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, image = Rashidun Caliph Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa) - أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن عثمان التيمي القرشي أول الخلفاء الراشدين.svg , title = Al-Siddiq
Atiq
, caption = Abū Bakr as-Ṣiddīq , succession = 1st
Caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
of the
Rashidun Caliphate The Rashidun Caliphate ( ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ, al-Khilāfah ar-Rāšidah) was the first of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an ...
, moretext = , reign = 8 June 63223 August 634 , reign-type = Caliphate , coronation = , cor-type =
Bayah
Bayah
, predecessor = ''Established position'' , pre-type =
Caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
, successor =
Umar ibn Al-Khattab ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb ( ar, عمر بن الخطاب; 3 November 644), also spelled Omar, was the second Rashidun caliph , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.png , caption = Calligraphic Calligrap ...
, suc-type = Successor , spouse = , spouse-type = Spouses , consort = , issue = Sons , issue-link = , issue-pipe = , full name = Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman Abu Quhafa
( ar, links=no, أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَبْدُ ٱللهِ بْنُ عُثْمَانَ أَبِي قُحَافَةَ) , father =
Uthman Abu Quhafa Uthman ibn Amir ( ar, عُثْمَان ٱبْن عَامِر, ʿUthmān ibn ʿĀmir, 1 July 538 1 March 635 CE), better known as Abu Quhafa ( ar, أَبُو قُحَافَة, ʾAbu Quhāfa) was an Arab tribal chief who was a leader of the Banu Tay ...
, mother =
Salma Umm al-Khair Salma bint Sakhar ( ar, سَلْمَىٰ بِنْت صَخَر, ''Salmā binat Ṣakhar''), better known as Umm Khayr ( ar, أُمّ خَيْر; ''Umm Khayr'') was the wife of Abu Quhafa and the mother of Abu Bakr , image = Rashidun C ...
, birth_date = , birth_place =
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
,
Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia. It includes the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, Tabuk, Yanbu and Taif. It is also known as the "Western P ...

Hejaz
,
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
, death_date = , death_place =
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam and the Capital city, capital of the Me ...

Medina
,
Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia. It includes the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, Tabuk, Yanbu and Taif. It is also known as the "Western P ...

Hejaz
,
Rashidun Caliphate The Rashidun Caliphate ( ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ, al-Khilāfah ar-Rāšidah) was the first of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an ...
, burial_date = , burial_place =
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (), known in English as The Prophet's Mosque, and also known as Al Haram, Al Haram Al Madani and Al Haram Al Nabawi by locals, is a mosque built by the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in the city of ...

Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
,
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam and the Capital city, capital of the Me ...

Medina
, occupation = Businessman
administrator economist , signature_type = , signature = , religion =
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman ( ar, أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَبْدُ ٱللهِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ; 573 CE23 August 634 CE) was a companion and, through his daughter
Aisha ʿĀʾishah bint Abī Bakr ( ar, عائشة بنت أبي بكر , 613/614 – 678 CE), also transcribed as Aisha (, also , ) or variants, was Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger o ...

Aisha
, a father-in-law of the
Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسلام, translit=al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are individuals in Islam who are believed to spread God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, c ...
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
, as well as the first of the
Rashidun Caliphs , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.png , caption = Islamic calligraphy, Calligraphic representation of Rashidun Caliphs , birth_place = Mecca, Hejaz, Arabia present-day Saudi Arabia , known_for ...
. Initially a rich and respected businessman, Abu Bakr later became one of the first converts to
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
and extensively contributed his wealth in support of Muhammad's work. He was among Muhammad's closest companions, accompanying him on his
migration to Medina Hegira () is a medieval Latin transliteration of the Arabic word meaning "departure" or "migration," among other definitions. Alternative transliterations of the word include Hijra or Hijrah. The word is commonly used to refer to the journey of t ...
and being present at a number of his military conflicts, such as the battles of
Badr
Badr
and
Uhud Mount Uhud ( ar, جَبَل أُحُد, Jabal Uḥud) is a mountain north of Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the sec ...
. Following Muhammad's death in 632, Abu Bakr succeeded in the leadership of the Muslim community as the first Rashidun
Caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
. During his reign, he overcame a number of uprisings, collectively known as the
Ridda wars #REDIRECT Ridda Wars #REDIRECT Ridda Wars The Ridda Wars ( ar, حُرُوب ٱلرِّدَّة), or Wars of Apostasy from Islam, Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr against rebel Arabian tribes during ...
, as a result of which he was able to consolidate and expand the rule of the Muslim state over the entire
Arabian peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
. He also commanded the initial incursions into the neighbouring
Sassanian The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians ( Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩 '' Ērānshahr''), and called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last Persian imperial dynasty bef ...
and
Byzantine empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine empire
s, which in the years following his death, would eventually result in the Muslim conquests of Persia and
the Levant The Levant () is an approximate An approximation is anything that is intentionally similar but not exactly equality (mathematics), equal to something else. Etymology and usage The word ''approximation'' is derived from Latin ''approximat ...
. Abu Bakr died of illness after a reign of 2 years, 2 months and 14 days.


Lineage and title

Abu Bakr's full name was Abdullah ibn
Uthman Uthman ibn Affan ( ar, عثمان بن عفان, ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān; – 17 June 656), also spelled by the Turkish and Persian rendering Osman, was the third Rashidun , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.png ...
ibn Amir ibn Amr ibn Ka'b ibn Sa'd ibn
Taym
Taym
ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr. In
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
, the name ''Abd Allah'' means "servant of
Allah Allah (; ar, الله, translit=Allāh, ) is the Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East ...

Allah
". One of his early titles, preceding his conversion to
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
, was ''Ateeq'', meaning "saved one". Muhammad later restated this title when he said that Abu Bakr is the "Ateeq". He was called ''Al-Siddiq'' (the truthful) by Muhammad after he believed him in the event of
Isra and Mi'raj The Israʾ and Miʿraj ( ar, الإسراء والمعراج, ') are the two parts of a Night Journey that, according to Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllab ...
when other people didn't, and
Ali Ali ibn Abi Talib ( ar, عَلِيّ ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب, ; 13 September 601 – 29 January 661) was a cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad, who ru ...

Ali
confirmed that title several times. He was also reportedly referred to in the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
as the "second of the two in the cave" in reference to the event of hijra, where with Muhammad he hid in the cave in
Jabal Thawr Mount Thawr ( ar, جَبَل ثَوْر) is a mountain in Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic oath, one of the Five Pillars of Islam and ...
from the
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
n party that was sent after them.


Early life

Abu Bakr was born in
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
sometime in 573 CE, to a rich family in the
Banu Taym , type = Quraysh The Quraysh ( ar, قُرَيْشٌ, ) were a grouping of Arab clans that historically inhabited and controlled the city of Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah () and commonly shortened to Makkah,Quran ...

