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Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the
atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in ...

atmosphere
and
outer space Outer space, commonly shortened to space, is the expanse that exists beyond Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting ...
. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications.
Aerospace engineering Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipli ...

Aerospace engineering
consists of
aeronautics Aeronautics is the science or art involved with the study, design process, design, and manufacturing of air flight–capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere. The British Royal Aeronautical So ...

aeronautics
and
astronautics Astronautics (or cosmonautics) is the theory and practice of travel beyond Earth's atmosphere File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that toget ...
. Aerospace organizations research, design, manufacture, operate, or maintain
aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by using either Buoyancy, static lift or by using the Lift (force), dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in ...

aircraft
and
spacecraft A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. A type of artificial satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ">ERS_2.html" ;"title="Earth observation satellite ERS 2">Earth obse ...

spacecraft
. The beginning of space and the ending of the
air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosphere (0.04402961% at April 2019 concentration ). Number ...

air
is considered as 100 km above the ground according to the physical explanation that the air pressure is too low for a lifting body to generate meaningful lift force without exceeding orbital velocity.


Overview

In most industrial countries, the aerospace industry is a cooperation of the public and private sectors. For example, several states have a civilian
space program A space program is an organized effort by a government or a private individual with a goal related to outer space. Lists of space programs include: * List of government space agencies * List of private spaceflight companies * List of human spacef ...
funded by the
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
, such as
National Aeronautics and Space Administration The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different ...

National Aeronautics and Space Administration
in the United States,
European Space Agency , owner = , headquarters = Paris, Île-de-France, France , coordinates = , spaceport = Guiana Space Centre , seal = File:ESA emblem seal.png , seal_size = 130px , image = ESA Headquarters in Paris, France, 2 ...

European Space Agency
in Europe, the
Canadian Space Agency The Canadian Space Agency (CSA; french: Agence spatiale canadienne, ASC) is the national space agency of Canada, established in 1990 by the ''Canadian Space Agency Act''. The agency is responsible to the Minister of Innovation, Science, and Econom ...
in Canada,
Indian Space Research Organisation The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO ) is the national space agency of India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the ...
in India,
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency. Through the merger of three previously independent organizations, JAXA was formed on 1 October 2003. JAXA is responsible for research, technology development and launch of satellites in ...
in Japan, Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities in Russia,
China National Space Administration China National Space Administration (CNSA) () is the national space agency of China responsible for the Chinese space program, national space program and for planning and development of space activities. CNSA and China Aerospace Science and Tech ...
in China,
SUPARCO The Space & Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) ( ur, ) is the :Pakistan federal departments and agencies, executive and List of government space agencies, national space agency of Pakistan. It is headquartered at the capital city of ...
in Pakistan,
Iranian Space Agency The Iranian Space Agency (ISA, Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Ira ...

Iranian Space Agency
in Iran, and
Korea Aerospace Research Institute The Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) established in 1989, is the aeronautics Aeronautics is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight Flight or flying is the process by which an object ( ...
in South Korea. Along with these public space programs, many companies produce technical tools and components such as
spacecraft A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. A type of artificial satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ">ERS_2.html" ;"title="Earth observation satellite ERS 2">Earth obse ...

spacecraft
and
satellite In the context of spaceflight Spaceflight (or space flight) is an application of astronautics to fly spacecraft into or through outer space, either human spaceflight, with or uncrewed spaceflight, without humans on board. Most spaceflight ...

satellite
s. Some known companies involved in space programs include
Boeing The Boeing Company () is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personal ...

Boeing
, Cobham,
Airbus Airbus SE (; ; ; ) is a European multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational s ...
,
SpaceX Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) is an American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California. It was founded in 2002 by Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space trans ...
,
Lockheed Martin Lockheed Martin Corporation is an American aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the and . Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. consists of and . ...

Lockheed Martin
,
United Technologies United Technologies Corporation (UTC) was an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countr ...
,
MDA MDA, mda, or ''variation'', may refer to: Places * Moldova, a country in Europe with the ISO 3166-1 country code MDA People * A. P. Mda (1916-1993) South African political activist * Zakes Mda (born 1948) South African author Companies, organiz ...
and
Northrop Grumman Northrop Grumman Corporation () is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Mult ...

Northrop Grumman
. These companies are also involved in other areas of aerospace, such as the construction of aircraft.


History

Modern aerospace began with Engineer
George Cayley Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (27 December 1773 – 15 December 1857) was an English engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are Professional, professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test Machine, machi ...

George Cayley
in 1799. Cayley proposed an aircraft with a "fixed wing and a horizontal and vertical tail," defining characteristics of the modern airplane. The 19th century saw the creation of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (1866), the American Rocketry Society, and the
Institute of Aeronautical Sciences The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is a professional society for the field of aerospace engineering Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles t ...
, all of which made aeronautics a more serious scientific discipline. Airmen like
Otto Lilienthal Karl Wilhelm Otto Lilienthal (23 May 1848 – 10 August 1896) was a Germany, German pioneer of aviation who became known as the "flying man". He was the first person to make well-documented, repeated, successful flights with Glider (aircraft), ...

Otto Lilienthal
, who introduced cambered
airfoil An airfoil (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Englis ...

airfoil
s in 1891, used gliders to analyze
aerodynamic force An aerodynamic force is a force exerted on a body by the air (or other gas) in which the body is immersed, and is due to the relative motion The ''relative velocity'' \vec_ (also \vec_ or \vec_) is the velocity of an object or observer B in the r ...
s. The were interested in Lilienthal's work and read several of his publications. They also found inspiration in
Octave Chanute Octave Chanute (February 18, 1832 – November 23, 1910) was a French-American civil engineer A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering Civil engineering is a Regulation and licensure in engineering, professional engineer ...

Octave Chanute
, an
airman An airman is a member of an air force or air arm of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and ...
and the author of ''Progress in Flying Machines'' (1894). It was the preliminary work of Cayley, Lilienthal, Chanute, and other early aerospace engineers that brought about the first powered sustained flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903, by the Wright brothers. War and science fiction inspired scientists and engineers like
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (russian: Константи́н Эдуа́рдович Циолко́вский , , p=kənstɐnʲˈtʲin ɪdʊˈardəvʲɪtɕ tsɨɐlˈkofskʲɪj , a=Ru-Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.oga; – 19 September 1935) wa ...
and
Wernher von Braun Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (23 March 1912 – 16 June 1977) was a German-born American aerospace engineering, aerospace engineer and space architecture, space architect. He was the leading figure in the development of rocket te ...

