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The Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (German: ''Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung'') is located in
Bremerhaven Bremerhaven (, , Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by th ...

Bremerhaven
, Germany, and a member of the
Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (german: Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren) is the largest scientific organisation in Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a ...
. It conducts research in the
Arctic The Arctic ( or ) is a polar regions of Earth, polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Canada, Finland, Greenland (Danish Realm, ...

Arctic
, the
Antarctic The Antarctic (US English or , UK English or and or ) is a around 's , opposite the region around the . The Antarctic comprises the continent of , the and other located on the or south of the . The Antarctic region includes the , wa ...

Antarctic
, and the high and mid latitude oceans. Additional research topics are:
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
research, marine biological monitoring, and technical marine developments. The institute was founded in 1980 and is named after
meteorologist A meteorologist is a scientist who studies and works in the field of meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology ...
,
climatologist Climatology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...
, and geologist Alfred Wegener.


Research

The institute has three major departments: *Climate System Department, which studies oceans, ice and Earth's atmosphere, atmosphere as physical and chemical systems. *Biosciences Department, which studies the biological processes in marine and coastal ecosystems. *Geoscientific Department, which studies climate development, especially as revealed by sediments.


Facilities

The institute is distributed over several sites within North Germany and the Otto Schmidt Laboratory for Polar and Marine Research (OSL) at the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) in Saint Petersburg as Russian-German cooperation in the field of Arctic research, named after the polar explorer Otto Schmidt.


Bremerhaven

The headquarters was founded by Gotthilf Hempel. Nowadays, the AWI has several buildings within the city of
Bremerhaven Bremerhaven (, , Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by th ...

Bremerhaven
. * Building D is located next to the old port (German: '':de:Alter Hafen (Bremerhaven), Alter Hafen''). The dark Clinker brick, clink-brick building was designed by Oswald Mathias Ungers in 1985 who won the List of architecture prizes, architecture-award '':de:Großer BDA-Preis, BDA-prize'' for the building. It hosts the AWI library, the main lecture hall and various laboratories and offices. * The main building E is next to the Lock (water transport), lock '':de:Doppelschleuse (Bremerhaven), Doppelschleuse''. Main characteristics are the chequered tiles and the fact that there are three office towers. The building was designed by :de:Otto Steidle, Otto Steidle and constructed in 2004 as an extension of the complex A,B,C. * House F is close to the Weser ferry at the Geeste (river), Geeste estuary. The housing association StäWoG (German: ''Städtische Wohnungsgesellschaft'') renovated the building of the former nautical college (German: ''Hochschule für Seefahrt'') in 1999. For this reason, there is a planetarium which is nowadays used by the Bremerhaven's friends of the stars. * The small Bathymetry Building is located close to the Bremerhaven Radar Tower, radar tower. * The Nordsee Villa formerly belonged to the fast-food restaurant chain Nordsee and hosts a few offices of AWI. Nowadays it is a :de:Haus der Technik (Essen), Haus der Technik and part of the oldest German institute for technical further education with close cooperation to RWTH Aachen and other universities. * The Harbour Warehouse (German: ''Hafenlager'') is located within the Lloyd Werft, see Lloyd Werft Map.


Potsdam

The Forschungstelle Potsdam is situated on the Telegrafenberg next to Potsdam. It belongs to AWI since 1992. The research focuses on the atmospheric physics and atmospheric chemistry of the atmosphere on the one hand and periglacial research on the other hand.


Sylt

The Wadden Sea Station Sylt is located on the North German island Sylt. It was founded in 1924 as an oyster laboratory to study the decline of oyster stocks and in order to study how they could be cultivated. In 1937, the name changed from ''oyster laboratory'' to ''Wadden Sea station''. The station grew, and in 1949 the station was shifted from the northernmost edge of the island to the current location, next to the harbor of List, Schleswig-Holstein, List. In 1998 the station became part of AWI. Nowadays, there are about 30 scientists and technicians. Two guest houses allow to perform workshops and video conferences are possible with the AWI headquarters. The research focuses on coast ecology and coast geology. In the 1930 there have been oyster reefs below the mussel banks at the water level. Below these, there have been sabellaria reefs which have been destroyed by fishery. Nowadays there are only the mussel banks left.


