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Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, (; 2 July 1903 – 9 October 1995) was
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a ...
from 1963 to 1964 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1963 to 1965. He was the last prime minister to hold office while a member of the
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...

House of Lords
, before disclaiming his peerage and taking up a seat in the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...

House of Commons
for the remainder of his premiership. His reputation, however, rests more on his two periods serving as Britain's foreign minister than on his brief premiership. The eldest child of Charles Douglas-Home, Lord Dunglass, he was born in 1903 at 28 South Street in
Mayfair Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the eastern edge of Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Park Lane. It is one of the most expensive distric ...

Mayfair
, London, which his family leased from the politician and stockbroker, Sir Cuthbert Quilter, and was the future home of
Barbara Cartland Dame Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland, (9 July 1901 – 21 May 2000) was an English novelist who wrote romance novels, one of the List of best-selling fiction authors, best-selling authors as well as one of the most prolific and commercially succ ...
, the author and socialite. Douglas-Home was educated at
Ludgrove School Ludgrove School is an independent school, independent Preparatory school (UK), preparatory boarding school for 200 boys, aged eight years to thirteen. It is situated in the civil parish of Wokingham Without, adjoining the town of Wokingham in th ...
,
Eton College Eton College () is a public school (private sector) for boys in Eton, Berkshire Eton ( ) is a town in Berkshire, England, on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor, connected to it by Windsor Bridge. The civil parish In ...

Eton College
and
Christ Church, Oxford Christ Church ( la, Ædes Christi, the temple or house, ''wikt:aedes, ædēs'', of Christ, and thus sometimes known as "The House") is a Colleges of the University of Oxford, constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ C ...

Christ Church, Oxford
. A talented cricketer, he played
first-class cricket First-class cricket is the highest-standard international or domestic matches in the sport of cricket. A first-class match is one of three or more days' scheduled duration between two sides of eleven players each and is officially adjudged to b ...
at club and county level; he began serving in the
Territorial Army Territorial Army may refer to: * Territorial Army (India) * Territorial Army (United Kingdom) * Territorial Army (Ethiopia), part of the Ethiopian National Defense Force * Territorial Army (Germany) part of the West German Army during the Cold War ...
from 1924. Douglas-Home (under the
courtesy title A courtesy title is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles ma ...
Lord Dunglass) entered Parliament in
1931 Events January * January 2 – South Dakota native Ernest Lawrence invents the cyclotron, used to accelerate particles to study nuclear physics. * January 3 – Albert Einstein begins doing research at the California Institute of Technolog ...
and served as
Neville Chamberlain Arthur Neville Chamberlain (; 18 March 18699 November 1940) was a British politician of the Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative ...

Neville Chamberlain
's parliamentary aide, although his diagnosis in 1940 with spinal
tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the in ...

tuberculosis
would immobilise him for two years. Having recovered enough to resume his political career, Douglas-Home lost his seat to Labour at the 1945 general election. He regained it in
1950 January * January 1 – The International Police Association (IPA) – the largest police organization in the world – is formed. * January 5 **United States Senate, U.S. Senator Estes Kefauver introduces a Resolution (law), resolutio ...
, but left the Commons the following year when, on the death of his father, he entered the Lords as the 14th Earl of Home. Under the next Conservative government, Home was appointed to increasingly senior posts, such as
Leader of the House of Lords The leader of the House of Lords is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is a group of the most senior ministers of the crown Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in Co ...
and
Foreign Secretary The secretary of state for foreign, Commonwealth and development affairs, also referred to as the foreign secretary, is a secretary of state in the Government of the United Kingdom ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o th ...
. In the latter post (1960–63) he supported United States resolve in the
Cuban Missile Crisis The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 ( es, Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis (), or the Missile Scare, was a 1-month, 4 day (16 October – 20 November 1962) confrontation between the United States ...
and was the UK signatory of the
Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapon A nuclear weapon (als ...
in August 1963. In October 1963,
Harold Macmillan Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the na ...

Harold Macmillan
resigned as Prime Minister and Douglas-Home was chosen to succeed him. By the 1960s, it was unacceptable for a prime minister to sit in the House of Lords, so Home disclaimed his
hereditary peer The hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom. As of November 2021, there are 809 hereditary peers: 30 dukes (including six royal dukes), 34 marquesses, 191 earls, 111 viscounts, and 443 barons (disregarding subsidiary ...
age and successfully stood for election to Parliament as Sir Alec Douglas-Home. The manner of his appointment was controversial, and two Macmillan Cabinet ministers refused to stay in office under him. Criticised by the
Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
as an out-of-touch aristocrat, he came over stiffly in television interviews, by contrast with Labour leader
Harold Wilson James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Harold Wilson
. As Prime Minister, Douglas-Home's demeanour and appearance remained aristocratic and old-fashioned. His understanding of economics was primitive, and he gave his Chancellor,
Reginald Maudling Reginald Maudling (7 March 1917 – 14 February 1979) was a British politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer The chancellor of the Exchequer, often abbreviated to the chancellor, is a senior minister of the Crown within the Gover ...
, free rein to handle financial affairs. He enjoyed dealing with foreign policy and his Foreign Secretary,
Rab Butler Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, (9 December 1902 – 8 March 1982), also known as R. A. Butler and familiarly known from his initials as Rab, was a prominent British Conservative Party (UK), Conservative politician. ''The ...

Rab Butler
, was not especially energetic, but there were no major crises or issues to resolve. The Conservative Party, having governed for nearly twelve years, lost their standing after the scandalous
Profumo affair The Profumo affair was a major scandal in twentieth-century Politics of the United Kingdom, British politics. John Profumo, the Secretary of State for War in Harold Macmillan's Conservative Party (United Kingdom), Conservative government, had a ...
under Macmillan and, by Douglas-Home's premiership, seemed headed for heavy electoral defeat; his premiership was the second briefest of the twentieth century, lasting two days short of a year. Among the legislation passed under his government was the abolition of
resale price maintenance Resale price maintenance (RPM) or, occasionally, retail price maintenance is the practice whereby a manufacturer Manufacturing is the creation or production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, th ...
in 1964. Narrowly defeated in the
1964 UK general election The 1964 United Kingdom general election was held on 15 October 1964, five years after the previous election, and thirteen years after the Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party, first led by Winston Churchill, had entered power. It resulted ...
, Douglas-Home resigned the party leadership in July 1965, having instituted a new and less secretive method for electing the leader. He later served in the Cabinet of Prime Minister
Edward Heath Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 191617 July 2005) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is ...
at the
Foreign and Commonwealth Office The Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) is a Departments of the United Kingdom Government, department of the Government of the United Kingdom. It was created on 2 September 2020 through the merger of the Foreign & Commonwealth Of ...
(1970–1974), an expanded version of his former secretaryship. After the first of the twin Conservative defeats of 1974, he stood down at the second, the October 1974 election, and returned to the Lords as a
life peer In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefe ...
titled Baron Home of the Hirsel. He gradually retired from front-line politics and died in 1995, aged 92.


Life and early career


Early years

Douglas-Home was born in
Mayfair Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the eastern edge of Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Park Lane. It is one of the most expensive distric ...

Mayfair
, London, the first of seven children of Lord Dunglass (the eldest son of the 12th Earl of Home) and his wife, the Lady Lilian Lambton (daughter of the 4th Earl of Durham). The boy's first name was customarily abbreviated to "Alec". Among the couple's younger children was the playwright
William Douglas-Home William Douglas Home (3 June 1912 – 28 September 1992) was a British dramatist and politician. Early life Douglas-Home (he later dropped the hyphen from his surname) was the third son of Charles Douglas-Home, 13th Earl of Home, and Lady Lili ...
. In 1918 the 12th Earl of Home died, Dunglass succeeded him in the earldom, and the
courtesy title A courtesy title is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles ma ...
passed to Alec Douglas-Home, who was styled Lord Dunglass until 1951. The young Lord Dunglass was educated at
Ludgrove School Ludgrove School is an independent school, independent Preparatory school (UK), preparatory boarding school for 200 boys, aged eight years to thirteen. It is situated in the civil parish of Wokingham Without, adjoining the town of Wokingham in th ...
, followed by
Eton College Eton College () is a public school (private sector) for boys in Eton, Berkshire Eton ( ) is a town in Berkshire, England, on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor, connected to it by Windsor Bridge. The civil parish In ...