Banu Taym
tribe of the
Quraysh The Quraysh ( ar, قُرَيْشٌ, ) were a grouping of Arab clans that historically inhabited and controlled the city of Mecca and its Ka'ba. The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim, Hashim clan of the tribe. Despite this, ...
tribal confederacy. His father's name was
Uthman Uthman ibn Affan ( ar, عثمان بن عفان, ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān; – 17 June 656), also spelled by the Turkish and Persian rendering Osman, was the third Rashidun , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.png ...
and given the
laqab Arabic names have historically been based on a long naming system. Most Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (inter ...
''Abu Quhafa'', and his mother was Salma bint Sakhar who was given the laqab of ''Umm ul-Khair''. He spent his early childhood like other
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
children of the time, among the
Bedouin The Bedouin, Beduin or Bedu (; , singular ; , singular ) are nomadic Arab Tribes who have historically inhabited the desert regions in the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, Upper Mesopotamia, and North Africa. However, the Arabian Peninsula is th ...

Bedouin
s who called themselves ''Ahl-i-Ba'eer''- the people of the
camel A camel is an even-toed ungulate The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulates—hoofed animals—which bear weight equally on two (an even number) of their five toes: the third and fourth. The other three toes are either present, ...

camel
, and developed a particular fondness for camels. In his early years he played with the camel calves and goats, and his love for camels earned him the nickname ('' kunya'') "''Abu Bakr''", the father of the camel's calf. Like other children of the rich Meccan merchant families, Abu Bakr was literate and developed a fondness for
poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popula ...

poetry
. He used to attend the annual fair at
Ukaz In Imperial Russia The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the ...
, and participate in poetical symposia. He had a very good memory and had a good knowledge of the
genealogy Genealogy (from el, γενεαλογία ' "study of family trees") is the study of families In human society, family (from la, familia) is a Social group, group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or Affinit ...

genealogy
of the Arab tribes, their stories and their politics. A story is preserved that once when he was a child, his father took him to the
Kaaba The Kaaba (, ), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah ( ar, ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة, lit=Honored Ka'bah, links=no, translit=al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah), is a building at the cent ...

Kaaba
, and asked him to pray before the idols. His father went away to attend to some other business, and Abu Bakr was left alone. Addressing an idol, Abu Bakr said "O my God, I am in need of beautiful clothes; bestow them on me". The idol remained indifferent. Then he addressed another idol, saying, "O God, give me some delicious food. See that I am so hungry". The idol remained cold. That exhausted the patience of young Abu Bakr. He lifted a stone, and, addressing an idol, said, "Here I am aiming a stone; if you are a god protect yourself". Abu Bakr hurled the stone at the idol and left the
Kaaba The Kaaba (, ), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah ( ar, ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة, lit=Honored Ka'bah, links=no, translit=al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah), is a building at the cent ...

Kaaba
. Regardless, it recorded that prior to converting to Islam, Abu Bakr practised as a ''
hanif In Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is ...
'' and never worshipped idols.


Acceptance of Islam

On his return from a business trip in
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
, friends informed him that in his absence, Muhammad had declared himself the Messenger of God and proclaimed a new religion. The historian
Al-Tabari Al-Tabari (; fa, محمد بن جریر طبری, ar, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (839–923 CE; 224–310 AH) was an influential polymath, scholar, historian and commentator on the Qur'an from Amol, ...
, in his '' Ta'rikh al-Tabari'', quotes from Muhammad ibn Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, who said: Other
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
and all
Shi'a Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanis ...
Muslims maintain that the second person to publicly accept Muhammed as the Messenger of God was Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first being Muhammad's wife Khadija.
Ibn Kathir Abu al-Fiḍā ‘Imād Ad-Din Ismā‘īl ibn ‘Umar ibn Kathīr al-Qurashī Al-Damishqī (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the ...
, in his ''Al Bidaya Wal Nihayah'', disregards this. He stated that the first woman to embrace Islam was Khadijah.
Zayd ibn Harithah Zayd ibn Harithah ( ar, زَيْد ٱبْن حَارِثَة, ') (c. 581–629 CE), was an early Muslim, sahabah and the adopted son of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date ...
was the first freed slave to embrace Islam. Ali ibn Abi Talib was the first child to embrace Islam, for he has not even reached the age of puberty at that time, while Abu Bakr was the first free man to embrace Islam.The Biography Of Abu Bakr As Siddeeq
by Dr. Ali Muhammad As-Sallaabee (Published 2007)


