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All Souls College (official name: College of the Souls of All the Faithful Departed) is a
constituent college A collegiate university is a university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academi ...
of the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
in England. Unique to All Souls, all of its members automatically become
fellow A fellow is a broad concept whose exact meaning depends on context. In learned Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The abil ...
s (i.e. full members of the college's governing body). It has no undergraduate members, but each year recent graduate and postgraduate students at Oxford are eligible to apply for a small number of examination fellowships through a
competitive examination A test or examination (exam or evaluation) is an educational assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs). A test may be administered verba ...
(once described as "the hardest exam in the world") and, for those shortlisted after the examinations, an interview.Is the All Souls College entrance exam easy now?
, ''The Guardian'', 17 May 2010.
The college entrance is on the north side of the
High Street #REDIRECT High Street High Street is a common street name for the primary business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services) ...
whilst it has a long frontage onto
Radcliffe Square Radcliffe Square is a square in central Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London London is the capital city, ...
. To its east is
The Queen's College The Queen's College is a Colleges of the University of Oxford, constituent college of the University of Oxford, England. The college was founded in 1341 by Robert de Eglesfield in honour of Queen Philippa of Hainault (wife of King Edward III o ...
whilst
Hertford College ''As the hart panteth after the water brooks'' , university = Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the ...

Hertford College
is to the north of All Souls. The current
warden A warden is a person who has been entrusted with the oversight of something important to the community, such as a college, church, prison, wild game or firefighting. It may also refer to: Occupations, ranks and roles * Prison warden, the chief a ...
(head of the college) is
Sir John Vickers Sir John Vickers (born 7 July 1958) is a United Kingdom, British economist and the List of Wardens of All Souls College, Oxford, Warden of All Souls College, Oxford. Education Vickers studied at Eastbourne Grammar School and Oriel College, Oxfor ...
, a graduate of
Oriel College, Oxford Oriel College () is a constituent college of the University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldes ...
.


History

The college was founded by
Henry VI of England Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and English claims to the French throne#Kings of France (1422), disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The only child of Henry ...

Henry VI of England
and
Henry Chichele Henry Chichele ( , also Checheley;  – 12 April 1443) was Archbishop of Canterbury (1414–1443) and founded All Souls College, Oxford. Early life Chichele was born at Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire, in 1363 or 1364; Chicheley told Pope ...

Henry Chichele
(fellow of and
Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Cat ...
), in 1438, to commemorate the victims of the
Hundred Years' War The Hundred Years’ War (french: link=yes, La guerre de Cent Ans; 1337–1453) was a series of armed conflicts between the kingdoms of and during the . It originated from disputed claims to the between the English and the French roy ...
. The Statutes provided for a warden and forty fellows; all to take Holy Orders: 24 to study arts, philosophy and theology; and 16 to study civil or canon law. Today the college is primarily a graduate research institution, with no undergraduate members. All Souls did formerly have undergraduates: Robert Hovenden (Warden of the college from 1571 to 1614) introduced undergraduates to provide the fellows with ''servientes'' (household servants), but this was abandoned by the end of the
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good Common good Common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about r ...
. Four Bible Clerks remained on the foundation until 1924. For over five hundred years All Souls College admitted only men; women were first allowed to join the college as fellows in 1979, the same year as many other previously all-male colleges in the university.


Buildings and architecture


Codrington Library

The All Souls Library (formally known as the
Codrington Library The Library at All Souls College, formerly known as the Codrington Library, is an academic library in the city of Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated ...
) was founded through a 1710 bequest from
Christopher Codrington Christopher Codrington (1668 – 7 April 1710) was an Barbadian-born colonial administrator, planter, book collector and military officer. He is sometimes known as Christopher Codrington the Younger to distinguish him from his father. Codringto ...
(1668–1710), a fellow of the college and a wealthy slave and sugar plantation owner. Codrington was an undergraduate at Oxford and later became colonial governor of the
Leeward Islands french: Îles-Sous-le-Vent , image_name = , image_caption = ''Political'' Leeward Islands. Clockwise: Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda (; ) is a sovereign state, sovereign island country in the West Indies in the Americas, lying ...