Eton College
. At Eton his contemporaries included
Cyril Connolly Cyril Vernon Connolly (10 September 1903 – 26 November 1974) was an English literary critic and writer. He was the editor of the influential literary magazine ''Horizon The horizon is the apparent line that separates the surface of a cel ...
, who later described him as: After Eton, Dunglass went to
Christ Church, Oxford Christ Church ( la, Ædes Christi, the temple or house, ''wikt:aedes, ædēs'', of Christ, and thus sometimes known as "The House") is a Colleges of the University of Oxford, constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ C ...

Christ Church, Oxford
, where he graduated with a
third-class honours The British undergraduate degree classification system is a Grade (education), grading structure for undergraduate degrees or bachelor's degrees and Master's degree#Integrated Masters Degree, integrated master's degrees in the United Kingdom. The ...
BA degree Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Thro ...
in
Modern History Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, advent of writing, from primary source, primary an ...
in 1925. Dunglass was a talented sportsman. In addition to representing Eton at
fives Fives is an English sport believed to derive from the same origins as many racquet sports Racket sports are game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390 to 1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the ...

fives
, he was a capable cricketer at school, club and county level, and was unique among British prime ministers in having played
first-class cricket First-class cricket is the highest-standard international or domestic matches in the sport of cricket. A first-class match is one of three or more days' scheduled duration between two sides of eleven players each and is officially adjudged to b ...
. Coached by
George Hirst George Herbert Hirst (7 September 1871 – 10 May 1954) was a professional English cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre ...

George Hirst
, he became in ''Wisden'''s phrase "a useful member of the Eton XI" that included Percy Lawrie and
Gubby Allen Sir George Oswald Browning "Gubby" Allen Order of the British Empire, CBE (31 July 190229 November 1989) was a cricketer who captain (cricket), captained England cricket team, England in eleven Test cricket, Test matches. In First-class cricke ...
. Wisden observed, "In the rain-affected Eton–Harrow match of 1922 he scored 66, despite being hindered by a saturated outfield, and then took 4 for 37 with his medium-paced out-swingers". At first-class level he represented the
Oxford University Cricket Club Oxford University Cricket Club (OUCC), which represents the University of Oxford, has always held first-class cricket, first-class status since 1827 when it made its debut in the inaugural The University Match (cricket), University Match between ...
,
Middlesex County Cricket Club Middlesex County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class First class (or 1st class, Firstclass) generally implies a high level of service, importance or quality. Specific uses of the term include: Books and Comics * ''First Class'', L ...
and
Marylebone Cricket Club Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) is a cricket club founded in 1787 and based since 1814 at Lord's Cricket Ground Lord's Cricket Ground, commonly known as Lord's, is a cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played betw ...
(MCC). Between 1924 and 1927 he played ten first-class matches, scoring 147 runs at an average of 16.33 with a best score of 37 not out. As a bowler he took 12 wickets at an average of 30.25 with a best of 3 for 43. Three of his first-class games were internationals against
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
on the MCC "representative" tour of
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
in 1926–27. Dunglass began serving in the
Territorial Army Territorial Army may refer to: * Territorial Army (India) * Territorial Army (United Kingdom) * Territorial Army (Ethiopia), part of the Ethiopian National Defense Force * Territorial Army (Germany) part of the West German Army during the Cold War ...
when in 1924 he was commissioned a
lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a commissioned officer An officer is a person who holds a position of authority as a member of an armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, i ...
in the
Lanarkshire Yeomanry The Lanarkshire Yeomanry was a yeomanry Yeomanry is a designation used by a number of units or sub-units of the British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, Bri ...
, then was promoted
captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a military rank in a ...
in 1928, and
major Major is a military rank Military ranks are a system of hierarchical A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are repre ...
in 1933.


Member of Parliament (1931–1937)

The courtesy title Lord Dunglass did not carry with it membership of the
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...

House of Lords
, and Dunglass was eligible to seek election to the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...
. Unlike many aristocratic families, the Douglas-Homes had little history of political service. Uniquely in the family the 11th earl, Dunglass's great-grandfather, had held government office, as
Under-Secretary Undersecretary (or under secretary) is a title for a person who works for and has a lower rank than a Secretary (title), secretary (person in charge). It is used in the Executive (government), executive branch of government, with different meanings ...
at the
Foreign Office Foreign may refer to: Government * Foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its websit ...
in
Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-TaraTe Whanganui-a-Tara is the Māori name for Wellington Harbour. The term is also used to refer to the city of Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-Tara ) is the capital city of New Zealand. It i ...

Wellington
's 1828–30 government. Dunglass's father stood, reluctantly and unsuccessfully, for Parliament before succeeding to the earldom. Dunglass had shown little interest in politics while at Eton or Oxford. He had not joined the
Oxford Union The Oxford Union Society, commonly referred to simply as the Oxford Union, is a debating society Debate is a process that involves formal discussion on a particular topic. In a debate, opposing argument In logic Logic (from Ancien ...
as budding politicians usually did. However, as heir to the family estates he was doubtful about the prospect of life as a country gentleman: "I was always rather discontented with this role and felt it wasn't going to be enough." His biographer David Dutton believes that Dunglass became interested in politics because of the widespread unemployment and poverty in the Scottish lowlands where his family lived. Later in his career, when he had become Prime Minister, Dunglass (by then Sir Alec Douglas-Home) wrote in a memorandum: "I went into politics because I felt that it was a form of public service and that as nearly a generation of politicians had been cut down in the first war those who had anything to give in the way of leadership ought to do so." His political thinking was influenced by that of
Noel Skelton Archibald Noel Skelton (1 July 1880 – 22 November 1935) was a Scottish Unionist Party (Scotland), Unionist politician, journalist and intellectual. Early life The son of Sir John Skelton Order of the Bath, KCB Doctor of Laws, LLD, Skelton wa ...
, a member of the Unionist party (as the
Conservatives Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relation to the traditional values or practices of the culture Culture () is an umbrella term w ...

Conservatives
were called in Scotland between 1912 and 1965). Skelton advocated "a property-owning democracy", based on share-options for workers and
industrial democracy Industrial democracy is an arrangement which involves workers making decisions, sharing responsibility and authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, ...
. Dunglass was not persuaded by the socialist ideal of public ownership. He shared Skelton's view that "what everybody owns nobody owns". With Skelton's support Dunglass secured the Unionist candidacy at
Coatbridge Coatbridge ( sco, Cotbrig or Coatbrig, gd, Drochaid a' Chòta) is a town in North Lanarkshire North Lanarkshire ( sco, North Lanrikshire; gd, Siorrachd Lannraig a Tuath) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the northeast of t ...
for the 1929 general election. It was not a seat that the Unionists expected to win, and he lost to his
Labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. In 2015, there were about 13 ...
opponent with 9,210 votes to Labour's 16,879. It was, however, valuable experience for Dunglass, who was of a gentle and uncombative disposition and not a natural orator; he began to learn how to deal with hostile audiences and get his message across. When a coalition "
National Government National Government may refer to: * Central government in a unitary state, or a country that does not give significant power to regional divisions * Federal government is a federal state, or a country that give significant power to regional divisi ...
" was formed in 1931 to deal with a financial crisis, Dunglass was adopted as the pro-coalition Unionist candidate for
Lanark Lanark (; gd, Lannraig ; sco, Lanrik) is a town in South Lanarkshire, Scotland, located 20 kilometres to the south-east of Hamilton, South Lanarkshire, Hamilton. The town lies on the River Clyde, at its confluence with Mouse Water. In 2016, th ...
. The electorate of the area was mixed, and the constituency was not seen as a safe seat for any party; at the 1929 election Labour had captured it from the Unionists. With the backing of the pro-coalition
Liberal party The Liberal Party is any of many political parties around the world. The meaning of ''liberal'' varies around the world, ranging from liberal conservatism on the right to social liberalism on the left. __TOC__ Active liberal parties This is a li ...
, which supported him rather than fielding its own candidate, Dunglass easily beat the Labour candidate. Membership of the new House of Commons was overwhelmingly made up of pro-coalition MPs, and there was therefore a large number of eligible members for the government posts to be filled. In Dutton's phrase, "it would have been easy for Dunglass to have languished indefinitely in
backbench In Westminster system, Westminster parliamentary systems, a backbencher is a member of parliament (MP) or a legislator who occupies no Minister (government), governmental office and is not a Frontbencher, frontbench spokesperson in the Her Maje ...
obscurity". However, Skelton, appointed as Under-Secretary at the
Scottish Office The Scottish Office was a department of the United Kingdom Government ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg , image_size=220px, date_established = , state = United Kingd ...
, offered Dunglass the unpaid post of unofficial parliamentary aide. This was doubly advantageous to Dunglass. Any MP appointed as official
Parliamentary Private Secretary A Parliamentary Private Secretary (PPS) is a Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative distri ...
(PPS) to a government minister was privy to the inner workings of government but was expected to maintain a discreet silence in the House of Commons. Dunglass achieved the first without having to observe the second. He made his maiden speech in February 1932 on the subject of economic policy, advocating a cautiously
protectionist Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations. Proponents argue that protectionist policies sh ...
approach to cheap imports. He countered Labour's objection that this would raise the cost of living, arguing that a tariff "stimulates employment and gives work increases the purchasing power of the people by substituting wages for unemployment benefit". During four years as Skelton's aide Dunglass was part of a team working on a wide range of issues, from medical services in rural Scotland to land settlements, fisheries, education, and industry. Dunglass was appointed official PPS to Anthony Muirhead, junior minister at the
Ministry of Labour The Ministry of Labour (''British English, UK''), or Labor (''American English, US''), also known as the Department of Labour, or Labor, is a government department responsible for setting national labour standards, labour dispute mechanisms, employm ...
, in 1935, and less than a year later became PPS to the
Chancellor of the Exchequer The chancellor of the Exchequer, often abbreviated to the chancellor, is a senior minister of the Crown within the Government of the United Kingdom, and the chief executive officer of HM Treasury, Her Majesty's Treasury. As one of the four Grea ...
,
Neville Chamberlain Arthur Neville Chamberlain (; 18 March 18699 November 1940) was a British politician of the Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative ...

