HOME

TheInfoList




Operation Deliberate Force was a sustained air campaign conducted by the
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
(NATO), in concert with the
United Nations Protection Force The United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR; also known by its French acronym FORPRONU: ''Force de Protection des Nations Unies''), was the first United Nations peacekeeping force in Croatia and in Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia an ...
(UNPROFOR) ground operations, to undermine the military capability of the
Army of Republika Srpska The Army of Republika Srpska ( sr, Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske; ВРС/VRS), commonly referred to in English as the Bosnian Serb Army, was the military A military, also known collectively as arm ...
(VRS), which had threatened and attacked UN-designated "safe areas" in
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...
during the
Bosnian War The Bosnian War ( sh, Rat u Bosni i Hercegovini / Рат у Босни и Херцеговини) was an international armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, ...
with the
Srebrenica Srebrenica ( sr-cyrl, Сребреница, ) is a town and municipality located in the easternmost part of Republika Srpska Republika Srpska ( sr-cyr, Република Српска, ) is one of the two of , the other being the . It is ...
and
Markale massacres The Markale market shelling or Markale massacres were two separate bombardments, with at least one of them confirmed to have been carried out by the Army of Republika Srpska The Army of Republika Srpska ( sr, Војска Републике ...
, precipitating the intervention. The shelling of the Sarajevo market place on 28 August 1995 by the VRS is considered to be the immediate instigating factor behind NATO's decision to launch the operation. The operation was carried out between 30 August and 20 September 1995, involving 400 aircraft and 5,000 personnel from 15 nations. Commanded by
Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...
Leighton W. Smith Jr., the campaign struck 338
Bosnian Serb The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( sr-cyr, Срби у Босни и Херцеговини, Srbi u Bosni i Hercegovini) are one of the three constitutive nations (state-forming nations) of the country, predominantly residing in the politic ...
targets, many of which were destroyed. Overall, 1,026 bombs were dropped during the operation, 708 of which were precision-guided. On 19 occasions,
depleted uranium Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium Uranium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is ...
munitions were used against targets around
Sarajevo Sarajevo ( ; cyrl, Сарајево, ; ''see names in other languages'') is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase ...

Sarajevo
and
Han Pijesak Han Pijesak ( sr-cyrl, Хан Пијесак) is a town and municipality located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, it has a population of 3,530 inhabitants, while the town of Han Pijesak has a population of 2,0 ...

Han Pijesak
. The bombing campaign was also roughly conterminous in time with
Operation Mistral 2 Operation Mistral 2, officially codename A code name, call sign or cryptonym is a code word In communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painf ...
, two linked military offensives of the
Croatian Army The Croatian Army ( hr, Hrvatska vojska or HV) and Croatian Ground Army ( hr, Hrvatska kopnena vojska or HKoV) is the largest and most significant component of the Croatian Armed Forces (CAF). Role and deployment The fundamental role and purpo ...
(HV), the
Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( bs, Armija Republike Bosne i Hercegovine or ARBiH), often referred to as Bosnian Army, was the military force of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was established by the government of B ...
(ARBiH), and the
Croatian Defence Council The Croatian Defence Council ( hr, Hrvatsko vijeće obrane or HVO) was the official military formation of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, an unrecognized entity that existed in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1991 and 1996. The HVO was ...
(HVO) launched in western Bosnia.


Background

The
Bosnian War The Bosnian War ( sh, Rat u Bosni i Hercegovini / Рат у Босни и Херцеговини) was an international armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, ...
was a civil war that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1 April 1992 and 14 December 1995. After popular pressure, the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betw ...
(NATO) was asked by the United Nations to intervene in the Bosnian War after allegations of war crimes against civilians were made. In response to the refugee and humanitarian crisis in Bosnia, the
United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed ...