Wernher von Braun
to achieve flight beyond the atmosphere. World War II inspired Wernher von Braun to create the V1 and V2 rockets. The launch of Sputnik 1 in October 1957 started the
Space Age The Space Age is a period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race The Space Race was a 20th-century competition between two Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the ...
, and on July 20, 1969
Apollo 11 Apollo 11 was the spaceflight Spaceflight (or space flight) is an application of astronautics to fly spacecraft into or through outer space, either human spaceflight, with or uncrewed spaceflight, without humans on board. Most spacefli ...

Apollo 11
achieved the first manned moon landing. In April 1981, the launched, the start of regular manned access to orbital space. A sustained human presence in orbital space started with "
Mir ''Mir'' (russian: Мир, ; ) was a space station A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting a human crew in orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitational ...

Mir
" in 1986 and is continued by the "
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a Modular design, modular space station (habitable satellite, artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (Uni ...

International Space Station
". Space commercialization and
space tourism Space tourism is Human spaceflight, human space travel for recreational purposes. There are several different types of space tourism, including orbital, suborbital and lunar space tourism. During the period from 2001 to 2009, seven space tour ...
are more recent features of aerospace.


Manufacturing

Aerospace manufacturing is a high-technology industry that produces "aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles, aircraft engines, propulsion units, and related parts". Most of the industry is geared toward governmental work. For each
original equipment manufacturer An original equipment manufacturer (OEM) is generally perceived as a company that produces parts and equipment that may be marketed by another manufacturer. However, the term is also used in several other ways, which causes ambiguity Amb ...
(OEM), the US government has assigned a Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) code. These codes help to identify each manufacturer, repair facilities, and other critical aftermarket vendors in the aerospace industry. In the United States, the
Department of DefenseDepartment of Defence or Department of Defense may refer to: Current departments of defence * Department of Defence (Australia) The Department of Defence (DoD) is a Government department, department of the Government of Australia charged with ...
and the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...
(NASA) are the two largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. Others include the very large airline industry. The aerospace industry employed 472,000 wage and salary workers in 2006. Most of those jobs were in Washington state and in California, with
Missouri Missouri is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Missouri
,
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
and
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
also being important. The leading aerospace manufacturers in the U.S. are
Boeing The Boeing Company () is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personal ...

Boeing
,
United Technologies Corporation United Technologies Corporation (UTC) was an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countr ...
,
SpaceX Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) is an American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California. It was founded in 2002 by Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space trans ...
,
Northrop Grumman Northrop Grumman Corporation () is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Mult ...

Northrop Grumman
and
Lockheed Martin Lockheed Martin Corporation is an American aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the and . Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. consists of and . ...

Lockheed Martin
. These manufacturers are facing an increasing labor shortage as skilled U.S. workers age and retire. Apprenticeship programs such as the Aerospace Joint Apprenticeship Council (AJAC) work in collaboration with Washington state aerospace employers and community colleges to train new manufacturing employees to keep the industry supplied. Important locations of the civilian aerospace industry worldwide include
Washington Washington commonly refers to: * Washington (state), United States * Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States ** Federal government of the United States (metonym) ** Washington metropolitan area, the metropolitan area centered on Washingt ...
state (
Boeing The Boeing Company () is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personal ...

Boeing
),
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
(
Boeing The Boeing Company () is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personal ...

Boeing
,
Lockheed Martin Lockheed Martin Corporation is an American aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the and . Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. consists of and . ...

Lockheed Martin
, etc.);
Montreal, Quebec Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, second-most populous city in Canada and List of towns in Quebec, most populous city in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian pro ...

Montreal, Quebec
, Canada (
Bombardier Bombardier may refer to: Armed forces * Bombardier (rank), rank equivalent to corporal used in some artillery corps * Bombardier (aircrew), crew member on a bomber aircraft * Artillery crewman, archaically Businesses * Bombardier Inc., a company ...
,
Pratt & Whitney Canada Pratt & Whitney Canada (PWC or P&WC) is a Canada-based aircraft engine manufacturer. PWC's headquarters are in Longueuil, Quebec, just outside Montreal. It is a division of the larger US-based Pratt & Whitney (P&W), itself a business unit of Rayt ...
);
Toulouse Toulouse ( , ; oc, Tolosa ) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...

Toulouse
, France (
Airbus Airbus SE (; ; ; ) is a European multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational s ...
/
EADS Airbus SE (; ; ; ) is a European multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational s ...
);
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = Post ...

Hamburg
, Germany (
Airbus Airbus SE (; ; ; ) is a European multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational s ...
/
EADS Airbus SE (; ; ; ) is a European multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational s ...
); and
São José dos Campos São José dos Campos (, meaning Saint Joseph of the Fields) is a major city and the seat of the Municipalities of Brazil, municipality of the same name in the state of São Paulo (state), São Paulo, Brazil. One of the leading industrial and res ...
, Brazil (
Embraer Embraer S.A. () is a Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both and . At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 ...
),
Querétaro Querétaro, formally Querétaro de Arteaga (), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Querétaro de Arteaga ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Querétaro de Arteaga, links=no; Otomi language, Otomi: ''Hyodi Ndämxei''),), is one of the Politica ...

Querétaro
, Mexico (Bombardier Aerospace, General Electric Aviation) and
Mexicali Mexicali (; ) is the capital city of the States of Mexico, Mexican state of Baja California and seat of the Mexicali Municipality, Municipality of Mexicali. The City of Mexicali has a population of 689,775, according to the 2010 census, while the ...

Mexicali
, Mexico (United Technologies Corporation,
Gulfstream Aerospace Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation is an American aircraft company and a wholly owned subsidiary of General Dynamics. Gulfstream designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and services business jet aircraft. Gulfstream has produced more than 2,000 ...
). In the European Union, aerospace companies such as
EADS Airbus SE (; ; ; ) is a European multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational s ...
,
BAE Systems BAE Systems plc (BAE) is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinationa ...
,
Thales Thales of Miletus ( ; el, Θαλῆς Thales of Miletus ( ; el, Θαλῆς Thales of Miletus ( ; el, Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), ''Thalēs''; ) was a Greek mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive kn ...
,
Dassault Dassault Group (; also GIM Dassault or Groupe Industriel Marcel Dassault SAS) is a France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of me ...
,
Saab AB Saab AB (originally , later just SAAB and Saab Group) is a Swedish aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρ ...
and Leonardo S.p.A. (formerly Finmeccnica) account for a large share of the global aerospace industry and research effort, with the
European Space Agency , owner = , headquarters = Paris, Île-de-France, France , coordinates = , spaceport = Guiana Space Centre , seal = File:ESA emblem seal.png , seal_size = 130px , image = ESA Headquarters in Paris, France, 2 ...