Neville Chamberlain
. In 1936 Dunglass married ; her father,
Cyril Alington Cyril Argentine Alington (22 October 1872 – 16 May 1955) was an English educationalist Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, and habits. ...
, had been Dunglass's headmaster at Eton, and was from 1933
Dean of Durham The Dean of Durham is the "head" (''primus inter pares'' – first among equals) and chair of the Cathedral chapter, Chapter, the ruling body of Durham Cathedral. The dean and chapter are based at the ''Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the ...
. The service was at
Durham Cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, commonly known as Durham Cathedral and home of the Shrine of St Cuthbert, is a cathedral A cathedral is a church (building), church that contains the ...

Durham Cathedral
, conducted by Alington together with
William TempleWilliam Temple may refer to: * Sir William Temple (logician) (1555–1627), English Ramist logician and Provost of Trinity College, Dublin * Sir William Temple, 1st Baronet (1628–1699), English diplomat, politician and essayist, employer of Jonath ...
,
Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a List of Christian denominations, Christian church which is the established church of England. The archbishop of Canterbury is the most ...
and
Hensley Henson Herbert Hensley Henson (8 November 1863 – 27 September 1947) was an Anglican priest, bishop, scholar and controversialist. He was Bishop of Hereford from 1918 to 1920 and Bishop of Durham from 1920 to 1939. The son of a zealous member ...
,
Bishop of Durham The Bishop of Durham is the Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junc ...
. In addition to the large number of aristocratic guests, the household and estate staffs of the Douglas-Home properties at
Douglas Castle Douglas Castle was a stronghold of the Clan Douglas, Douglas (later Earl of Home, Douglas-Home) family from medieval times to the 20th century. The first castle, erected in the 13th century, was destroyed and replaced several times until the 18th ...

Douglas Castle
and
the Hirsel The Hirsel is a Category A Listed stately home near Coldstream, Berwickshire in the Scottish Borders council area. It has been a seat of the Earl of Home, Earls of Home since 1611, and the principal seat following the destruction of Hume Castle du ...
were invited. There were four children of the marriage: Caroline, Meriel, Diana and
David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ''; possibly meaning "beloved one". is described in th ...
. The last was Dunglass's heir, inheriting the earldom of Home in 1995.


Chamberlain and war

By the time of Dunglass's appointment Chamberlain was generally seen as the heir to the premiership. In 1937 the incumbent,
Stanley Baldwin Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, (3 August 186714 December 1947) was a British Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and ...
, retired, and Chamberlain succeeded him. He then successfully obtained Dunglass as his PPS, a role described by the biographer D. R. Thorpe as "the right-hand man ... the eyes and ears of Neville Chamberlain", and by Dutton as "liaison officer with the Parliamentary party, transmitting and receiving information and eepinghis master informed of the mood on the government's back benches". This was particularly important for Chamberlain, who was often seen as distant and aloof;
Douglas Hurd Douglas Richard Hurd, Baron Hurd of Westwell, (born 8 March 1930) is a British Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (s ...
wrote that he "lacked the personal charm which makes competent administration palatable to wayward colleagues – a gift which his parliamentary private secretary possessed in abundance". Dunglass admired Chamberlain, despite his daunting personality: "I liked him, and I think he liked me. But if one went in at the end of the day for a chat or a gossip, he would be inclined to ask 'What do you want?' He was a very difficult man to get to know." As Chamberlain's aide Dunglass witnessed at first-hand the Prime Minister's attempts to prevent a second world war through
appeasement Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power (international relations) , power in order to avoid conflict. The term is most often applied to the foreign pol ...
of
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
's Germany. When Chamberlain had his final meeting with Hitler at Munich in September 1938, Dunglass accompanied him. Having gained a short-lived extension of peace by acceding to Hitler's territorial demands at the expense of Czechoslovakia, Chamberlain was welcomed back to London by cheering crowds. Ignoring Dunglass's urging he made an uncharacteristically grandiloquent speech, claiming to have brought back "Peace with Honour" and promising "peace for our time". These words were to haunt him when Hitler's continued aggression made war unavoidable less than a year later. Chamberlain remained Prime Minister from the outbreak of war in September 1939 until May 1940, when, in Dunglass's words, "he could no longer command support of a majority in the Conservative party". After a vote in the Commons, in which the government's majority fell from more than 200 to 81, Chamberlain made way for
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Winston Churchill
. He accepted the non-departmental post of
Lord President of the Council The Lord President of the Council is the fourth of the Great Officers of State (United Kingdom), Great Officers of State of the United Kingdom, ranking below the Lord High Treasurer but above the Lord Privy Seal, Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal. ...
in the new coalition government; Dunglass remained as his PPS, having earlier declined the offer of a ministerial post as Under-secretary at the Scottish Office. Although Chamberlain's reputation never recovered from Munich, and his supporters such as suffered throughout their later careers from the "appeasement" tag, Dunglass largely escaped blame. Nevertheless, Dunglass firmly maintained all his life that the Munich agreement had been vital to the survival of Britain and the defeat of Nazi Germany by giving the UK an extra year to prepare for a war that it could not have contested in 1938. Within months of his leaving the premiership Chamberlain's health began to fail; he resigned from the cabinet, and died after a short illness in November 1940.


Health crisis, and recovery

Dunglass had volunteered for active military service, seeking to rejoin the
Lanarkshire Yeomanry The Lanarkshire Yeomanry was a yeomanry Yeomanry is a designation used by a number of units or sub-units of the British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, Bri ...
shortly after Chamberlain left Downing Street. The consequent medical examination revealed that Dunglass had a hole in his spine surrounded by
tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the in ...

tuberculosis
in the bone. Without surgery he would have been unable to walk within a matter of months. An innovative and hazardous operation was performed in September 1940, lasting six hours, in which the diseased bone in the spine was scraped away and replaced with healthy bone from the patient's shin. For all of Dunglass's humour and patience, the following two years were a grave trial. He was encased in plaster and kept flat on his back for most of that period. Although buoyed up by the sensitive support of his wife and family, as he later confessed, "I often felt that I would be better dead." Towards the end of 1942 he was released from his plaster jacket and fitted with a spinal brace, and in early 1943 he was mobile for the first time since the operation. During his incapacity he read voraciously; among the works he studied were ''
Das Kapital ''Das Kapital'', also known as ''Capital: A Critique of Political Economy'' or sometimes simply ''Capital'' (german: Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, ; 1867–1883), is a foundational theoretical text in materialist philosophy, ...

Das Kapital
'', and works by
Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''.
and
Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of th ...

Lenin
, biographies of nineteenth and twentieth century politicians, and novels by authors from
Dostoyevsky Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (; rus, Фёдор Михайлович Достоевский, Fyódor Mikháylovich Dostoyévskiy, ˈfʲɵdər mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪdʑ dəstɐˈjɛfskʲɪj, a=ru-Dostoevsky.ogg; 11 November 18219 February 1881) ...
to Koestler.