Subsequent life in Mecca

His wife
Qutaylah bint Abd-al-Uzza Qutaylah bint Abd al-Uzza ( ar, قتيلة بنت عبدالعزة) was the first wife of Abu Bakr. She was a member of the Amir ibn Luayy clan of the Quraysh in Mecca.Muhammad ibn Saad, ''Tabaqat'' vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). ''The W ...
did not accept Islam and he divorced her. His other wife,
Um Ruman Umm Rumān Zaynab bint ‘Āmir' ibn Uwaymir ibn Abd Shams ibn Attab Al-Kinaniyah (died 628 CE; 6 AH), known by her '' kunyah'' "Umm Rumān" ( ar, أمّ رومان زينب بنت عامر بن عويمر بن عبد شمس بن عتاب الك ...
, became a Muslim. All his children accepted Islam except Abdul-Rahman, from whom Abu Bakr disassociated himself. His conversion also brought many people to Islam. He persuaded his intimate friends to convert, and presented Islam to other friends in such a way that many of them also accepted the faith. Those who converted to Islam at the insistence of Abu Bakr were: *
Uthman Ibn Affan Uthman ibn Affan ( ar, عثمان بن عفان, ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān; – 17 June 656), also spelled by the Turkish and Persian rendering Osman, was the third Rashidun , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.pn ...
(who would become the 3rd Caliph) * Al-Zubayr (who played a part in the
Muslim conquest of Egypt Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pron ...
) *
Talha Ibn Ubayd-Allah Talhah ibn Ubaydullah ( ar, طلحة بن عبيدالله; 594-656) was a sahaba, companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. In Sunni Islam, he is mostly known for being of Hadith of the ten promised paradise, the Ten Promised Paradise. He is b ...
*
Abdur Rahman bin Awf 'Abdur-Rahman ibn 'Awf ( ar, عبد الرحمن بن عوف) (c.581 CE – c.654 CE) was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, T ...
(who would remain an important part of the
Rashidun Caliphate The Rashidun Caliphate ( ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ, al-Khilāfah ar-Rāšidah) was the first of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an ...
) *
Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqās ( ar, سعد بن أبي وقاص), also known as Saʿd ibn Malik, was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet. Saʿd was reportedly the seventh person to embrace Islam, which he did at the age of seventeen. He is ...
(who played a part in the
Islamic conquest of Persia The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, was carried out by the Rashidun Caliphate from 633 to 654 AD and led to the fall of the Sasanian Empire, Sassanid Empire as well as the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian ...
) *
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, fully Abū ‘Ubaydah ‘Āmir ibn ‘Abdillāh ibn al-Jarāḥ ( ar, أبو عبيدة عامر بن عبدالله بن الجراح; 583–639 CE), was one of the Sahabah, Companions of the Prophets in Islam, ...
(who remained commander in chief of the
Rashidun army The Rashidun army () was the core of the Rashidun Caliphate The Rashidun Caliphate ( ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ, ') was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Prophets and messe ...
in Syria ) *
Abu Salama Abū Salama ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Asad al-Makhzūmī ( ar, أَبُو سَلَمَة عَبْد ٱلله ٱبْن عَبْد ٱلْأَسَد ٱلْمَخْزُومِيّ) was one of the sahabah Ottoman_miniature.html"_;"title="Muhammad_and ...
(Abdullah bin Abdul Asad) *
Khalid ibn Sa`id Khālid ibn Saʿīd ibn al-ʿAs al-Umawī ( ar, خالد بن سعيد بن الأوس الأموي; d. 634 CE), was a Sahaba, companion to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a general under the Rashidun Caliphate. He was one of the members of Banu ...
* Abu Hudhaifah ibn al-Mughirah Abu Bakr's acceptance proved to be a milestone in Muhammad's mission.
Slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
was common in Mecca, and many slaves accepted Islam. When an ordinary free man accepted Islam, despite opposition, he would enjoy the protection of his tribe. For slaves, however, there was no such protection and they commonly experienced persecution. Abu Bakr felt compassion for slaves, so he purchased eight (four men and four women) and then freed them, paying 40,000
dinar The dinar () is the principal currency unit in several countries near the Mediterranean Sea, and its historical use is even more widespread. The modern dinar's historical antecedents are the gold dinar, the main coin of the medieval Islamic e ...

dinar
for their freedom. The men were *
Bilal ibn Ribah Bilal ibn Rabah ( ar, بِلَال ٱبْن رَبَاح, ''Bilāl ibn Rabāḥ'' , 580–640 AD) was one of the most trusted and loyal '' Sahabah'' (companions) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ) , birth_date = , birth_place ...
* Abu Fakih *
Ammar ibn Yasir ʿAmmār ibn Yāsir ibn ʿĀmir ibn Mālik al-ʿAnsīy ( ar, عَمَّار ٱبْن يَاسِر ٱبْن عَامِر ٱبْن مَالِك ٱلْعَنْسِيّ), also known as ʿAbū al-Yaqẓān ʿAmmār ibn Yāsir al-ʿAnsīy al-Maḏḥi ...
* Abu Fuhayra The women were: *
LubaynahLubaynah (, ) was a sahaba, companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. She was one of the slaves freed by Abu Bakr. She was in the possession of the Muammil branch of the Banu Adi, Adi clan of the Quraysh.Muhammad ibn Ishaq. ''Sirat Rasul Allah''. T ...
* Al-Nahdiah *
Umm Ubays Umm Umais ( ar, أُمُّ عُبَيْسٍ), Umm Ubais or Umm Ubays was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = ...
*
Harithah bint al-Muammil Zunairah al-Rumiya ( ar, زنيرة الرومية, ''Zaneerah the Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of anc ...
Most of the slaves liberated by Abu Bakr were either women or old and frail men. When the father of Abu Bakr asked him why he didn't liberate strong and young slaves, who could be a source of strength for him, Abu Bakr replied that he was freeing the slaves for the sake of
God In monotheistic Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the ...

God
, and not for his own sake.


Persecution by the Quraysh, 613

For three years after the birth of Islam, Muslims kept their faith secret. In 613, according to Islamic tradition, Muhammad was commanded by God to call people to Islam openly. The first public address inviting people to offer allegiance to Muhammad was delivered by Abu Bakr. In a fit of fury, the young men of the
Quraysh The Quraysh ( ar, قُرَيْشٌ, ) were a grouping of Arab clans that historically inhabited and controlled the city of Mecca and its Ka'ba. The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim, Hashim clan of the tribe. Despite this, ...
tribe rushed at Abu Bakr and beat him till he lost consciousness. Following this incident, Abu Bakr's mother converted to Islam. Abu Bakr was persecuted many times by the Quraysh. Though Abu Bakr's beliefs would have been defended by his own clan, it would not be so for the entire Quraysh tribe.


Last years in Mecca

In 617, the Quraysh enforced a boycott against the
Banu Hashim ) , type = Banu Quraysh The Quraysh ( ar, قُرَيْشٌ, ) are a mercantile Arab tribe The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic ...
. Muhammad along with his supporters from Banu Hashim, were cut off in a pass away from
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
. All social relations with the Banu Hashim were cut off and their state was that of imprisonment. Before it many Muslims migrated to
Abyssinia The Ethiopian Empire (), also formerly known by the exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify ...

Abyssinia
(now Ethiopia). Abu Bakr, feeling distressed, set out for Yemen and then to Abyssinia from there. He met a friend of his named Ad-Dughna (chief of the Qarah tribe) outside Mecca, who invited Abu Bakr to seek his protection against the Quraysh. Abu Bakr went back to Mecca, it was a relief for him, but soon due to the pressure of Quraysh, Ad-Dughna was forced to renounce his protection. Once again the Quraysh were free to persecute Abu Bakr. In 620, Muhammad's uncle and protector,
Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib ( ar, أَبُو طَالِب ٱبْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب '; ) Abu Talib means; The father of Talib, born ʿImrān () or ʿAbd Manāf (), was the leader of Banu Hashim ) , type = Banu Quraysh ...
, and Muhammad's wife died. Abu Bakr's daughter
Aisha ʿĀʾishah bint Abī Bakr ( ar, عائشة بنت أبي بكر , 613/614 – 678 CE), also transcribed as Aisha (, also , ) or variants, was Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger o ...

Aisha
was engaged to Muhammad, however it was decided that the actual marriage ceremony would be held later. In 620 Abu Bakr was the first person to testify to Muhammad's
Isra and Mi'raj The Israʾ and Miʿraj ( ar, الإسراء والمعراج, ') are the two parts of a Night Journey that, according to Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllab ...
(Night Journey).


Migration to Medina

In 622, on the invitation of the Muslims of
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam and the Capital city, capital of the Me ...

