France in a war against Germany but this was not widely understood outside government or the upper ranks of the military. As late as 1 August, a clear majority of the Liberal government and its supporters wanted to stay out of the war. While Liberal leaders
H. H. Asquith Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liber ...
and Edward Grey considered Britain legally and morally committed to support France regardless, waiting until Germany triggered the 1839 Treaty provided the best chance of preserving Liberal party unity. The German high command was aware entering Belgium would lead to British intervention but decided the risk was acceptable; they expected a short war while their ambassador in London claimed troubles in Ireland would prevent Britain from assisting France. On 3 August, Germany demanded unimpeded progress through any part of Belgium and when this was refused, invaded early on the morning of 4 August. This changed the situation; the invasion of Belgium consolidated political and public support for the war by presenting what appeared to be a simple moral and strategic choice. The Belgians asked for assistance under the 1839 Treaty and in response, Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914. Although Germany's violation of Belgium neutrality was not the only cause of British entry into the war, it was used extensively in government propaganda at home and abroad to make the case for British intervention. This confusion arguably persists today. The declaration of war automatically involved all dominions and colonies and protectorates of the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
, many of whom made significant contributions to the Allied war effort, both in the provision of troops and civilian labourers. It was split into
Crown Colonies Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administ ...
administered by the
Colonial Office The Colonial Office was a government department Ministry or department, also less commonly used secretariat, office, or directorate are designations used by a first-level Executive (government), executive bodies in the Machinery of governmen ...
in London, such as
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as we ...
, and the self-governing
Dominion The term dominion was used to refer to one of several self-governing nations of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other D ...

Dominion
s of
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
,
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
and
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...
. These controlled their own domestic policies and military expenditure but not foreign policy. In terms of population, the largest component (after Britain herself) was the
British Raj The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the In ...

British Raj
or British India, which included modern
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
,
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
,
Myanmar Myanmar, ); UK pronunciations: US pronunciations incl. . Note: Wikipedia's IPA conventions require indicating /r/ even in British English although only some British English speakers pronounce r at the end of syllables. As John C. Wells, John ...

Myanmar
and
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
. Unlike other colonies which came under the
Colonial Office The Colonial Office was a government department Ministry or department, also less commonly used secretariat, office, or directorate are designations used by a first-level Executive (government), executive bodies in the Machinery of governmen ...
, it was governed directly by the
India Office 275px, The western or park end of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office's building in 1866. It was then occupied by the Foreign and India Offices, while the Home and Colonial Offices occupied the Whitehall Whitehall is a road and area in the C ...
or by princes loyal to the British; it also controlled British interests in the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
, such as the
Trucial States The Trucial States ( ' or '), also known as Trucial Coast, Trucial Oman, Trucial States of the Coast of Oman, and Trucial Sheikhdoms, was the name the British government gave to a group of tribal confederations in southeastern Arabian Peninsul ...
and
Oman Oman ( ; ar, عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar, سلْطنةُ عُمان ), is a country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Formerly a maritime empire, Oman is the oldest continuously in ...

Oman
. Over one million soldiers of the
British Indian Army The British Indian Army was the main military of the British Indian Empire The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam' ...
served in different theatres of the war, primarily France and the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...
. From 1914 to 1916, overall Imperial diplomatic, political and military strategy was controlled by the British War Cabinet in London; in 1917 it was superseded by the
Imperial War Cabinet The Imperial War Cabinet (IWC) was the British Empire's wartime coordinating body. It met over three sessions, the first from 20 March to 2 May 1917, the second from 11 June to late July 1918, and the third from 20 or 25 November 1918 to early Ja ...

Imperial War Cabinet
, which included representatives from the Dominions. Under the War Cabinet were the Chief of the Imperial General Staff or CIGS, responsible for all Imperial ground forces, and the
Admiralty Admiralty usually refers to: * Admiralty (United Kingdom), military department in command of the Royal Navy from 1707 to 1964 *The rank of admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank ...
that did the same for the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
. Theatre commanders like
Douglas Haig Field marshal (United Kingdom), Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, (; 19 June 1861 – 29 January 1928) was a senior Officer (armed forces), officer of the British Army. During the First World War, he commanded the British Expeditionary ...

Douglas Haig
on the
Western FrontWestern Front or West Front may refer to: Military frontiers *Western Front (World War I), a military frontier to the west of Germany *Western Front (World War II), a military frontier to the west of Germany *Western Front (Russian Empire), a major ...

Western Front
or
Edmund Allenby Field marshal (United Kingdom), Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, (23 April 1861 – 14 May 1936) was an English soldier and British Imperial Governor. He fought in the Second Boer War and also in the First ...
in
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
then reported to the CIGS. After the Indian Army, the largest individual units were the
Australian Corps The Australian Corps was a World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as th ...
and
Canadian Corps The Canadian Corps was a World War I corps formed from the Canadian Expeditionary Force in September 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France. The corps was expanded by the addition of the 3rd Canadian Division in December 19 ...
in France, which by 1918 were commanded by their own generals,
John Monash General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral z ...
and
Arthur Currie General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral ...
. Contingents from South Africa, New Zealand and Newfoundland served in theatres including France,
Gallipoli The Gallipoli peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical bod ...
,
German East Africa German East Africa (german: Deutsch-Ostafrika) (GEA) was a German colony in the African Great Lakes The African Great Lakes ( sw, Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East Afri ...

German East Africa
and the Middle East. Australian troops separately occupied
German New Guinea German New Guinea (german: link=no, Deutsch-Neuguinea) consisted of the northeastern part of the island of New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu: ''Niu Gini''; id, Papua, historically ) is the List of islands by area, world's second-larges ...

German New Guinea
, with the South Africans doing the same in
German South West Africa German South West Africa (german: Deutsch-Südwestafrika) was a colony of the German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biogr ...
; this resulted in the
Maritz rebellion #REDIRECT Maritz rebellion#REDIRECT Maritz rebellion The Maritz rebellion, also known as the Boer revolt or Five Shilling rebellion,General De Wet publicly unfurled the rebel banner in October, when he entered the town of Reitz, Free State, Rei ...
by former Boers, which was quickly suppressed. After the war, New Guinea and South-West Africa became
Protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency (sometimes referred as an external territory) is a territory that does not ...
s, held until 1975 and 1990 respectively.


Russian Empire

Between 1873 and 1887, Russia was allied with Germany and Austria-Hungary in the League of the Three Emperors, then with Germany in the 1887–1890
Reinsurance Treaty The Reinsurance Treaty, was a diplomatic agreement between the German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as ...
; both collapsed due to the competing interests of Austria and Russia in the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rathe ...

Balkans
. While France took advantage of this to agree the 1894
Franco-Russian Alliance The Franco-Russian Alliance (french: Alliance Franco-Russe, russian: Франко-Русский Альянс, translit=Franko-Russkiy Al'yans), or Russo-French Rapprochement (''Rapprochement Russo-Français'', Руссо-Французское ...
, Britain viewed Russia with deep suspicion; in 1800, over 3,000 kilometres separated the Russian Empire and British India, by 1902, it was 30 km in some areas. This threatened to bring the two into direct conflict, as did the long-held Russian objective of gaining control of the
Bosporus Straits
Bosporus Straits
and with it access to the British-dominated
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
. Defeat in the 1905 Russo-Japanese War and Britain's isolation during the 1899–1902
Second Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire and the two B ...
led both parties to seek allies. The
Anglo-Russian Convention The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 (russian: Англо-Русская Конвенция 1907 г., translit=Anglo-Russkaya Konventsiya 1907 g.), or Convention between the United Kingdom and Russia relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet (К ...
of 1907 settled disputes in Asia and allowed the establishment of the Triple Entente with France, which at this stage was largely informal. In 1908, Austria annexed the former Ottoman province of
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
; Russia responded by creating the
Balkan League The League of Balkans was a quadruple alliance formed by a series of bilateral treaties concluded in 1912 between the Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, ...
in order to prevent further Austrian expansion. In the 1912–1913
First Balkan War The First Balkan War ( bg, Балканска война; el, Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; sr, Први балкански рат, ''Prvi Balkanski rat''; tr, Birinci Balkan Savaşı) lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and invo ...

