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Allah (; ar, الله, translit=Allāh, ) is the
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
word for
God in Abrahamic religions Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of Judah, Judah", via Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ioudaismos''; the term itself is of Anglo-Latin origin c. 1400) is an Abrahamic primarily ethnic ...
. In the English language, the word generally refers to
God in Islam God in Islam ( ar, ٱللَّٰه, Allāh Allah (; ar, الله, translit=Allāh, ) is the Arabic language, Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions. In the English language, the word generally refers to God in Islam. The word is thou ...
. The word is thought to be derived by contraction from '' al- ilāh'', which means "the god", and is linguistically related to '' El'' (''
Elohim In the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, with a few passa ...

Elohim
'') and '' Elah'', the
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...
and
Aramaic Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that originated among the in the ancient , at the end of the , and later became one of the most prominent languages of the . During its three thousand years long history, Aramaic went thr ...
words for God. The word ''Allah'' has been used by
Arabic people The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world. In modern usage the term refers to ...

Arabic people
of different religions since pre-Islamic times. More specifically, it has been used as a term for God by
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
s (both
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...
and non-Arab) , and
Arab Christians Arab Christians ( ar, ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ''al-Masīḥiyyūn al-ʿArab'') are Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheis ...

Arab Christians
. It is also often, albeit not exclusively, used in this way by Bábists, Baháʼís,
Mandaeans Mandaeans ( ar, ٱلصَّابِئَة ٱلْمَنْدَائِيُّون, aṣ-Ṣābiʾah al-Mandāʾiyūn) are an ethnoreligious group An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group whose members are also unified by ...
,
Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the archipelago ** Indonesian w ...
and
Maltese Maltese may refer to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to Malta * Maltese alphabet * Maltese cuisine * Maltese culture * Maltese language, the Semitic language spoken by Maltese people * Maltese people, people from Malta or of Maltese ...
Christians, and
Sephardi Jews Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews, ''Sephardim'',, Modern Hebrew: ''Sefaraddim'', Tiberian Hebrew, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm, also , ''Ye'hude Sepharad'', lit. "The Jews of Spain", es, Judíos sefardíes (or ), pt, Judeus sefarditas ...
.
Columbia Encyclopedia The ''Columbia Encyclopedia'' is a one-volume encyclopedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or discip ...
, ''Allah''
"Allah."
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., ...
. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, ''Allah'' Similar usage by Christians and
Sikhs Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ', ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century '' by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz, 1882: Muhammad XII surrenders to Ferdinand and Isabella The 15th ...
in
West Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (: ''Semenanjung Malaysia''), also known as West Malaysia or the Malaysian Peninsula, formerly known as , is the part of which occupies the southern half of the in and the nearby islands. Its area totals , which is nearl ...
has recently led to political and legal controversies.


Etymology

The
etymology Etymology ()The New Oxford Dictionary of English ''The'' () is a grammatical article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identi ...
of the word ''Allāh'' has been discussed extensively by classical Arab philologists.D.B. Macdonald. Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed, Brill. "Ilah", Vol. 3, p. 1093. Grammarians of the Basra school regarded it as either formed "spontaneously" (''murtajal'') or as the definite form of ''lāh'' (from the verbal root ''lyh'' with the meaning of "lofty" or "hidden"). Others held that it was borrowed from Syriac or Hebrew, but most considered it to be derived from a contraction of the Arabic definite article ''
al- ( ar, ٱلْـ), also Romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language) ...
'' "the" and ' "
deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polytheistic religion), or anything revered as divine. C. Scott Littleto ...

deity
, god" to ' meaning ''"the deity"'', or ''"the God"''. The majority of modern scholars subscribe to the latter theory, and view the loanword hypothesis with skepticism.
Cognates In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Itali ...
of the name "Allāh" exist in other
Semitic languages The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family A language is a structured system of communication u ...

Semitic languages
, including
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...
and
Aramaic Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that originated among the in the ancient , at the end of the , and later became one of the most prominent languages of the . During its three thousand years long history, Aramaic went thr ...
.Columbia Encyclopaedia says: Derived from an old Semitic root referring to the Divine and used in the Canaanite '' El'', the Mesopotamian '' ilu'', and the biblical ''
Elohim In the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, with a few passa ...