Medina
, Muhammad ordered Muslims to migrate to Medina. The migration began in batches. Ali was the last to remain in Mecca, entrusted with responsibility for settling any loans the Muslims had taken out, and famously slept in the bed of Muhammad when the Quraysh, led by Ikrima, attempted to murder Muhammad as he slept. Meanwhile, Abu Bakr accompanied Muhammad to Medina. Due to the danger posed by the Quraysh, they did not take the road, but moved in the opposite direction, taking refuge in a cave in
Jabal Thawr Mount Thawr ( ar, جَبَل ثَوْر) is a mountain in Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic oath, one of the Five Pillars of Islam and ...
, some five miles south of Mecca. `Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr, the son of Abu Bakr, would listen to the plans and discussions of the Quraysh, and at night he would carry the news to the fugitives in the cave.
Asma bint Abi Bakr Asmā' bint Abi Bakr ( ar, أسماء بنت أبي بكر; c. 595 – 692 CE), was one of the companions of the prophet In religion, a prophet is an individual who is regarded as being in contact with a divinity, divine being and is said to s ...
, the daughter of Abu Bakr, brought them meals every day. Aamir, a servant of Abu Bakr, would bring a flock of goats to the mouth of the cave every night, where they were milked. The Quraysh sent search parties in all directions. One party came close to the entrance to the cave, but was unable to see them. Due to this,
Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation in Islam, revelation from God in Islam, God (''Allah''). It is widely rega ...

Qur'an
verse was revealed.
Aisha ʿĀʾishah bint Abī Bakr ( ar, عائشة بنت أبي بكر , 613/614 – 678 CE), also transcribed as Aisha (, also , ) or variants, was Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger o ...

Aisha
,
Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri Abu or ABU may refer to: Places * Abu (volcano), a volcano on the island of Honshū in Japan * Abu, Yamaguchi, a town in Japan * Ahmadu Bello University, a university located in Zaria, Nigeria * Atlantic Baptist University, a Christian university l ...
and
Abdullah ibn Abbas Abd Allah ibn Abbas ( ar, عَبْد ٱللَّٰه ٱبْن عَبَّاس; c. 619– 687), also known simply as Ibn Abbas, was one of the cousins of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_d ...
in
interpreting Interpreting is a translational activity in which one produces a first and final translation on the basis of a one-time exposure to an expression in a source language. The most common two modes of interpreting are simultaneous interpreting, wh ...

interpreting
this verse said that Abu Bakr was the companion who stayed with Muhammad in the cave. After staying at the cave for three days and three nights, Abu Bakr and Muhammad proceed to
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam and the Capital city, capital of the Me ...

Medina
, staying for some time at Quba, a suburb of Medina.


Life in Medina

In Medina, Muhammad decided to construct a mosque. A piece of land was chosen and the price of the land was paid for by Abu Bakr. The Muslims, including Abu Bakr, constructed a mosque named
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (), known in English as The Prophet's Mosque, and also known as Al Haram, Al Haram Al Madani and Al Haram Al Nabawi by locals, is a mosque A mosque (; from ar, مَسْجِد, masjid, ; literally "place of ritual prostra ...

Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
at the site. Abu Bakr was paired with Khaarij ah bin Zaid Ansari (who was from Medina) as a brother in faith. Abu Bakr's relationship with Khaarijah was most cordial, which was further strengthened when Abu Bakr married Habiba, a daughter of Khaarijah. Khaarijah bin Zaid Ansari lived at Sunh, a suburb of Medina, and Abu Bakr also settled there. After Abu Bakr's family arrived in Medina, he bought another house near Muhammad's. While the climate of Mecca was dry, the climate of Medina was damp and because of this, most of the migrants fell sick on arrival. Abu Bakr contracted a fever for several days, during which time he was attended to by Khaarijah and his family. In Mecca, Abu Bakr was a wholesale trader in cloth and he started the same business in Medina. He opened his new store at Sunh, and from there cloth was supplied to the market at Medina. Soon his business flourished. Early in 623, Abu Bakr's daughter Aisha, who was already engaged to Muhammad, was handed over to Muhammad in a simple marriage ceremony, further strengthening relations between Abu Bakr and Muhammad.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62


Military campaigns under Muhammad


Battle of Badr

In 624, Abu Bakr was involved in the first battle between the Muslims and the Quraysh of Mecca, known as the
Battle of Badr The Battle of Badr ( ar, غَزْوَةُ بَدِرْ ), also referred to as The Day of the Criterion (, ) in the Quran, Qur'an and by Muslims, was fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan (calendar month), Ramadan, 2 Anno Hegirae, AH), ...

Battle of Badr
, but did not fight, instead acting as one of the guards of Muhammad's tent. In relation to this, Ali allegedly later asked his associates as to who they thought was the bravest among men. Everyone stated that Ali was the bravest of all men. Ali then replied: In Sunni accounts, during one such attack, two discs from Abu Bakr's shield penetrated into Muhammad's cheeks. Abu Bakr went forward with the intention of extracting these discs but
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, fully Abū ‘Ubaydah ‘Āmir ibn ‘Abdillāh ibn al-Jarāḥ ( ar, أبو عبيدة عامر بن عبدالله بن الجراح; 583–639 CE), was one of the Sahabah, Companions of the Prophets in Islam, ...
requested he leave the matter to him, losing his two
incisor Incisors (from Latin ''incidere'', "to cut") are the front teeth present in most mammals. They are located in the premaxilla above and on the mandible below. Humans have a total of eight (two on each side, top and bottom). Opossums have 18, wherea ...
s during the process. In these stories subsequently Abu Bakr, along with other companions, led Muhammad to a place of safety.


Battle of Uhud

In 625, he participated in the
Battle of Uhud The Battle of Uhud ( ar, غَزْوَة أُحُد, translit=Ghazwat Uhud) was fought on Saturday, 23 March 625 AD (7 Shawwal, 3 AH), in the valley north of Mount Uhud Mount Uhud ( ar, جَبَل أُحُد, Jabal Uḥud) is a mountain no ...
, in which the majority of the Muslims were routed and he himself was wounded. Before the battle had begun, his son Abdul-Rahman, at that time still non-Muslim and fighting on the side of the Quraysh, came forward and threw down a challenge for a duel. Abu Bakr accepted the challenge but was stopped by Muhammad. Later, Abdul-Rahman approached his father and said to him "You were exposed to me as a target, but I turned away from you and did not kill you." To this Abu Bakr replied "However, if you had been exposed to me as a target I would not have turned away from you." In the second phase of the battle,
Khalid ibn al-Walid , other_name = ('the Sword of God')Abu Sulayman , image = , alt = , caption = , birth_date = , death_date = 642 , birth_place = Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly s ...
’s cavalry attacked the Muslims from behind, changing a Muslim victory to defeat. Many fled from the battlefield, including Abu Bakr. However, according to his own account, he was "the first to return".