Helgoland

The Biologische Anstalt Helgoland is situated at on the island Heligoland (German: ''Helgoland''). The station exists since 1892. Scientists study the ecology of the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
in this research station. Since 1962, at Heligoland roadstead , phytoplankton and water samples are taken every weekday morning, the turbidity is measured (e.g. using a Secchi disk) and other parameters are recorded. The
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
warmed by 1.65 °C since the start of the time series.


Stations

The institute maintains several research stations around the Arctic Ocean and on the
Antarctic The Antarctic (US English or , UK English or and or ) is a around 's , opposite the region around the . The Antarctic comprises the continent of , the and other located on the or south of the . The Antarctic region includes the , wa ...

Antarctic
continent.


Neumayer Station

Neumayer-Station III is located at , about away from the previous station, ''Neumayer II'' which is now abandoned and covered by a thick ice cover. The new station
Webcam
is a futuristic-looking combined platform above the snow surface offering space for research, operations, and living since 2009. The station stands on 16 hydraulic posts which are used to adjust the building to the growing snow cover. A balloon-launching hall is located on the stations roof. Below the station PistenBully, Ski-Doos, sledges, and other equipment are stored in a garage built beneath the snow, with a ramp with a lid that seals the hole for the vehicles to enter. In summer, the station can host up to 40 people. The station contains several laboratories, has a weather balloon launching facility, and a hospital with telemedicine, telemedical equipment. The station has a stairwell and several utility and storage rooms in the garage. There is a snowmelt and power unit at the station.


Dallmann Laboratory

In cooperation with the Instituto Antártico Argentino (IAA), in 1994 the AWI opened a research station on King George Island (South Shetland Islands), King George Island at . The station is named after Eduard Dallmann, a German whaler, trader and Polar explorer living next to Bremen.


Koldewey Station

Koldewey Station at is named after the German polar explorer Carl Koldewey and part of the French-German Arctic Research ''AWIPEV'' Arctic in Ny-Ålesund on Svalbard.


Kohnen Station

Kohnen Station was established in 2001 as logistical base for ice core drilling in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica at


Samoylov Station

Samoylov Station is a Russian research station at lays within the Lena Delta close to the Laptev Sea. The station was set up as a logistic base for joint Russian-German permafrost studies by the ''Lena Delta Reserve'' (LDR) and the AWI.


Ships

Altogether there are six ships that belong to AWI.


RV ''Polarstern''

The AWI flagship is Germany's research icebreaker RV Polarstern, RV ''Polarstern''. The ship was commissioned in 1982. The double-hulled icebreaker is operational up to temperatures as low as −50 °C (−58 °F). Polarstern can break through sea ice of 1.5 m thickness at a speed of 5 knots, thicker ice must be broken by ramming. A possible but not probable follow-up flagship might be the Aurora Borealis (icebreaker), research icebreaker ''Aurora Borealis''.


RV ''Heincke''

The vessel RV ''Heincke'' is a multifunctional and low-noise ship for research in ice-free waters, named after German zoology, zoologist and Ichthyology, ichthyologist Friedrich Heincke . With a length of 54.6 metre, m, a width of 12.5 m and a Draft (hull), draft 4.16 m, the ship is categorized as "medium research vessel" within the German research fleet. The ship was put into operation in 1990, its building costs have been around 16 Millionen Euro. On the vessel, up to 12 scientists and 8 crew members can work for up to 30 passage days. This corresponds to an operating range of roughly 7500 nautical miles. The shipowner is Briese Schiffahrts GmbH & Co. KG from Leer, a city in East Frisia.


RV ''Uthörn''

The research cutter (boat), cutter RV ''Uthörn'' is named after the small island Uthörn next to Sylt in the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
. The vessel is regularly on research tours in German Bight, but is also used to supply the AWI branch ''Alfred Wegener Institute, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland'' mentioned above. Two scientists and 4 crew members can live and work on board for up to 180 days, but the vessel mainly used for day trips. Another operation purpose are short term cruises of a few hours for up to 25 students to demonstrate Oceanography, oceanographic and biological sampling methods. Being commissioned in 1982 RV ''Uthörn'' replaced a vessel with the same name which was built in 1947 and had a length of 24 metre, m. The current vessel is powered by two V12 engine, V12 Four-stroke engine, four-stroke Diesel engines manufactured by the company MWM GmbH from Mannheim. Each engine delivers up to 231 kW to a controllable-pitch propeller; the maximal speed is around 10 Knot (unit), kn. On the working deck (ship), deck, there is a dry lab and a laboratory for wet work like sorting fish. The ship is equipped with standard sampling devices: You may find on board a demersal trawl, a Van Veen Grab Sampler, Niskin bottles, and even deprecated reversing thermometers for teaching purposes.