Leeward Islands
. Christopher Codrington was born in Barbados, and amassed a fortune from his sugar plantation in the West Indies. Under the terms of his will Codrington bequeathed books worth £6,000 to the college in addition to £10,000 in currency for the library to be rebuilt and endowed. The new library was completed in 1751 to the designs of
Nicholas Hawksmoor Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 – 25 March 1736) was an English architect. He was a leading figure of the English Baroque English Baroque is a term sometimes used to refer to modes of English architecture that paralleled Baroque archite ...
and has been in continuous use since then. Today the library comprises some 185,000 items, about a third of which were published before 1800. The collections are particularly strong in law and history (especially military history). Sir
Christopher Wren Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Fa ...

Christopher Wren
was a fellow from 1653, and in 1658 produced a sundial for the college. This was originally placed on the south wall of the Chapel, but in 1877 was moved to the quadrangle (above the central entrance to the
Codrington Library The Library at All Souls College, formerly known as the Codrington Library, is an academic library in the city of Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated ...
).


Chapel

Built between 1438 and 1442, the college chapel remained largely unchanged until the
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good Common good Common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about r ...
. Oxford, having been a largely
Royalist A royalist supports a particular monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. ...
stronghold, suffered under the
Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of J ...

Puritan
s' wrath. The 42
misericord A misericord (sometimes named mercy seat, like the mercy seat, biblical object) is a small wooden structure formed on the underside of a folding seat in a Church (building), church which, when the seat is folded up, is intended to act as a shelf ...
s date from the Chapel's building, and show a resemblance to the misericords at
Higham Ferrers Higham Ferrers is a market town and civil parish in the Nene Valley in North Northamptonshire North Northamptonshire is a Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area forming part of the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial co ...

Higham Ferrers
. Both may have been carved by Richard Tyllock. During the 1660s a screen was installed in the Chapel, which was based on a design by Wren. However, this screen needed to be rebuilt by 1713. By the mid-19th century the Chapel was in great need of renovation, and so the current structure is heavily influenced by Victorian design ideals. All services at the chapel are according to the ''
Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of v ...

Book of Common Prayer
''; the ''
King James Bible The King James Version (KJV), also the King James Bible (KJB) and the Authorized Version, is an English translations of the Bible, English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, which was commissioned in 1604 and publ ...
'' is also used rather than more modern translations.


Wealth

All Souls is one of the wealthiest colleges in Oxford, with a
financial endowment A financial endowment is a legal structure for managing, and in many cases indefinitely perpetuating, a pool of financial Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is ...
of £420.2 million (2018). However, since the college's principal source of revenue is its endowment and it does not earn income from tuition fees, it only ranked 19th (in 2007) among Oxford colleges in total income. All Souls is a
registered charity A charitable organization or charity is an organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. educational, Religion, religious or other activities serving the public interest or common good). The legal definitio ...
under English law.


Fellowships


Examination fellowships

In the three years following the award of their bachelor's degrees, students graduating from Oxford and current Oxford postgraduate students having graduated elsewhereExamination Fellowships 2010
" All Souls College, Oxford
are eligible to apply for examination fellowships (sometimes informally referred to as "prize fellowships") of seven years each. While tutors may advise their students to sit for the All Souls examination fellowship, the examination is open to anybody who fulfils the eligibility criteria and the college does not issue invitations to candidates to sit. Every year in early March, the college hosts an open evening for women, offering women interested in the examination fellowship an opportunity to find out more about the exam process and to meet members of the college. Each year several dozen candidates typically sit the examination. Two examination fellows are usually elected each year, although the college has awarded a single place or three places in some years, and on rare occasions made no award.
''Time'', 19 May 1961.
The competition, offered since 1878 and open to women since 1979, is held over two days in late September, with two papers of three hours each per day. It has been described in the past as "the hardest exam in the world". Two papers (the 'specialist papers') are on a single subject of the candidate's choice; the options are
classics Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer ...

classics
,
English literature Literature written in the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by ...