Battle of the Trench

In 627 he participated in the Battle of the Trench and also in the
Invasion of Banu Qurayza The Invasion of Banu Qurayza took place in Dhul Qa‘dah during January of AD 627 ( AH 5) and followed on from the Battle of the Trench (Muir, 1861). The Banu Qurayza initially told the Muslims that they were allied to them during the Battl ...
. In the Battle of the Trench, Muhammad divided the ditch into a number of sectors and a contingent was posted to guard each sector. One of these contingents was under the command of Abu Bakr. The enemy made frequent assaults in an attempt to cross the ditch, all of which were repulsed. To commemorate this event a mosque, later known as 'Masjid-i-Siddiq', was constructed at the site where Abu Bakr had repulsed the charges of the enemy.


Battle of Khaybar

Abu Bakr took part in the Battle of Khaybar. Khaybar had eight fortresses, the strongest and most well-guarded of which was called Al-Qamus. Muhammad sent Abu Bakr with a group of warriors to attempt to take it, but they were unable to do so. Muhammad also sent Umar with a group of warriors, but Umar could not conquer Al-Qamus either. Some other Muslims also attempted to capture the fort, but they were unsuccessful as well. Finally, Muhammad sent Ali, who defeated the enemy leader, Marhab.


Military campaigns during final years of Muhammad

In 629 Muhammad sent 'Amr ibn al-'As to Zaat-ul-Sallasal, followed by
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, fully Abū ‘Ubaydah ‘Āmir ibn ‘Abdillāh ibn al-Jarāḥ ( ar, أبو عبيدة عامر بن عبدالله بن الجراح; 583–639 CE), was one of the Sahabah, Companions of the Prophets in Islam, ...
in response to a call for reinforcements. Abu Bakr and Umar commanded an army under al-Jarrah, and they attacked and defeated the enemy. In 630, when the Muslims conquered Mecca, Abu Bakr was part of the army. Before the conquest of Mecca his father
Uthman Abu Quhafa Uthman ibn Amir ( ar, عُثْمَان ٱبْن عَامِر, ʿUthmān ibn ʿĀmir, 1 July 538 1 March 635 CE), better known as Abu Quhafa ( ar, أَبُو قُحَافَة, ʾAbu Quhāfa) was an Arab tribal chief who was a leader of the Banu Tay ...
converted to Islam.


Battles of Hunayn and Ta'if

In 630, the Muslim army was ambushed by archers from the local tribes as it passed through the valley of Hunayn, some eleven miles northeast of
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
. Taken unaware, the advance guard of the Muslim army fled in panic. There was considerable confusion, and the camels, horses and men ran into one another in an attempt to seek cover. Muhammad, however, stood firm. Only nine companions remained around him, including Abu Bakr. Under Muhammad's instruction, Abbas shouted at the top of his voice, "O Muslims, come to the Prophet of Allah". The call was heard by the Muslim soldiers and they gathered beside Muhammad. When the Muslims had gathered in sufficient number, Muhammad ordered a charge against the enemy. In the hand-to-hand fight that followed the tribes were routed and they fled to
Autas Autas or Awtas is a location in Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic oath, one of the Five Pillars of Islam and part of the Adhan. It reads ...
. Muhammad posted a contingent to guard the Hunayn pass and led the main army to Autas. In the confrontation at Autas the tribes could not withstand the Muslim onslaught. Believing continued resistance useless, the tribes broke camp and retired to Ta'if. Abu Bakr was commissioned by Muhammad to lead the Siege of Ta'if, attack against Ta'if. The tribes shut themselves in the fort and refused to come out in the open. The Muslims employed catapults, but without tangible result. The Muslims attempted to use a testudo formation, in which a group of soldiers shielded by a cover of cowhide advanced to set fire to the gate. However, the enemy threw red hot scraps of iron on the testudo, rendering it ineffective. The siege dragged on for two weeks, and still there was no sign of weakness in the fort. Muhammad held a council of war. Abu Bakr advised that the siege might be raised and that God make arrangements for the fall of the fort. The advice was accepted, and in February 630, the siege of Ta'if was raised and the Muslim army returned to
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
. A few days later Malik bin Auf, the commander, came to
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
and became a Muslim.


Abu Bakr as Amir-ul-Hajj

In 631 AD, Muhammad sent from Medina a delegation of three hundred Muslims to perform the Hajj according to the new Islamic way and appointed Abu Bakr as the leader of the delegation. The day after Abu Bakr and his party had left for the Hajj, Muhammad received a new revelation: Surah Tawbah, the ninth chapter of the Qur'an. It is related that when this revelation came, someone suggested to Muhammad that he should send news of it to Abu Bakr. Muhammad said that only a man of his house could proclaim the revelation. Muhammad summoned Ali, and asked him to proclaim a portion of Surah Tawbah to the people on the day of sacrifice when they assembled at Mina, Saudi Arabia, Mina. Ali went forth on Muhammad's slit-eared camel, and overtook Abu Bakr. When Ali joined the party, Abu Bakr wanted to know whether he had come to give orders or to convey them. Ali said that he had not come to replace Abu Bakr as Amir-ul-Hajj, and that his only mission was to convey a special message to the people on behalf of Muhammad. At Mecca, Abu Bakr presided at the Hajj ceremony, and Ali read the proclamation on behalf of Muhammad. The main points of the proclamation were: #Henceforward the non-Muslims were not to be allowed to visit the
Kaaba The Kaaba (, ), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah ( ar, ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة, lit=Honored Ka'bah, links=no, translit=al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah), is a building at the cent ...

Kaaba
or perform the pilgrimage. #No one should circumambulate the Kaaba naked. #Polytheism was not to be tolerated. Where the Muslims had any agreement with the polytheists such agreements would be honoured for the stipulated periods. Where there were no agreements a grace period of four months was provided and thereafter no quarter was to be given to the polytheists. From the day this proclamation was made a new era dawned, and Islam alone was to be supreme in Arabia.


Expedition of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq

Abu Bakr led one military expedition, the Expedition of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, which took place in Najd, Nejd, in July 628 (third month 7AH in the Islamic calendar). Abu Bakr led a large company in Nejd on the order of Muhammad. Many were killed and taken prisoner. The Sunni Islam, Sunni Hadith collection ''Sunan Abu Dawud'' mentions the event.