United Nations Security Council
passed Resolution 743 on 21 February 1992, creating the
United Nations Protection Force The United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR; also known by its French acronym FORPRONU: ''Force de Protection des Nations Unies''), was the first United Nations peacekeeping force in Croatia and in Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia an ...
(UNPROFOR). The UNPROFOR mandate was to keep the population alive and deliver humanitarian aid to refugees in Bosnia until the war ended. On 9 October 1992, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 781, prohibiting unauthorized military flights in Bosnian airspace. This resolution led to
Operation Sky Monitor Operation Sky Monitor was a NATO mission to monitor unauthorized flights in the airspace of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War. The operation began in response to United Nations Security Council Resolution 781, which established a ban ...
, where NATO monitored violations of the no-fly zone, but it did not take action against violators of the resolution. On 31 March 1993, in response to 500 documented violations, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 816, which authorized states to use measures "to ensure compliance" with the
no-fly zone A no-fly zone, also known as a no-flight zone (NFZ), or air exclusion zone (AEZ), is a territory or area established by a military power over which certain aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support ...
over Bosnia. In response, on 12 April, NATO initiated
Operation Deny Flight Operation Deny Flight was a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernm ...
, which was tasked with enforcing the no-fly zone and allowed to engage the violators of the no-fly zone. However, Serb forces on the ground continued to attack UN "safe areas" in Bosnia, and the UN peacekeepers were unable to fight back as the mandate did not give them authority to do so. On 4 June, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 836 authorizing the use of force by UNPROFOR in the protection of specially designated safe zones.
Operation Sharp Guard Operation Sharp Guard was a multi-year joint naval blockade A blockade is an effort to cut off Contraband, supplies, Materiel, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade is not an em ...
, a naval blockade in the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
by NATO and the
Western European Union The Western European Union (WEU; french: Union de l'Europe occidentale, ''UEO''; german: Westeuropäische Union, ''WEU'') was the international organisation and military alliance that succeeded the Western Union (alliance), Western Union (WU) af ...
, was approved at a joint session of NATO and the WEU on 8 June and began on 15 June. On 6 February 1994, a day after the first Markale marketplace massacre, UN
Secretary-General Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, Power (social and political), power, or importance in the organization. Secretaries announce important events and communicate to the organi ...
Boutros Boutros-Ghali Boutros Boutros-Ghali (; , ar, بطرس بطرس غالي ', ; 14 November 1922 – 16 February 2016) was an Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list ...
formally requested NATO to confirm that air strikes would be carried out immediately. On 9 February, agreeing to the request of the UN, NATO authorized the Commander of
Allied Forces Southern Europe Allied Joint Force Command Naples (JFC Naples) is a NATO military command based in Lago Patria, in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Italy. It was activated on 15 March 2004, after what was effectively a redesignation of its predecessor command, Al ...
(CINCSOUTH), US Admiral Jeremy Boorda, to launch air strikes against artillery and mortar positions in and around Sarajevo that were determined by UNPROFOR to be responsible for attacks against civilian targets. Only
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
failed to support the use of air strikes, but it did not veto the proposal. The council also issued an ultimatum at the 9 February meeting to the Bosnian Serbs, in which they demanded that the Serbs remove their heavy weapons around Sarajevo by midnight of 20–21 February or face air strikes. There was some confusion surrounding compliance with the ultimatum, and
Hungarian Prime Minister #REDIRECT List of prime ministers of Hungary #REDIRECT List of prime ministers of Hungary#REDIRECT List of prime ministers of Hungary The following is a list of Prime Minister of Hungary, Prime Ministers of Hungary ( hu, Magyarország minisztereln ...
Péter Boross announced that
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
's air space would be closed to NATO aircraft in the event of air strikes. On 12 February 1994, Sarajevo enjoyed its first casualty-free day in 22 months (since April 1992). On 28 February, NATO fighters operating under Deny Flight shot down four Bosnian Serb fighters for violating a no-fly zone in what would become known as the
Banja Luka incident The Banja Luka incident, on 28 February 1994, was an incident in which six Republika Srpska Air Force J-21 Jastreb single-seat light attack jets were engaged, and four of them shot down, by NATO warplanes from the United States Air Force. U.S. Ge ...
. This was the first combat operation in the history of NATO. On 12 March, the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) made its first request for NATO air support, but close air support was not deployed, owing to a number of delays associated with the approval process. On 10 and 11 April 1994, UNPROFOR called in air strikes to protect the
Goražde Goražde ( sr-cyrl, Горажде, ) is a city and the administrative center of Bosnian-Podrinje Canton Goražde The Bosnian-Podrinje Canton Goražde ( sh, Bosansko-podrinjski kanton Goražde / ''Босанско-подрињски канто ...
safe area, resulting in the bombing of a Bosnian Serb military command outpost near Goražde by two US
F-16 The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine Multirole combat aircraft, multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force (USAF). Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it ...