Return to Commons, first ministerial post

In July 1943 Dunglass attended the House of Commons for the first time since 1940, and began to make a reputation as a backbench member, particularly for his expertise in the field of foreign affairs. He foresaw a post-imperial future for Britain and emphasised the need for strong European ties after the war. In 1944, with the war now turning in the Allies' favour, Dunglass spoke eloquently about the importance of resisting the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
's ambition to dominate eastern Europe. His boldness in publicly urging Churchill not to give in to
Joseph Stalin ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgians, Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who governed the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death in 1953. He held power both as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952 ...
was widely remarked upon; many, including Churchill himself, observed that some of those once associated with appeasement were determined that it should not be repeated in the face of Russian aggression. Labour left the wartime coalition in May 1945 and Churchill formed a caretaker Conservative government, pending a general election in July. Dunglass was appointed to his first ministerial post:
Anthony Eden Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party (UK), Leader of the Conservative Party from 1955 to 1957, after serving three p ...

Anthony Eden
remained in charge of the Foreign Office, and Dunglass was appointed as one of his two Under-secretaries of State.


Postwar period (1945–1950)

At the July 1945 general election Dunglass lost his Parliamentary seat in the landslide Labour victory. It was widely assumed that as his father, the 13th earl, was in his seventies, Dunglass's political career was behind him, as he would soon inherit the earldom. There being at that time no provision for peers to disclaim their peerages, this would bring with it an obligatory seat in the House of Lords, with no option of remaining in the Commons, where most political power resided. Dunglass was appointed a director of the
Bank of Scotland The Bank of Scotland plc is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a ...

Bank of Scotland
in 1946, and although he never considered banking as a long-term occupation he gained valuable first-hand experience in commerce and finance. He remained with the bank until 1951. In 1950,
Clement Attlee Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 18838 October 1967) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head o ...

Clement Attlee
, the Labour prime minister, called a general election. Dunglass was invited to stand once again as Unionist candidate for Lanark. Having been disgusted at personal attacks during the 1945 campaign by Tom Steele, his Labour opponent, Dunglass did not scruple to remind the voters of Lanark that Steele had warmly thanked the Communist Party and its members for helping him take the seat from the Unionists. By 1950, with the Cold War at its height, Steele's association with the communists was a crucial electoral liability. Dunglass regained the seat with one of the smallest majorities in any British constituency: 19,890 to Labour's 19,205. Labour narrowly won the general election, with a majority of 5.


Succession to earldom

In July 1951 the 13th earl died. Dunglass succeeded him, inheriting the title of Earl of Home together with the extensive family estates, including The Hirsel, the Douglas-Homes' principal residence. The new Lord Home took his seat in the Lords; a by-election was called to appoint a new MP for Lanark, but it was still pending when Attlee called another general election in October 1951. The Unionists held Lanark, and the national result gave the Conservatives under Churchill a small but working majority of 17.


Rise in Cabinet

Home was appointed to the new post of Minister of State at the Scottish Office, a middle-ranking position, senior to Under-secretary but junior to James Stuart, 1st Viscount Stuart of Findhorn, James Stuart, the Secretary of State, who was a member of the cabinet. Stuart, previously an influential chief whip, was a confidant of Churchill, and possibly the most powerful Scottish Secretary in any government. Thorpe writes that Home owed his appointment to Stuart's advocacy rather than to any great enthusiasm on the Prime Minister's part (Churchill referred to him as "Home sweet Home"). In addition to his ministerial position Home was appointed to membership of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Privy Council, an honour granted only selectively to ministers below cabinet rank. Throughout Churchill's second term as Prime Minister (1951–1955) Home remained at the Scottish Office, although both Eden at the Foreign Office and Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury, Lord Salisbury at the Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations, Commonwealth Relations Office invited him to join their ministerial teams. Among the Scottish matters with which he dealt were hydro-electric projects, hill farming, sea transport, road transport, forestry, and the welfare of crofters in the Scottish Highlands, Highlands and the Outer Hebrides, Western Isles. These matters went largely unreported in the British press, but the question of the royal cypher on Post Office pillar boxes became front-page news. Because Elizabeth I of England was never queen of Scotland, some nationalists maintained when Elizabeth II came to the British throne in 1952 that in Scotland she should be styled "Elizabeth I". Churchill said in the House of Commons that considering the "greatness and splendour of Scotland", and the contribution of the Scots to British and world history, "they ought to keep their silliest people in order". Home nevertheless arranged that in Scotland new pillar boxes were decorated with the royal crown instead of the full cypher. When Eden succeeded Churchill as Prime Minister in 1955, he promoted Home to the cabinet as Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations. At the time of this appointment Home had not been to any of the countries within his ministerial remit, and he quickly arranged to visit Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, India, Pakistan and Ceylon. He had to deal with the sensitive subject of immigration from and between Commonwealth countries, where a delicate balance had to be struck between resistance in some quarters in Britain and Australia to non-white immigration on the one hand, and on the other the danger of sanctions in India and Pakistan against British commercial interests if discriminatory policies were pursued. In most respects, however, when Home took up the appointment it seemed to be a relatively uneventful period in the history of the Commonwealth. The upheaval of Indian independence in 1947 was well in the past, and the wave of decolonising of the 1960s was yet to come. However, it fell to Home to maintain Commonwealth unity during the Suez Crisis in 1956, described by Dutton as "the most divisive in its history to date". Australia, New Zealand and South Africa backed the Anglo-French invasion of Egypt to regain control of the Suez Canal. Canada, Ceylon, India and Pakistan all opposed it. There appeared to be a real danger that Ceylon, India and, particularly, Pakistan might leave the Commonwealth. Home was firm in his support of the invasion, but used his contacts with Jawaharlal Nehru, V. K. Krishna Menon, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, Nan Pandit and others to try to prevent the Commonwealth from breaking up. His relationship with Eden was supportive and relaxed; he felt able, as others did not, to warn Eden of unease about Suez both internationally and among some members of the cabinet. Eden dismissed the latter as the "weak sisters"; the most prominent was
Rab Butler Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, (9 December 1902 – 8 March 1982), also known as R. A. Butler and familiarly known from his initials as Rab, was a prominent British Conservative Party (UK), Conservative politician. ''The ...

Rab Butler
, whose perceived hesitancy over Suez on top of his support for appeasement of Hitler damaged his standing within the Conservative party. When the invasion was abandoned under pressure from the US in November 1956, Home worked with the dissenting members of the Commonwealth to build the organisation into what Douglas Hurd calls "a modern multiracial Commonwealth".


Macmillan's government

Eden resigned in January 1957. In 1955 he had been the obvious successor to Churchill, but this time there was no clear heir apparent. Leaders of the Conservative party were not elected by ballot of MPs or party members, but emerged after informal soundings within the party, known as "the customary processes of consultation". The chief whip,
Edward Heath Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 191617 July 2005) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is ...
, canvassed the views of backbench Conservative MPs, and two senior Conservative peers, the Lord President of the Council, Lord Salisbury, and the Lord Chancellor, David Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir, Lord Kilmuir, saw members of the cabinet individually to ascertain their preferences. Only one cabinet colleague supported Butler; the rest, including Home, opted for
Harold Macmillan Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the na ...

Harold Macmillan
. Churchill, whom the Queen consulted, did the same. Macmillan was appointed Prime Minister on 10 January 1957. In the First Macmillan ministry, new administration Home remained at the Commonwealth Relations Office. Much of his time was spent on matters relating to Africa, where the futures of Bechuanaland and the Central African Federation needed to be agreed. Among other matters in which he was involved were the dispute between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, Ten Pound Poms, assisted emigration from Britain to Australia, and relations with Makarios III, Archbishop Makarios of Cyprus. The last unexpectedly led to an enhanced cabinet role for Home. Makarios, leader of the militant anti-British and pro-Greek movement, was detained in exile in the Seychelles. Macmillan, with the agreement of Home and most of the cabinet, decided that this imprisonment was doing more harm than good to Britain's position in Cyprus, and ordered Makarios's release. Lord Salisbury strongly dissented from the decision and resigned from the cabinet in March 1957. Macmillan added Salisbury's responsibilities to Home's existing duties, making him Lord President of the Council and
Leader of the House of Lords The leader of the House of Lords is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is a group of the most senior ministers of the crown Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in Co ...
. The first of these posts was largely honorific, but the leadership of the Lords put Home in charge of getting the government's business through the upper house, and brought him nearer to the centre of power. In Hurd's phrase, "By the imperceptible process characteristic of British politics he found himself month by month, without any particular manoeuvre on his part, becoming an indispensable figure in the government." Home was generally warmly regarded by colleagues and opponents alike, and there were few politicians who did not respond well to him. One was Attlee, but as their political primes did not overlap this was of minor consequence. More important was Iain Macleod's prickly relationship with Home. Macleod, Secretary of State for the Colonies from 1959–61, was, like Butler, on the liberal wing of the Conservative party; he was convinced, as Home was not, that Britain's colonies in Africa should have majority rule and independence as quickly as possible. Their spheres of influence overlapped in the Central African Federation. Macleod wished to push ahead with majority rule and independence; Home believed in a more gradual approach to independence, accommodating both white minority and black majority opinions and interests. Macleod disagreed with those who warned that precipitate independence would lead the newly independent nations into "trouble, strife, poverty, dictatorship" and other evils. His reply was, "Would you want the Romans to have stayed on in Britain?" He threatened to resign unless he was allowed to release the leading Nyasaland activist Hastings Banda from prison, a move that Home and others thought unwise and liable to provoke distrust of Britain among the white minority in the federation. Macleod had his way, but by that time Home was no longer at the Commonwealth Relations Office.