Expedition of Usama bin Zayd

In 632, during the final weeks of his life, Muhammad ordered an expedition into Syria to avenge the defeat of the Muslims in the Battle of Mu'tah some years previously. Leading the campaign was Usama ibn Zayd, whose father, Muhammad's erstwhile adopted son
Zayd ibn Harithah Zayd ibn Harithah ( ar, زَيْد ٱبْن حَارِثَة, ') (c. 581–629 CE), was an early Muslim, sahabah and the adopted son of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date ...
, had been killed in the earlier conflict. No more than twenty years old, inexperienced and untested, Usama's appointment was controversial, becoming especially problematic when veterans such as Abu Bakr,
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, fully Abū ‘Ubaydah ‘Āmir ibn ‘Abdillāh ibn al-Jarāḥ ( ar, أبو عبيدة عامر بن عبدالله بن الجراح; 583–639 CE), was one of the Sahabah, Companions of the Prophets in Islam, ...
and Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas were placed under his command. Nevertheless, the expedition was dispatched, though soon after setting off, news was received of Muhammad's death, forcing the army to return to Medina. The campaign was not reengaged until after Abu Bakr's ascension to the caliphate, at which point he chose to reaffirm Usama's command, which ultimately led to its success.


Death of Muhammad

There are a number of traditions regarding Muhammad's final days which have been used to reinforce the idea of the great friendship and trust which is said to have existed between him and Abu Bakr. In one such episode, as Muhammad was nearing death, he found himself unable to lead prayers as he usually would. He instructed Abu Bakr to take his place, ignoring concerns from Aisha that her father was too emotionally delicate for the role. Abu Bakr subsequently took up the position, and when Muhammad entered the prayer hall one morning during Fajr prayers, Abu Bakr attempted to step back to let him to take up his normal place and lead. Muhammad however, allowed him to continue. In a related incident, around this time, Muhammad ascended the pulpit and addressed the congregation, saying "God has given his servant the choice between this world and that which is with God and he has chosen the latter." Abu Bakr, understanding this to mean that Muhammad did not have long to live, responded "Nay, we and our children will be your ransom." Muhammad consoled his friend and ordered that all the doors leading to Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, the mosque be closed aside from that which led from Abu Bakr's house, "for I know no one who is a better friend to me than he." Upon Muhammad's death, the Muslim community was unprepared for the loss of its leader and many experienced a profound shock. Umar was particularly effected, instead declaring that Muhammad had gone to consult with God and would soon return, threatening anyone who would say that Muhammad was dead. Abu Bakr, having returned to Medina, calmed Umar by showing him Muhammad's body, convincing him of his death. He then addressed those who had gathered at the mosque, saying "If anyone worships Muhammad, Muhammad is dead. If anyone worships God, God is alive, immortal", thus putting an end to any idolising impulse in the population. He then concluded with a verse from the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
: "Muhammad is no more than an apostle, and many apostles have passed away before him."


Saqifa

In the immediate aftermath of the death of Muhammad, a gathering of the Ansar (Islam), Ansar (natives of
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam and the Capital city, capital of the Me ...

Medina
) took place in the ''Saqifah'' (courtyard) of the Banu Sa'ida clan. The general belief at the time was that the purpose of the meeting was for the Ansar to decide on a new leader of the Ummah, Muslim community among themselves, with the intentional exclusion of the Muhajirun (migrants from
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
), though this has later become the subject of debate. Nevertheless, Abu Bakr and Umar, upon learning of the meeting, became concerned of a potential coup and hastened to the gathering. Upon arriving, Abu Bakr addressed the assembled men with a warning that an attempt to elect a leader outside of Muhammad's own tribe, the Quraysh, would likely result in dissension, as only they can command the necessary respect among the community. He then took Umar and another companion,
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, fully Abū ‘Ubaydah ‘Āmir ibn ‘Abdillāh ibn al-Jarāḥ ( ar, أبو عبيدة عامر بن عبدالله بن الجراح; 583–639 CE), was one of the Sahabah, Companions of the Prophets in Islam, ...
, by the hand and offered them to the Ansar as potential choices. Habab ibn Mundhir, a veteran from the
Battle of Badr The Battle of Badr ( ar, غَزْوَةُ بَدِرْ ), also referred to as The Day of the Criterion (, ) in the Quran, Qur'an and by Muslims, was fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan (calendar month), Ramadan, 2 Anno Hegirae, AH), ...

Battle of Badr
, countered with his own suggestion that the Quraysh and the Ansar choose a leader each from among themselves, who would then rule jointly. The group grew heated upon hearing this proposal and began to argue amongst themselves. The oriental studies, orientalist William Muir gives the following observation of the situation: Umar hastily took Abu Bakr's hand and swore his own allegiance to the latter, an example followed by the gathered men. The meeting broke up when a violent scuffle erupted between Umar and the chief of the Banu Sa'ida, Sa'd ibn Ubadah. This may indicate that the choice of Abu Bakr may not have been unanimous, with emotions running high as a result of the disagreement. Abu Bakr was near-universally accepted as head of the Muslim community (under the title of Caliphate, Caliph) as a result of Saqifah, though he did face contention because of the rushed nature of the event. Several companions, most prominent among them being Ali ibn Abi Talib, initially refused to acknowledge his authority. Among Shi'ites, it is also argued that Ali had Event of Ghadir Khumm, previously been appointed as Muhammad's heir, with the election being seen as in contravention to the latter's wishes. Abu Bakr later sent Umar to confront Ali, resulting in Umar at Fatimah's house, an altercation which may have involved violence. However, after six months the group made peace with Abu Bakr and Ali offered him his allegiance.


Reign

After assuming the office of
Caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
, Abu Bakr's first address was as follows: Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 27 months, during which he crushed the rebellion of the Arab tribes throughout the Arabian Peninsula in the successful Ridda Wars. In the last months of his rule, he sent Khalid ibn al-Walid on conquests Muslim conquest of Persia, against the Sassanid Empire in Mesopotamia and Muslim conquest of the Levant, against the Byzantine Empire in Syria. This would set in motion a historical trajectory (continued later on by Umar and Uthman ibn Affan) that in just a few short decades would lead to one of the List of largest empires, largest empires in history. He had little time to pay attention to the administration of state, though state affairs remained stable during his Caliphate. On the advice of Umar and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, he agreed to draw a salary from the state treasury and discontinue his cloth trade.