F-16
jets. This was the first time in NATO's history it had ever attacked ground targets with aircraft. Subsequently, the Bosnian Serbs took 150 UN personnel hostage on 14 April. On 16 April, a British
Sea Harrier The British Aerospace Sea Harrier is a naval short take-off and vertical landing/vertical take-off and landing A vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft is one that can hover (helicopter), hover, takeoff and landing, take off and l ...
was shot down over Goražde by Bosnian Serb forces. Around 29 April, a Danish contingent (Nordbat 2) on peacekeeping duty in
Bosnia Bosnia ( bs, Bosna / , ) is the north North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar r ...

Bosnia
, as part of UNPROFOR's Nordic battalion located in
Tuzla Tuzla (, ) is the third-largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the administrative center of Tuzla Canton The Tuzla Canton ( bs, Tuzlanski kanton) is one of 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Federation of Bosnia and ...

Tuzla
, was ambushed when trying to relieve a Swedish observation post (Tango 2) that was under heavy artillery fire by the
Bosnian Serb The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( sr-cyr, Срби у Босни и Херцеговини, Srbi u Bosni i Hercegovini) are one of the three constitutive nations (state-forming nations) of the country, predominantly residing in the politic ...
Šekovići brigade at the village of
Kalesija Kalesija ( sr-cyrl, Калесија) is a town and municipality located in Tuzla Canton The Tuzla Canton ( bs, Tuzlanski kanton) is one of 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina The ...
, but the ambush was dispersed when the UN forces retaliated with heavy fire in what would be known as Operation Bøllebank. On 5 August, at the request of the UNPROFOR, two US A-10 Thunderbolts located and strafed a Bosnian Serb anti-tank vehicle near
Sarajevo Sarajevo ( ; cyrl, Сарајево, ; ''see names in other languages'') is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase ...

Sarajevo
after the Serbs tested NATO's resolve by seizing weapons that had been impounded by UN troops and attacking a UN helicopter. Afterwards, the Serbs agreed to return the remaining heavy weapons. On 22 September 1994, NATO aircraft carried out an air strike against a Bosnian Serb tank at the request of UNPROFOR. On 25–26 May 1995, after violations of the exclusion zones and the shelling of safe areas, NATO aircraft carried out air strikes against Bosnian Serb ammunition depots in
Pale Pale may refer to: Jurisdictions * Medieval areas of English conquest: ** Pale of Calais, in France (1360–1558) ** The Pale, or the English Pale, in Ireland *Pale of Settlement, area of permitted Jewish settlement, western Russian Empire (1791 ...
. In retaliation, the Bosnian Serbs took 370 UN peacekeepers in Bosnia hostage and subsequently used them as
human shield A human shield is a non-combatant Non-combatant is a term of art Jargon is the specialized terminology associated with a particular field or area of activity. Jargon is normally employed in a particular Context (language use), communicative ...
s at potential targets in a successful bid to prevent further air strikes. On 2 June, two
US Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosphe ...
F-16 jets were sent on patrol over Bosnia in support of Operation Deny Flight. While on patrol, an F-16 piloted by Captain
Scott O'Grady Scott Francis O'Grady (born October 12, 1965) is a former United States Air Force fighter pilot. On June 2, 1995, he was shot down over Bosnia and Herzegovina by a 2K12 Kub mobile Surface-to-air missile, SAM launcher and forced to eject from his ...
was shot down by a Bosnian Serb
2K12 Kub The 2K12 ''"Kub"'' (russian: 2К12 "Куб"; en, cube In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional space, three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square (geometry), square faces, Facet (geometry), facets or sides, with three meeting a ...
surface-to-air missile. O'Grady was forced to eject from the aircraft. Six days later, he was rescued by
US marines The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is the Marines, maritime land force military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary warfare, exped ...
from the
24th Marine Expeditionary Unit The 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit (24th MEU) is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units currently in existence in the United States Marine Corps. The Marine Expeditionary Unit is a Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) with a strength of about 2 ...
from . The event would come to be known as the
Mrkonjić Grad Mrkonjić Grad ( sr-cyrl, Мркоњић Град, ) is a town and municipality located in the western part of Republika Srpska Republika Srpska ( sr-cyr, Република Српска, ) is one of the two entities Entity may refer to: ...