Elohim
'' and ''
Eloah ''Elohim'' (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ...
'', the word Allah is used by all Arabic-speaking Muslims, Christians, Jews, and other monotheists.
The corresponding
Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its literary and liturgical form), is an Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac ...
form is ''Elah'' (), but its emphatic state is ''Elaha'' (). It is written as (''ʼĔlāhā'') in
Biblical Aramaic Biblical Aramaic is the form of Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its literary and l ...
and (''ʼAlâhâ'') in
SyriacSyriac may refer to: *Syriac language, a dialect of Middle Aramaic * Syriac alphabet ** Syriac (Unicode block) ** Syriac Supplement * Neo-Aramaic languages also known as Syriac in most native vernaculars * Syriac Christianity, the churches using Syr ...

Syriac
as used by the Assyrian Church, both meaning simply "God".The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon
– Entry for ''ʼlh''
Biblical Hebrew Biblical Hebrew ( ''Ivrit Miqra'it'' or ''Leshon ha-Miqra''), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroas ...
mostly uses the plural (but functional singular) form ''
Elohim In the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, with a few passa ...

Elohim
'' (), but more rarely it also uses the singular form ''Eloah'' ().


Usage


Pre-Islamic Arabians

Regional variants of the word ''Allah'' occur in both pagan and Christian pre-Islamic inscriptions. Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah in pre-Islamic polytheistic cults. Some authors have suggested that polytheistic Arabs used the name as a reference to a
creator god A creator deity or creator god (often called the Creator) is a deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as "a God (male deity), god or goddess (in ...
or a supreme deity of their
pantheon Pantheon may refer to: * Pantheon (religion), the set of gods belonging to a particular religion, mythology or tradition * Pantheon (mythical creature), a mythical or imaginary creature used in heraldry, particularly in Britain Computing *Pant ...
. The term may have been vague in the .L. Gardet, ''Allah'', Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. by Sir H.A.R. GibbGerhard Böwering, ''God and his Attributes'', Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, ed. by
Jane Dammen McAuliffe Jane Dammen McAuliffe (born 1944) is a prominent American educator, internationally known scholar of Islam and the inaugural Director of National and International Outreach at the Library of Congress. She is a President Emeritus of Bryn Mawr Col ...
According to one hypothesis, which goes back to
Julius Wellhausen Julius Wellhausen (17 May 1844 – 7 January 1918) was a German biblical scholar Biblical studies is the academic application of a set of diverse disciplines to the study of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ' ...
, Allah (the supreme deity of the tribal federation around
Quraysh The Quraysh ( ar, قُرَيْشٌ, ) were a grouping of Arab clans that historically inhabited and controlled the city of Mecca and its Ka'ba. The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim, Hashim clan of the tribe. Despite this, ...
) was a designation that consecrated the superiority of
Hubal Hubal ( ar, هُبَل) was a god worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia, notably by Quraysh at the Kaaba in Mecca. The god's idol was a human figure believed to control acts of divination, which was performed by Belomancy, tossing arrows before the s ...

Hubal
(the supreme deity of Quraysh) over the other gods. However, there is also evidence that Allah and Hubal were two distinct deities. According to that hypothesis, the
Kaaba The Kaaba (, ), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah ( ar, ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة, lit=Honored Ka'bah, links=no, translit=al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah), is a building at the cent ...

Kaaba
was first consecrated to a supreme deity named Allah and then hosted the pantheon of Quraysh after their conquest of
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
, about a century before the time of
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
. Some inscriptions seem to indicate the use of Allah as a name of a polytheist deity centuries earlier, but nothing precise is known about this use. Some scholars have suggested that Allah may have represented a remote creator god who was gradually eclipsed by more particularized local deities. There is disagreement on whether Allah played a major role in the Meccan religious cult. No iconic representation of Allah is known to have existed. Allah is the only god in Mecca that did not have an idol. Muhammad's father's name was meaning "the slave of Allāh".


Christianity

Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
-speakers of all Abrahamic faiths, including Christians and Jews, use the word "Allah" to mean "God". The Christian Arabs of today have no other word for "God" than "Allah". Similarly, the
Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its literary and liturgical form), is an Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac ...
word for "God" in the language of
Assyrian Christians Assyrians (, ) are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East. Some self-identify as Terms for Syriac Christians#Syriac identity, Syriacs, Chaldean Catholics, Chaldeans, or Terms for Syriac Christians#Aramean identity, Arameans. Speakers of t ...
is ''ʼĔlāhā'', or ''Alaha''. (Even the Arabic-descended
Maltese language Maltese ( mt, Malti, links=no) is a Semitic languages, Semitic language derived from Siculo-Arabic, late medieval Sicilian Arabic with Romance languages, Romance superstrata spoken by the Maltese people. It is the national language of Malta and ...
of
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies south of Italy, east of Tunisi ...