Ridda wars

Troubles emerged soon after Abu Bakr's succession, with several Arab tribes launching revolts, threatening the unity and stability of the new community and state. These insurgencies and the caliphate's responses to them are collectively referred to as the
Ridda wars #REDIRECT Ridda Wars #REDIRECT Ridda Wars The Ridda Wars ( ar, حُرُوب ٱلرِّدَّة), or Wars of Apostasy from Islam, Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr against rebel Arabian tribes during ...
("Wars of Apostasy"). The opposition movements came in two forms. One type challenged the political power of the nascent caliphate as well as the religious authority of Islam with the acclamation of rival ideologies, headed by political leaders who claimed the mantle of prophethood in the manner that Muhammad had done. These rebellions include: *that of the Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah headed by Tulayha ibn Khuwaylid ibn Nawfal al-Asadi, Tulayha ibn Khuwaylid *that of the Banu Hanifa headed by Musaylimah *those from among the Banu Taghlib and the Bani Tamim headed by Sajah *that of the Al-Ansi headed by Al-Aswad Al-Ansi These leaders are all denounced in Islamic histories as "false prophets". The second form of opposition movement was more strictly political in character. Some of the revolts of this type took the form of tax rebellions in Najd among tribes such as the Banu Fazara and Banu Tamim. Other dissenters, while initially allied to the Muslims, used Muhammad's death as an opportunity to attempt to restrict the growth of the new Islamic state. They include some of the Rabīʿa in Bahrayn, the Azd in Oman proper, Oman, as well as among the Kindah and Khawlan in Greater Yemen, Yemen. Abu Bakr, likely understanding that maintaining firm control over the disparate tribes of Arabia was crucial to ensuring the survival of the state, suppressed the insurrections with military force. He dispatched Khalid ibn Walid and a body of troops to subdue the uprisings in Najd as well as that of Musaylimah, who posed the most serious threat. Concurrent to this, Shurahbil ibn Hasana and Al-Ala'a Al-Hadrami were sent to Bahrayn, while Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl, Hudhayfah al-Bariqi and Arfaja al-Bariqi were instructed to conquer Oman. Finally, Al-Muhajir ibn Abi Umayya and Khalid ibn Asid were sent to Yemen to aid the local governor in re-establishing control. Abu Bakr also made use of diplomatic means in addition to military measures. Like Muhammad before him, he utilised marriage alliances and financial incentives to bind former enemies to the caliphate. For instance, a member of the Banu Hanifa who had sided with the Muslims was rewarded with the granting of a land estate. Similarly, a Kindah rebel named Al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, after repenting and re-joining Islam, was later given land in Medina as well as the hand of Abu Bakr's sister Umm Farwa in marriage. At their heart, the Ridda movements were challenges to the political and religious supremacy of the Islamic state. Through his success in suppressing the insurrections, Abu Bakr had in effect continued the political consolidation which had begun under Muhammad's leadership with relatively little interruption. By wars' end, he had established an Islamic hegemony over the entirety of the
Arabian peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
.


Expeditions into Persia and Syria

With Arabia having united under a single centralised state with a formidable military, the region could now be viewed as a potential threat to the neighbouring Byzantine Empire, Byzantine and Sasanian empires. It may be that Abu Bakr, reasoning that it was inevitable that one of these powers would launch a pre-emptive strike against the youthful caliphate, decided that it was better to deliver the first blow himself. Regardless of the caliph's motivations, in 633, small forces were dispatched into Iraq and Palestine (region), Palestine, capturing several towns. Though the Byzantines and Sassanians were certain to retaliate, Abu Bakr had reason to be confident; the two empires were militarily exhausted after centuries of war against each other, making it likely that any forces sent to Arabia would be diminished and weakened. A more pressing advantage though was the effectiveness of the Muslim fighters as well as their zeal, the latter of which was partially based on their certainty of the righteousness of their cause. Additionally, the general belief among the Muslims was that the community must be defended at all costs. Historian Theodor Nöldeke gives the somewhat controversial opinion that this religious fervour was intentionally used to maintain the enthusiasm and momentum of the ''ummah'': Though Abu Bakr had started these initial conflicts which eventually resulted in the Islamic conquests of Persia and
the Levant The Levant () is an approximate An approximation is anything that is intentionally similar but not exactly equality (mathematics), equal to something else. Etymology and usage The word ''approximation'' is derived from Latin ''approximat ...
, he did not live to see any real fighting, instead leaving the task to his successors.


Preservation of the Quran

Abu Bakr was instrumental in preserving the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
in written form. It is said that after the hard-won victory over Musaylimah in the Battle of Yamama in 632, Umar saw that some five hundred of the Muslims who had Hafiz (Quran), memorised the Quran had been killed. Fearing that it may become lost or corrupted, Umar requested that Abu Bakr authorise the compilation and preservation of the scriptures in written format. The caliph was initially hesitant, being quoted as saying "how can we do that which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless and keep him, did not himself do?" He eventually relented however, and appointed Zayd ibn Thabit, who had previously served as Muhammad's secretary, for the task of gathering the scattered verses. The fragments were recovered from every quarter, including from the ribs of palm branches, scraps of leather, stone tablets and "from the hearts of men". The collected work was transcribed onto sheets and verified through comparison with Quran memorisers. The finished codex, termed the ''Mus'haf'', was presented to Abu Bakr, who prior to his death, bequeathed it to his successor Umar. Upon Umar's own death, the ''Mus'haf'' was left to his daughter Hafsa bint Umar, Hafsa, who had been one of the wives of Muhammad. It was this volume, borrowed from Hafsa, which formed the basis of Uthman's legendary prototype, which became the definitive text of the Quran. All later editions are derived from this original.


Death

On 23 August 634, Abu Bakr fell sick and did not recover. He developed a high fever and was confined to bed. His illness was prolonged, and when his condition worsened, he felt that his end was near. Realising this, he sent for
Ali Ali ibn Abi Talib ( ar, عَلِيّ ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب, ; 13 September 601 – 29 January 661) was a cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad, who ru ...

Ali
and requested him to perform his ghusl since Ali had also done it for Muhammad. Abu Bakr felt that he should nominate his successor so that the issue should not be a cause of dissension among the Muslims after his death, though there was already controversy over Ali not having been appointed. He appointed Umar for this role after discussing the matter with some companions. Some of them favoured the nomination and others disliked it, due to the tough nature of Umar. Abu Bakr thus dictated his last testament to Uthman ibn Affan as follows: Umar led the Salat al-Janazah, funeral prayer for him and he was buried beside the grave of Muhammad.


Appearance

The historian
Al-Tabari Al-Tabari (; fa, محمد بن جریر طبری, ar, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (839–923 CE; 224–310 AH) was an influential polymath, scholar, historian and commentator on the Qur'an from Amol, ...
, in regards to Abu Bakr's appearance, records the following interaction between Aisha and her paternal nephew, Abdullah ibn Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr:
When she was in her howdah and saw a man from among the Arabs passing by, she said, "I have not seen a man more like Abu Bakr than this one." We said to her, "Describe Abu Bakr." She said, "A slight, white man, thin-bearded and bowed. His waist wrapper would not hold but would fall down around his loins. He had a lean face, sunken eyes, a bulging forehead, and trembling knuckles."
Referencing another source, Al-Tabari further describes him as being "white mixed with yellowness, of good build, slight, bowed, thin, tall like a male palm tree, hook-nosed, lean-faced, sunken-eyed, thin-shanked, and strong-thighed. He used to dye himself with henna and black dye."