Mrkonjić Grad
incident. On 11 July, NATO aircraft attacked targets in the
Srebrenica Srebrenica ( sr-cyrl, Сребреница, ) is a town and municipality located in the easternmost part of Republika Srpska Republika Srpska ( sr-cyr, Република Српска, ) is one of the two of , the other being the . It is ...

Srebrenica
area of Bosnia and Herzegovina as identified by and under the control of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
. This was in response to Bosnian Serb forces advancing on the UN-declared Safe Area of Srebrenica. Bosnian Serb warlord Ratko Mladić threatened to kill 50 UN peacekeepers who were seized as hostages and also threatened to shell the Muslim population in Srebrenica if NATO air strikes continued. The UN peacekeepers called off the air strikes and agreed to withdraw from Srebrenica as the Bosnian Serbs promised they would take care of the Muslim population for the peacekeepers to spare their own lives. For two weeks, VRS forces under Mladić killed over 8,000 Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in the
Srebrenica massacre The Srebrenica massacre ( / ), also known as the Srebrenica genocide ( / ), was the July 1995 genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of peopl ...
, which remains the worst act of genocide in Europe since
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. On 25 July, the North Atlantic Council authorized military planning aimed at deterring an attack on the safe area of Goražde, and threatened the use of NATO air power if this safe area was threatened or attacked. On 1 August, the Council took similar decisions aimed at deterring attacks on the safe areas of Sarajevo, Bihać, and Tuzla. On 4 August, NATO aircraft conducted air strikes against Croat Serb air defense radars near Udbina airfield and Knin in Croatia. On 10 August, the Commanders of
Allied Forces Southern Europe Allied Joint Force Command Naples (JFC Naples) is a NATO military command based in Lago Patria, in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Italy. It was activated on 15 March 2004, after what was effectively a redesignation of its predecessor command, Al ...
(CINCSOUTH) and UNPROFOR concluded a memorandum of understanding on the execution of air strikes.


Campaign

On 30 August, the
Secretary General of NATO The secretary general of NATO is the chief civil servant of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alli ...
announced the start of air strikes, supported by UNPROFOR rapid reaction force artillery attacks. Although planned and approved by the
North Atlantic Council The North Atlantic Council (NAC) is the principal political decision-making body of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), consisting of Permanent Representatives from its member countries. It was established by wikisource:North Atlant ...
in July 1995, the operation was triggered in direct response to the second Markale massacre on 28 August 1995. As many as 400 NATO aircraft participated in the air campaign. Overall, 3,515 sorties were flown and a total of 1,026 bombs were dropped on 338 Bosnian Serb targets located within 48 complexes. NATO aircraft struck 97% of their targets, and seriously damaged more than 80% of them. 708 of the bombs dropped were
precision-guided munitions A precision-guided munition (PGM, smart weapon, smart munition, smart bomb) is a guided Ammunition, munition intended to precisely hit a specific target, to minimize collateral damage and increase lethality against intended targets. During the ...
. The aircraft involved in the campaign operated from Italian air bases, such as
Aviano Air Base Aviano Air Base ( it, Base aerea di Aviano) is a base in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps ...
, and from the US aircraft carriers and , and French aircraft carriers '' Foch'' and '' Clemenceau'' (rotating) in the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
. The VRS integrated air defence network, comprising aircraft and
surface-to-air missile A surface-to-air missile (SAM), also known as a ground-to-air missile (GTAM) or surface-to-air guided weapon (SAGW), is a missile In military terminology, a missile is a guided airborne ranged weapon . English longbowmen figure promine ...
s (SAMs), presented a high-threat environment to NATO air operations. The German
Luftwaffe The ''Luftwaffe'' () was the aerial-warfare branch of the German ''Wehrmacht The ''Wehrmacht'' (, ) was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the German Army (1935–1945), ''Heer'' (army), th ...
saw action for the first time since 1945 during Operation Deliberate Force. Six interdictor-strike (IDS) version Tornados, escorted by eight ECR Tornados, pinpointed Serb targets around Sarajevo for the Rapid Reaction Force artillery to attack.