First Balkan War
,
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...
,
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...
and
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...
captured most of the remaining Ottoman possessions in Europe; disputes over the division of these resulted in the
Second Balkan War The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a coun ...

Second Balkan War
, in which Bulgaria was comprehensively defeated by its former allies. Russia's industrial base and railway network had significantly improved since 1905, although from a relatively low base; in 1913,
Tsar Nicholas
Tsar Nicholas
approved an increase in the Russian Army of over 500,000 men. Although there was no formal alliance between Russia and Serbia, their close bilateral links provided Russia with a route into the crumbling Ottoman Empire, where Germany also had significant interests. Combined with the increase in Russian military strength, both Austria and Germany felt threatened by Serbian expansion; when Austria invaded Serbia on 28 July 1914, Russian Foreign Minister
Sergey Sazonov Sergei Dmitryevich Sazonov GCB (Russian: Сергей Дмитриевич Сазонов; 10 August 1860 in Ryazan Governorate 11 December 1927) was a Russian statesman and diplomat who served as Foreign Minister A foreign affairs minister or ...

Sergey Sazonov
viewed it as an Austro-German conspiracy to end Russian influence in the Balkans. In addition to its own territory, Russia viewed itself as the defender of its fellow
Slavs Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...

Slavs
and on 30 July, mobilised in support of Serbia. In response, Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August, followed by Austria-Hungary on 6th; after Ottoman warships bombarded
Odessa Odessa (russian: Оде́сса ) or Odesa ( uk, Оде́са ) is the third most populous List of cities in Ukraine, city and List of hromadas of Ukraine, municipality in Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transport hub located in th ...

Odessa
in late October, the Entente declared war on the Ottoman Empire in November 1914.


French Republic

French defeat in the 1870–1871
Franco-Prussian War The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War,, german: Deutsch-Französischer Krieg often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire The Second French Empire (; officially the French Empire ...
led to the loss of the two provinces of
Alsace-Lorraine The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (german: Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or ; gsw-als, 's Rìchslànd Elsàss-Lothrìnga; Moselle Franconian __NOTOC__ Moselle Franconian (German ''Moselfränkisch'') is a West Central German language ...

Alsace-Lorraine
and the establishment of the Third Republic. The suppression of the
Paris Commune The Paris Commune (french: Commune de Paris, ) was a revolutionary government that seized power in Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871. During the , Paris had been defended by the , where radicalism grew among soldiers. In March 1871, after th ...
by the new regime caused deep political divisions and led to a series of bitter political struggles, such as the
Dreyfus affair The Dreyfus affair (french: l'affaire Dreyfus, ) was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic The French Third Republic (french: Troisième République, sometimes written as ) was the system of government adopted in His ...
. As a result, aggressive nationalism or
Revanchism Revanchism (french: Revanchisme, from ''revanche'', "revenge") is the political manifestation of the will to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country, often following a war or social movement. As a term, revanchism originated in 1870s Fran ...
was one of the few areas to unite the French. The loss of Alsace-Lorraine deprived France of its natural defence line on the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
, while it was weaker demographically than Germany, whose 1911 population was 64.9 million to 39.6 in France, which had the lowest birthrate in Europe. This meant that despite their very different political systems, when Germany allowed the Reinsurance Treaty to lapse, France seized the opportunity to agree the 1894
Franco-Russian Alliance The Franco-Russian Alliance (french: Alliance Franco-Russe, russian: Франко-Русский Альянс, translit=Franko-Russkiy Al'yans), or Russo-French Rapprochement (''Rapprochement Russo-Français'', Руссо-Французское ...
. It also replaced Germany as the primary source of financing for Russian industry and the expansion of its railway network, particularly in border areas with Germany and Austria-Hungary. However, Russian defeat in the 1904–1905
Russo-Japanese War The Russo-Japanese War (russian: Ру́сско-япóнская войнá, Rússko-yapónskaya voyná; ja, 日露戦争, Nichiro sensō, Japanese-Russian War) was fought between the Empire of Japan The was a historical natio ...
damaged its credibility, while Britain's isolation during the
Second Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire and the two B ...
meant both countries sought additional allies. This resulted in the 1904 Entente Cordiale with Britain; like the 1907
Anglo-Russian Convention The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 (russian: Англо-Русская Конвенция 1907 г., translit=Anglo-Russkaya Konventsiya 1907 g.), or Convention between the United Kingdom and Russia relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet (К ...
, for domestic British consumption it focused on settling colonial disputes but led to informal co-operation in other areas. By 1914, both the British army and
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
were committed to support France in the event of war with Germany but even in the British government, very few were aware of the extent of these commitments. In response to Germany's declaration of war on Russia, France issued a general mobilization in expectation of war on 2 August and on 3 August, Germany also declared war on France. Germany's ultimatum to Belgium brought Britain into the war on 4 August, although France did not declare war on Austria-Hungary until 12 August. As with Britain, France's
colonies In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the metropole, metropolitan ...
also became part of the war; pre-1914, French soldiers and politicians advocated using French African recruits to help compensate for France's demographic weakness. From August to December 1914, the French lost nearly 300,000 dead on the Western Front, more than Britain suffered in the whole of WWII and the gaps were partly filled by colonial troops, over 500,000 of whom served on the Western Front over the period 1914–1918. Colonial troops also fought at
Gallipoli The Gallipoli peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical bod ...
, occupied
Togo Togo (), officially the Togolese Republic (french: République togolaise), is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin ...

Togo
and
Kamerun Kamerun was an African colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the co ...

Kamerun
in West Africa and had a minor role in the Middle East, where France was the traditional protector of Christians in the Ottoman provinces of
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
,
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
and
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part ...
.


Japanese Empire

Prior to the
Meiji Restoration#REDIRECT Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although t ...
in 1868, Japan was a semi-feudal, largely agrarian state with few natural resources and limited technology. By 1914, it had transformed itself into a modern industrial state, with a powerful military; by defeating China in the
First Sino-Japanese War The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was a conflict between the Qing dynasty of China and the Empire of Japan primarily over influence in Joseon Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese lan ...