Legacy

Though the period of his caliphate covers only two years, two months and fifteen days, it included successful invasions of the two most powerful empires of the time: the Sassanid Empire and Byzantine Empire. Abu Bakr had the distinction of being the first Caliph in the history of Islam and also the first Caliph to nominate a successor. He was the only Caliph in the history of Islam who refunded to the state treasury at the time of his death the entire amount of the allowance that he had drawn during the period of his caliphate. He has the distinction of purchasing the land for
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (), known in English as The Prophet's Mosque, and also known as Al Haram, Al Haram Al Madani and Al Haram Al Nabawi by locals, is a mosque A mosque (; from ar, مَسْجِد, masjid, ; literally "place of ritual prostra ...

Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
.


Sunni view

Sunni Islam, Sunni Muslims believe that Abu Bakr is the best man of all the human beings after the prophets. They also consider Abu Bakr as one of Hadith of the ten promised paradise, The Ten Promised Paradise (''al-‘Ashara al-Mubashshara'') whom Muhammad had testified were destined for Paradise. He is regarded as the "Successor of Allah's Messenger" (''Khalifa Rasulullah''), and first of the Rightly Guided Caliphs – i.e. Rashidun—and as the rightful successor to Muhammad. Abu Bakr had always been the closest friend and confidant of Muhammad throughout his life, being beside Muhammad at every major event. It was Abu Bakr's wisdom that Muhammad always honored. Abu Bakr is regarded among the best of Muhammad's followers; as Umar ibn Khattab stated, "If the faith of Abu Bakr was weighed against the faith of the people of the earth, the faith of Abu Bakr would outweigh the others."


Shia view

The Twelver Shia (as the main branch of Shia Islam, with 85% of all Shias) believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib was supposed to assume the Caliphate, and that he had been publicly and unambiguously appointed by Muhammad as his successor at Hadith of the pond of Khumm, Ghadir Khumm. It is also believed that Abu Bakr and Umar conspired to take over power in the Muslim nation after Muhammad's death, in a coup d'état against Ali. The Twelver Shi'a do not believe that Abu Bakr's being with Muhammad in the cave when the two fled Mecca was a meritorious act, and, indeed, find significant criticism of Abu Bakr in the Qur'anic verse of the cave. Most Twelver Shia criticize Abu Bakr because, after Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr refused to grant Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah, the lands of the village of Fadak which she claimed her father had given to her as a gift before his death. He refused to accept the testimony of her witnesses, so she claimed the land would still belong to her as inheritance from her deceased father. However, Abu Bakr replied by saying that Muhammad had told him that the prophets of God do not leave as inheritance any worldly possessions and on this basis he refused to give her the lands of Fadak. However, as Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy notes in his book ''A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims'', Muhammad inherited a maid servant, five camels, and ten sheep. This proves that prophets can receive inheritance, and can pass on inheritance to others as well. In addition, Shias claim that Muhammad had given Fadak to Fatimah during his lifetime, and Fadak was therefore a gift to Fatimah, not inheritance. This view has also been supported some Sunnis, such as the Abbasid ruler Al-Ma'mun. The Twelver Shia accuse him of participating in Umar at Fatimah's house, the burning of the house of Ali and Fatima. The Twelver Shia believe that Abu Bakr sent Khalid ibn Walid to crush those who were in favour of
Ali Ali ibn Abi Talib ( ar, عَلِيّ ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب, ; 13 September 601 – 29 January 661) was a cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad, who ru ...

Ali
's caliphate (''see Ridda Wars''). The Twelver Shia strongly refute the idea that Abu Bakr or Umar were instrumental in the collection or preservation of the ''Qur'an'', claiming that they should have accepted the copy of the book in the possession of Ali. After the death of Abu Bakr, Ali raised Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. The Twelver Shia view Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr as one of the companions of Ali.Nahj al-Balagha Sermon 71, Letter 27, Letter 34, Letter 35 When Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was killed by the Ummayads, Aisha, the third wife of Muhammad, raised and taught her nephew Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr. Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr's mother was from Ali's family and Qasim's daughter Farwah bint al-Qasim was married to Muhammad al-Baqir and was the mother of Jafar al-Sadiq. Therefore, Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was the grandson of Abu Bakr and the grandfather of Jafar al-Sadiq. Zaidiyyah, Zaydis, the largest group amongst the Shia before the Safavid Dynasty and currently the second-largest group (although its population is only about 5% of all Shia Muslims), believe that on the last hour of Zayd ibn Ali (the uncle of Jafar al-Sadiq), he was betrayed by the people in Kufa who said to him: "May God have mercy on you! What do you have to say on the matter of Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab?" Zayd ibn Ali said, "I have not heard anyone in my family renouncing them both nor saying anything but good about them...when they were entrusted with government they behaved justly with the people and acted according to the Qur'an and the Sunnah".Akbar Shah Najeebabadi, The history of Islam. B0006RTNB4.The Encyclopedia of Religion Vol.16, Mircea Eliade, Charles J. Adams, Macmillan, 1987, p243. "They were called Rafida by the followers of Zayd"


See also

* Bodla * Laqit bin Malik Al-Azdi, opponent * List of Sahaba * Sunni view of the Sahaba * Muadh ibn Jabal * Sermon of Fadak


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Walker, Adam, Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, in ''Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God'' (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014. * * *


External links

* Muslim:
QuilliamPress.com: Abu Bakr
*
AbuBakr.com
*
Virtues of Hazrat Abu Bakr
*

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Greatness of Abu Bakr
** Biography of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq by Adam Walke

Urdu Audio *
Virtues of Abu Bakr
Urdu Audio *
Abu Bakr appearing in Narrations/Hadith recorded by Imam Bukhari
– www.SearchTruth.com *
Abu bakr's appointment as Khalifah
*
Searchable Family tree of Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq
by Happy Books * Non-Muslim: *

* Unclassified: *

*
Abu Bakr from Islamonline
*
Sirah of Abu Bakr (Radia'Allahuanhu) Part 1
by Muhammad bin Yahya al-Ninowy, Shaykh Sayyed Muhammad bin Yahya Al-Husayni Al-Ninowy. * Shia:
Incident of the cave

Abu Bakr
{{Authority control Abu Bakr, 573 births 634 deaths People from Mecca Rashidun caliphs Abu Bakr family, 7th-century caliphs Sahabah who participated in the battle of Uhud Sahabah who participated in the battle of Badr People of the Muslim conquest of the Levant Arab slave owners Sahabah hadith narrators