English literature
, economics, history, law, philosophy, and politics. Candidates may sit their two specialist papers in different specialist subjects, provided each paper is in one subject only (for example, a candidate might sit one paper in History and one paper in Politics). Candidates who choose Classics have an additional translation examination on a third day. Two papers (the 'general papers') are on general subjects. For each general examination, candidates choose three questions from a list. Past questions have included: * "'If a man could say nothing against a character but what he could prove, history could not be written' (
Samuel Johnson Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709  – 13 December 1784), often called Dr Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions as a poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, critic A critic is a person who communicates an asse ...
). Discuss."Mount, Harry.
A few things pointy-heads should know
''New Statesman'', 4 October 1999.
* "Should the
Orange Prize for Fiction The Women's Prize for Fiction (previously with sponsor names Orange Prize for Fiction (1996–2006 and 2009–12), Orange Broadband Prize for Fiction (2007–08) and Baileys Women's Prize for Fiction (2014–2017)) is one of the United Kingdom's m ...
be open to both men and women?" * "Does the moral character of an orgy change when the participants wear
Nazi uniform Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (german: link=no, Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP; or National S ...
s?" Before 2010 candidates also faced another examination, a free-form "Essay" on a single, pre-selected word.Mount, Harry.
All Souls, Oxford should continue to put genius to the test
''The Daily Telegraph'', 19 May 2010.
Lyall, Sarah.

''The New York Times'', 27 May 2010.
Four to sixWainwright, Tom.

''The Daily Telegraph'', 8 January 2005.
finalists are invited to a
viva voce ''Viva voce'' is a Latin phrase literally meaning "with living voice" but most often translated as "by word of mouth." It may refer to: *Word of mouth *A voice vote in a deliberative assembly *An oral exam **Thesis defence, in academia *Spoken Evid ...
or oral examination. Previously, these candidates were then invited to dinner with about 75 members of the college. The dinner did not form part of the assessment, but was intended as a reward for those candidates who had reached the latter stages of the selection process. However, the dinner has been discontinued as the college felt candidates worried too often that it was part of the assessment process. About a dozen examination fellows are at the college at any one time. There are no compulsory teaching or requirements, although examination fellows must pursue a course of study or research at some point within their first two years of fellowship. They can study anything for free at Oxford with
room and board Room and board is a phrase describing a situation in which, in exchange for money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in th ...
. As "Londoners" they can pursue approved non-academic careers if desired, with a reduced stipend, as long as they pursue academia on a part-time basis and attend weekend dinners at the college during their first academic year. each examination fellow receives a stipend of £14,842 annually for the first two years; the stipend then varies depending on whether the fellow pursues an academic career.


Notable candidates

Until 1979, women were not permitted to put themselves forward for fellowships at All Souls.


=Successful

= *
Leo Amery Leopold Charles Maurice Stennett Amery, (22 November 1873 – 16 September 1955), also known L. S. Amery, was a British Conservative Party (UK), Conservative journalist, politician, and member of numerous Cabinets. During his career, he was n ...
(1897), politician *
Sir Isaiah Berlin Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Latvian-born British social and political theorist, philosopher, and historian of ideas. Although he became increasingly averse to writing for publication, his improvised lectures and t ...
(1932), philosopher *
George Earle Buckle George Earle Buckle (10 June 185413 March 1935) was an English editor and biographer. Early life Buckle was the son of George Buckle, canon (priest), canon of Wells Cathedral, and Mary Hamlyn Earle, the sister of the philologist John Earle (philo ...
(1877), journalist *
George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925), was styled as The Lord Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911, and as The Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, was a British Conserva ...
(1883),
Viceroy of India The Governor-General of India (1773–1950, from 1858 to 1947 the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was the representative of the Monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kin ...
*
Geoffrey Dawson George Geoffrey Dawson (25 October 1874 – 7 November 1944) was editor of ''The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily U ...
(1898), journalist *
Matthew d'Ancona Matthew Robert Ralph d'Ancona (born 27 January 1968) is an English journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worthy form and disseminates it t ...
(1989), journalist * John Gardner (1986), legal philosopher * Birke Häcker (2001), legal scholar *
Quintin Hogg, Baron Hailsham of St Marylebone Quintin McGarel Hogg, Baron Hailsham of St Marylebone, (9 October 1907 – 12 October 2001), known as the 2nd Viscount Hailsham between 1950 and 1963, at which point he disclaimed his hereditary peerage, was a British barrister and Conservativ ...
(1931), politician and philosopher *
Douglas Jay Douglas Patrick Thomas Jay, Baron Jay, PC (23 March 1907 – 6 March 1996) was a British Labour Party The Labour Party is a centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of th ...
, Baron Jay (1930), politician *
Keith Joseph Keith Sinjohn Joseph, Baron Joseph, (17 January 1918 – 10 December 1994), known as Sir Keith Joseph, 2nd Baronet, for most of his political life, was a British politician A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person hol ...
, Baron Joseph (1946), politician *
Cosmo Gordon Lang William Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1st Baron Lang of Lambeth, (31 October 1864 – 5 December 1945) was a Scottish Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and ...