Foreign Secretary (1960–1963)

In 1960 the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Derick Heathcoat-Amory, insisted on retiring. Macmillan agreed with Heathcoat-Amory that the best successor at the HM Treasury, Treasury would be the current Foreign Secretary, Selwyn Lloyd. In terms of ability and experience the obvious candidate to take over from Lloyd at the Foreign Office was Home, but by 1960 there was an expectation that the Foreign Secretary would be a member of the House of Commons. The post had not been held by a peer since E. F. L. Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, Lord Halifax in 1938–40; Eden had wished to appoint Salisbury in 1955, but concluded that it would be unacceptable to the Commons. After discussions with Lloyd and senior civil servants, Macmillan took the unprecedented step of appointing two Foreign Office cabinet ministers: Home, as Foreign Secretary, in the Lords, and Edward Heath, as Lord Privy Seal and deputy Foreign Secretary, in the Commons. With British application for admission to the European Economic Community (EEC) pending, Heath was given particular responsibility for the EEC negotiations as well as for speaking in the Commons on foreign affairs in general. The opposition Labour party protested at Home's appointment; its leader, Hugh Gaitskell, said that it was "constitutionally objectionable" for a peer to be in charge of the Foreign Office. Macmillan responded that an accident of birth should not be allowed to deny him the services of "the best man for the job – the man I want at my side". Hurd comments, "Like all such artificial commotions it died down after a time (and indeed was not renewed with any strength nineteen years later when Margaret Thatcher appointed another peer, Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, Lord Carrington, to the same post)." The Home–Heath partnership worked well. Despite their different backgrounds and ages – Home an Edwardian era, Edwardian aristocrat and Heath a lower-middle class meritocrat raised in the inter-war years – the two men respected and liked one another. Home supported Macmillan's ambition to get Britain into the EEC, and was happy to leave the negotiations in Heath's hands. Home's attention was mainly concentrated on the Cold War, where his forcefully expressed anti-communist beliefs were tempered by a pragmatic approach to dealing with the Soviet Union. His first major problem in this sphere was in 1961 when on the orders of the Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, the Berlin Wall was erected to stop East Germany, East Germans escaping to West Germany via West Berlin. Home wrote to his American counterpart, Dean Rusk, "The prevention of East Berliners getting into West Berlin has never been a ''casus belli'' for us. We are concerned with Western access to Berlin and that is what we must maintain." The governments of West Germany, Britain and the US quickly reached agreement on their joint negotiating position; it remained to persuade Charles de Gaulle, President de Gaulle of France to align himself with the allies. During their discussions Macmillan commented that de Gaulle showed "all the rigidity of a poker without its occasional warmth". An agreement was reached, and the allies tacitly recognised that the wall was going to remain in place. The Soviets for their part did not seek to cut off allied access to West Berlin through East German territory. The following year the
Cuban Missile Crisis The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 ( es, Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis (), or the Missile Scare, was a 1-month, 4 day (16 October – 20 November 1962) confrontation between the United States ...
threatened to turn the Cold War into a nuclear one. Soviet nuclear missiles were brought to Cuba, provocatively close to the US. The American president, John F. Kennedy, John F Kennedy, insisted that they must be removed, and many thought that the world was on the brink of catastrophe with nuclear exchanges between the two super-powers. Despite a public image of unflappable calm, Macmillan was by nature nervous and highly strung. During the missile crisis, Home, whose calm was genuine and innate, strengthened the Prime Minister's resolve, and encouraged him to back up Kennedy's defiance of Soviet threats of nuclear attack. The Lord Chancellor (Reginald Manningham-Buller, 1st Viscount Dilhorne, Lord Dilhorne), the Attorney General for England and Wales, Attorney General (John Hobson (politician), Sir John Hobson) and the Solicitor General for England and Wales, Solicitor General, (Peter Rawlinson, Baron Rawlinson of Ewell, Sir Peter Rawlinson) privately gave Home their opinion that the American blockade of Cuba was a breach of international law, but he continued to advocate a policy of strong support for Kennedy. When Khrushchev backed down and removed the Soviet missiles from Cuba, Home commented: The principal landmark of Home's term as Foreign Secretary was also in the sphere of east–west relations: the negotiation and signature of the
Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapon A nuclear weapon (als ...
in 1963. He got on well with his American and Soviet counterparts, Rusk and Andrei Gromyko. The latter wrote that whenever he met Home there were "no sudden, still less brilliant, breakthroughs" but "each meeting left a civilised impression that made the next meeting easier". Gromyko concluded that Home added sharpness to British foreign policy. Gromyko, Home and Rusk signed the treaty in Moscow on 5 August 1963. After the fear provoked internationally by the Cuban Missile Crisis, the ban on nuclear testing in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water was widely welcomed as a step towards ending the cold war. For the British government the good news from Moscow was doubly welcome for drawing attention away from the
Profumo affair The Profumo affair was a major scandal in twentieth-century Politics of the United Kingdom, British politics. John Profumo, the Secretary of State for War in Harold Macmillan's Conservative Party (United Kingdom), Conservative government, had a ...
, a sexual scandal involving John Profumo, a senior minister, which had left Macmillan's administration looking vulnerable.