First Sino-Japanese War
during 1894–1895, it established itself as the primary power in East Asia and colonized the then-unified Korea and Formosa, now modern Taiwan. Concerned by Russian expansion in Korea and
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
, Britain and Japan signed the
Anglo-Japanese Alliance The first was an alliance between United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Britain and Empire of Japan, Japan, signed in January 1902. The alliance was signed in London at Lansdowne House on 30 January 1902 by Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th ...
on 30 January 1902, agreeing if either were attacked by a third party, the other would remain neutral and if attacked by two or more opponents, the other would come to its aid. This meant Japan could rely on British support in a war with Russia, if either France or Germany, which also had interests in China, decided to join them. This gave Japan the reassurance needed to take on Russia in the 1905
Russo-Japanese War The Russo-Japanese War (russian: Ру́сско-япóнская войнá, Rússko-yapónskaya voyná; ja, 日露戦争, Nichiro sensō, Japanese-Russian War) was fought between the Empire of Japan The was a historical natio ...
; victory established Japan in the Chinese province of
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
. With Japan as an ally in the Far East,
John Fisher John Fisher (c. 19 October 1469 – 22 June 1535) was an Catholic Church, English Catholic Bishop (Catholicism), bishop, Cardinal (Catholic Church), cardinal, and theologian. Fisher was also an academic and Chancellor (education), Chancellor o ...
,
First Sea Lord The First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff (1SL/CNS) is the professional head of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by Kingdom of England, Eng ...
from 1904 to 1910, was able to refocus British naval resources in the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
to counter the threat from the
Imperial German Navy The Imperial German Navy is the common English term for the Imperial Navy () of the German Empire. It existed between 1871 and 1919, growing out of the small Prussian Navy (from 1867 the North German Federal Navy), which was mainly for coast def ...
. The Alliance was renewed in 1911; in 1914, Japan joined the Entente in return for German territories in the Pacific, greatly annoying the Australian government which also wanted them. On 7 August, Britain officially asked for assistance in destroying German naval units in China and Japan formally declared war on Germany on 23 August, followed by Austria-Hungary on 25th. On 2 September 1914, Japanese forces surrounded the German
Treaty Port Treaty ports (; ja, 条約港) were the port cities in China and Japan that were opened to foreign trade mainly by the Unequal treaty, unequal treaties forced upon them by Western world, Western powers, as well as cities in Korea opened up simila ...
of
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative ...

Qingdao
, then known as Tsingtao, which surrendered on 7 November. The
Imperial Japanese Navy The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai are the traditional forms of kanji, Chinese characters, Chinese written characters used in Japanese language, Japanese. Their simplified counterparts are shinjitai (), "new character forms". Some of ...
simultaneously occupied German colonies in the Mariana, Caroline, and
Marshall Islands The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands ( mh, Aolepān Aorōkin Ṃajeḷ), is an independent near the in the , slightly west of the . Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of . The countr ...
, while in 1917, a Japanese naval squadron was sent to support the Allies in the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
. Japan's primary interest was in China and in January 1915, the Chinese government was presented with a secret ultimatum of
Twenty-One Demands The Twenty-One Demands ( ja, 対華21ヶ条要求, Taika Nijūikkajō Yōkyū; ) was a set of demands made during the World War I, First World War by the Empire of Japan under Prime Minister of Japan, Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu to the Gover ...

Twenty-One Demands
, demanding extensive economic and political concessions. While these were eventually modified, the result was a surge of anti-Japanese
nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target ...
in China and an economic boycott of Japanese goods. In addition, the other Allies now saw Japan as a threat, rather than a partner, lead to tensions first with Russia, then the US after it entered the war in April 1917. Despite protests from the other Allies, after the war Japan refused to return Qingdao and the province of
Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subn ...

Shandong
to China.


Kingdom of Italy

The 1882 Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy was renewed at regular intervals, but was compromised by conflicting objectives between Italy and Austria in the
Adriatic The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...

Adriatic
and
Aegean Aegean may refer to: *Aegean Sea *Aegean Islands *Aegean Region (geographical), Turkey *Aegean Region (statistical), Turkey *Aegean civilizations *Aegean languages, a group of ancient languages and proposed language family *Aegean Sea (theme), a n ...

Aegean
seas. Italian nationalists referred to Austrian-held
Istria Istria ( ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croatia (disambiguation) ...

Istria
(including
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (wher ...

Trieste
and
Fiume Rijeka ( , , ; hu, Fiume, it, Fiume ; local Chakavian Chakavian or Čakavian (, , , sh-Latn, čakavski proper name: or own name: ''čokovski, čakavski, čekavski'') is a South Slavic regiolect or language A language is a s ...

Fiume
) and
Trento Trento ( or ; Ladin and lmo, Trent; german: Trient ; cim, Tria; ), also anglicized as Trent, is a city on the Adige River The Adige (; german: Etsch ; vec, Àdexe ; rm, ; lld, Adesc; la, Athesis; grc, Ἄθεσις, Áthesis, or , '' ...

Trento
as 'the lost territories', making the Alliance so controversial that the terms were kept secret until it expired in 1915. Alberto Pollio, the pro-Austrian Chief of Staff of the Italian Army, died on 1 July 1914, taking many of the prospects for Italian support with him. The Italian Prime Minister
Antonio Salandra Antonio Salandra (13 August 1853 – 9 December 1931) was a conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relati ...

Antonio Salandra
argued that as the Alliance was defensive in nature, Austria's aggression against Serbia and Italy's exclusion from the decision-making process meant it was not obliged to join them.Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194. His caution was understandable because France and Britain either supplied or controlled the import of most of Italy's raw materials, including 90% of its coal. Salandra described the process of choosing a side as 'sacred egoism,' but as the war was expected to end before mid-1915 at the latest, making this decision became increasingly urgent. In line with Italy's obligations under the Triple Alliance, the bulk of the army was concentrated on Italy's border with France; in October, Pollio's replacement, , was ordered to begin moving these troops to the North-Eastern one with Austria. Under the April 1915 Treaty of London, Italy agreed to join the Entente in return for Italian-populated territories of Austria-Hungary and other concessions; in return, it declared war on Austria-Hungary in May 1915 as required, although not on Germany until 1916.Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194-198. Italian resentment at the difference between the promises of 1915 and the actual results of the 1919
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles (french: Traité de Versailles; german: Versailler Vertrag, ) was the most important of the peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government ...
would be powerful factors in the rise of .


Affiliated state combatants


Kingdom of Serbia

In 1817, the
Principality of Serbia The Principality of Serbia ( sr-Cyrl, Кнежевина Србија, Kneževina Srbija) was an independent state in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Euro ...
became an autonomous province within the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
; with Russian support, it gained full independence after the 1877–1878
Russo-Turkish War The Russo-Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of twelve wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries. It was one of the longest series of military conflicts in History of Europe ...

Russo-Turkish War
. Many Serbs viewed Russia as protector of the
South Slavs The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are n ...
in general but also specifically against Bulgaria, where Russian objectives increasingly collided with
Bulgarian nationalism , showing the boundaries of Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is ...
. When Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, Russia responded by creating the
Balkan League The League of Balkans was a quadruple alliance formed by a series of bilateral treaties concluded in 1912 between the Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, ...
to prevent further Austrian expansion. Austria viewed Serbia with hostility partly due to its links with Russia, whose claim to be the protector of South Slavs extended to those within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, such as the
Czechs The Czechs ( cs, Češi, ; singular masculine: ''Čech'' , singular feminine: ''Češka'' ), or the Czech people (), are a West Slavic ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person ...
and
Slovaks The Slovaks ( sk, Slováci, singular: ''Slovák'', feminine: ''Slovenka'', plural: ''Slovenky'') are a West Slavic ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plura ...
. Serbia also potentially gave Russia the ability to achieve their long-held objective of capturing
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
and the
Dardanelles satellite in September 2006. The body of water on the left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The Dardanelles is the tapered waterway running diagonally between the two seas, from the northeast to the ...
. Austria backed the Albanian revolt of 1910 and the idea of a
Greater Albania Greater may refer to: *Greatness Greatness is a concept of a state of superior (hierarchy), superiority affecting a person or wikt:entity, object in a particular place or area. Greatness can also be attributed to individuals who possess a natura ...

Greater Albania
, since this would prevent Serbian access to the Austrian-controlled
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
. Another Albanian revolt in 1912 exposed the weakness of the Ottoman Empire and led to the 1912–1913
First Balkan War The First Balkan War ( bg, Балканска война; el, Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; sr, Први балкански рат, ''Prvi Balkanski rat''; tr, Birinci Balkan Savaşı) lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and invo ...

