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Tonsils
The tonsils are a set of Lymphatic system, lymphoid organs facing into the aerodigestive tract, which is known as Waldeyer's tonsillar ring and consists of the adenoid, adenoid tonsil, two tubal tonsils, two palatine tonsils, and the lingual tonsils. These organs play an important role in the immune system. When used unqualified, the term most commonly refers specifically to the palatine tonsils, which are two lymphoid organs situated at either side of the back of the human throat. The palatine tonsils and the adenoid tonsil are organs consisting of lymphoepithelial tissue located near the oropharynx and nasopharynx (parts of the throat). Structure Humans are born with four types of tonsils: the pharyngeal tonsil, two tubal tonsils, two palatine tonsils and the lingual tonsils. Development The palatine tonsils tend to reach their largest size in puberty, and they gradually undergo atrophy thereafter. However, they are largest relative to the diameter of the throat in young chi ...
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Tonsillectomy Tonsils
Tonsillectomy is a list of surgical procedures, surgical procedure in which both palatine tonsils are fully removed from the back of the throat. The procedure is mainly performed for recurrent tonsillitis, throat infections and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). For those with frequent throat infections, surgery results in 0.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.0 to 0.1) fewer sore throats in the following year, but there is no evidence of long term benefits. In children with OSA it results in improved quality of life. While generally safe, complications may include bleeding, vomiting, dehydration, trouble eating, and trouble talking. Sore throat, Throat pain typically lasts about one to two weeks after surgery. Bleeding occurs in about 1% within the first day and another 2% after that. Death occurs as a result in between 1 out of 2,360 and 1 in 56,000 procedures. Tonsillectomy does not appear to affect long term Immune system, immune function. Following the surgery ibuprofen and paracet ...
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Palatine Tonsil
Palatine tonsils, commonly called the tonsils and occasionally called the faucial tonsils, are tonsils The tonsils are a set of lymphoid organs facing into the aerodigestive tract, which is known as Waldeyer's tonsillar ring and consists of the adenoid tonsil, two tubal tonsils, two palatine tonsil Palatine tonsils, commonly called the tonsils ... located on the left and right sides at the back of the throat In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, internally positioned in front of the vertebra, vertebrae. It contains the Human pharynx, pharynx and larynx. An important section of it is the epiglottis, separating the esophagus f ..., which can often be seen as flesh-colored, pinkish lumps. Tonsils only present as "white lumps" if they are inflamed or infected with symptoms of exudates (pus drainage) and severe swelling. Tonsillitis Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils in the upper part of the throat. Tonsillitis is a type of pharyngitis that ...
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Palatine Tonsils
Palatine tonsils, commonly called the tonsils and occasionally called the faucial tonsils, are tonsils located on the left and right sides at the back of the throat, which can often be seen as flesh-colored, pinkish lumps. Tonsils only present as "white lumps" if they are inflamed or infected with symptoms of exudates (pus drainage) and severe swelling. Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. In Chronic (medicine), chronic cases tonsillectomy may be indicated. Structure The palatine tonsils are located in the isthmus of the fauces, between the palatoglossal arch and the palatopharyngeal arch of the soft palate. The palatine tonsil is one of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT), located at the entrance to the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts to protect the body from the entry of exogenous material through mucosal sites. In consequence it is a site of, and potential focus for, infection ...
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Tonsillitis
Tonsillitis is inflammation Inflammation (from la, inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anato ... of the tonsil The tonsils are a set of lymphoid organs facing into the aerodigestive tract {{Short pages monitor When caused by the bacterium group A streptococcus ''Streptococcus pyogenes'' is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest gr ..., it is referred to as strep throat Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection of the back of the throat including the tonsils The tonsils are a set of lymphoid organs facing into the aerodigestive tract, which is known as Waldeyer's tonsillar ring .... Rare ...
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Lingual Tonsils
The lingual tonsils are a collection of Lymphatic tissues, lymphatic tissue located in the lamina propria of the root of the tongue. This lymphatic tissue consists of the lymphatic nodules rich in cells of the immune system (immunocytes). The immunocytes initiate the immune response when the lingual tonsils get in contact with invading microorganisms (pathogenic bacteria, viruses or Human parasite, parasites). Structure Microanatomy Lingual tonsils are covered externally by stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium that invaginates inward forming crypts. Beneath the epithelium is a layer of lymphoid nodules containing lymphocytes. Mucous glands located at the root of tongue are drained through several ducts into the crypt of lingual tonsils. Secretions of these mucous glands keep the crypt clean and free of any debris. Blood supply Lingual tonsils are located on posterior aspect of tongue which is supplied through: * Lingual artery, branch of external carotid artery * Tonsi ...