Cosmo Gordon Lang
, 1st Baron Lang of Lambeth (1888),Sir William Anson
"
Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Cat ...
*
T. E. Lawrence Colonel (UK), Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British Archaeology, archaeologist, army officer, diplomat, and writer, who became renowned for his role in the Arab Revolt (1916–1918) and the Sinai an ...

T. E. Lawrence
(1919), "Lawrence of Arabia", military officer, writer * Sir Jeremy Morse, banker *
David Pannick, Baron Pannick David Philip Pannick, Baron Pannick, Queen's Counsel, QC (born 7 March 1956) is a British barrister and a crossbencher in the House of Lords. He practises mainly in the areas of public law and human rights. He has argued cases before the Supreme ...
(1978), barrister *
Derek Parfit Derek Antony Parfit (; 11 December 1942 – 1 or 2 January 2017) was a British philosopher who specialised in personal identity, rationality, and ethics. He is widely considered one of the most important and influential moral philosophers of t ...
(1974), philosopher * (1972), politician *
A. L. Rowse Alfred Leslie Rowse (4 December 1903 – 3 October 1997) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain ...
(1925), historian and poet *
Katherine Rundell Katherine Rundell (born 1987) is an English author and academic. She is the author of ''Rooftoppers'', which in 2015 won both the overall Waterstones Children's Book Prize and the Blue Peter Book Award for Best Story, and was short-listed for t ...
(2008), author * Amia Srinivasan (2009), philosopher *
John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon John Allsebrook Simon, 1st Viscount Simon, (28 February 1873 – 11 January 1954), was a British politician who held senior Cabinet posts from the beginning of the World War I, First World War to the end of the World War II, Second World War. H ...
(1897), politician *
William Waldegrave, Baron Waldegrave of North Hill William Arthur Waldegrave, Baron Waldegrave of North Hill, (; born 15 August 1946) is a British Conservative Party (UK), Conservative politician who served in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, Cabinet from 1990 until 1997, and is a life member ...
(1971), politician *
Richard Wilberforce, Baron Wilberforce Richard Orme Wilberforce, Baron Wilberforce, (11 March 1907 – 15 February 2003) was a British judge. He was a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, commonly known as Law Lords, were judges appointed under the Appellate ...
(1932),Shepherd, Jessica.
The word on Oxford University's All Souls fellows exam is: axed
''The Guardian'', 14 May 2010.
jurist * (1951), philosopher *
Crispin Wright Crispin James Garth Wright (; born 21 December 1942) is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
(1969), philosopher *
Sir John Vickers Sir John Vickers (born 7 July 1958) is a United Kingdom, British economist and the List of Wardens of All Souls College, Oxford, Warden of All Souls College, Oxford. Education Vickers studied at Eastbourne Grammar School and Oriel College, Oxfor ...
(1979), economist


=Unsuccessful

= *
Hilaire Belloc Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (, ; 27 July 187016 July 1953) was an Franco-English writer and historian of the early twentieth century. Belloc was also an orator, poet, sailor, satirist This is an incomplete list of writers, cartoonists ...

Hilaire Belloc
(1895), author *
John Buchan John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir (; 26 August 1875 – 11 February 1940) was a British novelist, historian, and Unionist politician who served as Governor General of Canada The governor general of Canada (french: gouverneure général ...

John Buchan
, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir (1899),Godine, David R. and Andrew Lownie.
John Buchan: the Presbyterian cavalier
' (1995), pp. 60–61.
author and
Governor General of Canada The governor general of Canada (french: gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ...
*
Lord David Cecil Lord Edward Christian David Gascoyne-Cecil, Order of the Companions of Honour, CH (9 April 1902 – 1 January 1986) was a British biographer, historian, and scholar. He held the style of "Lord" by courtesy title, courtesy, as a younger son of a ...