First Balkan War
, with
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...
,
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in . It is located on the and is a part of the , sharing borders with to the northeast, to the north and west, to the east, to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea and to the ...
,
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...
and
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...
capturing most of the remaining Ottoman possessions in Europe. Disputes over the division of these resulted in the
Second Balkan War The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a coun ...

Second Balkan War
, in which Bulgaria was comprehensively defeated by its former allies. As a result of the 1913
Treaty of BucharestTreaty of Bucharest may refer to the following treaties signed in Bucharest: * Treaty of Bucharest (1812), between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire ending the 1806–1812 Russo-Turkish war * Treaty of Bucharest (1886), between Serbia and Bu ...
, Serbia increased its territory by 100% and its population by 64%. However, it now faced a hostile Austria-Hungary, a resentful Bulgaria and opposition by Albanian nationalists. Germany too had ambitions in the Ottoman Empire, the centrepiece being the planned
Berlin–Baghdad railway The Baghdad railway, also known as the Berlin–Baghdad railway ( tr, Bağdat Demiryolu, german: Bagdadbahn, ar, سكة حديد بغداد, french: Chemin de Fer Impérial Ottoman de Bagdad), was built from 1910 to 1940 to connect Berlin wit ...
, with Serbia the only section not controlled by a pro-German state. The exact role played by Serbian officials in the
assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo Sarajevo ( ; , ; ''see Names of European cities ...
is still debated but despite complying with most of their demands, Austria-Hungary invaded on 28 July 1914. While Serbia successfully repulsed the Austro-Hungarian army in 1914, it was exhausted by the two Balkan Wars and unable to replace its losses of men and equipment. In 1915, Bulgaria joined the Central Powers and by the end of the year, a combined Bulgar-Austrian-German army occupied most of Serbia. Between 1914 and 1918, Serbia suffered the greatest proportional losses of any combatant, with over 25% of all those mobilised becoming casualties; including civilians and deaths from disease, over 1.2 million died, nearly 30% of the entire population.


Kingdom of Belgium

In 1830, the southern provinces of the Netherlands broke away to form the Belgium, Kingdom of Belgium and their independence was confirmed by the 1839 Treaty of London. Article VII of the Treaty required Belgium to remain perpetually neutral and committed Austria, France, Germany and Russia to guarantee that against aggression by any other state, including the signatories. While the French and German militaries accepted Germany would almost certainly violate Belgian neutrality in the event of war, the extent of that was unclear. The original
Schlieffen Plan The Schlieffen Plan (german: Schlieffen-Plan, ) was a name given after the First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war that began on 28 July ...

Schlieffen Plan
only required a limited incursion into the Belgian Ardennes, rather than a full-scale invasion; in September 1911, the Belgian Foreign Minister told a British Embassy official they would not call for assistance if the Germans limited themselves to that. While neither Britain or France could allow Germany to occupy Belgium unopposed, a Belgian refusal to ask for help would complicate matters for the Liberal government, 1905–1915, British Liberal government, which contained a significant isolationist element. However, the key German objective was to avoid war on two fronts; France had to be defeated before Russia could fully mobilise and give time for German forces to be transferred to the East. The growth of the Russian railway network and increase in speed of mobilisation made rapid victory over France even more important; to accommodate the additional 170,000 troops approved by the 1913 Army Bill, the 'incursion' now became a full-scale invasion. The Germans accepted the risk of British intervention; in common with most of Europe, they expected it to be a short war while their London Ambassador claimed civil war in Ireland would prevent Britain from assisting its Entente partners. On 3 August, a German ultimatum demanded unimpeded progress through any part of Belgium, which was refused. Early on the morning of 4 August, the Germans invaded and the Belgian government called for British assistance under the 1839 Treaty; by the end of 1914, over 95% of the country was occupied but the Belgian Army held their lines on the
Yser Front The Yser Front (french: Front de l'Yser, nl, Front aan de IJzer or ), sometimes termed the West Flemish Front in British writing, was a section of the Western Front during World War I held by Belgian troops from October 1914 until 1918. The front r ...
throughout the war. In the Belgian Congo, 25,000 Congolese troops plus an estimated 260,000 porters joined British forces in the 1916 East African Campaign (World War I), East African Campaign. By 1917, they controlled the western part of
German East Africa German East Africa (german: Deutsch-Ostafrika) (GEA) was a German colony in the African Great Lakes The African Great Lakes ( sw, Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East Afri ...

German East Africa
which would become the Belgian League of Nations mandate, League of Nations Mandate of Ruanda-Urundi or modern-day Rwanda and Burundi.


Kingdom of Greece

Greece almost doubled in size as a result of the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, but the success masked deep divisions within the political elite. In 1908, the island of Crete, formally part of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
but administered by Greek officials, declared union with Greece, led by the charismatic nationalist Eleftherios Venizelos. A year later, young army officers formed the Military League to advocate for an aggressive and expansionist foreign policy; with their backing, Venizelos won a majority in the 1910 Parliamentary elections, followed by another in 1912. He had effectively broken the power of the pre-1910 political class and his position was then further strengthened by success in the Balkan Wars. In 1913, the Greek monarch George I of Greece, George I was assassinated; he was succeeded by his son Constantine I of Greece, Constantine who had attended Heidelberg University, served in a Prussian regiment and married Sophia of Prussia, sister of Emperor Wilhelm II, German Emperor, William II. These links and a belief the Central Powers would win the war combined to make Constantine pro-German. Venizelos himself favoured the Entente, partly due to their ability to block the maritime trade routes required for Greek imports. Other issues adding complexity to this decision included disputes with Bulgaria and Serbia over the regions of Thrace and Macedonia (region), Macedonia as well as control of the Aegean Islands. Greece captured most of the islands during the Balkan Wars but Italy occupied the Dodecanese in 1912 and was in no hurry to give them back, while the Ottomans demanded the return of many others. In general, the Triple Entente favoured Greece, the Triple Alliance backed the Ottomans; Greece ultimately gained the vast majority but Italy did not cede the Dodecanese until 1947, while others remain Aegean dispute, disputed even today. As a result, Greece initially remained neutral but in March 1915, the Entente offered concessions to join the
Dardanelles satellite in September 2006. The body of water on the left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The Dardanelles is the tapered waterway running diagonally between the two seas, from the northeast to the ...
campaign. Arguments over whether to accept led to the National Schism, with an Entente-backed administration under Venizelos in Crete, and a Royalist one led by Constantine in Athens that supported the Central Powers. In September 1915, Bulgaria joined the Central Powers; in October, Venizelos allowed Entente forces to land at Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki or Salonica to support the Serbs, although they were too late to prevent their defeat. In August 1916, Bulgarian troops advanced into Greek-held Macedonia and Constantine ordered the army not to resist; anger at this led to a coup and he was eventually forced into exile in June 1917. A new national government under Venizelos joined the Entente, while the Greek National Defence Army Corps fought with the Allies on the Macedonian front.