Malta
, whose population is almost entirely
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
, uses ''Alla'' for "God".) Arab Christians, for example, use the terms ' () for
God the Father God the Father is a title given to God in various religions, most prominently in Christianity. In mainstream trinity, trinitarian Christianity, God the Father is regarded as the first person of the Trinity, followed by the second person, God t ...

God the Father
, ' () for
God the Son God the Son ( el, Θεὸς ὁ υἱός, la, Deus Filius) is the second person of the Trinity in Christian theology. The doctrine of the Trinity identifies Jesus in Christianity, Jesus as the Incarnation (Christianity), incarnation of God in ...
, and ' () for
God the Holy Spirit For the majority of Christian denomination A Christian denomination is a distinct Religion, religious body within Christianity that comprises all Church (congregation), church congregations of the same kind, identifiable by traits such as a n ...
. (See
God in Christianity God in Christianity is the God and eternity, eternal God, Supreme Being who Creator god, created and God the Sustainer, preserves all things. Christians believe in a Monotheism, monotheistic conception of God (God is only one), which is both T ...
for the Christian concept of God.)
Arab Christians Arab Christians ( ar, ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ''al-Masīḥiyyūn al-ʿArab'') are Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheis ...

Arab Christians
have used two forms of invocations that were
affix In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the met ...
ed to the beginning of their written works. They adopted the Muslim ', and also created their own ' as early as the 8th century. The Muslim ' reads: "In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful." The Trinitized ' reads: "In the name of Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, One God." The
SyriacSyriac may refer to: *Syriac language, a dialect of Middle Aramaic * Syriac alphabet ** Syriac (Unicode block) ** Syriac Supplement * Neo-Aramaic languages also known as Syriac in most native vernaculars * Syriac Christianity, the churches using Syr ...

Syriac
,
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
and
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
invocations do not have the words "One God" at the end. This addition was made to emphasize the
monotheistic Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciou ...
aspect of Trinitarian belief and also to make it more palatable to Muslims.Thomas E. Burman, ''Religious Polemic and the Intellectual History of the Mozarabs'',
Brill Brill may refer to: Places * Brielle , Dutch Topographic map of Brielle, June 2015 Brielle (), also called Den Briel (Brill in English) is a town, municipality and historic seaport in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland, o ...
, 1994, p. 103
According to
Marshall Hodgson Marshall Goodwin Simms Hodgson (April 11, 1922 – June 10, 1968), was an Islamic studies academic and a world historian at the University of Chicago The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private research university i ...
, it seems that in the pre-Islamic times, some Arab Christians made pilgrimage to the
Kaaba The Kaaba (, ), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah ( ar, ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة, lit=Honored Ka'bah, links=no, translit=al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah), is a building at the cent ...

Kaaba
, a pagan temple at that time, honoring Allah there as God the Creator. Some archaeological excavation quests have led to the discovery of ancient pre-Islamic inscriptions and tombs made by
Arab Christians Arab Christians ( ar, ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ''al-Masīḥiyyūn al-ʿArab'') are Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheis ...

Arab Christians
in the ruins of a church at
Umm el-Jimal Umm el-Jimal ( ar, ام الجمال, "Mother of Camels"), also known as Umm ej Jemāl, Umm al-Jimal or Umm idj-Djimal, is a village in Northern Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') ...

Umm el-Jimal
in Northern
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In ge ...