European Space Agency
as one of the largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. In India,
Bangalore Bangalore , List of renamed Indian cities and states, officially known as Bengaluru (), is the Capital city, capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of more than and a metropolitan area, metropolit ...

Bangalore
is a major center of the aerospace industry, where
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is an Indian state-owned aerospace and defence (military), defence company, headquartered in Bangalore (Bengaluru), India. It is governed under the management of the Ministry of Defence (India), Indian Ministr ...
, the
National Aerospace Laboratories National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), is India's first largest aerospace firm. It was established by the CSIR India, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) at Delhi in 1959 and its headquarters was later moved to Bangalore in 1 ...
and the
Indian Space Research Organisation The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO ) is the national space agency of India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the ...
are headquartered. The
Indian Space Research Organisation The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO ) is the national space agency of India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the ...
(ISRO) launched India's first Moon orbiter,
Chandrayaan-1 Chandrayaan-1 (, ) was the first Indian lunar Lunar most commonly means "of or relating to the Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continen ...

Chandrayaan-1
, in October 2008. In Russia, large aerospace companies like
Oboronprom OPK Oboronprom (russian: ОПК Оборонпром) was a Russian aerospace holding company. The company was involved in helicopter production, engine production, air-defenсe systems, complex radio-electronic systems and leasing. Russian Helicopt ...
and the United Aircraft Building Corporation (encompassing
Mikoyan Russian Aircraft Corporation "MiG" (russian: Российская самолётостроительная корпорация „МиГ“, Rossiyskaya samolotostroitel'naya korporatsiya "MiG"), commonly known as Mikoyan and MiG, was a Russia ...
,
Sukhoi The JSC Sukhoi Company (russian: ПАО «Компания „Сухой“», ) was a major Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist repub ...
,
Ilyushin The public joint stock company Ilyushin Aviation Complex, operating as "Ilyushin" (russian: Илью́шин) or as "Ilyushin Design Bureau", is a former Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR) ...
,
Tupolev Tupolev (russian: Ту́полев, ), officially Joint Stock Company Tupolev, is a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of cou ...
,
Yakovlev The JSC A.S. Yakovlev Design Bureau (russian: ОАО Опытно-конструкторское бюро им. А.С. Яковлева) is a Russian aircraft designer and manufacturer (design office prefix Yak). Its head office is in Aeroport Di ...

Yakovlev
, and Irkut which includes
Beriev The PJSC Beriev Aircraft Company (russian: Таганрогский авиационный научно-технический комплекс им. Г. М. Бериева, , Beriev Taganrog Aviation Scientific Technical Complex), formerly Beriev ...
) are among the major global players in this industry. The historic
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
was also the home of a major aerospace industry. The United Kingdom formerly attempted to maintain its own large aerospace industry, making its own
airline An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passenger A passenger (also abbreviated as pax) is a person who travels in a vehicle but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle ...
rs and warplanes, but it has largely turned its lot over to cooperative efforts with continental companies, and it has turned into a large import customer, too, from countries such as the United States. However, the UK has a very active aerospace sector, including the second largest defence contractor in the world,
BAE Systems BAE Systems plc (BAE) is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinationa ...
, supplying fully assembled aircraft, aircraft components, sub-assemblies and sub-systems to other manufacturers, both in Europe and all over the world. Canada has formerly manufactured some of its own designs for jet warplanes, etc. (e.g. the
CF-100 The Avro Canada CF-100 Canuck (affectionately known as the "Clunk") is a Canada, Canadian twinjet Interceptor aircraft, interceptor/fighter aircraft, fighter designed and produced by aircraft manufacturer Avro Canada. It has the distinction of be ...
fighter), but for some decades, it has relied on imports from the United States and Europe to fill these needs. However Canada still manufactures some military aircraft although they are generally not combat capable. Another notable example was the late 1950s development of the
Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow The Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow was a delta-winged interceptor aircraft An interceptor aircraft, or simply interceptor, is a type of fighter aircraft Fighter aircraft are fixed-wing aircraft, fixed-wing military aircraft designed prima ...
, a supersonic fighter-interceptor whose 1959 cancellation was considered highly controversial. France has continued to make its own warplanes for its air force and navy, and Sweden continues to make its own warplanes for the Swedish Air Force—especially in support of its position as a neutral country. (See
Saab AB Saab AB (originally , later just SAAB and Saab Group) is a Swedish aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρ ...
.) Other European countries either team up in making
fighters Fighter(s) or The Fighter(s) may refer to: Combat and warfare * Combatant, an individual legally entitled to engage in hostilities during an international armed conflict * Fighter aircraft, a warplane designed to destroy or damage enemy warplanes ...

fighters
(such as the
Panavia Tornado The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine, variable-sweep wing A variable-sweep wing, colloquially known as a "swing wing", is an airplane An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a fixed-wing aircraft that is propel ...
and the
Eurofighter Typhoon The Eurofighter Typhoon is a multinational twin-engine, canard delta wing A delta wing is a wing A wing is a type of fin A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure. Fins typically function as foil ...

Eurofighter Typhoon
), or else to import them from the United States.
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
has a developing aerospace engineering industry. The
National Engineering and Scientific Commission The National Engineering & Scientific Commission (NESCOM) ( ur, ) is a Pakistani missile manufacturer and military research organization of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as , , , and . officially the ...
,
Khan Research Laboratories The Dr. A. Q. Khan Research Laboratories, ( ur, ) or KRL for short, is a federally funded, multi-program national research institute and national laboratory site primarily dedicated to uranium enrichment Uranium is a chemical element Ima ...
and
Pakistan Aeronautical Complex The Pakistan Aeronautical Complex ( ur, ), or PAC) is a major defense contractor and an aerospace manufacturer that is headquartered in Kamra, Pakistan, Kamra, Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. The Pakistan Aeronautical Complex is one of t ...
are among the premier organizations involved in research and development in this sector. Pakistan has the capability of designing and manufacturing guided rockets, missiles and space vehicles. The city of
KamraKamra may refer to: * Kamra, Pakistan, a town in Attock District, Punjab ** PAC Kamra (Pakistan Aeronautical Complex), in the town ** Kamra Air Base (PAF Base Minhas), in the town * Kamra Cantonment, adjacent to the airbase * Kamra (surname) {{disa ...
is home to the
Pakistan Aeronautical Complex The Pakistan Aeronautical Complex ( ur, ), or PAC) is a major defense contractor and an aerospace manufacturer that is headquartered in Kamra, Pakistan, Kamra, Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. The Pakistan Aeronautical Complex is one of t ...
which contains several factories. This facility is responsible for manufacturing the MFI-17, MFI-395, K-8 and
JF-17 Thunder The PAC JF-17 Thunder ( ur , جے ایف-17 گرج), or CAC FC-1 ''Xiaolong'' (), is a lightweight, single-engine, fourth-generation multi-role combat aircraft developed jointly by the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex The Pakistan Aerona ...
aircraft. Pakistan also has the capability to design and manufacture both armed and unarmed
unmanned aerial vehicles being tested in California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territories of the United States by population ...
. In the People's Republic of China, Beijing,
Xi'an Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...
,
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...