Kingdom of Montenegro

Unlike Serbia, with whom it shared close cultural and political connections, the Kingdom of Montenegro gained little from its participation in the 1912–1913 Balkan Wars. The main Montenegrin offensive was in Albanian Vilayet, Ottoman-controlled Albania, where it suffered heavy losses during the seven month Siege of Scutari (1912–13), Siege of Scutari. Austria-Hungary opposed Serb or Montenegrin control of Albania, since it provided access to the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
; despite Scutari's surrender, Montenegro was forced to relinquish it by the Treaty of London (1913), 1913 Treaty of London and it became capital of the short-lived Principality of Albania. This was largely an Austrian creation; the new ruler, William, Prince of Albania, was a German who was forced into exile in September, only seven months after taking up his new position and later served with the Imperial German Army. In addition to the lack of substantive gains from the Balkan Wars, there were long-running internal divisions between those who like Nicholas I of Montenegro, Nicholas I preferred an independent Montenegro and those who advocated union with Serbia. In July 1914, Montenegro was not only militarily and economically exhausted, but also faced a multitude of political, economic and social issues. At meetings held in March 1914, Austria-Hungary and Germany agreed union with Serbia must be prevented; Montenegro could either remain independent or be divided, its coastal areas becoming part of Albania, while the rest could join Serbia. Nicholas seriously considered neutrality as a way to preserve his dynasty and on 31 July notified the Russian Ambassador Montenegro would only respond to an Austrian attack. He also held discussions with Austria, proposing neutrality or even active support in return for territorial concessions in Albania. However, close links between the Serbian and Montenegrin militaries as well as popular sentiment meant there was little support for remaining neutral, especially after Russia joined the war; on 1 August, the National Assembly declared war on Austria-Hungary in fulfilment of its obligations to Serbia. After some initial success, in January 1916, the Montenegrin Army was forced to surrender to an Austro-Hungarian force.


Beda Sultanate

The Beda Sultanate was invaded by Ottoman forces in February 1915 and March 1916. Britain assisted the Beda Sultanate in defeating the Ottoman invasions by sending arms and ammunition.


Idrisid Emirate of Asir

The Idrisid Emirate of Asir participated in the Arab revolt. Its Emir, Muhammad ibn Ali al-Idrisi, signed an agreement with the British and joined the Allies in May 1915.


Emirate of Nejd and Hasa

The Emirate of Nejd and Hasa agreed to enter the war as an ally of Britain in the Treaty of Darin on 26 December 1915.


Kingdom of Romania

Equal status with the main Entente Powers was one of the primary conditions for Romania's entry into the War. The Powers officially recognized this status through the Treaty of Bucharest (1916), 1916 Treaty of Bucharest. Romania fought on three of the four European Fronts: Eastern Front (World War I), Eastern, Balkans Campaign (World War I), Balkan and Italian Front (World War I), Italian, fielding in total over 1,200,000 troops. Romanian military industry was mainly focused on converting various fortification guns into field and anti-aircraft artillery. Up to 334 German 53 mm Fahrpanzer guns, 93 French 57 mm Hotchkiss guns, 66 Krupp 150 mm guns, and dozens more 210 mm guns were mounted on Romanian-built Gun carriage, carriages and transformed into mobile field artillery, with 45 Krupp 75 mm guns and 132 Hotchkiss 57 mm guns being transformed into anti-aircraft artillery. The Romanians also 10.5 cm Feldhaubitze M.12, upgraded 120 German Krupp 105 mm howitzers, the result being the most effective field howitzer in Europe at that time. Romania even managed to design and build from scratch its own model of mortar, the 250 mm Negrei Model 1916. Other Romanian technological assets include the building of A Vlaicu III, Vlaicu III, the world's first aircraft made of metal. The Romanian Navy possessed the largest warships on the Danube. They were a class of four river monitors, built locally at the Galați shipyard using parts manufactured in Austria-Hungary. The first one launched was ''Lascăr Catargiu'', in 1907. The Romanian monitors displaced almost 700 tons, were armed with three 120 mm naval guns in three turrets, two 120 mm naval howitzers, four 47 mm anti-aircraft guns and two 6.5 machine guns. The monitors took part in the Battle of Turtucaia and the First Battle of Cobadin. The Romanian-designed Schneider 150 mm Model 1912 howitzer was considered one of the most modern field guns on the Western Front. Romania's entry into the War in August 1916 provoked major changes for the Germans. General Erich von Falkenhayn was dismissed and sent to command the Central Powers forces in Romania, which enabled Paul von Hindenburg, Hindenburg's subsequent ascension to power. Due to having to fight against all of the Central Powers on the longest front in Europe (1,600 km) and with little foreign help (only 50,000 Russians aided 650,000 Romanians in 1916), Battle of Bucharest, the Romanian capital was conquered that December. Vlaicu III was also captured and shipped to Germany, being last seen in 1942. The Romanian administration established a new capital at Iași and continued to fight on the Allied side in 1917. Despite being relatively short, the Romanian campaign of 1916 provided considerable respite for the Western Allies, as the Germans ceased all their other offensive operations in order to deal with Romania. After suffering a tactical defeat against the Romanians (aided by Russians) in July 1917 at Battle of Mărăști, Mărăști, the Central Powers launched two counterattacks, at Battle of Mărășești, Mărășești and Third Battle of Oituz, Oituz. The German offensive at Mărășești was soundly defeated, with German prisoners later telling their Romanian captors that German casualties were extremely heavy, and that they "had not encountered such stiff resistance since the battles of Somme and Verdun". The Austro-Hungarian offensive at Oituz also failed. On 22 September, the Austro-Hungarian Enns-class river monitor, ''Enns''-class river monitor SMS Inn, SMS ''Inn'' was sunk by a Romanian mine near Brăila. After Russia signed the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (also known as the Peace of Brest in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and depende ...
and dropped out of the War, Romania was left surrounded by the Central Powers and eventually signed a Treaty of Bucharest (1918), similar treaty on 7 May 1918. Despite being forced to cede land to Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria, Romania ended up with a net gain in territory due to the Union of Bessarabia with Romania, Union with Bessarabia. On 10 November, Romania re-entered the War and fought a Hungarian-Romanian War, war with Hungary that lasted until August 1919.


Republic of the United States of Brazil

Brazil entered the war in 1917 after the United States intervened on the basis of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare sinking its merchant ships, which Brazil also cited as a reason to enter the war fighting against Germany and the Central Powers. The First Brazilian Republic sent the Naval Division in War Operations that joined the British fleet in Gibraltar and made the first Brazilian naval effort in international waters. In compliance with the commitments made at the Inter-American Conference, held in Paris from 20 November to 3 December 1917, the Brazilian Government sent a medical mission composed of civilian and military surgeons to work in field hospitals of the European theater, a contingent of sergeants and officers to serve with the French army; Airmen from the Army and Navy to join the Royal Air Force, and the employment of part of the Fleet, primarily in the anti-submarine war.


Co-belligerents: the United States

The
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
declared war on Germany in April 1917 on the grounds that Germany violated US neutrality by attacking international shipping with its unrestricted submarine warfare campaign. The remotely connected Zimmermann Telegram of the same period, within which the Germans promised to help Mexico regain some of its territory Mexican Cession, lost to the U.S nearly seven decades before in the event of the United States entering the war, was Zimmermann Telegram#Effect in the United States, also a contributing factor. American entry into World War I, The US entered the war as an "associated power", rather than a formal ally of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...
and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements".Tucker&Roberts pp. 1232, 1264, 1559 Although the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
and
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...
severed relations with the United States, neither declared war,Tucker&Roberts p. 1559 nor did
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a and in between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the and was dissolved following its defeat in the . At its core was the which was a between th ...

Austria-Hungary
. Eventually, however, the United States also United States declaration of war on Austria-Hungary, declared war on Austria-Hungary in December 1917, predominantly to help hard-pressed Italy.