Jordan
, which initially, according to Enno Littman (1949), contained references to Allah as the proper name of God. However, on a second revision by Bellamy et al. (1985 & 1988) the 5-versed-inscription was re-translated as "(1)This nscriptionwas set up by colleagues of ʿUlayh, (2) son of ʿUbaydah, secretary (3) of the cohort Augusta Secunda (4) Philadelphiana; may he go mad who (5) effaces it." The syriac word ܐܠܗܐ (''ʼĔlāhā'') can be found in the reports and the lists of names of Christian martyrs in South Arabia, as reported by antique Syriac documents of the names of those martyrs from the era of the
Himyarite The Himyarite Kingdom ( ar, مملكة حِمْيَر, Mamlakat Ḥimyar, he, ממלכת חִמְיָר), or Himyar ( ar, حِمْيَر, ''Ḥimyar'', xsa, 𐩢𐩣𐩺𐩧𐩣, Ḥmyrm) (fl. ''Floruit'' (), abbreviated fl. (or occasionally ...
and
Aksumite The Kingdom of Aksum ( gez, መንግሥተ አኵስም), also known as the Kingdom of Axum or the Aksumite Empire, was an ancient kingdom, from the 2nd to the 10th century, with its capital at the city of Axum Aksum or Axum (; ti, ኣኽ ...
kingdoms In biography there is a Christian leader named Abd Allah ibn Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad, who was martyred in Najran in 523, as he had worn a ring that said "Allah is my lord". In an inscription of Christian martyrion dated back to 512, references to 'l-ilah (الاله) can be found in both Arabic and Aramaic. The inscription starts with the statement "By the Help of 'l-ilah". In pre-Islamic Gospels, the name used for God was "Allah", as evidenced by some discovered Arabic versions of the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
written by
Arab Christians Arab Christians ( ar, ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ''al-Masīḥiyyūn al-ʿArab'') are Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheis ...

Arab Christians
during the pre-Islamic era in Northern and Southern
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...

Arabia
. However most recent research in the field of Islamic Studies by Sydney Griffith et al. (2013), David D. Grafton (2014), Clair Wilde (2014) & ML Hjälm et al. (2016 & 2017) assert that "all one can say about the possibility of a pre-Islamic, Christian version of the Gospel in Arabic is that no sure sign of its actual existence has yet emerged." Additionally ML Hjälm in her most recent research (2017) inserts that "manuscripts containing translations of the gospels are encountered no earlier than the year 873"
Irfan Shahîd Irfan Arif Shahîd ( ar, عرفان عارف شهيد ; Nazareth, Mandatory Palestine, January 15, 1926 – Washington, D.C., November 9, 2016), born as Erfan Arif Qa'war (), was a scholar in the field of Oriental studies. He was from 1982 until h ...
quoting the 10th-century encyclopedic collection
Kitab al-Aghani ''Kitab al-Aghani'' ( ar, كتاب الأغاني, , The Book of Songs), is an encyclopedic collection of poems and songs that runs to over 20 volumes in modern editions, attributed to the 10th-century Arabic writer Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani (also ...
notes that pre-Islamic Arab Christians have been reported to have raised the battle cry "''Ya La Ibad Allah''" (O slaves of Allah) to invoke each other into battle. According to Shahid, on the authority of 10th-century Muslim scholar Al-Marzubani, "Allah" was also mentioned in pre-Islamic Christian poems by some
Ghassanid The Ghassanids ( ar, الغساسنة, al-Ghasāsinah, also ''Banū Ghassān'' "Sons of Ghassān"), also called the Jafnids, were an Arab tribe which founded a kingdom. They emigrated from Yemen in the early 3rd century to the Levant region. S ...
and
Tanukhid The Tanûkhids ( ar, التنوخيون) or Tanukh ( ar, تنوخ, links=no) were a confederation of Arab tribes, sometimes characterized as Saracens. They first rose to prominence in northern Arabia and south of Syria in the 3rd century BC. Both ...
poets in
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
and Northern
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...

Arabia
.


Islam

In Islam, ''Allah'' is the unique, omnipotent and only deity and creator of the universe and is equivalent to God in other Abrahamic religions. ''Allah'' is usually seen as the personal name of God, a notion which became disputed in contemporary scholarship, including the question, whether or not the word ''Allah'' should be translated as ''God''. According to Islamic belief, Allah is the most common word to represent God,Böwering, Gerhard, ''God and His Attributes'', Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān, Brill, 2007. and humble submission to his will, divine ordinances and commandments is the pivot of the Muslim faith. "He is the only God, creator of the universe, and the judge of humankind." "He is unique (') and inherently one ('), all-merciful and omnipotent." No human eyes can see Allah till the Day Of Judgement. The Qur'an declares "the reality of Allah, His inaccessible mystery, His various names, and His actions on behalf of His creatures." Allah doesn't depend on anything.God is not a part of the Christian Trinity.God has no parents and no children. The concept correlates to the
Tawhid Tawhid ( ar, توحيد, ', meaning "unification or oneness of God as per Islam (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middl ...
, where chapter 112 of the
Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation in Islam, revelation from God in Islam, God (''Allah''). It is widely rega ...