Chengdu
, Shanghai,
Shenyang Shenyang (, ; ; Mandarin pronunciation: ), formerly known as Fengtian () or by its Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, ...

Shenyang
and
Nanchang Nanchang (, ; ) is the capital of Jiangxi Province Jiangxi (; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese Gan, Gann or Kan is a group of Sinitic languages spoken natively by many people in the Jiangxi Jiangx ...

Nanchang
are major research and manufacture centers of the aerospace industry. China has developed an extensive capability to design, test and produce military aircraft, missiles and space vehicles. Despite the cancellation in 1983 of the experimental
Shanghai Y-10 The Shanghai Y-10 or Yun-10 () is a four engined narrow-body jet airliner developed in the 1970s by the Shanghai Aircraft Research Institute. The plane used Boeing's 707-320C as reference, designed according to Federal Aviation Regulation (Pa ...
, China is still developing its civil aerospace industry. The aircraft parts industry was born out of the sale of second-hand or used aircraft parts from the aerospace manufacture sector. Within the United States there is a specific process that parts brokers or resellers must follow. This includes leveraging a certified repair station to
overhaul Overhaul may refer to: *The process of overhauling, see ** Maintenance, repair, and overhaul **Refueling and overhaul In the United States Navy, Refueling and Overhaul (ROH) refers to a lengthy process or procedure performed on nuclear-powered nav ...
and "tag" a part. This certification guarantees that a part was repaired or overhauled to meet OEM specifications. Once a part is overhauled its value is determined from the supply and demand of the aerospace market. When an airline has an aircraft on the ground, the part that the airline requires to get the plane back into service becomes invaluable. This can drive the market for specific parts. There are several online marketplaces that assist with the commodity selling of aircraft parts. In the aerospace and defense industry, much consolidation has occurred at the end of the 20th century, going into the 21st century. Between 1988 and 2011, more than 6,068
mergers & acquisitions ''Mergers & Acquisitions'' is a real-time B2B community, featuring a monthly magazine, daily enewsletter, conferences and member gatherings that provide news, commentary, data, analysis and community around the burgeoning Middle-market company, mid ...
with a total known value of 678 billion USD have been announced worldwide. The largest transactions have been: * The acquisition of
Rockwell Collins Rockwell Collins was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entit ...
by
United Technologies Corporation United Technologies Corporation (UTC) was an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countr ...
for 30.0 bil. USD in 2018 * The acquisition of
Goodrich Corporation The Goodrich Corporation, formerly the B.F. Goodrich Company, was an American manufacturing company based in Charlotte, North Carolina Charlotte () is the List of municipalities in North Carolina, most populous city in the U.S. state of North ...
by
United Technologies Corporation United Technologies Corporation (UTC) was an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countr ...
for 16.2 bil. USD in 2011 * The merger of
Allied Signal AlliedSignal was an American aerospace, automotive and engineering company created through the 1985 merger of Allied Corp. and Signal Companies. It subsequently purchased Honeywell Honeywell International Inc. is an American publicly traded, ...
with
Honeywell Honeywell International Inc. is an American public company, publicly traded, multinational corporation, multinational conglomerate (company), conglomerate corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina. It primarily operates in four are ...

Honeywell
in a stock swap valued 15.6 bil. USD in 1999 * The merger of
Boeing The Boeing Company () is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personal ...

Boeing
with
McDonnell The McDonnell Aircraft Corporation was an American aerospace manufacturer Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα '' ...
valued at 13.4 bil. USD in 1996 * The acquisition of
Marconi Electronic Systems Marconi Electronic Systems (MES), or GEC-Marconi as it was until 1998, was the defence arm of General Electric Company (GEC). It was demerged from GEC and bought by British Aerospace (BAe) on 30 November 1999 to form BAE Systems. GEC then renamed ...
, a subsidiary of GEC, by
British Aerospace British Aerospace plc (BAe) was a British aircraft manufacturer, aircraft, munitions and defence-systems manufacturer. Its head office was at Warwick House in the Farnborough Aerospace Centre in Farnborough, Hampshire. Formed in 1977, in 1999 ...
for 12.9 bil. USD in 1999 (now called:
BAE Systems BAE Systems plc (BAE) is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinationa ...
) * The acquisition of
Hughes Aircraft The Hughes Aircraft Company was a major American aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military application ...
by
Raytheon Raytheon Technologies Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * ...

Raytheon
for 9.5 bil. USD in 1997


Technology

Multiple
technologies Technology ("science of craft", from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. I ...

technologies
and
innovation Innovation is the practical implementation of ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relation ...

innovation
s are used in aerospace, many of them pioneered around
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
: * patented by
Short Brothers Short Brothers plc, usually referred to as Shorts or Short, is an aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and m ...

Short Brothers
, folding wings optimise
aircraft carrier An aircraft carrier is a warship A warship or combatant ship is a that is built and primarily intended for . Usually they belong to the of a state. As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are usually faster ...
storage from a simple fold to the entire rotating wing of the
V-22 The Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey is an American multi-mission, tiltrotor A tiltrotor is an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by ...
, and the wingtip fold of the
Boeing 777X The Boeing 777X is the latest series of the long-range, wide-body A wide-body aircraft, also known as a twin-aisle aircraft, is an airliner with a fuselage In aeronautics, the fuselage (; from the French ''fuselé'' "spindle-shaped" ...
for airport compatibility. * To improve low-speed performance, a de Havilland DH4 was modified by
Handley Page Handley Page Limited was a United Kingdom, British aerospace manufacturer. Founded by Frederick Handley Page (later Sir Frederick) in 1909, it was the United Kingdom's first publicly traded aircraft manufacturing company. It went into voluntar ...