Non-state combatants

Three non-state combatants, which voluntarily fought with the Allies and seceded from the constituent states of the Central Powers at the end of the war, were allowed to participate as winning nations to the peace treaties: * First Republic of Armenia, Armenian Armenian fedayi, irregulars and Armenian volunteer units, volunteers: seceded from the Russian Empire in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution and fought against the Ottoman Empire. * Agha Petros#World War I, Assyrian Volunteers under Mar Shimun XIX Benyamin and the Assyrian tribal chiefs decided to side with the Allies, first with Russia, and next with the British, in the hope that they might secure after the victory, self-government for the Assyrians. The French also joined the alliance with the Assyrians, offering them 20,000 rifles, and the Assyrian army grew to 20,000 men co-led by Agha Petros of the Bit-Baz, Turkey, Bazi tribe, and Malik Khoshaba of the Bit-Tiyari tribe, according to Joseph Naayem (a key witness, whose account on the atrocities was prefaced by Lord James Bryce).Paul Bartrop, Encountering Genocide: Personal Accounts from Victims, Perpetrators, and Witnesses, ABC-CLIO, 2014 * Polish Legions in World War I, Polish Legions * Czechoslovak Legions: armed by Czechoslovak Legion in France, France, Czechoslovak Legion in Italy, Italy and Russia Additionally, there were also several Kurdish rebellions during World War I. Most of these, except for the uprisings of August 1917, were not supported by any of the allied powers.


Leaders


Serbia

* Peter I of Serbia, Peter I – King of Serbia * Alexander I of Yugoslavia, Crown Prince Alexander – Regent, Commander-in-Chief * Nikola Pašić – Prime Minister of Serbia * Field marshal (Serbia and Yugoslavia), Field Marshal Radomir Putnik – Chief of the General Staff (Serbia), Chief of the General Staff of the Serbian Army (1914–1915) * General/Field marshal (Serbia and Yugoslavia), Field Marshal Živojin Mišić – Deputy Chief of General Staff (1914), Commander of First Army (Serbia), First Army (1914–1915; 1917), later Chief of General Staff (1918) * General/Field marshal (Serbia and Yugoslavia), Field Marshal Petar Bojović – Commander of First Army (Serbia), First Army (1914), Deputy Chief of General Staff (1915–1916), Chief of General Staff (1916–1917) later Commander of First Army (1918) * General/Field marshal (Serbia and Yugoslavia), Field Marshal Stepa Stepanović – Commander of Second Army (Serbia), Second Army (1914–1918) * General Pavle Jurišić Šturm – Commander of Third Army (Serbia), Third Army (1914–1916) * Colonel – Minister of Defence (Serbia), Minister of War (1914) * Colonel – Minister of War (1914–1915) * Colonel/General – Minister of War (1915–1918) * General Mihailo Rašić – Minister of War (1918) * Colonel/General Miloš Vasić (general), Miloš Vasić – Commander of First Army (Serbia), First Army (1916; 1917), Commander of Third Army (Serbia), Third Army (1916)


Montenegro

* Nicholas I of Montenegro, Nicholas I – King of Montenegro, Commander-in-Chief * General Serdar (Ottoman rank), Serdar Janko Vukotić – Prime Minister of Montenegro, Prime Minister, Commander of 1st Montenegrin Army * General Božidar Janković – Chief of the General Staff of the Montenegrin Army (1914–1915) * Colonel – Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Montenegrin Army (1914–1915), later Chief of the General Staff of the Montenegrin Army (1915–1916) * Danilo, Crown Prince of Montenegro, Crown Prince Danilo II Petrović-Njegoš – In the staff of the 1st Montenegrin Army * Brigadier Krsto Popović – In the staff of the 1st Montenegrin Army, Aide-de-camp to Serdar (Ottoman rank), Serdar Janko Vukotić * General Anto Gvozdenović – King's Aide-de-camp * General Mitar Martinović – Commander of several detachments in the Montenegrin army (Drina and Herzegovina detachments together in 1914–1915, Kotor detachment in 1916)


Russia (1914–1917)

* Nicholas II of Russia, Nicholas II – Russian Emperor, King of Poland, and Grand Prince of Finland (until 15 March 1917) * Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856–1929), Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich – Commander-in-chief (1 August 1914 – 5 September 1916) and viceroy in the Caucasus * Ivan Goremykin – List of heads of government of Russia, Chairmen of Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire (1 August 1914 – 2 February 1916) * Boris Stürmer – List of heads of government of Russia, Chairmen of Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire (2 February 1916 – 23 November 1916) * Alexander Trepov – List of heads of government of Russia, Chairmen of Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire (23 November 1916 – 27 December 1916) * Nikolai Golitsyn – List of heads of government of Russia, Chairmen of Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire (27 December 1916 – 9 January 1917) * General of the Cavalry Alexander Samsonov – Commander of the Russian Second Army for the invasion of East Prussia (1 August 1914 – 29 August 1914) * General of the Cavalry Paul von Rennenkampf – Commander of the Russian First Army for the invasion of East Prussia (1 August 1914 – November 1914) * General of the Artillery (Imperial Russia), General of the Artillery Nikolay Iudovich Ivanov, Nikolay Ivanov – Commander of the Imperial Russian Army, Russian army on the Southwestern Front, (1 August 1914 – March 1916) responsible for much of the action in Galicia (Eastern Europe), Galicia * Adjutant general, General Adjutant Aleksei Brusilov – Commander of the South-West Front, then provisional Commander-in-Chief after the Tsar's abdication (February 1917 – August 1917) * General of the Infantry (Imperial Russia), General of the Infantry Lavr Kornilov, Lavr Georgievich Kornilov – Commander of the South-West Front, then Commander-in-Chief (August 1917) * General of the Infantry (Imperial Russia), General of the Infantry Aleksey Kuropatkin – Commander of the Northern Front (October 1915 – 1917) * General of the Infantry (Imperial Russia), General of the Infantry Nikolai Yudenich – Commander of the Caucasus (January 1915 – May 1917) * Admiral Andrei Eberhardt – Commander of Black Sea Fleet (1914–16) * Admiral Alexander Kolchak – Commander of Black Sea Fleet (1916–17) * Admiral Nikolai Essen – Commander of Baltic Fleet (1913 – May 1915)


Belgium

* Albert I of Belgium – King of the Belgians (23 December 1909 – 17 February 1934) and Commander-in-chief of the Belgian army * Charles de Broqueville – Prime Minister of Belgium, Prime Minister (1912–1918); replaced by Gérard Cooreman in June 1918 shortly before the end of the war. * Félix Wielemans – Chief of Staff of the Belgian Army * Gérard Leman – general commanding the Battle of Liège, defense of Liège * Charles Tombeur – commander of the colonial ''Force Publique'' in the East African Campaign (World War I), East African theater


France

* Raymond Poincaré – President of France * René Viviani – Prime Minister of France (13 June 1914 – 29 October 1915) * Aristide Briand – Prime Minister of France (29 October 1915 – 20 March 1917) * Alexandre Ribot – Prime Minister of France (20 March 1917 – 12 September 1917) * Paul Painlevé – Prime Minister of France (12 September 1917 – 16 November 1917) * Georges Clemenceau – Prime Minister of France (from 16 November 1917) * Divisional General/Marshal of France, Marshal Joseph Joffre – Commander-in-Chief of the French Army (3 August 1914 – 13 December 1916) * Divisional General Robert Nivelle – Commander-in-Chief of the French Army (13 December 1916 – April 1917) * Divisional General/Marshal of France, Marshal Philippe Pétain – Commander-in-Chief of the French Army (April 1917 – 11 November 1918) * Divisional General/Marshal of France, Marshal Ferdinand Foch – Supreme Allied Commander (26 March 1918 – 11 November 1918) * Divisional General Maurice Sarrail – Commander of the Allied armies at Salonika Front (1915–1917) * Army general (France), Army General Adolphe Guillaumat – Commander of the Allied armies at Salonika Front (1917–1918) * Divisional General/Marshal of France, Marshal Louis Franchet d'Espèrey – Commander of the Allied armies at Salonika Front (1918) * Brigadier General Milan Rastislav Štefánik – General of French Army, Commander of Czechoslovak Legions


British Empire


United Kingdom

* George V – Monarchy of the United Kingdom, King of the United Kingdom, Emperor of India *
H. H. Asquith Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liber ...
– Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (until 5 December 1916) * David Lloyd George – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (from 7 December 1916) * Field marshal (United Kingdom), Field Marshal Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, Horatio Herbert Kitchener – Secretary of State for War (5 August 1914 – 5 June 1916) * General (United Kingdom), General Sir William Robertson, 1st Baronet, William Robertson – Chief of the Imperial General Staff (23 December 1915 – February 1918) * General Sir Henry Wilson, 1st Baronet, Henry Wilson – Chief of the Imperial General Staff (February 1918 – February 1922) * Field marshal (United Kingdom), Field Marshal John French, 1st Earl of Ypres, John French – Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force (4 August 1914 – 15 December 1915) * General / Field marshal (United Kingdom), Field Marshal
Douglas Haig Field marshal (United Kingdom), Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, (; 19 June 1861 – 29 January 1928) was a senior Officer (armed forces), officer of the British Army. During the First World War, he commanded the British Expeditionary ...