Qur'an
(, The Sincerity) reads:
: ۝ SAY, God is one GOD; :۝ the eternal GOD: :۝ He begetteth not, neither is He begotten: :۝ and there is not any one like unto Him.
and in the Ayat ul-Kursi ("Verse of the Throne"), which is the 255th verse and the powerful verse in the longest chapter (the 2nd chapter) of the Qur'an, ''
Al-Baqarah Al-Baqarah ( ar, البقرة, ; "The Heifer" or "The Cow") is the second and longest chapter (sūrah) of the Quran. It consists of 286 verses (āyāt), 6,201 words and 25,500 letters. It is a Medinan surah, that is to say that it was supposed ...
'' (''"''The Cow") states: "Allah! There is no deity but ''Him'', the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh ''Him''. Unto ''Him'' belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who could intercede in ''His'' presence without ''His'' permission? ''He'' knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of ''His'' knowledge except what ''He'' wills. ''His'' throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and ''He'' is never weary of preserving them. ''He'' is the Sublime, the Tremendous." In Islamic tradition, there are
99 Names of God Names of God in Islam ( ar, أَسْمَاءُ ٱللَّٰهِ ٱلْحُسْنَىٰ , "''Allah's Beautiful Names''") are names attributed to God in Islam God in Islam ( ar, ٱللَّٰه, Allāh Allah (; ar, الله, translit=Al ...
(' lit. meaning: 'the best names' or 'the most beautiful names'), each of which evoke a distinct characteristic of Allah. All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name. Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are "the Merciful" ('' ar-Raḥmān'') and "the Compassionate" ('), including the forementioned above ''al-Aḥad'' ("the One, the Indivisible") and ''al-Wāḥid'' ("the Unique, the Single"). Most Muslims use the untranslated Arabic phrase '' '' (meaning 'if God wills') after references to future events. Muslim discursive piety encourages beginning things with the invocation of ''

'' (meaning 'In the name of God'). There are certain phrases in praise of God that are favored by Muslims, including " " (Glory be to God), "

" (Praise be to God), "

" (There is no deity but God) or sometimes "''lā ilāha illā inta/ huwa''" (There is no deity but ''You''/ ''Him'') and "

" (God is the Most Great) as a devotional exercise of remembering God (
dhikr ''Dhikr'' ( ar, ذِكْر}, , also spelled ''Zikr'', ''Thikr'', ''Zekr'', or ''Zikar'', literally meaning "remembrance, reminder" or "mention") is a form of Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o G ...
). In a
Sufi Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is mysticism in Islam, "characterized ... y particularvalues, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions". It is variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, ...

Sufi
practice known as ''dhikr Allah'' (
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
: ذكر الله, lit. "Remembrance of God"), the Sufi repeats and contemplates the name ''Allah'' or other associated divine names to Him while controlling his or her breath. For example, in countless references in the context from the Qur'an forementioned above: 1) Allah is referred to in the second person pronoun in Arabic as "''Inta'' (
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
: َإِنْت)" like the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
"''You''", or commonly in the third person pronoun "''Huwa'' (
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
: َهُو)" like the English "''He''" and uniquely in the case pronoun of the
oblique Oblique may refer to: * an alternative name for the character usually called a slash (punctuation) ( / ) *angle#Types of angles, Oblique angle, in geometry *Oblique triangle, in geometry *Leaf#Base, Oblique leaf base, a characteristic shape of the ...
form "''Hu/ Huw'' (
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
: هو /-هُ)" like the English "''Him''" which rhythmically resonates and is chanted as considered a sacred sound or echo referring Allah as the "Absolute Breath or Soul of Life" - ''Al-
Nafs ''Nafs'' () is an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental cou ...

Nafs
al-Hayyah'' (
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
: النّفس الحياة, ''an-Nafsu 'l-Ḥayyah'') - notably among the 99 names of God, "the Giver of Life" ('' al-Muḥyī'') and "the Bringer of Death" ('' al-Mumiyt''); 2) Allah is neither male or female (who has no gender), but who is the essence of the "Omnipotent, Selfless, Absolute Soul (''an-
Nafs ''Nafs'' () is an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental cou ...