Rapid Reaction Force

Frustrated by the previous absence of results and the resistance of the Serbian parties to any peace progress, the Western powers, led by French President Jacques Chirac, decided to set up a strong deterrent force on site to support the western diplomatic efforts. France, the UK and the US decided to send a multinational brigade to the Sarajevo area (Mount Igman), supported by an airmobile brigade and an armored battalion in reserve. The MN Brigade consisted of 4000 military (2000 French, 1500 British, 500 Dutch). The creation of the force was authorized by UN Resolution 998 on 16 June 1995. Commanded by French General Andre Soubirou, the MN brigade was operational in August 1995 on Mount Igman. The main force consisted of a mixed artillery regiment (French artillery group with eight 155 mm AUF1 howitzer
AUF1 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0 (HNRNPD) also known as AU-rich element RNA-binding protein 1 (AUF1) is a protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have it ...
, British artillery group with twelve 105 mm Light Guns, French and Dutch 120 mm Heavy Mortar company). Although the artillery fired before and after the Markale Market Massacre, the main action was on 28 and 29 August 1995, firing 1070 shells on Serbian positions (305 155mm shell, 408 120mm shell, 357 105 mm shells). This artillery group was part of the UNPROFOR deployed on to support the task of NATOs aircraft by pounding Serb artillery positions. On 30 August, a French
Mirage 2000N The Dassault Mirage 2000N is a variant of the Dassault Mirage 2000, Mirage 2000 designed for nuclear strike. It formed the core of the French air-based Strategic nuclear weapon, strategic nuclear Deterrence theory, deterrent. The Mirage 2000D i ...
was shot down by a Bosnian Serb shoulder-fired SAM near
Pale Pale may refer to: Jurisdictions * Medieval areas of English conquest: ** Pale of Calais, in France (1360–1558) ** The Pale, or the English Pale, in Ireland *Pale of Settlement, area of permitted Jewish settlement, western Russian Empire (1791 ...
. On 1 September, NATO and UN demanded the lifting of the Serb's
Siege of Sarajevo The siege of Sarajevo was a prolonged blockade of Sarajevo, the capital of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the Bosnian War. After initially being besieged by the forces of the Yugoslav People's Army, the city ...

Siege of Sarajevo
, removal of heavy weapons from the heavy weapons exclusion zone around Sarajevo, and complete security of other UN safe areas. NATO stopped the air raids and gave an ultimatum to Bosnian Serb leaders. The deadline was set as 4 September. On 5 September 1995, NATO resumed air attacks on Bosnian Serb positions around Sarajevo and near the Bosnian Serb headquarters at Pale after the Bosnian Serbs failed to comply with the ultimatum. On the night of 10 September, the launched a
Tomahawk missile The Tomahawk () Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, jet-powered, Subsonic flight, subsonic cruise missile that is primarily used by the United States Navy and Royal Navy in ship- and submarine-based land-attack operations. ...
strike from the central
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
against a key air defense
radio relay Radio station Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio signal, audio (sound), sometimes with related metadata, by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. In terrestrial radio broadcasting the radio waves are broadcast by a land-ba ...
tower at Lisina, near
Banja Luka Banja Luka ( sr-cyrl, Бања Лука, ) or Banjaluka ( sr-cyrl, Бањалука, ) is the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often ...
, while
US Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosphe ...
F-15E The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F-15E Strike Eagle is an American all-weather multirole A multirole combat aircraft (MRCA) is a combat aircraft intended to perform different roles in combat. A multirole fighter is a multirole combat airc ...
and
US Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = "Anchors Aweigh "Anchors Aweigh" is the fight song of the United States Naval A ...
F/A-18 The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is a twin-engine, supersonic F/A-18F Super Hornet The Boeing F/A-18E and F/A-18F Super Hornet are twinjet, twin-engine, Carrier-based aircraft, carrier-capable, Multirole combat aircraft, multirole ...
fighter-bomber A fighter-bomber is a fighter aircraft Fighter aircraft are fixed-wing A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine, such as an airplane An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a fixed-wing aircraft that ...
s hit the same targets with about a dozen precision-guided bombs, and
F-16 The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine Multirole combat aircraft, multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force (USAF). Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it ...