Successor to Macmillan

In October 1963, just before the Conservative party's annual conference, Macmillan was taken ill with a prostate, prostatic obstruction. The condition was at first thought more serious than it turned out to be, and he announced that he would resign as Prime Minister as soon as a successor was appointed. Three senior politicians were considered likely successors, 'Rab' Butler (Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Deputy Prime Minister and First Secretary of State),
Reginald Maudling Reginald Maudling (7 March 1917 – 14 February 1979) was a British politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer The chancellor of the Exchequer, often abbreviated to the chancellor, is a senior minister of the Crown within the Gover ...
(Chancellor of the Exchequer) and Quintin Hogg, Baron Hailsham of St Marylebone, Lord Hailsham (Lord President of the Council and Leader of the House of Lords). ''The Times'' summed up their support: In the same article, Home was mentioned in passing as "a fourth hypothetical candidate" on whom the party could compromise if necessary. It was assumed in the ''Times'' article, and by other commentators, that if Hailsham (or Home) was a candidate he would have to renounce his peerage. This had been made possible for the first time by recent legislation. The last British prime minister to sit in the House of Lords was the Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, Marquess of Salisbury, in 1902. By 1923, having to choose between Baldwin and George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, Lord Curzon, George V decided that "the requirements of the present times" obliged him to appoint a prime minister from the Commons. His private secretary recorded that the King "believed he would not be fulfilling his trust were he now to make his selection of Prime Minister from the House of Lords". Similarly, after the resignation of Neville Chamberlain in 1940 there were two likely successors, Churchill and Halifax, but the latter ruled himself out for the premiership on the grounds that his membership of the House of Lords disqualified him. In 1963, therefore, it was well established that the prime minister should be a member of the House of Commons. On 10 October Hailsham announced his intention to renounce his viscountcy. The "customary processes" once again took place. The usual privacy of the consultations was made impossible because they took place during the party conference, and the potential successors made their bids very publicly. Butler had the advantage of giving the party leader's keynote address to the conference in Macmillan's absence, but was widely thought to have wasted the opportunity by delivering an uninspiring speech. Hailsham put off many potential backers by his extrovert, and some thought vulgar, campaigning. Maudling, like Butler, made a speech that failed to impress the conference. Senior Conservative figures such as Frederick Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton, Lord Woolton and Selwyn Lloyd urged Home to make himself available for consideration. Having ruled himself out of the race when the news of Macmillan's illness broke, Home angered at least two of his cabinet colleagues by changing his mind. Macmillan quickly came to the view that Home would be the best choice as his successor, and gave him valuable behind-the-scenes backing. He let it be known that if he recovered he would be willing to serve as a member of a Home cabinet. He had earlier favoured Hailsham, but changed his mind when he learned from David Ormsby-Gore, 5th Baron Harlech, the British ambassador to the United States, that the Kennedy administration was uneasy at the prospect of Hailsham as Prime Minister, and from his chief whip that Hailsham, seen as a right-winger, would alienate moderate voters. Butler, by contrast, was seen as on the liberal wing of the Conservatives, and his election as leader might split the party. The Lord Chancellor, Lord Dilhorne, conducted a poll of cabinet members, and reported to Macmillan that taking account of first and second preferences there were ten votes for Home, four for Maudling, three for Butler and two for Hailsham. The appointment of a prime minister remained part of the royal prerogative, on which the monarch had no constitutional duty to consult an outgoing prime minister. Nevertheless, Macmillan advised the Queen that he considered Home the right choice. Little of this was known beyond the senior ranks of the party and the royal secretariat. On 18 October ''The Times'' ran the headline, "The Queen May Send for Mr. Butler Today". ''The Daily Telegraph'' and ''The Financial Times'' also predicted that Butler was about to be appointed. The Queen sent for Home the same day. Aware of the divisions within the governing party, she did not appoint him Prime Minister, but invited him to see whether he was able to form a government. Home's cabinet colleagues Enoch Powell and Iain Macleod, who disapproved of his candidacy, made a last-minute effort to prevent him from taking office by trying to persuade Butler and the other candidates not to take posts in a Home cabinet. Butler, however, believed it to be his duty to serve in the cabinet; he refused to have any part in the conspiracy, and accepted the post of Foreign Secretary. The other candidates followed Butler's lead and only Powell and Macleod held out and refused office under Home. Macleod commented, "One does not expect to have many people with one in the last ditch." On 19 October Home was able to return to Buckingham Palace to kissing hands, kiss hands as Prime Minister. The press was not only wrong-footed by the appointment, but generally highly critical. The pro-Labour ''Daily Mirror'' said on its front page: ''The Times'', generally pro-Conservative, had backed Butler, and called it "prodigal" of the party to pass over his many talents. The paper praised Home as "an outstandingly successful Foreign Secretary", but doubted his grasp of domestic affairs, his modernising instincts and his suitability "to carry the Conservative Party through a fierce and probably dirty campaign" at the general election due within a year. ''The Guardian'', liberal in its political outlook, remarked that Home "does not look like the man to impart force and purpose to his Cabinet and the country" and suggested that he seemed too frail politically to be even a stop-gap. ''The Observer'', another liberal-minded paper, said, "The overwhelming – and damaging – impression left by the events of the last two weeks is that the Tories have been forced to settle for a second-best. ... The calmness and steadiness which made him a good Foreign Secretary, particularly at times of crisis like Berlin and Cuba, may also be a liability." In January 1964 Macleod, now editor of ''The Spectator (1828), The Spectator'', used the pretext of a The Spectator (1828)#"The Tory Leadership" article, review of a book by Randolph Churchill to publicise his own different and very detailed version of the leadership election. He described the "soundings" of five Tory leaders, four of whom including Home and Macmillan had attended Eton, as a conspiracy by an Etonian "magic circle". The article received wide publicity; Anthony Howard (journalist), Anthony Howard later declared himself "deeply affronted ... and never more affronted than when Alec Douglas-Home became leader of the Conservative Party".


Prime Minister (1963–1964)

On 23 October 1963, four days after becoming Prime Minister, Home disclaimed his earldom and associated lesser peerages, under the Peerage Act 1963. Having been made a knight of the Order of the Thistle in 1962, he was known after stepping down from the Lords as Sir Alec Douglas-Home. The safe Unionist seat of Kinross and Western Perthshire (UK Parliament constituency), Kinross and West Perthshire was vacant following the sudden death of Gilmour Leburn and the candidate initially adopted, George Younger, 4th Viscount Younger of Leckie, George Younger, agreed to stand aside. Douglas-Home was thus adopted as his party's candidate. Parliament was due to meet on 24 October after the summer recess, but its return was postponed until 12 November pending the by-election. For twenty days Douglas-Home was Prime Minister while a member of neither house of Parliament, a situation without modern precedent. He won 1963 Kinross and Western Perthshire by-election, the 7 November by-election with a majority of 9,328; the Liberal candidate was in second place and Labour in third. The Parliamentary leader of the opposition Labour party,
Harold Wilson James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Harold Wilson
, attacked the new prime minister as "an elegant anachronism". He asserted that nobody from Douglas-Home's background knew of the problems of ordinary families. In particular, Wilson demanded to know how "a scion of an effete establishment" could lead the technological revolution that Wilson held to be necessary: "This is the counter-revolution ... After half a century of democratic advance, of social revolution, the whole process has ground to a halt with a fourteenth earl!" Douglas-Home dismissed this as Snob#inverted snobbery, inverted snobbery, and observed, "I suppose Mr Wilson, when you come to think of it, is the fourteenth Mr Wilson." He called Wilson "this slick salesman of synthetic science" and the Labour party "the only relic of class consciousness in the country". The opposition retreated, with a statement in the press that "The Labour Party is not interested in the fact that the new prime minister inherited a fourteenth Earldom – he cannot help his antecedents any more than the rest of us." Douglas-Home inherited from Macmillan a government widely perceived as in decline; Hurd wrote that it was "becalmed in a sea of satire and scandal." Douglas-Home was the target of satirists on BBC television and in ''Private Eye'' magazine. Unlike Wilson, he was not at ease on television, and came across as less spontaneous than his opponent. In international affairs the most dramatic event during Douglas-Home's premiership was the assassination of President Kennedy in November 1963. Douglas-Home broadcast a tribute on television. He had liked and worked well with Kennedy, and did not develop such a satisfactory relationship with Lyndon Johnson. Their governments had a serious disagreement on the question of British trade with Cuba. Under Douglas-Home the colonies of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland gained independence, though this was as a result of negotiations led by Macleod under the Macmillan government. In Britain there was economic prosperity; exports "zoomed", according to ''The Times'', and the economy was growing at an annual rate of four per cent. Douglas-Home made no pretence to economic expertise; he commented that his problems were of two sorts: "The political ones are insoluble and the economic ones are incomprehensible." On another occasion he said, "When I have to read economic documents I have to have a box of matches and start moving them into position to simplify and illustrate the points to myself." He left Maudling in charge at the Treasury, and promoted Heath to a new business and economic portfolio. The latter took the lead in the one substantial piece of domestic legislation of Douglas-Home's premiership, the abolition of
resale price maintenance Resale price maintenance (RPM) or, occasionally, retail price maintenance is the practice whereby a manufacturer Manufacturing is the creation or production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, th ...
. The Resale Prices Act 1964, Resale Prices Bill was introduced to deny manufacturers and suppliers the power to stipulate the prices at which their goods must be sold by the retailer. At the time, up to forty per cent of goods sold in Britain were subject to such price fixing, to the detriment of competition and to the disadvantage of the consumer. Douglas-Home, less instinctively liberal on economic matters than Heath, would probably not have sponsored such a proposal unprompted. However, he gave Heath his backing, in the face of opposition from some cabinet colleagues, including Butler, Hailsham and Lloyd, and a substantial number of Conservative backbenchers. They believed the change would benefit supermarkets and other large retailers at the expense of proprietors of small shops. The government was forced to make concessions to avoid defeat. Retail price maintenance would continue to be legal for some goods; these included books, on which it remained in force until market forces led to its abandonment in 1995. Manufacturers and suppliers would also be permitted to refuse to supply any retailer who sold their goods at less than cost price, as a loss leader. The bill had a difficult Parliamentary passage during which the Labour party generally abstained, leaving the Conservatives to vote for or against their own government. The bill received the royal assent in July 1964, but did not become operative until 1965, by which time Douglas-Home, Heath and their colleagues were out of office. A plot to kidnap Douglas-Home in April 1964 was foiled by the Prime Minister himself. Two left-wing students from the University of Aberdeen followed him to the house of John Buchan, 2nd Baron Tweedsmuir, John and Priscilla Buchan, Baroness Tweedsmuir of Belhelvie, Priscilla Buchan, where he was staying. He was alone at the time and answered the door, where the students told him that they planned to kidnap him. He responded, "I suppose you realise if you do, the Conservatives will win the election by 200 or 300." He gave his intending abductors some beer, and they abandoned their plot. The term of the Parliament elected in 1959 was due to expire in October 1964. Parliament was dissolved on 25 September and after three weeks of campaigning the 1964 United Kingdom general election took place on 15 October. Douglas-Home's speeches dealt with the future of the nuclear deterrent, while fears of Britain's relative decline in the world, reflected in chronic balance of payment problems, helped the Labour Party's case. The Conservatives under Douglas-Home did much better than widely predicted, but Labour under Wilson won with a narrow majority. Labour won 317 seats, the Conservatives 304 and the Liberals 9.