Douglas Haig
– Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force (15 December 1915 – 11 November 1918) * General David Henderson (British Army officer), Sir David Henderson – Director-General of Military Aeronautics * General Hugh Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard, Hugh Trenchard – Commander of Royal Flying Corps – (August 1915 – January 1918) and Chief of the Air Staff (United Kingdom), Chief of the Air Staff of the combined Royal Air Force – 1 April 1918 – 13 April 1918 * Brigadier (United Kingdom)#Historical rank of brigadier general, Brigadier General Sir Frederick Sykes – Chief of the Air Staff – 13 April 1918 through 11 November 1918 (post-war to 31 March 1919) * Winston Churchill – First Lord of the Admiralty – (1911 – May 1915) * Arthur Balfour- First Lord of the Admiralty – (May 1915 – December 1916) * Edward Carson, Baron Carson, Edward Carson – First Lord of the Admiralty – (10 December 1916 – 17 July 1917) * Eric Campbell Geddes, Eric Geddes – First Lord of the Admiralty – (July 1917 – January 1919) * Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy), Admiral of the Fleet John Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher, John "Jackie" Fisher –
First Sea Lord The First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff (1SL/CNS) is the professional head of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by Kingdom of England, Eng ...
– (1914 – May 1915) * Admiral (Royal Navy), Admiral Henry Jackson (Royal Navy officer), Henry Jackson – First Sea Lord – (May 1915 – November 1916) * Admiral John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe, John Jellicoe – Commander of the Grand Fleet (August 1914 – November 1916); First Sea Lord (November 1916 – December 1917) * Admiral Rosslyn Wemyss, 1st Baron Wester Wemyss, Rosslyn Wemyss – First Sea Lord (December 1917 – November 1919) * Admiral David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty, David Beatty – Commander of the Grand Fleet (November 1916 – April 1919) * General Archibald Murray – Commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (January 1916 – June 1917) * General
Edmund Allenby Field marshal (United Kingdom), Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, (23 April 1861 – 14 May 1936) was an English soldier and British Imperial Governor. He fought in the Second Boer War and also in the First ...
– Commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (June 1917 – November 1918) * Eric John Eagles Swayne – commander of the British forces in the Somaliland Campaign * William Peyton – commander and military secretary to the British Expeditionary Force


Dominion of Canada

* Robert Borden – Prime Minister of Canada (1914–18) * Sam Hughes – Minister of Militia and Defence (Canada), Minister of Militia and Defence (1914 – January 1915) * Joseph Flavelle – Chairman of Imperial Munitions Board (1915–19) * Lieutenant-General (UK), Lieutenant-General Edwin Alderson – Commander of the unified
Canadian Corps The Canadian Corps was a World War I corps formed from the Canadian Expeditionary Force in September 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France. The corps was expanded by the addition of the 3rd Canadian Division in December 19 ...
of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (26 January 1915 – September 1915) * General (United Kingdom), General Julian Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy, Julian Byng – Commander of the unified
Canadian Corps The Canadian Corps was a World War I corps formed from the Canadian Expeditionary Force in September 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France. The corps was expanded by the addition of the 3rd Canadian Division in December 19 ...
of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (June 1916 – June 1917) * General (United Kingdom), General
Arthur Currie General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral ...
– Commander of the unified
Canadian Corps The Canadian Corps was a World War I corps formed from the Canadian Expeditionary Force in September 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France. The corps was expanded by the addition of the 3rd Canadian Division in December 19 ...
of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (June 1917 – August 1919)first Canadian to attain the rank of full general


Commonwealth of Australia

* Joseph Cook – Prime Minister of Australia (until 17 September 1914) * Andrew Fisher – Prime Minister of Australia (17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915) * Billy Hughes – Prime Minister of Australia (from 27 October 1915) * General (United Kingdom), General William Birdwood – Commander of the
Australian Corps The Australian Corps was a World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as th ...
(all five Australian infantry divisions serving on the Western Front) (November 1917 – May 1918) * Lieutenant General (Australia), Lieutenant General Sir
John Monash General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral z ...
– Commander of the
Australian Corps The Australian Corps was a World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as th ...
(May 1918 –) * Major general (Australia), Major General William Holmes (Australian general), William Holmes – Commander of the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (August 1914 – February 1915) * Lieutenant General (Australia), Lieutenant General Sir Harry Chauvel – Commander of Desert Mounted Corps (Sinai and Palestine) (August 1917 –)


British India

* Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst – Viceroy of India 1910–1916 * Frederic Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford – Viceroy of India 1916–1921 * Robert Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe – Secretary of State for India (May 1911 – May 1915) * Austen Chamberlain – Secretary of State for India (May 1915 – July 1917) * Edwin Samuel Montagu – Secretary of State for India (July 1917 – March 1922) * Beauchamp Duff – Commander-in-Chief, India, Commander-in-Chief, India (March 1914 – October 1916) * Sir Charles Monro, 1st Baronet, Charles Monro – Commander-in-Chief, India, Commander-in-Chief, India (October 1916 – November 1920) * Lieutenant-General John Nixon (Indian Army officer), John Nixon commander of the
British Indian Army The British Indian Army was the main military of the British Indian Empire The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam' ...
(active in the Middle East)


Union of South Africa

* General (United Kingdom), General Louis Botha – Prime Minister of South Africa * General (United Kingdom), General Jan Smuts – Led forces in South-West Africa Campaign and East African Campaign (World War I), East African Campaign, later member of the
Imperial War Cabinet The Imperial War Cabinet (IWC) was the British Empire's wartime coordinating body. It met over three sessions, the first from 20 March to 2 May 1917, the second from 11 June to late July 1918, and the third from 20 or 25 November 1918 to early Ja ...

Imperial War Cabinet


Dominion of New Zealand

* William Massey – Prime Minister of New Zealand * General Sir Alexander Godley – Commandant of New Zealand Military Forces (to October 1914); Commander of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force * Major General Sir Alfred William Robin – Quartermaster-General and Commandant of New Zealand Military Forces (from October 1914) * Major General Sir Andrew Hamilton Russell – Commander of the New Zealand Division


Dominion of Newfoundland

* Edward Morris, 1st Baron Morris, Sir Edward Morris – List of Newfoundland Prime Ministers#Dominion Prime Ministers, Prime Minister of Newfoundland (1909–1917) * John Chalker Crosbie, Sir John Crosbie – Prime Minister of Newfoundland (1917–1918) * William F. Lloyd, Sir William Lloyd – Prime Minister of Newfoundland (1918–1919)


Japan

* Emperor Taishō – Emperor of Japan * Ōkuma Shigenobu – Prime Minister of Japan (16 April 1914 – 9 October 1916) * Terauchi Masatake – Prime minister of Japan (9 October 1916 – 29 September 1918) * Hara Takashi – Prime minister of Japan (29 September 1918 – 4 November 1921) * Katō Sadakichi – Commander-in-chief of the 2nd Fleet (Imperial Japanese Navy), Second Fleet deployed to the Siege of Tsingtao * Kōzō Satō – Commander of the Second Special Task Fleet * Kamio Mitsuomi – Commander of Allied land forces Siege of Tsingtao, at Tsingtao


Italy (1915–1918)

* Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III – King of Italy *
Antonio Salandra Antonio Salandra (13 August 1853 – 9 December 1931) was a conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relati ...