Nafs
,'' النّفس) and Holy Spirit" (''ar-
Rūḥ The Holy Spirit ( ar, روح القدس, ''Rūḥ, ruh al-qudus'') is mentioned four times in the Quran, where it acts as an agent of divine action or communication. The Muslim interpretation of the Holy Spirit is generally consistent with other ...
,'' الرّوح) - notably among the 99 names of God, "the All-Holy, All-Pure and All-Sacred" ('' al-Quddus''); 3) Allah is the originator of both before and beyond the cycle of creation, destruction and time, - notably among the 99 names of God, "the First, Beginning-less" ('' al-Awwal''), "the End/ Beyond the Final Abode" Endless" ('' al-Akhir/ al-Ākhir'') and "the Timeless" ('' aṣ-Ṣabūr''). According to Gerhard Böwering, in contrast with pre-Islamic Arabian
polytheism Polytheism is the worship of or belief in multiple deity, deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon (religion), pantheon of God (male deity), gods and goddesses, along with their own religious sects and rituals. Polytheism is a type o ...
, God in Islam does not have associates and companions, nor is there any kinship between God and
jinn Jinn ( ar, جن, ') – also romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying ...
. Pre-Islamic pagan Arabs believed in a blind, powerful, inexorable and insensible fate over which man had no control. This was replaced with the Islamic notion of a powerful but provident and merciful God. According to
Francis Edward Peters Francis Edward Peters, SJ (born June 23, 1927, New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazi ...
, "The insists, Muslims believe, and historians affirm that
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
and his followers worship the same God as the Jews (). The Qur’an's Allah is the same Creator God who covenanted with
Abraham Abraham, ''Ibrāhīm''; el, Ἀβραάμ, translit=Abraám, name=, group= (originally Abram) is the common patriarch of the Abrahamic religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Judaism, he is the founding father of the covenan ...

Abraham
". Peters states that the Qur'an portrays Allah as both more powerful and more remote than
Yahweh Yahweh was the national god of ancient Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Israel and Kingdom of Judah, Judah. His origins reach at least to the early Iron Age, and likely to the Late Bronze Age. In the oldest biblical literature, he is a Weather ...
, and as a universal deity, unlike Yahweh who closely follows
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
ites.F.E. Peters, ''Islam'', p.4, Princeton University Press, 2003


Pronunciation

The word ''Allāh'' is generally pronounced , exhibiting a heavy lām, , a
velarized alveolar lateral approximant The voiced alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronou ...

velarized alveolar lateral approximant
, a marginal phoneme in
Modern Standard Arabic Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) or Modern Written Arabic (shortened to MWA), terms used mostly by Western linguists, is the variety of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical stand ...
. Since the initial alef has no
hamza Hamza ( ar, همزة ') () is a letter in the Arabic alphabet The Arabic alphabet ( ar, الْأَبْجَدِيَّة الْعَرَبِيَّة, ' or , ', ), or Arabic abjad, is the as it is codified for writing . It is written from ...
, the initial is elided when a preceding word ends in a vowel. If the preceding vowel is , the lām is light, , as in, for instance, the
Basmala The ''Basmala'' ( ar, بَسْمَلَة, ), also known by its incipit The incipit () of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label. In a musical composition File:Chord chart.svg, 250px, Jazz and rock ...

Basmala
.


As a loanword


English and other European languages

The history of the name ''Allāh'' in English was probably influenced by the study of
comparative religion #REDIRECT Comparative religion Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices, themes and impacts (including migration) of the world's religions. In general ...
in the 19th century; for example,
Thomas Carlyle Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Sco ...

Thomas Carlyle
(1840) sometimes used the term Allah but without any implication that Allah was anything different from God. However, in his biography of Muḥammad (1934), Tor Andræ always used the term ''Allah'', though he allows that this "conception of God" seems to imply that it is different from that of the Jewish and Christian theologies.William Montgomery Watt, ''Islam and Christianity today: A Contribution to Dialogue'',
Routledge Routledge () is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a so ...
, 1983, p.45
Languages which may not commonly use the term ''Allah'' to denote God may still contain popular expressions which use the word. For example, because of the centuries long , the word ''ojalá'' in the Spanish language and ''oxalá'' in the
Portuguese language Portuguese ( or, in full, ) is a Romance languages, Romance language of the Indo-European language family, originating in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Ver ...