Handley Page
to a monoplane with
high-lift device In aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by using either Buoyancy, static lift or by using the Lift (force), dynamic lift of an ...
s: full-span
leading-edge slatSlats are aerodynamic study at Wallops Island Wallops Island is a island in Accomack County, Virginia, part of the Virginia Barrier Islands that stretch along the East coast of the United States, eastern seaboard of the United States of America ...
s and trailing-edge
flap Flap may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * ''Flap'' (film), a 1970 American film * Flap, a boss character in the arcade game ''Gaiapolis'' * Flap, a minor character in the film ''Little Nemo: Adventures in Slumberland'' Biology and heal ...
s; in 1924,
Fowler flaps Fowler may refer to: * Fowler (surname), a surname, and list of people with the name Places Australia * Division of Fowler, an electoral district in New South Wales * Fowlers Bay, South Australia Canada * Fowler, British Columbia, a locality on ...
that extend backward and downward were invented in the US, and used on the
Lockheed Model 10 Electra The Lockheed Model 10 Electra is an American twin-engined, all-metal monoplane airliner developed by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in the 1930s to compete with the Boeing 247 and Douglas DC-2. The type gained considerable fame as one was fl ...

Lockheed Model 10 Electra
while in 1943 forward-hinged leading-edge
Krueger flap Krueger flaps, or Krüger flaps, are lift enhancement devices that may be fitted to the leading edge The leading edge of an airfoil surface such as a wing is its foremost edge and is therefore the part which first meets the oncoming air.Crane, ...
s were invented in Germany and later used on the
Boeing 707 The Boeing 707 is an American long-range narrow-body airliner A narrow-body aircraft or single-aisle aircraft is an airliner arranged along a single aisle, permitting up to 6-abreast airline seat, seating in a aircraft cabin, cabin below of ...

Boeing 707
. * The 1927 large Propeller Research Tunnel at NACA confirmed that the
landing gear Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly Flies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic langua ...
was a major source of drag, in 1930 the Boeing Monomail featured a retractable gear. * The
flush rivet A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener. Before being installed, a rivet consists of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a head on one end. The end opposite to the head is called the ''tail''. On installation, the rivet is placed in a punched ...
displaced the domed rivet in the 1930s and pneumatic
rivet gun A rivet gun, also known as a rivet hammer or a pneumatic hammer, is a type of tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only h ...
s work in combination with a heavy reaction bucking bar; not depending on plastic deformation, specialist rivets were developed to improve fatigue life as s like the Hi-Lok, threaded pins tightened until a collar breaks off with enough torque. * First flown in 1935, the
Queen Bee The term queen bee is typically used to refer to an adult, mated female (gyne The gyne is the primary reproductive female caste Caste is a form of social stratification Social stratification refers to a society's categorization of its p ...
was a radio-controlled target derived from the
Tiger Moth The de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth is a 1930s British biplane designed by Geoffrey de Havilland and built by the de Havilland, de Havilland Aircraft Company. It was operated by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and many other operators as a primary tr ...

Tiger Moth
for
Flak Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is the battlespace Battle-space is a term used to signify a unified military strategy Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organization Military organization or milit ...

Flak
training; the
Ryan Firebee The Ryan Firebee is a series of target drone A target drone is an unmanned aerial vehicle, generally remote controlled, usually used in the training of anti-aircraft crews. One of the earliest drones was the British DH.82 Queen Bee, a varian ...

Ryan Firebee
was a jet-powered target drone developed into long-range reconnaissance UAVs: the
Ryan Model 147 The Ryan Model 147 Lightning Bug is a -powered drone, or , produced and developed by from the earlier series. Beginning in 1962, the Model 147 was introduced as a RPV (Remotely Piloted Vehicle, of that era) for a project named Fire Fly. ...

Ryan Model 147
Fire Fly and Lightning Bug; the Israeli
IAI Scout The IAI Scout (known in Israel under its Hebrew name זהבן - " Oriole") is a reconnaissance unmanned air vehicle developed in Israel in the 1970s by Israel Aircraft Industries Israel Aerospace Industries (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is ...
and Tadiran Mastiff launched a line of battlefield UAVs including the
IAI Searcher The IAI Searcher (also known by the Hebrew name מרומית ''Meyromit'' - " Marsh tern", or officially in Israel as the חוגלה ''Hugla'' - " Alectoris") is a reconnaissance UAV developed in Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵ ...
; developed from the
General Atomics GNAT#REDIRECT General Atomics Gnat {{Redirect category shell, {{R from miscapitalisation {{R from move ...
long-endurance UAV for the CIA, the
MQ-1 Predator The General Atomics MQ-1 Predator is an American remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) built by General Atomics that was used primarily by the United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the Atmosphere of Earth, air milita ...

MQ-1 Predator
led to the armed
MQ-9 Reaper The General Atomics MQ-9 Reaper (sometimes called Predator B) is an unmanned aerial vehicle , a hunter-killer surveillance UAV , rotorcraft A rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle ...
. * At the end of World War I, piston engine power could be boosted by compressing intake air with a compressor, also compensating for decreasing air density with altitude, improved with 1930s
turbocharger A turbocharger (technically a turbosupercharger), colloquially known as turbo, is a turbine A turbine ( or ) (from the Greek , ''tyrbē'', or Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch ...

turbocharger
s for the
Boeing B-17 The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engined heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC). Competing against Douglas Aircraft Company, Douglas and Glenn L. Martin Company, Martin for a contract to build ...
and the first pressurized airliners. * The 1937
Hindenburg disaster The ''Hindenburg'' disaster was an airship accident that occurred on May 6, 1937, in Manchester Township, New Jersey, United States. The German passenger airship LZ 129 ''Hindenburg'' caught fire and was destroyed during its attempt to dock wi ...

Hindenburg disaster
ended the era of passenger
airship An airship, dirigible balloon or blimp is a type of aerostat An aerostat (From greek language, Greek ἀήρ ''aer'' (air) + στατός ''statos'' (standing) through French) is a lighter than air aircraft that gains its lift through the ...

airship
s but the US Navy used airships for
anti-submarine warfare Anti-submarine warfare (ASW, or in older form A/S) is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, submarines, or other platforms, to find, track, and deter, damage, and/or destroy enemy submarines. Such operations are ...
and
airborne early warning Airborne or Airborn may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Airborne'' (1962 film), a 1962 American film directed by James Landis * ''Airborne'' (1993 film), a comedy–drama film * ''Airborne'' (1998 film), an action film sta ...
into the 1960s, while small airships continue to be used for aerial advertising, sightseeing flights, surveillance and research, and the Airlander 10 or the
Lockheed Martin LMH-1 The Lockheed Martin P-791 is an experimental aerostatic and aerodynamic hybrid airship developed by Lockheed Martin Lockheed Martin Corporation is an American aerospace manufacturer, aerospace, military, arms, defense, Information security, s ...
continue to be developed. * As US airlines were interested in high-altitude flying in the mid-1930s, the
Lockheed XC-35 The Lockheed XC-35 is a twin-engine, experimental pressurized airplane. It was the second American aircraft to feature cabin pressurization. It was initially described as a 'supercharged cabin' by the Army. The distinction of the world's first pr ...