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Lingual Tonsil
The lingual tonsils are a collection of lymphatic tissue The lymphatic system, or lymphoid system, is an organ system An organ system is a biological system A biological system is a complex biological network, network which connects several biologically relevant entities. Biological organization spa ... located in the lamina propria of the root of the tongue The tongue is a muscular MUSCULAR (DS-200B), located in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Brita .... This lymphatic tissue consists of the lymphatic nodules rich in cells of the immune system The immune system is a network of biological processes that protects an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biolog ... ( immunocytes). The immunocytes ...
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Waldeyer's Tonsillar Ring
Waldeyer's tonsillar ring (pharyngeal lymphoid ring, Waldeyer's lymphatic ring, or tonsillar ring) is a ringed arrangement of Lymphatic system, lymphoid organs in the human pharynx, pharynx. Waldeyer's ring surrounds the nasopharynx, naso- and oropharynx, with some of its tonsillar tissue located above and some below the soft palate (and to the back of the oral cavity, mouth cavity). Structure The ring consists of the (from top to bottom): * 1 pharyngeal tonsil (or "adenoid"), located on the roof of the nasopharynx, under the sphenoid bone. * 2 tubal tonsils on each side, where each auditory tube opens into the nasopharynx * 2 palatine tonsils (commonly called "the tonsils") located in the oropharynx *lingual tonsil, lingual tonsils, a collection of lymphatic tissue located on the back part of the tongue Terminology Some authors speak of two pharyngeal tonsils/two adenoids. These authors simply look at the left and right halves of the pharyngeal tonsil as two tonsils. Many authors ...
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Pharynx
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, internally positioned in front of the vertebra, vertebrae. It contains the Human pharynx, pharynx and larynx. An important section of it is the epiglottis, separating the esophagus f ... behind the mouth In animal anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is ... and nasal cavity The nasal cavity is a large, air-filled space above and behind the human nose, nose in the middle of the face. The nasal septum divides the cavity into two cavities, also known as fossae. Each cavity is the continuation of one of the two nostrils. ..., and above the oesophagus The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English; both ), informally known as the food pipe or ...
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Adenoid
In anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, ..., the adenoid, also known as the pharyngeal tonsil or nasopharyngeal tonsil, is the superior Superior may refer to: *Superior (hierarchy) In a hierarchy A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "ab ...-most of the tonsil The tonsils are a set of lymphoid organs facing into the aerodigestive tract {{Short pages monitor

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Oropharynx
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, internally positioned in front of the vertebra, vertebrae. It contains the Human pharynx, pharynx and larynx. An important section of it is the epiglottis, separating the esophagus f ... behind the mouth In animal anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization ... and nasal cavity The nasal cavity is a large, air-filled space above and behind the nose A nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for Respiration (physiology), respiration alongside the mouth. Beh ..., and above the oesophagus The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English; both ), informally known as the food pipe or ...
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Nasopharynx
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, internally positioned in front of the vertebra, vertebrae. It contains the Human pharynx, pharynx and larynx. An important section of it is the epiglottis, separating the esophagus f ... behind the mouth In animal anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization ... and nasal cavity The nasal cavity is a large, air-filled space above and behind the nose A nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for Respiration (physiology), respiration alongside the mouth. Beh ..., and above the oesophagus The esophagus (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called Uni ...
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Adenoids
In anatomy, the adenoid, also known as the pharyngeal tonsil or nasopharyngeal tonsil, is the anatomical terms of location#Superior and inferior, superior-most of the tonsils. It is a mass of Lymphatic tissues, lymphatic tissue located behind the nasal cavity, in the roof of the nasopharynx, where the human nose, nose blends into the throat. In children, it normally forms a soft mound in the roof and back wall of the nasopharynx, just above and behind the palatine uvula, uvula. The term ''adenoid'' is also used to represent adenoid hypertrophy, the abnormal growth of the pharyngeal tonsils. Structure The adenoid is a mass of Lymphatic tissues, lymphatic tissue located behind the nasal cavity, in the roof of the nasopharynx, where the nose blends into the throat. The adenoid, unlike the palatine tonsils, has pseudostratified epithelium. The adenoids are part of the so-called Waldeyer's tonsillar ring, Waldeyer ring of lymphoid tissue which also includes the palatine tonsils, the ...
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