Portuguese language
exist today, borrowed from
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
'' inshalla'' (Arabic: إن شاء الله). This phrase literally means 'if God wills' (in the sense of "I hope so"). The German poet Mahlmann used the form "Allah" as the title of a poem about the ultimate deity, though it is unclear how much Islamic thought he intended to convey. Some Muslims leave the name "Allāh" untranslated in English, rather than using the English translation "God". The word has also been applied to certain living human beings as
personifications Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, l ...
of the term and concept.


Malaysian and Indonesian language

Christians in Malaysia and Indonesia use ''Allah'' to refer to God in the Malaysian and
Indonesian language Indonesian (, ) is the official language of Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-E ...

Indonesian language
s (both of them standardized forms of the
Malay language Malay (; ms, bahasa Melayu, links=no, JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Weste ...
). Mainstream Bible translations in the language use ''Allah'' as the translation of Hebrew ''
Elohim In the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, with a few passa ...

Elohim
'' (translated in English Bibles as "God"). This goes back to early translation work by
Francis Xavier Francis Xavier (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, ...
in the 16th century. The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by Albert Cornelius Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and Caspar Wiltens in 1650 (revised edition from 1623 edition and 1631 Latin edition) recorded "Allah" as the translation of the Dutch word " Godt". Ruyl also translated the
Gospel of Matthew The Gospel according to Matthew ( el, Κατὰ Ματθαῖον Εὐαγγέλιον, translit=Katà Matthaîon Euangélion), also called the Gospel of Matthew, or simply Matthew, is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three s ...
in 1612 into the Malay language (an early Bible translation into a non-European language, made a year after the publication of the
King James Version The King James Version (KJV), also the King James Bible (KJB) and the Authorized Version, is an of the Christian for the , which was commissioned in 1604 and published in 1611, by sponsorship of King . The include the 39 books of the , a ...

King James Version
), which was printed in the Netherlands in 1629. Then he translated the
Gospel of Mark The Gospel according to Mark ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Μᾶρκον , translit=Euangélion katà Mârkon), also called the Gospel of Mark, or simply Mark, is the second of the four Gospel#Canonical_gospels, canonical gospels and of ...
, published in 1638. The
government of Malaysia The Government of Malaysia, officially the Federal Government of Malaysia ( ms, Kerajaan Persekutuan Malaysia), is based in the Federal Territory (Malaysia), Federal Territory of Putrajaya with the exception of the legislative branch, which is l ...
in 2007 outlawed usage of the term ''Allah'' in any other but Muslim contexts, but the Malayan High Court in 2009 revoked the law, ruling it unconstitutional. While ''Allah'' had been used for the Christian God in Malay for more than four centuries, the contemporary controversy was triggered by usage of ''Allah'' by the Roman Catholic newspaper ''The Herald''. The government appealed the court ruling, and the High Court suspended implementation of its verdict until the hearing of the appeal. In October 2013 the court ruled in favor of the government's ban. In early 2014 the Malaysian government confiscated more than 300 bibles for using the word to refer to the Christian God in Peninsular Malaysia. However, the use of ''Allah'' is not prohibited in the two Malaysian states of
Sabah Sabah () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Sabah
and
Sarawak Sarawak (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Sarawak
. The main reason it is not prohibited in these two states is that usage has been long-established and local Alkitab ( Bibles) have been widely distributed freely in East Malaysia without restrictions for years. Both states also do not have similar Islamic state laws as those in West Malaysia. In reaction to some media criticism, the Malaysian government has introduced a "10-point solution" to avoid confusion and misleading information. The 10-point solution is in line with the spirit of the 18- and 20-point agreements of Sarawak and Sabah.


National flags with "Allah" written on them

File:Flag of Iraq.svg,
Flag of Iraq The flag of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êr ...

Flag of Iraq
with ''"(
God In monotheistic Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the ...

God
is greater han everything written on it. File:Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg,
Flag of Saudi Arabia The National flag, flag of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ( ar, علم المملكة العربية السعودية) is the flag used by the government of Saudi Arabia since 15 March 1973. It is a green flag featuring in white an Arabic language, A ...