Lockheed XC-35
with a
pressurized cabin Cabin pressurization is a process in which conditioned air is pumped into the cabin of an aircraft or spacecraft 275px, The US Space Shuttle flew 135 times from 1981 to 2011, supporting Spacelab, ''Mir'', the Hubble Space Telescope, and t ...
was tested in 1937 and the
Boeing 307 Stratoliner The Boeing Model 307 Stratoliner was an American commercial transport aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by using either Buoya ...
was developed as the first pressurized airliner. * In 1933,
Plexiglas Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic, acrylic glass, or plexiglass, as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Astariglas, Lucite, Perclax, and Perspex, among several others (#Names, see below), is a transpare ...
, a transparent Acrylic plastic, was introduced in Germany and shortly before World War II, was first used for aircraft windshields as it is lighter than glass, and the bubble canopy improved fighter pilots visibility. * In January 1930,
Royal Air Force The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for th ...
pilot and engineer
Frank Whittle Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, (1 June 1907 – 9 August 1996) was an English engineer, inventor and Royal Air Force The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, comm ...
filed a patent for a
gas turbine A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous Continuity or continuous may refer to: Mathematics * Continuity (mathematics), the opposing concept to discreteness; common examples include ** Continuous probability di ...
aircraft engine with an inlet, compressor, combustor, turbine and nozzle, while an independent
turbojet The turbojet is an airbreathing jet engine An airbreathing jet engine (or ''ducted jet engine'') is a jet engine that emits a jet of hot exhaust gases formed from air that is forced into the engine by several stages of centrifugal, axial ...
was developed by researcher
Hans von Ohain Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain (14 December 191113 March 1998) was a German physicist, engineer, and the designer of the first operational jet engine A jet engine is a type of reaction engine A reaction engine is an engine or motor that pr ...
in Germany; both engines ran within weeks in early 1937 and the Heinkel HeS 3-propelled
Heinkel He 178 The Heinkel He 178 was the world's first aircraft to fly under turbojet power, and the first practical jet aircraft. It was a private venture by the German Heinkel company in accordance with director Ernst Heinkel's emphasis on developing technol ...
experimental aircraft made its first flight on Aug 27, 1939 while the Whittle W.1-powered Gloster E.28/39 prototype flew on May 15, 1941. * In 1935, Britain demonstrated aircraft radio detection and ranging and in 1940 the
RAF "Through Adversity to the Stars" , colours = , colours_label = , march = Royal Air Force March Past , mascot = , anniversaries = , e ...
introduced the first
VHF Very high frequency (VHF) is the designation for the range of s (s) from 30 to 300 (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten meters to one meter. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted (HF), and the next higher frequencies are kn ...
airborne radars on
Bristol Blenheim The Bristol Blenheim is a British light bomber 1943. A twin-engine Lockheed Hudson of No. 2 Squadron RAAF. Its crew and ground staff pose for the photographer, prior to loading the Hudson with its bomb load in the foreground. A light bombe ...

Bristol Blenheim
s, then higher-resolution
microwave Microwave is a form of electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space a ...

microwave
-frequency radar with a
cavity magnetron The cavity magnetron is a high-power vacuum tube A vacuum tube, electron tube, valve (British usage), or tube (North America), is a device that controls electric current flow in a high vacuum between electrodes to which an electric volt ...
on
Bristol Beaufighter Bristol () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routle ...

Bristol Beaufighter
s in 1941, and in 1959 the radar-homing Hughes
AIM-4 Falcon The Hughes AIM-4 Falcon was the first operational guided air-to-air missile file:Python5-missile001.jpg, The newest and the oldest member of Rafael Advanced Defense Systems, Rafael's Python (missile), Python family of AAM for comparisons, ...
became the first US
guided missile In military terminology, a missile is a guided airborne ranged weapon . English longbowmen figure prominently in the foreground at right where they drive away the French crossbow A crossbow is a ranged weapon using an elastic launching ...
on the
Convair F-106 The Convair F-106 Delta Dart was the primary all-weather interceptor aircraft of the United States Air Force from the 1960s through to the 1980s. Designed as the so-called "Ultimate Interceptor", it proved to be the last dedicated interceptor in ...
. * In the early 1940s, British Hurricane and Spitfire pilots wore
g-suit A g-suit, or anti-''g'' suit, is a flight suit A flight suit is a full-body garment, worn while flying aircraft such as military airplanes, Glider (aircraft), gliders and helicopters. These suits are generally made to keep the wearer warm, ...
s to prevent
G-LOC G-force induced loss of consciousness (abbreviated as G-LOC, pronounced "JEE-lock") is a term generally used in aerospace physiology Aerospace physiology is the study of the effects of high altitudes on the body, such as different pressures and ...
due to blood pooling in the lower body in high g situations;
Mayo Clinic The Mayo Clinic () is a nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social be ...

Mayo Clinic
researchers developed air-filled bladders to replace water-filled bladders and in 1943 the US military began using
pressure suit A pressure suit is a protective suit worn by high-altitude pilots who may fly at altitudes where the air pressure Atmospheric pressure, also known as barometric pressure (after the barometer), is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth ...
s from the
David Clark Company David Clark Company, Inc. is an American manufacturing company. DCC designs and manufactures a wide variety of aerospace and industrial protective equipment, including pressure-space suit systems, anti-G suits, headsets, and several medical/safety ...
. * The modern
ejection seat In aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly Flies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-Europe ...
was developed during World War II, a seat on rails ejected by rockets before deploying a parachute, which could have been enhanced by the USAF in the late 1960s as a turbojet-powered autogyro with 50 nm of range, the Kaman KSA-100 SAVER. * In 1942,
numerical control Numerical control (also computer numerical control, and commonly called CNC) is the automated control of machining truck of the US Army with machinists working on automotive parts Machining is a process in which a material (often metal) is cu ...
machining was conceived by machinist John T. Parsons to cut complex structures from solid blocks of alloy, rather than assembling them, improving quality, reducing weight, and saving time and cost to produce bulkheads or wing skins. * In World War II, the German
V-2 #REDIRECT V-2 rocket#REDIRECT V-2 rocket The V-2 (german: Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), with the technical name '' Aggregat 4'' (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile. The missile, powered by a liquid-p ...