In Opposition (1964–1970)

As Leader of the Opposition, Douglas-Home persuaded Macleod and Powell to rejoin the Conservative front bench. Within weeks of the general election Butler retired from politics, accepting the post of Master of Trinity College, Cambridge together with a life peerage. Douglas-Home did not immediately allocate Shadow Cabinet, shadow portfolios to his colleagues, but in January 1965 he gave Maudling the foreign affairs brief and Heath became spokesman on Treasury and economic affairs. There was no immediate pressure for Douglas-Home to hand over the leadership to a member of the younger generation, but by early 1965 a new Conservative group called PEST (Pressure for Economic and Social Toryism) had discreetly begun to call for a change. Douglas-Home either did not know, or chose to ignore, the fact that Heath had made a donation to PEST. He decided that the time was coming for him to retire as leader, with Heath as his preferred successor. Determined that the party should abandon the "customary processes of consultation", which had caused such rancour when he was appointed in 1963, Douglas-Home set up an orderly process of secret balloting by Conservative MPs for the election of his immediate and future successors as party leader. In the interests of impartiality the ballot was organised by the 1922 Committee, the backbench Conservative MPs. Douglas-Home announced his resignation as Conservative leader on 22 July 1965. Three candidates stood in the 1965 Conservative Party leadership election: Heath, Maudling and Powell. Heath won with 150 votes (one of them cast by Douglas-Home) to 133 for Maudling and 15 for Powell. Douglas-Home accepted the foreign affairs portfolio in Heath's shadow cabinet. Many expected this to be a short-lived appointment, a prelude to Douglas-Home's retirement from politics. It came at a difficult time in British foreign relations: events in the self-governing colony of Rhodesia (formerly Southern Rhodesia), which had been drifting towards crisis for some years, finally erupted into open rebellion against British sovereignty. The predominantly white minority government there opposed an immediate transfer to black majority rule before the colony had achieved sovereign statehood, and in November 1965 it Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, unilaterally declared independence. Douglas-Home won the approval of left-wing Labour MPs such as Tony Benn, Wedgwood Benn for his unwavering opposition to the rebel government, and for ignoring those on the right wing of the Conservative party who sympathised with the rebels on racial grounds. In 1966 Douglas-Home became president of the
Marylebone Cricket Club Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) is a cricket club founded in 1787 and based since 1814 at Lord's Cricket Ground Lord's Cricket Ground, commonly known as Lord's, is a cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played betw ...
(MCC), which was then the governing body of English and world cricket. The presidency had generally been a largely ceremonial position, but Douglas-Home became embroiled in two controversies, one of them with international implications. This was the so-called "D'Oliveira affair", in which the inclusion of a non-white player in the England team to tour South Africa led to the cancellation of the tour by the apartheid regime in Pretoria. In his account of the affair, the political journalist Peter Oborne criticises Douglas-Home for his vacillating attitude towards South African Prime Minister John Vorster with whom, says Oborne, "he was no more robust than Chamberlain had been with Hitler thirty years earlier". Douglas-Home's advice to the MCC committee not to press the South Africans for advance assurances on D'Oliveira's acceptability, and his optimistic assurances that all would be well, became a matter of much criticism from a group of MCC members led by David Sheppard, the Rev David Sheppard. The second controversy was not one of race but of social class. Brian Close was dropped as England captain in favour of Colin Cowdrey. Close was dropped after using delaying tactics when captaining Yorkshire County Cricket Club, Yorkshire in a county match, but the move was widely seen as biased towards cricketers from the old amateur tradition, which had officially ended in 1963. Wilson's small majority after the 1964 general election had made the transaction of government business difficult, and in 1966 he called another election in which Labour gained a strong working majority of 96. Some older members of Heath's team, including Lloyd, retired from the front bench, making room for members of the next generation. Heath moved Maudling to the foreign affairs portfolio, and Douglas-Home took over Lloyd's responsibilities as spokesman on Commonwealth relations. Heath was widely seen as ineffective against Wilson, and as the 1970 United Kingdom general election, 1970 general election approached there was concern within the party that he would lose, and that Powell would seek to replace him as leader. Maudling and the chief whip, William Whitelaw, believed that if Heath had to resign Douglas-Home would be the safest candidate to keep Powell out. Douglas-Home shared their view that Labour would win the 1970 election, and that Heath might then have to resign, but he declined to commit himself. To the surprise of almost everyone except Heath, the Conservatives won the election, with a majority of 31 seats. Douglas-Home received an Honorary degree, Honorary Doctorate from Heriot-Watt University in 1966.


Foreign and Commonwealth Secretary (1970–1974)

Heath invited Douglas-Home to join the cabinet, taking charge of Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs. In earlier centuries it had not been exceptional for a former prime minister to serve in the cabinet of a successor, and even in the previous fifty years Arthur Balfour, Stanley Baldwin, Ramsay MacDonald and Neville Chamberlain had done so. As of 2019, Douglas-Home is the last former premier to have served under a successor. Of Balfour's appointment to H. H. Asquith, Asquith's cabinet in 1916, Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, Lord Rosebery, who had been Prime Minister in 1894–95, said that having an ex-premier in the cabinet was "a fleeting and dangerous luxury". Thorpe writes that Heath's appointment of Douglas-Home "was not a luxury but an essential buttress to his administration". The Wilson administration had merged the Colonial Office and the Commonwealth Relations Office in 1966 into the Commonwealth Office, which, two years later, was merged with the Foreign Office, to form the
Foreign and Commonwealth Office The Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) is a Departments of the United Kingdom Government, department of the Government of the United Kingdom. It was created on 2 September 2020 through the merger of the Foreign & Commonwealth Of ...
(FCO). Heath appointed Douglas-Home to head the department, with, once again, a second cabinet minister, this time Anthony Barber, principally responsible, as Heath had been in the 1960s, for negotiations on Britain's joining the EEC. This time, however, both ministers were in the Commons; Barber's cabinet post was officially Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Within weeks of the election Barber was moved from the FCO to the Treasury to take over as Chancellor from Iain Macleod, who died suddenly on 20 July. Though they had never enjoyed an easy relationship, Douglas-Home recognised his colleague's stature, and felt his loss politically as well as personally. Some commentators have maintained that Macleod's death and replacement by the less substantial figure of Barber fatally undermined the economic success of the Heath government. Barber was replaced at the FCO by Geoffrey Rippon, who handled the day-to-day negotiations, under the direction of Heath. Douglas-Home, as before, concentrated on east–west and Commonwealth matters. He was in agreement with Heath's policy on the EEC, and did much to persuade doubters on the right wing of the Conservative party of the desirability of Britain's entry. Hurd writes: In east–west relations, Douglas-Home continued his policy of keeping the Soviet Union at bay. In September 1971, after receiving no satisfactory results from negotiations with Gromyko about the flagrant activities of the KGB in Britain, he expelled 105 Soviet diplomats for spying. In addition to the furore arising from this, the Soviets felt that the British government's approach to negotiations on détente in Europe was over-cautious, even sceptical. Gromyko was nonetheless realistic enough to maintain a working relationship with the British government. Within days of the expulsions from London he and Douglas-Home met and discussed the Middle East and disarmament. In this sphere of foreign policy, Douglas-Home was widely judged a success. In negotiations on the future of Rhodesia Douglas-Home was less successful. He was instrumental in persuading the rebel leader, Ian Smith, to accept proposals for a transition to African majority rule. Douglas-Home set up an independent commission chaired by a senior British judge, Edward Pearce, Baron Pearce, Lord Pearce, to investigate how acceptable the proposals were to majority opinion in Rhodesia. After extensive fieldwork throughout Rhodesia, the commission reported, "We are satisfied on our evidence that the proposals are acceptable to the great majority of Europeans. We are equally satisfied ... that the majority of Africans rejected the proposals. In our opinion the people of Rhodesia as a whole do not regard the proposals as acceptable as a basis for independence." To Douglas-Home's disappointment there was no resolution, and Rhodesia remained a rebel regime long after he left office.