Lord David Cecil
, author * H. L. A. Hart (1929, 1930), philosopher * Sir William Holdsworth (1897), legal historian *
Harry Mount Henry Francis Mount (born 1971) is a British author and journalist who is editor of ''The Oldie'' and a frequent contributor to the ''Daily Mail'' and the ''Daily Telegraph''. Early life Harry Mount was born in 1971. His father, Ferdinand Mount ...
(1994), journalist *
Ramsay Muir John Ramsay Bryce Muir (30 September 1872 – 4 May 1941) was a British historian A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical n ...
(1897), politician *
Alfred Denning, Baron Denning Alfred Thompson "Tom" Denning, Baron Denning, (23 January 1899 – 5 March 1999) was an English lawyer and judge. He was called to the bar The call to the bar (rarely, call to bar) is a legal term of art Jargon is the specialized termi ...
(1923), jurist *
Hugh Trevor-Roper Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton (15 January 1914 – 26 January 2003) was an English historian. He was Regius Professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, col ...
, Baron Dacre of Glanton, historian *
Harold Wilson James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Harold Wilson
, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx,
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a ...
*
Tom Bingham, Baron Bingham of Cornhill Thomas Henry Bingham, Baron Bingham of Cornhill, (13 October 193311 September 2010), was an eminent British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas ...
, jurist


Subjects of the "Essay"

* "bias" * "censorship" * "chaos" * "charity" * "comedy"Hensher, Philip.
'Comedy' was the word for my exam
''The Independent'', 24 May 2010.
* "conversion" (1979) * "corruption" * "culture" (1914)Little, Reg.
One-word exam ending
''The Oxford Times'', 20 May 2010.
* "diversity" (2001) * "error" (1993) * "harmony" (2007) * "innocence" (1964) * "integrity" (2004) * "mercy" * "miracles" (1994) * "morality" * "novelty" (2008) * "originality" * "possessions" (1925) * "reproduction" (2009) * "style" (2005)Sample Fellowship Exam, Oxford University's All Souls College
''The New York Times'', 27 May 2010.
* "water" (2006)


Other fellowships

Other categories of fellowship include: * Senior research fellows (a renewable seven year appointment) * Extraordinary research fellows (elected to conduct research into the college's history) * Visiting fellows (academics from other universities, usually elected for a period of one term to one year) * Post-doctoral research fellows (a non-renewable five year post open to those who have recently completed doctoral study at a recognised university) * Fifty-pound fellows (open only to former fellows no longer holding posts in Oxford) * Official fellows (consisting of holders of college posts, such as the Domestic Bursar, Estates Bursar, Chaplain, and Fellow Librarian) * Distinguished fellows There are also a number of professorial fellows who hold their fellowships by virtue of their University post.


Chichele professorships

Fellows of the college include the Chichele professors, who hold
statutory A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective ...
professorship Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, hig ...
s at the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
named in honour of
Henry Chichele Henry Chichele ( , also Checheley;  – 12 April 1443) was Archbishop of Canterbury (1414–1443) and founded All Souls College, Oxford. Early life Chichele was born at Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire, in 1363 or 1364; Chicheley told Pope ...

Henry Chichele
, a founder of the college.
Fellow A fellow is a broad concept whose exact meaning depends on context. In learned Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The abil ...
ship of the college has accompanied the award of a Chichele
chair One of the basic pieces of furniture Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (table (furniture), tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds). Furn ...
since 1870. Following the work of the 1850 Commission to examine the organisation of the university, the college suppressed ten of its fellowships to create the funds to establish the first two Chichele professorships: The
Chichele Professor of International Law and Diplomacy The Chichele Professorships are statutory professorships at the University of Oxford named in honour of Henry Chichele (also spelt Chicheley or Checheley, although the spelling of the academic position is consistently "Chichele"), an Archbishop of ...
, established in 1859 and first held by
Mountague Bernard Mountague Bernard (28 January 1820 – 1882) was an England, English international lawyer. Life He was the third son of Charles Bernard of Jamaica, the descendant of a Huguenot family, and was born at Tibberton, Gloucestershire, Tibberton Court, ...