V-2
combined
gyroscope A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). ...

gyroscope
s, an
accelerometer An accelerometer is a tool that measures proper acceleration In relativity theory, proper acceleration is the physical acceleration (i.e., measurable acceleration as by an accelerometer) experienced by an object. It is thus acceleration relative ...

accelerometer
and a primitive
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ...

computer
for real-time
inertial navigation An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.Bowditch, 2003:799. The field of navigation i ...
allowing
dead reckoning In navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.Bowditch, 2003:799. The field of navigation includes four general categories: ...
without reference to landmarks or guide stars, leading to packaged IMUs for spacecraft and aircraft. * The UK
Miles M.52 The Miles M.52 was a turbojet-powered supersonic research aircraft project designed in the United Kingdom in the mid-1940s. In October 1943, Miles Aircraft Miles was the name used between 1943 and 1961 to market the aircraft of British eng ...
supersonic aircraft was to have an
afterburner An afterburner (or reheat U.K.) is an additional combustion component used on some jet engine A jet engine is a type of reaction engine A reaction engine is an engine or motor that produces thrust by expelling reaction mass, in acco ...

afterburner
, augmenting a
turbojet The turbojet is an airbreathing jet engine An airbreathing jet engine (or ''ducted jet engine'') is a jet engine that emits a jet of hot exhaust gases formed from air that is forced into the engine by several stages of centrifugal, axial ...
thrust by burning additional fuel in the
nozzle A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress, or external force. Fluids are a ...
, but was cancelled in 1946. * In 1935, German aerodynamicist
Adolf Busemann Adolf Busemann (20 April 1901 – 3 November 1986) was a German aerospace engineer and influential Nazi-era pioneer in aerodynamics, specialising in supersonic airflows. He introduced the concept of swept wings and, after emigrating in 1947 t ...
proposed using
swept wing A swept wing is a wing A wing is a type of fin A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure. Fins typically function as foils that produce lift or thrust Thrust is a reaction (physics), reaction force ...
s to reduce high-speed drag and the Messerschmitt P.1101 fighter prototype was 80% complete by the end of World War II; the later US
North American F-86 The North American F-86 Sabre, sometimes called the Sabrejet, is a transonic jet fighter aircraft. Produced by North American Aviation, the Sabre is best known as the United States' first swept-wing fighter that could counter the swept-wing Sovi ...
and
Boeing B-47 The Boeing B-47 Stratojet (Boeing company designation Model 450) is a retired American long-range Range may refer to: Geography * Range (geographic), a chain of hills or mountains; a somewhat linear, complex mountainous or hilly area (cord ...

Boeing B-47
flew in 1947, as the Soviet
MiG-15 The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (russian: Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-15; USAF/DoD designation: Type 14; NATO reporting name NATO reporting names are code names for military equipment from Russia, China, and historically, the Eastern B ...
, and the British
de Havilland Comet The de Havilland DH.106 Comet was the world's first commercial jet airlinerJet Airliner may refer to: * Jet airliner, an aeroplane powered by jet engines * "Jet Airliner" (Steve Miller Band song), a 1977 song composed by Paul Pena and pop ...

de Havilland Comet
in 1949. * In 1951, the featured an
ice protection system Ice protection systems keep atmospheric moisture from accumulating on aircraft surfaces, such as wings, propellers, rotor blades, engine intakes, and environmental control intakes. Ice build up can change the shape of airfoils and flight control ...
from
GoodyearGoodyear may relate to: Companies * Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company ** Goodyear Blimp, promotional aircraft ** Goodyear Aerospace, an aerospace and defense subsidiary ** List of Goodyear aircraft ** Goodyear Dunlop Sava Tires, a subsidiary in Sl ...
through electro-thermal resistances in the wing and tail leading edges;
jet aircraft A jet aircraft (or simply jet) is an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by using either Buoyancy, static lift or by using th ...
use hot engine
bleed air Bleeding usually means the leakage or loss of blood from the body. Bleeding, bleed, or bleeder may also refer to: *Bleed (printing), intentionally printing across the expected trim line or edge of the sheet *Bleed, or spill (audio), when audio fr ...
and lighter aircraft use pneumatic
deicing boot File:Deicer (PSF).png, Operation of deicing boots A deicing boot is a type of ice protection system installed on aircraft surfaces to permit a mechanical deicing in flight. Such boots are generally installed on the leading edges of wings and fligh ...
s or
weep A weep, a weep hole, or a weep-brick is a small opening that allows water to drain from within an assembly. Weeps are located at the bottom of the object to allow for drainage; the weep hole must be sized adequately to overcome surface tension ...
anti-icing fluid on propellers, wing and tail leading edges. * In 1954,
Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories (1925–1984)) is an American industrial research and scientific development company A company, ab ...
developed the first transistorized airborne digital computer, Tradic for the US
Boeing B-52 The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber A strategic bomber is a medium- to long-range penetration bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a di ...

Boeing B-52
and in the 1960s
Raytheon Raytheon Technologies Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * ...

Raytheon
built the
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hi ...

MIT
-developed
Apollo Guidance Computer The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) is a digital computer A computer is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people ...

Apollo Guidance Computer
; the
MIL-STD-1553 MIL-STD-1553 is a military standard published by the United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an United States federal executive departments, executive branch department of the Federal ...
avionics digital bus was defined in 1973 then first used in the General Dynamics F-16, while the civil
ARINC 429 ARINC 429, "Mark33 Digital Information Transfer System (DITS)," is also known as the Aeronautical Radio INC. (ARINC) technical standard for the predominant used on most higher-end commercial and transport aircraft. It defines the physical and elec ...
was first used in the
Boeing 757 The Boeing 757 is an American narrow-body airliner A narrow-body aircraft or single-aisle aircraft is an airliner arranged along a single aisle, permitting up to 6-abreast airline seat, seating in a aircraft cabin, cabin below of width. In c ...

Boeing 757
/
B767 The Boeing 767 is a wide-body airliner A wide-body aircraft, also known as a twin-aisle aircraft, is an airliner An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo. Such aircraft are most often operated by ai ...

B767
and
Airbus A310 The Airbus A310 is a wide-body aircraft A wide-body aircraft, also known as a twin-aisle aircraft, is an airliner An airliner is a type of aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly Flies are insect ...