F-16
jets attacked with
Maverick missile The AGM-65 Maverick is an air-to-ground missile An air-to-surface missile (ASM) or air-to-ground missile (AGM) is a missile designed to be launched from military aircraft A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft ...
s. On 14 September, NATO air strikes were suspended to allow the implementation of an agreement with Bosnian Serbs to include the withdrawal of heavy weapons from the Sarajevo exclusion zone. The initial 72-hour suspension was eventually extended to 114 hours. Finally on 20 September, General Bernard Janvier (Commander, UNPF) and Admiral Leighton W. Smith, Jr. ( CINCSOUTH) agreed that the resumption of air strikes was not necessary, as Bosnian Serbs had complied with the conditions set out by the UN and so the operation was terminated. The air campaign was the key to pressuring the
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, known as FR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continen ...
to take part in negotiations that resulted in the
Dayton Agreement The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement or the Dayton Accords ( hr, Daytonski sporazum, Serbian language, Serbian and Bosnian language, Bosnian: / ), is the peace agreement reach ...
, reached in November 1995.


Aftermath

The two French airmen who were captured after their
Mirage 2000N The Dassault Mirage 2000N is a variant of the Dassault Mirage 2000, Mirage 2000 designed for nuclear strike. It formed the core of the French air-based Strategic nuclear weapon, strategic nuclear Deterrence theory, deterrent. The Mirage 2000D i ...
was downed by Bosnian Serb forces on 30 August 1995, Lt. Jose Souvignet and Capt. Frederic Chiffot, were released only upon the end of the Bosnian War, on 12 December 1995. Upon being released, they told reporters that they had been treated well while in captivity. In December 1995,
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
dispatched a 60,000-strong peacekeeping force into Bosnia as part of the
IFOR The Implementation Force (IFOR) was a NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental organization, intergov ...

IFOR
to enforce the Dayton Peace Agreement to secure peace and prevent renewed hostilities between three warring factions. In December 1996, the NATO-led
SFOR The Stabilisation Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina (SFOR) was a NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernment ...
was established to replace the IFOR to enforce the Dayton Peace Agreement. This lasted up until December 2004, when the
EUFOR Althea Operation Althea, formally the European Union Force Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUFOR), is a military deployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina to oversee the military implementation of the Dayton Agreement. It is the successor to NATO's SFOR and IFOR. The ...

EUFOR Althea
replaced the NATO-led SFOR.


See also

*
NATO bombing of Yugoslavia The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) carried out an aerial bombing campaign against the Serbia and Montenegro, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during the Kosovo War. The air strikes lasted from 24 March 1999 to 10 June 1999. The bombin ...


References


External links


Operation Deliberate Force fact sheet, NATO website, updated 16 December 2002.
* ttps://web.archive.org/web/20070930213114/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,983401-1,00.html "Louder Than Words," ''TIME magazine'', September 11, 1995.br>"If U.S. Force Is Needed In Bosnia," by Michael Johns, ''The Christian Science Monitor'', 25 February 1994.
{{DEFAULTSORT:Deliberate Force, Operation Conflicts in 1995 1995 in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnian War The Bosnian War ( sh, Rat u Bosni i Hercegovini / Рат у Босни и Херцеговини) was an international armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, ...
Bosnian War Aerial bombing operations and battles Military operations of the Bosnian War Military operations of the Yugoslav Wars involving Germany Aerial operations and battles involving Germany 20th-century Royal Air Force deployments Strategic bombing operations and battles Military campaigns involving Germany August 1995 events in Europe September 1995 events in Europe Aerial operations and battles involving Italy Aerial operations and battles involving the United States Aerial operations and battles involving the United Kingdom