Retirement and death (1974–1995)

At the February 1974 United Kingdom general election, February 1974 general election the Heath government was narrowly defeated. Douglas-Home, then aged 70, stepped down at the October 1974 United Kingdom general election, second election of that year, called in October by the minority Labour government in the hope of winning a working majority. He returned to the House of Lords at the end of 1974 when he accepted a
life peer In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefe ...
age, becoming known as Baron Home of
the Hirsel The Hirsel is a Category A Listed stately home near Coldstream, Berwickshire in the Scottish Borders council area. It has been a seat of the Earl of Home, Earls of Home since 1611, and the principal seat following the destruction of Hume Castle du ...
, of Coldstream in the County of Berwick. Between 1977 and 1989 Home was Governor of I Zingari, the nomadic cricket team. In retirement he published three books: ''The Way The Wind Blows'' (1976), described by Hurd as "a good-natured autobiography, with perhaps more anecdotes than insights", ''Border Reflections'' (1979), and his correspondence with his grandson Matthew Darby, ''Letters to a Grandson'' (1983). In the 1980s Home increasingly spent his time in Scotland, with his family. He was a keen fisherman and enjoyed shooting. Hurd writes that "there was no sudden moment when he abandoned politics", rather that "his interventions became fewer and fewer". His last speech in the House of Lords was in 1989, when he spoke against Hurd's proposals for prosecuting war criminals living in Britain: "After such a lapse of time justice might not be seen to be done. It would be dangerous to rely on memories of events that occurred so long ago. It was too late to reopen the issue." His withdrawal from public affairs became more marked after the death of his wife in 1990, after 54 years of marriage. Home died at the Hirsel in October 1995 when he was 92, four months after the death of his parliamentary opponent
Harold Wilson James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Harold Wilson
. Home was buried in Lennel churchyard, Coldstream.


Reputation

Home's premiership was short and not conspicuous for radical innovation. Hurd remarks, "He was not capable of Macmillan's flights of imagination", but he was an effective practical politician. At the Commonwealth Relations Office and the Foreign Office he played an important role in helping to manage Britain's transition from imperial power to European partner. Both Thorpe and Hurd quote a memo that Macmillan wrote in 1963, intended to help the Queen choose his successor: Douglas Hurd, once Home's private secretary, and many years later his successor (after seven intermediate holders of the post) as Foreign and Commonwealth Secretary, wrote this personal comment: "The three most courteous men I knew in politics were Lord Home, King Hussein of Jordan, and President Nelson Mandela. All three had ease of birth, in the sense that they never needed to worry about who they themselves were and so had more time to concern themselves with the feelings of others." Although some in the Conservative party agreed with Wilson (and Jo Grimond, the Liberal leader) that the Conservatives would have won the 1964 election if Butler had been Prime Minister, ''The Times'' observed, "it should not be overlooked that in October 1963 Home took over a Government whose morale was shattered and whose standing in the opinion polls was abysmal. A year later Labour won the general election, with an overall majority of only four seats. That [Home] recovered so much ground in so short a time was in itself an achievement." However, looking back across Home's career, ''The Times'' considered that his reputation rested not on his brief premiership, but on his two spells as Foreign Secretary: "He brought to the office ... his capacity for straight talking, for toughness towards the Soviet Union and for firmness (sometimes interpreted as a lack of sympathy) towards the countries of Africa and Asia. But he brought something else as well: an unusual degree of international respect."


Cabinet (1963–1964)

The Home cabinet, announced on 20 October 1963, was: * Lord Home [Sir Alec Douglas-Home from 23 October]: Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury * : Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs * Quintin Hogg, Baron Hailsham of St Marylebone, Quintin Hogg:
Lord President of the Council The Lord President of the Council is the fourth of the Great Officers of State (United Kingdom), Great Officers of State of the United Kingdom, ranking below the Lord High Treasurer but above the Lord Privy Seal, Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal. ...
and Minister for Science * Reginald Manningham-Buller, 1st Viscount Dilhorne, Lord Dilhorne: Lord Chancellor *
Reginald Maudling Reginald Maudling (7 March 1917 – 14 February 1979) was a British politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer The chancellor of the Exchequer, often abbreviated to the chancellor, is a senior minister of the Crown within the Gover ...
:
Chancellor of the Exchequer The chancellor of the Exchequer, often abbreviated to the chancellor, is a senior minister of the Crown within the Government of the United Kingdom, and the chief executive officer of HM Treasury, Her Majesty's Treasury. As one of the four Grea ...
* Henry Brooke, Baron Brooke of Cumnor, Henry Brooke: Secretary of State for the Home Department * Duncan Sandys: Secretary of State for the Colonies and Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations *
Edward Heath Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 191617 July 2005) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is ...
: Secretary of State for Industry, Trade, and Regional Development and President of the Board of Trade * Peter Thorneycroft: Secretary of State for Defence, Minister of Defence * Selwyn Lloyd: Lord Privy Seal * John Hare, 1st Viscount Blakenham, Lord Blakenham: Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster * Christopher Soames, Baron Soames, Christopher Soames: Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food * Ernest Marples: Secretary of State for Transport, Minister of Transport * John Boyd-Carpenter: Chief Secretary to the Treasury and Paymaster-General * Michael Noble, Baron Glenkinglas, Michael Noble: Secretary of State for Scotland * Edward Boyle, Baron Boyle of Handsworth, Sir Edward Boyle: Secretary of State for Education and Science, Minister of Education * Joseph Godber: Minister of Labour * Keith Joseph, Sir Keith Joseph: Minister of Housing and Local Government and Minister for Welsh Affairs * Frederick Erroll, 1st Baron Erroll of Hale, Frederick Erroll: Ministry of Power (United Kingdom), Minister of Power * Anthony Barber: Secretary of State for Health, Minister of Health * Geoffrey Rippon: Ministry of Works (United Kingdom), Minister of Public Building and Works * Bill Deedes, W F Deedes: Minister without portfolio (United Kingdom), Minister without Portfolio * Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, Lord Carrington: Minister without Portfolio,
Leader of the House of Lords The leader of the House of Lords is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is a group of the most senior ministers of the crown Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in Co ...
;Changes * April 1964: Quintin Hogg became Secretary of State for Education and Science. Sir Edward Boyle left the cabinet. The post of Minister of Defence became Secretary of State for Defence with Thorneycroft retaining it.


Ancestry


Arms


Notes and references

Notes References


Sources

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Further reading

* * * * * * *


External links

*
Lord Dunglass (Alec Douglas-Home)
CricketArchive
Prime Ministers in the Post-War world: Alec Douglas-Home
lecture by D. R. Thorpe at Gresham College, 24 May 2007 (available for download as an audio or video file) * * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Douglas-Home, Alec 1903 births 1995 deaths 20th-century Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom Alumni of Christ Church, Oxford British Secretaries of State for Foreign Affairs British Secretaries of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs British sportsperson-politicians Chairmen of the Steering Committee of the Bilderberg Group Conservative Party (UK) life peers, Home of the Hirsel, Alec Douglas-Home, Baron Conservative Party Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom Directors of the Bank of Scotland Earls of Home English cricketers of 1919 to 1945 English cricketers English people of Scottish descent Free Foresters cricketers H. D. G. Leveson Gower's XI cricketers Harlequins cricketers Knights of the Thistle Leaders of the Conservative Party (UK) Leaders of the House of Lords Lord Presidents of the Council Marylebone Cricket Club cricketers Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for Scottish constituencies Members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom Members of the Steering Committee of the Bilderberg Group Middlesex cricketers Ministers in the Churchill caretaker government, 1945 Ministers in the Eden government, 1955–1957 Ministers in the Macmillan and Douglas-Home governments, 1957–1964, Ministers in the third Churchill government, 1951–1955 Oxford University cricketers Parliamentary Private Secretaries to the Prime Minister People associated with Perth and Kinross People educated at Eton College People from Mayfair Politicians awarded knighthoods Presidents of the Marylebone Cricket Club Scottish Conservative Party MPs Scottish Episcopalians UK MPs 1931–1935 UK MPs 1935–1945 UK MPs 1950–1951 UK MPs 1959–1964 UK MPs 1964–1966 UK MPs 1966–1970 UK MPs 1970–1974 UK MPs 1974 UK MPs who inherited peerages, Home, E14 UK MPs who were granted peerages Unionist Party (Scotland) MPs