''Mya'', ''Aade'' and ''Diker''

The research catamaran ''Mya'' is specially designed for research in the intertidal zone, it can fall dry at low tide. The main research area is the Wadden Sea. Last but not least, there are two small motor boats, ''Aade'' and ''Diker'' for sampling and diving operations around Heligoland.


Aircraft


Past aircraft

The Alfred Wegener Institute operated five airplanes under the name of ''Polar'', those being:Ehemalige Flugzeuge
Alfred Wegener Institute – Former airplanes, accessed: 18 April 2009
* ''Polar 1'', a Dornier 128 commissioned in 1983, now in possession of the ''TU Braunschweig'' * ''Polar 2'', a Dornier 228 commissioned in 1983, still in service with the AWI * ''Polar 3'', like ''Polar 2'' commissioned in 1983, shot down possibly by SA-2 Guideline missile on 24 February 1985 over Western Sahara * ''Polar 4'', a Dorniers 228 commissioned in 1985, severely damaged at a landing at the British Rothera Research Station in 2005, now on display at the Institute


Current fleet

AWI currently uses two Basler BT-67. These planes are 20 m long, 5.2 m high and have a wingspan of 29 m. The empty weight is 7680 kg, with ski landing gear it weighs 8340 kg. The minimal cruising speed is 156 km/h, the maximum is SFA. Without payload, the flying range is around 3900 km. The planes are maintained by the company Kenn Borek Air located in Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.


Polar 5

The plane hull was built in 1942 but completely refurbished after the AWI acquired the plane in 2007. Since then it "has supplied a large volume of valuable data" said Prof. :de:Heinrich Miller, Heinrich Miller, the former director of the AWI.


Polar 6

This plane with the call sign C-FHGF was acquired by AWI in 2011. The BMBF, the German Federal Minister of Education and Research funded the purchase and equipping of the plane with a total of 9.78 million euros.


History

* In January 2005, Polar 4 was severely damaged during a rough landing at the British over-wintering station Rothera on the Antarctic Peninsula. As it was impossible to repair the plane, the aircraft had to be decommissioned. Since then, scientific and logistical tasks of polar flights have been performed by ''Polar 2''.


Polar 3 incident

On 24 February 1985, the ''Polar 3'', a research airplane of the institute of the type Dornier 228, was shot down by guerrillas of the Polisario Front over West Sahara. All three crew members died. ''Polar 3'', together with unharmed ''Polar 2'', was on its way back from Antarctica and had taken off in Dakar, Senegal, to reach Arrecife, Canary Islands.Aviation safety network – Report on Polar 3
accessed: 18 April 2009 Vehicles Stations operated by the Alfred-Wegener Institute use the following vehicles. PistenBully PistenBully snowcats (some with extra passenger cabins, tillers, cranes, and foldable winches) are mainly used by various stations for logistics, clearing snow, and supplying stations in the vicinity of researchers’ field campaigns. The PistenBully snowcats are tracked. Ski-Doos Tracked ‘Ski-Doo’ snowmobiles are mainly used at various stations for transport and logistics. Snow blowers Tracked, manually-operated snow blowers are stationed in stations with garages built into snow (such as Neumayer Station III). They are mainly used for raising the foundation plates and digging out pits. They occasionally leave the garage. Sledges Sledges are used and kept at various stations for logistics, transport (pulled behind a Ski-Doo snowmobile), and storing things. Kayaks Several kayaks are used at stations for transporting the multi-frequency EM equipment. They are pulled by a Ski-Doo snowmobile.


See also

* Open access in Germany


References


External links


Official website
{{Bremerhaven Research institutes in Germany Environmental research institutes Earth science research institutes Organisations based in Bremerhaven Environmental organizations established in 1980 Research institutes established in 1980 1980 establishments in West Germany Antarctic agencies Non-profit organisations based in Bremen (state)