Mountague Bernard
, and the
Chichele Professor of Modern History The Chichele Professorships are statutory A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathe ...
, first held by
Montagu Burrows Montagu Burrows (27 October 1819 – 10 July 1905) was a British historian. Following a career as an officer in the Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''f ...
. There are currently Chichele Professorships in five different subjects: *
Chichele Professor of Economic History The Chichele Professorships are statutory A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathe ...
:
Kevin O'Rourke Kevin Hjortshøj O'Rourke, (born 25 March 1963) is an Irish economist and historian, who specialises in economic history Economic history is the academic study of economies An economy (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything ...
. *
Chichele Professor of the History of War The Chichele Professorships are statutory A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathe ...
: Peter H. Wilson appointed 2015. *
Chichele Professor of Public International Law The Chichele Professorships are statutory professorships at the University of Oxford named in honour of Henry Chichele (also spelt Chicheley or Checheley, although the spelling of the academic position is consistently "Chichele"), an Archbishop of ...
: Catherine Redgwell appointed 2012. *
Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory The Chichele Professorships are statutory professorships at the University of Oxford named in honour of Henry Chichele (also spelt Chicheley or Checheley, although the spelling of the academic position is consistently "Chichele"), an Archbishop of ...
: Amia Srinivasan appointed 2019. *
Chichele Professor of Medieval History The Chichele Professorships are statutory A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathe ...
: Julia M. H. Smith, appointed September 2016 Probably the best known former Chichele Professor is
Sir Isaiah Berlin Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Latvian-born British social and political theorist, philosopher, and historian of ideas. Although he became increasingly averse to writing for publication, his improvised lectures and t ...
. Perhaps the best known former Professor of the History of War was
Cyril Falls Cyril Bentham Falls CBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry An order of chivalry, order of knighthood, chivalric order, or equestrian order is an order of knights typically founded during or insp ...
.


Chichele Lectures

The Chichele Lectures are a prestigious series of lectures formally established in 1912 and sponsored by All Souls College. The lectures were initially restricted to foreign history, but have since been expanded to include law, political theory, economic theory, as well as foreign and British history. Traditionally the lectures were delivered by a single speaker, but it is now common for several speakers to deliver lectures on a common theme.


Customs

Every hundred years, and generally on 14 January, there is a commemorative feast after which the fellows parade around the college with flaming torches, singing the ''
Mallard Song The Mallard Song is an ancient tradition of All Souls' College, Oxford. It is sung every year at the Bursar's Dinner in March and the college's Gaudy in November and also sung in a separate special ceremony once a century. The ceremony In the c ...
'' and led by a "Lord Mallard" who is carried in a chair, in search of a legendary mallard that supposedly flew out of the foundations of the college when it was being built. During the hunt the Lord Mallard is preceded by a man bearing a pole to which a mallard is tied – originally a live bird, latterly either dead (1901) or carved from wood (2001). The last mallard ceremony was in 2001 and the next is due in 2101. The precise origin of the custom is not known, but it dates from at least 1632.HOLE, Christina, ''English Custom and Usage'', London, Batsford, 1941, p.28: "...we know that the custom existed at least as early as 1632, for in that year Archbishop Abbot censured the college for a riot "in pretence of a foolish Mallard". "Mallard" has since become a colloquialism at the college, generally meaning "rubbish". A benign parody of this custom has been portrayed as the Unseen University's "Megapode chase" in Sir Terry Pratchett's 2009 novel ''Unseen Academicals''.


People associated with All Souls


Fellows

Past and current fellows of the college have included: *
William Emmanuel Abraham William Emmanuel Abraham, also known as Willie E. Abraham or, to give his Akan names, day name, Kojo Abraham (born on a Monday, May 28, 1934) is a retired Ghanaian philosopher. Biography Abraham was educated at the Government Boys' School and Ad ...
*
Leo Amery Leopold Charles Maurice Stennett Amery, (22 November 1873 – 16 September 1955), also known L. S. Amery, was a British Conservative Party (UK), Conservative journalist, politician, and member of numerous Cabinets. During his career, he was n ...
* William Reynell Anson *
Andrew Ashworth Andrew John Ashworth, Order of the British Empire, CBE, Queen's Counsel, QC (Hon), Fellow of the British Academy, FBA (born 11 October 1947) was the Vinerian Professor of English Law at the University of Oxford from 1997 to 2013, a Fellow of All ...
* F. W. Bain *
Max Beloff Max Beloff, Baron Beloff, (2 July 1913 – 22 March 1999) was a British historian and Conservative Party (UK), Conservative life peer, peer. From 1974 to 1979 he was principal of the University College of Buckingham, now the University of Buck ...
*
Isaiah Berlin Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Latvian-born British social and political theorist, philosopher, and historian of ideas. Although he became increasingly averse to writing for publication, his improvised lectures and t ...
*
Margaret Bent Margaret Bent CBE , (born Margaret Hilda Bassington; 23 December 1940) is an English musicologist who specializes in music of the late medieval music, medieval and Renaissance music, Renaissance eras. In particular, she has written extensively o ...
* Tim Besley *
Peter Birks Peter Brian Herrenden Birks (3 October 1941 – 6 July 2004) was the Regius Professor of Civil Law at the University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is e ...
* *
William Blackstone Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist legal scholarnot necessaril ...