Antonio Salandra
– Prime Minister of Italy, Prime Minister (until 18 June 1916) * Paolo Boselli – Prime Minister of Italy, Prime Minister (18 June 1916 – 29 October 1917) * Vittorio Emanuele Orlando – Prime Minister of Italy, Prime Minister (from 29 October 1917) * Luigi Cadorna – Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Italian Army * Armando Diaz – Chief of General Staff of the Royal Italian army * Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, Luigi, Duke of Abruzzi – Commander-in-Chief of the Adriatic Fleet of Italy (1914–17) * Paolo Thaon di Revel – Admiral of the Royal Italian Navy


Romania (1916–1918)

* Ferdinand I of Romania, Ferdinand I – King of Romania * General officer, General Constantin Prezan – Chief of the General Staff of Romania * Ion I. C. Brătianu – Prime Minister of Romania * Vintilă Brătianu – Secretary of War * Mareşal (Romania), Field Marshal Alexandru Averescu – Commander of the Second Army (Romania), 2nd Army, 3rd Army, then Army Group South * General officer, General Eremia Grigorescu – Commander of the 1st Territorial Army Corps, 1st Army


Portugal (1916–1918)

* Bernardino Machado – President of Portugal (until 12 December 1917) * Afonso Costa – Prime Minister of Portugal (until 15 March 1916; then again 25 April 1917 – 10 December 1917) * António José de Almeida – Prime Minister of Portugal (15 March 1916 – 25 April 1917) * Sidónio Pais – Prime Minister of Portugal and War Minister (11 December 1917 – 9 May 1918) and President of Portugal (from 9 May 1918) * José Norton de Matos – War Minister (until 10 December 1917) * João Tamagnini Barbosa – Interim War Minister (9 May 1918 – 15 May 1918) * Amílcar Mota – Secretary of State for War (15 May 1918 – 8 October 1918) * Álvaro de Mendonça – Secretary of State for War (from 8 October 1918) * Fernando Tamagnini de Abreu e Silva, Fernando Tamagnini de Abreu – Commander of the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps, Portuguese Expeditionary Corps (CEP) * José Augusto Alves Roçadas – Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Southern Angola * José Luís de Moura Mendes – Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Eastern Africa (until June 1916) * José César Ferreira Gil – Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Eastern Africa (from June 1916) * Sousa Rosa – Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Eastern Africa (from 1917)


Greece (1916/17–1918)

* Constantine I of Greece, Constantine I: King of Greece, he retired from the throne in June 1917, due to Allied pressure, without formally abdicating. * Alexander of Greece, Alexander: King of Greece, he became King in 1917 after his father and brother retired from the throne * Eleftherios Venizelos: Prime minister of Greece after 13 June 1917 * Panagiotis Danglis: Greek general of the Hellenic Army


United States (1917–1918)

* Woodrow Wilson – President of the United States/Commander-In-Chief of the US armed forces * Newton D. Baker – US Secretary of War * Josephus Daniels – United States Secretary of the Navy * Major General/General John J. Pershing – Commander of the American Expeditionary Force * Rear Admiral/Vice Admiral William Sims – Commander of United States Navy, US Naval Forces in European Waters * Brigadier General Mason Patrick – Commander of the United States Army Air Service


Siam (Thailand) (1917–1918)

* Vajiravudh, Rama VI – King of Siam * Field marshal (Thailand), Field Marshal Bodindechanuchit, Chao Phraya Bodindechanuchit – List of Defence Ministers of Thailand, Minister of Defence * Chakrabongse Bhuvanath, Prince Chakrabongse Bhuvanath – Supreme Commander of the Siamese Expeditionary Forces in World War I * Bijai Janriddhi, General Phraya Bijai Janriddhi – Commander of the Siamese Expeditionary Forces in the
Western FrontWestern Front or West Front may refer to: Military frontiers *Western Front (World War I), a military frontier to the west of Germany *Western Front (World War II), a military frontier to the west of Germany *Western Front (Russian Empire), a major ...

Western Front


Brazil (1917–1918)

* Venceslau Brás – President of Brazil * Pedro Max Fernando Frontin, Pedro Frontin, Chief of the ''Divisão Naval em Operações de Guerra'' (Naval Division in War Operations) * José Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Lieutenant of the Brazilian Army in France * Napoleão Felipe Aché, Chief of Brazilian Military Mission in France (1918–1919) * Doctor of Medicine, M.D. Nabuco Gouveia – Chief of Brazilian Military Medical Commission


Armenia (1918)

* Hovhannes Kajaznuni – first Prime Minister of Armenia, Prime Minister of the First Republic of Armenia * Andranik, General Andranik – military commander and statesman of the Caucasus Campaign * Aram Manukian – Minister of Internal Affairs of the First Republic of Armenia * Drastamat Kanayan – Military commander and member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation * Tovmas Nazarbekian – Commander-in-chief of the First Republic of Armenia * Movses Silikyan – Army general and National hero


Personnel and casualties

These are estimates of the cumulative number of different personnel in uniform 1914–1918, including army, navy and auxiliary forces. At any one time, the various forces were much smaller. Only a fraction of them were frontline combat troops. The numbers do not reflect the length of time each country was involved.


See also

* Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War * Central Powers of World War I * Causes of World War I * Diplomatic history of World War I ** British entry into World War I ** French entry into World War I * Historiography of the causes of World War I * Home front during World War I ** Belgium in World War I ** French Third Republic#First World War, France in World War I ** History of Germany during World War I, Germany in World War I ** Military history of Italy during World War I, Italy in World War I ** Romania during World War I, Romania in World War I ** History of the United Kingdom during World War I, United Kingdom in World War I ** United States home front during World War I, United States in World War I **Japan during World War I, Japan in World War I * International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) * July Crisis *Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand


Footnotes


References


Bibliography

* Ellis, John and Mike Cox. ''The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants'' (2002) * Esposito, Vincent J. ''The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 1900–1918'' (1997); despite the title covers entire war
online maps from this atlas
* Falls, Cyril. ''The Great War'' (1960), general military history * * Gooch, G. P. ''Recent Revelations Of European Diplomacy'' (1940), 475pp; summarizes memoirs of major participants * Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. ''Researching World War I: A Handbook'' (2003); historiography, stressing military themes * Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. ''The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War'' (1995) * Strachan, Hew. ''The First World War: Volume I: To Arms'' (2004) * Trask, David F. ''The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917–1918'' (1961) * * Tucker, Spencer, ed. ''The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History'' (5 volumes) (2005); online at eBook.com * United States. War Dept. General Staff. ''Strength and organization of the armies of France, Germany, Austria, Russia, England, Italy, Mexico and Japan (showing conditions in July, 1914)'' (1916
online
* * * * * * * * * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Allies Of World War I 1919 in law 20th-century military alliances Aftermath of World War I Military alliances involving Australia Military alliances involving Canada Military alliances involving France Military alliances involving New Zealand Military alliances involving South Africa Military alliances involving the United Kingdom Military alliances involving the United States World War I by country History of diplomacy