Airbus A310
in the early 1980s. * After World War II, the initial promoter of
Photovoltaic power Photovoltaics (PV) is the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry. The photovoltaic effect is commercially u ...
for spacecraft, Hans K. Ziegler, was brought to the US under
Operation Paperclip Operation Paperclip was a secret US intelligence program in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team, were taken from Nazi Germany, Germany to the United States, for U. ...
along
Wernher von Braun Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (23 March 1912 – 16 June 1977) was a German-born American aerospace engineering, aerospace engineer and space architecture, space architect. He was the leading figure in the development of rocket te ...

Wernher von Braun
and
Vanguard 1 Vanguard 1 (Harvard designation: 1958-Beta 2, ) ( COSPAR ID: 1958-005B), 17 March 1958, is an American satellite In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed into orbit. These objects are cal ...

Vanguard 1
was its first application in 1958, later enhanced in space- deployable structures like the
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a Modular design, modular space station (habitable satellite, artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (Uni ...

International Space Station
solar arrays of . * To board an
airliner An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo. Such aircraft are most often operated by airlines. Although the definition of an airliner can vary from country to country, an airliner is typically defined as an ai ...

airliner
,
jet bridge A jet bridge (also termed jetway, jetwalk, airgate, gangway, aerobridge/airbridge, skybridge, finger, airtube, expedited suspended passenger entry system (E-SPES), or its official industry name passenger boarding bridge (PBB)) is an enclosed, m ...
s are more accessible, comfortable and efficient than climbing the stairs. * In the 1950s, to improve thrust and fuel efficiency, the
jet engine A jet engine is a type of reaction engine A reaction engine is an engine or motor that produces thrust Thrust is a described quantitatively by . When a system expels or in one direction, the accelerated mass will cause a force of ...

jet engine
airflow was divided into a core stream and a bypass stream with a lower velocity for better propulsive efficiency: the first was the
Rolls-Royce Conway Rolls-Royce (always hyphenated) may refer to: * Rolls-Royce Limited Rolls-Royce was a British luxury car and later an aero-engine manufacturing business established in 1904 in Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metr ...

Rolls-Royce Conway
with a 0.3 BPR on the
Boeing 707 The Boeing 707 is an American long-range narrow-body airliner A narrow-body aircraft or single-aisle aircraft is an airliner arranged along a single aisle, permitting up to 6-abreast airline seat, seating in a aircraft cabin, cabin below of ...

Boeing 707
in 1960, followed by the
Pratt & Whitney JT3D The Pratt & Whitney JT3D is an early turbofan aircraft engine derived from the Pratt & Whitney J57, Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet. It was first run in 1958 and was first flown in 1959 under a B-45 Tornado test aircraft. Over 8,000 JT3Ds were pro ...
with a 1.5 BPR and, derived from the , the
General Electric CJ805 The General Electric CJ805 is a jet engine which was developed by GE Aviation in the late 1950s. It was a civilian version of the J79 and differed only in detail. It was developed in two versions. The basic CJ805-3 was a turbojet and powered th ...
powered the
Convair 990 The Convair 990 Coronado is an American narrow-body A narrow-body aircraft or single-aisle aircraft is an airliner arranged along a single aisle, permitting up to 6-abreast seating in a cabin below of width. In contrast, a wide-body airc ...
with a 28% lower cruise fuel burn; bypass ratio improved to the 9.3 BPR
Rolls-Royce Trent XWB The Rolls-Royce Trent XWB is a high bypass turbofan produced by Rolls-Royce plc. In July 2006, the Trent XWB was selected to power exclusively the Airbus A350 XWB. The first engine was run on 14 June 2010, it first flew on an A380 testbed o ...
, the 10:1 BPR
GE9X The General Electric GE9X is a high-bypass turbofan The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion. The word "turbofan" is a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (f ...
and the Pratt & Whitney GTF with high-pressure ratio cores.


Functional safety

Functional safety relates to a part of the general safety of a system or a piece of equipment. It implies that the system or equipment can be operated properly and without causing any danger, risk, damage or injury. Functional safety is crucial in the aerospace industry, which allows no compromises or negligence. In this respect, supervisory bodies, such as the
European Aviation Safety Agency The European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) is an agency of the European Union An agency of the European Union is a decentralised body of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member s ...
(EASA ), regulate the aerospace market with strict certification standards. This is meant to reach and ensure the highest possible level of safety. The standards AS 9100 in America, EN 9100 on the European market or JISQ 9100 in Asia particularly address the aerospace and aviation industry. These are standards applying to the functional safety of aerospace vehicles. Some companies are therefore specialized in the certification, inspection verification and testing of the vehicles and spare parts to ensure and attest compliance with the appropriate regulations.


Spinoffs

Spinoffs refer to any technology that is a direct result of coding or products created by NASA and redesigned for an alternate purpose. These technological advancements are one of the primary results of the aerospace industry, with $5.2 billion worth of revenue generated by spinoff technology, including computers and cellular devices. These spinoffs have applications in a variety of different fields including medicine, transportation, energy, consumer goods, public safety and more. NASA publishes an annual report called "Spinoffs", regarding many of the specific products and benefits to the aforementioned areas in an effort to highlight some of the ways funding is put to use. For example, in the most recent edition of this publication, "Spinoffs 2015", endoscopes are featured as one of the medical derivations of aerospace achievement. This device enables more precise and subsequently cost-effective neurosurgery by reducing complications through a minimally invasive procedure that abbreviates hospitalization.


See also

*
Aerodynamics Aerodynamics, from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...
*
Aeronautics Aeronautics is the science or art involved with the study, design process, design, and manufacturing of air flight–capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere. The British Royal Aeronautical So ...

Aeronautics
*
Aerospace engineering Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipli ...

Aerospace engineering
*
Aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by using either Buoyancy, static lift or by using the Lift (force), dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in ...

Aircraft
*
Astronautics Astronautics (or cosmonautics) is the theory and practice of travel beyond Earth's atmosphere File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that toget ...
*
NewSpace Private spaceflight is spaceflight or the development Development or developing may refer to: Arts *Development hell, when a project is stuck in development *Filmmaking#Development, Filmmaking, development phase, including finance and budg ...
*
Space agencies This is a list of government agencies A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government The machinery of government (sometimes abbreviated as MoG) is ...
(List of) *
Space exploration Space exploration is the use of astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and ce ...
*
Spacecraft A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. A type of artificial satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ">ERS_2.html" ;"title="Earth observation satellite ERS 2">Earth obse ...

Spacecraft
* Wiktionary: Aviation, aerospace, and aeronautical terms


References


External links

{{Wiktionary, aerospace