William Blackstone
*
Malcolm Bowie Malcolm McNaughtan Bowie Fellow of the British Academy, FBA (; 5 May 1943 – 28 January 2007) was a British academic, and List of Masters of Christ's College, Cambridge, Master of Christ's College, Cambridge from 2002 to 2006. An acclaimed schol ...
* Peter Brown *
Julian Bullard Sir Julian Leonard Bullard (8 March 1928 – 25 May 2006) was a British diplomat and Pro-Chancellor of Birmingham University. He was employed at Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service from 1953 until 1988, the ambassador to Bonn in the mid-1980s as w ...
*
Myles Burnyeat Myles Fredric Burnyeat (1 January 1939 – 20 September 2019) was an English scholar of ancient philosophy. Early life and education Myles Burnyeat was born on 1 January 1939 to Peter James Anthony Burnyeat and Cynthia Cherry Warburg. He rece ...
*
Lionel Butler Lionel Butler (born July 25, 1967) is an American former professional boxer. He is perhaps best known for his 1995 bout with Lennox Lewis. Professional career Butler made his professional debut on February 24, 1989 in a losing effort to future ...
* Raymond Carr * David Caute * Alasdair Clayre *
Christopher Codrington Christopher Codrington (1668 – 7 April 1710) was an Barbadian-born colonial administrator, planter, book collector and military officer. He is sometimes known as Christopher Codrington the Younger to distinguish him from his father. Codringto ...
* Gerald Cohen * Peter Conrad (academic), Peter Conrad * George Nathaniel Curzon *
Matthew d'Ancona Matthew Robert Ralph d'Ancona (born 27 January 1968) is an English journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worthy form and disseminates it t ...
* David Daube * David Dilks * Michael Dummett * Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard * Cécile Fabre * Sheppard Frere * John Gardner * Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury * Robert Gentilis * Gabriel Gorodetsky * Birke Häcker * Ruth Harris * Andrew Harvey (religious writer), Andrew Harvey * Reginald Heber * Hensley Henson * Cecilia Heyes * Rosemary Hill *
Quintin Hogg, Baron Hailsham of St Marylebone Quintin McGarel Hogg, Baron Hailsham of St Marylebone, (9 October 1907 – 12 October 2001), known as the 2nd Viscount Hailsham between 1950 and 1963, at which point he disclaimed his hereditary peerage, was a British barrister and Conservativ ...
* Christopher Hood * John Hood (university administrator) * Michael Howard (historian), Michael Howard * Susan Hurley * E. F. Jacob *
Keith Joseph Keith Sinjohn Joseph, Baron Joseph, (17 January 1918 – 10 December 1994), known as Sir Keith Joseph, 2nd Baronet, for most of his political life, was a British politician A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person hol ...
* Colin Kidd * Leszek Kołakowski *
Cosmo Gordon Lang William Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1st Baron Lang of Lambeth, (31 October 1864 – 5 December 1945) was a Scottish Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and ...

Cosmo Gordon Lang
*
T. E. Lawrence Colonel (UK), Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British Archaeology, archaeologist, army officer, diplomat, and writer, who became renowned for his role in the Arab Revolt (1916–1918) and the Sinai an ...