Flag of Saudi Arabia
with the written on it. File:Flag of Afghanistan.svg,
Flag of Afghanistan The national flag of Afghanistan ( Dari Persian: , Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language of the Indo-European family. It is known in Persian literature as Afghani (, ). The langu ...

Flag of Afghanistan
with the and
Takbir The Takbir (, , "magnification f God F, or f, is the sixth letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicat ...

Takbir
written on it. File:Flag of Iran.svg,
Flag of Iran The flag of Iran ( fa, پرچم ایران, parčam-e Irân, ), also known as the Three-Coloured Flag ( ), is a tricolour (flag), tricolour comprising equal horizontal bands of green, white and red with the coat of arms of Iran, national emb ...

Flag of Iran
with Allah written on it. File:The word "Allah" in Arabic script from the stars on the flag.gif, The 12 stars in the
Flag of Uzbekistan The flag of Uzbekistan ( uz, Oʻzbekiston davlat bayrogʻi) consists of three horizontal azure, white and green bands separated by two thin red fimbriations, with a crescent A crescent shape (, British English also ) is a symbol A symbol i ...

Flag of Uzbekistan
form the inscription
Allah Allah (; ar, الله, translit=Allāh, ) is the Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East ...

Allah
in .


Typography

The word ' is always written without an

to spell the ' vowel. This is because the spelling was settled before Arabic spelling started habitually using ' to spell '. However, in vocalized spelling, a small diacritic ' is added on top of the ''

'' to indicate the pronunciation. One exception may be in the pre-Islamic Zabad inscription, where it ends with an ambiguous sign that may be a lone-standing ''h'' with a lengthened start, or may be a non-standard conjoined ':- * : This reading would be ' spelled phonetically with ' for the '. * : This reading would be ' = 'the god' (an older form, without contraction), by older spelling practice without ' for '. Many Arabic type fonts feature special ligatures for Allah.
Arabic fonts and Mac OS X



Unicode

Unicode Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology Technical standard, standard for the consistent character encoding, encoding, representation, and handling of Character (computing), text expressed in most of the world's wri ...

Unicode
has a code point reserved for ', = U+FDF2, in the
Arabic Presentation Forms-A Arabic Presentation Forms-A is a Unicode blockA Unicode block is one of several contiguous ranges of numeric character codes ( code points) of the Unicode Unicode is an information technology Technical standard, standard for the consistent char ...
block, which exists solely for "compatibility with some older, legacy character sets that encoded presentation forms directly";The Unicode Consortium
FAQ - Middle East Scripts
this is discouraged for new text. Instead, the word ' should be represented by its individual Arabic letters, while modern font technologies will render the desired ligature. The calligraphic variant of the word used as the
Coat of arms of Iran A coat is a clothing, garment worn on the upper body by either gender for warmth or fashion. Coats typically have long sleeves and are open down the front, closing by means of Button (clothing), buttons, zippers, Velcro, hook-and-loop fasteners, ...

Coat of arms of Iran
is encoded in Unicode, in the
Miscellaneous Symbols Miscellaneous Symbols is a Unicode block A Unicode block is one of several contiguous ranges of numeric character codes (code point In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up t ...
range, at code point U+262B (☫).


See also

* Allah as a lunar deity *
Abdullah (name) Abdullah is the primary transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, ...
* Ismul Azam *
Names of God There are various names of God, many of which enumerate the various qualities of a Supreme Being. The English word "god" (and its equivalent in other languages) is used by multiple religions as a noun A noun (from Latin ''nōmen'', literal ...
*
Emblem of Iran The Emblem of Iran ( fa, نشان رسمی ایران, Nešâne Rasmiye Irân, ) since the 1979 Iranian Revolution The Iranian Revolution ( fa, انقلاب ایران, Enqelâbe Irân, ); Endonym and exonym, locally known as the Islamic R ...

Emblem of Iran


Notes


References

* The Unicode Consortium, ''Unicode Standard 5.0'', Addison-Wesley, 2006,
About the Unicode Standard Version 5.0 Book


External links


Names of Allah with Meaning on Website, Flash, and Mobile Phone Software




by Abdul Mannan Omar

; Typography



{{Authority control Names of God Islamic terminology Arabian deities Arabian gods Middle Eastern gods