ANSEL, the American National Standard for Extended Latin Alphabet Coded Character Set for Bibliographic Use, was a
character set Character encoding is the process of assigning numbers to Graphics, graphical character (computing), characters, especially the written characters of Language, human language, allowing them to be Data storage, stored, Data communication, transmit ...
used in text encoding. It provided a table of coded values for the representation of characters of the extended Latin alphabet in machine-readable form for thirty-five languages written in the Latin alphabet and for fifty-one romanized languages. The standard was reaffirmed in 2003 although it has been administratively withdrawn by
ANSI The American National Standards Institute (ANSI ) is a private non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized ...
effective 14 February 2013. It is registered as Registration # 231 in the ISO International Register of Coded Character Sets to be Used with Escape Sequences. ANSEL is composed of a set of 63 graphic characters intended for use with
ASCII ASCII ( ), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the stu ...
, the American National Standard Code for Information Interchange, ANSI X3.4-1986, including 29 combining
diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph added to a letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A sy ...
characters. A
combining diacritic In digital typography, combining characters are Character (computing), characters that are intended to modify other characters. The most common combining characters in the Latin script are the combining diacritic, diacritical marks (including co ...
character precedes the spacing character on which it should be superimposed. The initial revision of ANSEL was released in 1985.

Code page layout

The following table shows ANSI/NISO Z39.47-1993 (R2003). Each character is shown with its
Unicode Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requireme ...




GEDCOM GEDCOM ( ) (an acronym standing for ''Genealogical Data Communication'') is an open format, open ''De facto standard, de facto'' specification for exchanging genealogy, genealogical data between different genealogy software. GEDCOM was developed b ...
specification for exchanging
genealogical Genealogy (from el, γενεαλογία ' "the making of a pedigree") is the study of families, family history, and the tracing of their lineages. Genealogists use oral interviews, historical records, genetic analysis, and other records to ob ...

data refers to ANSEL (ANSI/NISO Z39.47-1985) as a valid text encoding for GEDCOM files and extends it with additional characters which are shown in the following table.


The from
MARC 21 MARC (machine-readable cataloging) standards are a set of digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electron ...
is synchronized with ANSEL but additionally supports the character at C7 and the at C8.


External links

National Information Standards Organization (NISO)American National Standards Institute (ANSI)ANSI/NISO Z39.47-1985ANSI/NISO Z39.47-1993 (R2003)

ISO-IR 231
{{character encoding American Library Association
Character setsThe category Category, plural categories, may refer to: Philosophy and general uses *Categorization, categories in cognitive science, information science and generally *Category of being *Categories (Aristotle), ''Categories'' (Aristotle) *Categ ...