T. E. Lawrence
* Edward Chandos Leigh * Thomas Linacre * Vaughan Lowe * Stephen Lushington (judge), Stephen Lushington * Robert Gwyn Macfarlane * James Rochfort Maguire * Noel Malcolm * John Mason (diplomat), John Mason * Angela McLean (biologist), Angela McLean * Catherine Morgan * Edward Mortimer * Max Müller * Patrick Neill, Baron Neill of Bladen * Brownlow North * Avner Offer * David Pannick *
Derek Parfit Derek Antony Parfit (; 11 December 1942 – 1 or 2 January 2017) was a British philosopher who specialised in personal identity, rationality, and ethics. He is widely considered one of the most important and influential moral philosophers of t ...
* Anthony Quinton * Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan * Robert Recorde * Catherine Redgwell * John Redwood *
A. L. Rowse Alfred Leslie Rowse (4 December 1903 – 3 October 1997) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain ...
*
Katherine Rundell Katherine Rundell (born 1987) is an English author and academic. She is the author of ''Rooftoppers'', which in 2015 won both the overall Waterstones Children's Book Prize and the Blue Peter Book Award for Best Story, and was short-listed for t ...
* Peter Salway * Andrew Scott (economist), Andrew Scott * Graeme Segal * Amartya Sen * Catriona Seth * Patrick Shaw-Stewart * Gilbert Sheldon *
John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon John Allsebrook Simon, 1st Viscount Simon, (28 February 1873 – 11 January 1954), was a British politician who held senior Cabinet posts from the beginning of the World War I, First World War to the end of the World War II, Second World War. H ...
* Boudewijn Sirks * Edmond Slade, Rev George Fitzclarence Slade * Margareta Steinby * Alfred C. Stepan * Joseph E. Stiglitz * Charles Taylor (philosopher), Charles Taylor * Adam Thirlwell * Guenter Treitel * Cecilia Trifogli * John Vickers *
William Waldegrave, Baron Waldegrave of North Hill William Arthur Waldegrave, Baron Waldegrave of North Hill, (; born 15 August 1946) is a British Conservative Party (UK), Conservative politician who served in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, Cabinet from 1990 until 1997, and is a life member ...
* Kate Warner * Marina Warner * Martin Litchfield West * Charles Algernon Whitmore * Richard Wilberforce * Bernard Williams * E. F. L. Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax * Llewellyn Woodward * Patrick Wormald *
Christopher Wren Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Fa ...

Christopher Wren
*
Crispin Wright Crispin James Garth Wright (; born 21 December 1942) is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
* Edward Young * R. C. Zaehner * Lucia Zedner


Wardens


Gallery

File:All Souls College Radcliffe Square gate.jpg, The gates on
Radcliffe Square Radcliffe Square is a square in central Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London London is the capital city, ...
File:1 all souls college oxford 2012.jpg, A view of All Souls from the
Radcliffe Square Radcliffe Square is a square in central Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London London is the capital city, ...
gate, showing
Nicholas Hawksmoor Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 – 25 March 1736) was an English architect. He was a leading figure of the English Baroque English Baroque is a term sometimes used to refer to modes of English architecture that paralleled Baroque archite ...
's 'gothicised classical' elevation. File:The south east corner of Radcliffe Square from above.jpg, The south eastern corner of All Souls College, abutting Radcliffe Square File:High Street Oxford looking east in landscape view.jpg, All Souls Quad abutting
High Street #REDIRECT High Street High Street is a common street name for the primary business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services) ...
File:All souls from new college lane.jpg, All Souls College as viewed from New College Lane File:The spires of All Souls College - geograph.org.uk - 1420243.jpg, The spires of All Souls File:All souls.jpg, All Souls College at twilight File:Panorama St Mary the Virgin tower.jpg, View from University Church of St Mary the Virgin, St Mary the Virgin's tower (with All Souls on the right) File:All-Souls-Oxford.jpg, All Souls College Chapel - the stone altar reredos seen through the later classical screen File:All-Souls3-Oxford.jpg, All Souls College File:All-Souls2-Oxford.jpg, All Souls College File:All-Souls-College-Oxford.jpg, All Souls College. Though 'gothick' externally, this range designed by
Nicholas Hawksmoor Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 – 25 March 1736) was an English architect. He was a leading figure of the English Baroque English Baroque is a term sometimes used to refer to modes of English architecture that paralleled Baroque archite ...
is completely classical inside.


References


External links

*
Current Examination Fellows

Virtual Tour of All Souls College
{{Authority control All Souls College, Oxford, 1438 establishments in England Colleges of the University of Oxford Educational institutions established in the 15th century Grade I listed buildings in Oxford Grade I listed educational buildings Nicholas Hawksmoor buildings Buildings and structures of the University of Oxford Charities based in England University of Oxford examinations